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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R00030005003'1-9 ~ s sx: ~ i~ # ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL LSE O\Lti' JPRS i__!~411 - 25 November 1980 _ ~ USSR Re art . p EARTH SCIENCES (FOUO 9/80) , F~~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFJR('~/IATION SERVlCE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 - NOTE JPRS publications contain infarmation primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news ager:cy - transmissions and braadcasts. Materials from foreign-language - sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with th~ original phrasing and - other characteristics retaine3. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Tex*_] - or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where nc+ processing indicator is given, th~ infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonPtically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses werE not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an _ item originate with the source. Times within items are as - given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poZi- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWDTERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSE~fINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE O~I.Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9411 ~ 25 November 1980 = USSR REPORT EARTH SCIENCES - (FOUO 9/80) CONTENTS METEOROLOGY Monograph on Physical Principles for Modification of Atmospheric Processes ...................a..........,.......o.. 1 Models Used in Investigation of Atmosphere and Climati~ Change.. 4 OCEANGGRAPHY ~ Model of Intermittence of Ocean Turbulence 10 ~ Vertical Variability of Sniall-Scale Ocean Turbulence...........~ 19 Sound Propagation Velocity in the Kuroshio Anticyclonic Eddy Z~ne ................o..........s.................oo........... ~7 ~ Book Explores Uses of the International Ocean Floor 33 _ ARCTZC AND ANTARCTI.C RESEARCH Inte~pre,�tin~ Radar Images of Sea Ice Using an Electronic - Compi~ter...o 40 Colle.ction of Articles ou fligh-Latitude Geophysical RESearch.... 46 - a- [IIT - USSB - 21K S&T FOUOJ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ METEOROLOGY UDC 551.509.61+509.68(075.8) MONOGRAPH ON PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES FOR MODIFICATION OF ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES Leningrad FIZICHESKIYE OSP+OVY VOZDEYSTVIYA NA ATMOSFERNYYE PROTSESSY (Phys- ical Principles for the Modification of Atmospheric Processes) in Russian 1978 signed to press 17 Nov 78, pp 2-4 _ [Annotation and Table of Contents from book by L. G. Kachurin, Gidrometeo- izdat, 3,500 copies, 456 p3ges] ~ [Text] Annotation _ This bocak by Professor L. G. Kachurin is devoted to the physical prin- - ciples for the modification of atmospheric processes. It examines the theory of phase transitions. A thermodynamic model of natural and artif- icially created convective clouds is formulazed. The possibilities of ' stimulation of convection, inducement of precipitation, with - hail, scattering of clouds and fogs are investigated. The principles _ for the modification of electric processes in the atmosphere and hurri- canes are studied. Intentional and inadvertent disruptions of equilibrium in the ionosphere and ozonosphere are considered. The book is a substan- tially revised and supplemented edition of the instructional text publish- ed in 1973. The monograph is intended for students and graduate students at universities and hydrometeorological institutes. It can be used for specialists in the field of atmospheric physics, preservation of the en- vironment, aviation, cosmonauti~s, sea and land transportation, etc.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page - Introduction 5 ~ Chapter 1. Phase Transitions of Water in the Atmosphere and Phenomena Accompanying Them 15 1.1. Fundamental principles 15 1.2. Equilibrium of phases 21 J ~1.3. Homogeneous phase transitions 25 1.4. Phase state of condensate in homogeneous condensation 29 1.5. Crystallizing aerosols 34 1.6. Clathrate~compounds as crystallizing reagents 45 ` 1.7. Hygroscopic and surface-active substances as regulators of con- densation processes and evaporation 47 1.8. Dielectric properties of modified objects 51 - 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 - Page Chapter 2. Transformation of Internal Structure of Clouds 57 2.1. Condensation growth of particles 57 _ 2.'l, Enlargement of particles in clouds 75 - 2.3. Natural crystallization of clouds 9t 2.4. Generation of water in clouds 99 ~ 2.5. Crystallizing effect of cooling agents (condensation of water vapor during sharp cooling) 101 Chapter 3. Artificial Turbulent Currents in Atmosphere 109 " 3.1, Theory of active sector of free turbulen~ current in a - drift current 109 3.2. Stim~lation of atmospheric c~nvection 122 - 3.3. Injection af impurities into atmosphere. Purification from im- _ purities in local air basins by artificial currents 129 3.4, Propagation of particles of reagents in clouds and fogs 149 3,5, Condensation clot,ds in horizontal currents 159 - Chapter 4. Control of Thermodynamic Processes in Clouds 169 4.1. Means for injecting reagents into clouds 169 4.2. Radar observations of clouds and precipitation in different stages of their development 177 4.3. Control of development of clouds of nonconvective forms 200 = 4.~i. Control of processes in convective clouds 216 _ 4.5. Prevention of dangerous hail falls 229 4.6, Dynamic methods for scattering clouds (fogs) 263 _ Chaoter 5. Artificial Scattering and Creation of Fogs 274 5,1, Visibility in fog 274 5,?, Scattering (clearing) of fogs using artificial heat sources 277 5.3, Dynamic method for scattering fogs 292 5.4. Change in the absorptive properties of fogs for the purpose of their scattering 294 5.5. Scattering of fogs using reagents intensifying condensation _ processes 298 5.h. Ac~ustic methods for the clearing of fogs 305 - 5.7, Electric methods for the clearing of fogs 310 5.8. Lasers as means for clearing of fogs 318 ~.9. Regulation of evaporation for contending with fogs 324 S.lU. Prevention of fogs by means of passivation of condensation nuclei 327 5.11, P~-,otochemical smogs 329 Chapter 6. Modification of Electric Processes in Clouds 334 - 6.1. Fundamental principles 334 6.2, Observation of electric state of clouds in different stages _ of their development 337 f~.3. Artificially induced discharge of thunderstorm cloud at earth (using rockets or lasers) 347 h.4. Control of space charge in clouds 359 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page 6.5. Possibilities of modification of clouds by intensive beams of relativistic electrons and protons 365 - 6.6. Inducement of local intracloud electric discharges for the purpose of reducing the total high voltage of a field in a - cloud 376 6.7. Seeding of clouds by crystallizing reagents for the purpose of changing their electric state 383 6.8. Possibility of control of thunderstorm-dangerous clouds by means of change in crystallization potentials of cloud water 384 _ Chapter 7. Modification of Hurricanes 397 7.1. Energy released in the process of hurricane development ` 397 ~ 7.2. Possibilities for control of hurricanes 400 7.3, Seeding of hurricanes with crystallizing reagents for lessen- ing their intensity 405 Chapter 8. Modification of High Layers of the Atmosphere 412 8.1. Fundamental principles 412 = 3.2. Modification of ionosphere 417 8.3. Stratospheric ozone as biological protection. :~,nthropogenic 434 modification of ozonP - Appendix 443 Bibliography 451 COPYRIGHT: Gidrometeoizdat, 2-e izd., pererab. i dop., 1978 [12-5303) 5303 ` CSO: 1865 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 r~,iL~ vrrtt,tru~ u~~ vlv1.,1 MODELS USED IN INVESTIGATION OF ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATIC CHANG~ Moscow FIZIKA ATMO:~FERY I PROBLEMAKLIMATA (Atmosph~ric Physics ~nd the _ Cl.imate Problem) in Russian 1980 signed to press 7 Feb 80 pp 2-7, 258 [Annotation, Table of Contents, and Foreword from book edited by G. S. ~ Golitsyn and A. M. Yaglom, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1,200 copies, 262 pages] [Text] Annotation In recent years the problem of climate and its changes has been attracting the broad attention of international scientific society and the govern- - ments of many countries. The world economy, which is growing more complex, _ is becoming incr.easingly more dependent on climatic conditions, and there are indications that man's activity itself is beginning to have an in- fluence upon climate and its changes. Z'he atmosphere is one of the dominant and most mobile elements within this problem. Investigation of the physics of atmospheric processes, creation of models of the atmcsphere viewed as a nonlinear dynamic system, to include low-parameter models, study of the , interaction between the atmosphere and the underlying surface--oceans and land, and study of the optic and radiating properties of aerosol in- _ fluencing the atmosphere's thermal cycles are all important to gaining a deeper urderstanding of the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere per se; - concurrently, such studies can also serve as a basis for creating a theory _ of general circulation and climate theory. ' This book will be useful to specialists in atmospheric physics, metearoloay, climatology, oceanology, and associated areas, as well as to graduate students and senior students of the appropriate specialties in universities and other educational i:nstitutions. ?'able of Contents Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - V. K. Petukhov, "A Zonal Ciimatic Model of Heat and Moisture - Exchange in the Atmosphere Above the Ccean" . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A. S. Ginzburg, Ye. M. ~'eygel'son, "Paraanetric Expression of Radiant Heat Exchange in Models of General Atmospherir Circulation" 42 M. B. Galin, "Investigation of General Atmospheric Circulation on the Basis of a Twelve-Component Nbdel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 F. B. Dolzhanskiy, L. A. Pleshanova, "An Extremely Simple Non- linear Model of Convection and Its Geophysical Application" . 95 A. B. Glu2hovskiy, V. I. Klyatskin, and A. M. Obukhov, "Hydrer dynamic Models and the Change-Over Phenomenon" . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 M. I. Fortus, "One Stochastic Model Associated With the Problem of the Predictability o f Climatic Processes" . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 V. P. Kuzharets, L. R. Tsvang, and A. M. Yaglom, "The Relationship Between Turbulence Characteristics of the Surface Layer and Boundary Layer of the Atmosphere" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 A. S. Aliyev, S. L. Zubkovskiy, and L. R. Tsvang, "Universal FUnctions for Atmospheric Turbulence Above the Sea" . . . . . . . . . . 194 G. V. Rc~zenberg, G. I. Gorchakov, Yu. S. Georgiyevskiy, and Yu. S. Lyubovtseva, "Optic Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosol" 216 Foreword In recent years the problem of climate and its changes has been transforming - more and inore from a purely scientific problem into one attracting the nersistent attention of the broadest circles of society, the governments - of many states, and authoritative international organizations. The greater frequency of droughts in different regions of the wor.ld and the somewhat abnormally cold and snowy winters in Europe and the USA have made the questions of periennial variations in climate and the trends of its evolu- tion very troubling. Swift development of power and a dramatic increase in anthropogenic contamination of the environment are making the situation even more complex, and it is apparent that in the foreseeable future, they may make a noticeable contribution to changes in cl~:*.�atic ' indicators. The problem of explaining climate is unusually complex, since we are talking about laws governing an enormous system with a very large number of degrees of freedom including the ocean, the atirnosphere, and the biosphere. There- fore its solution would require the coordinated efforts of scientists in many countries representing different specialties. The overall direction of the research, its methodology, and its basic content are being worked on jointly by specialists in atmospheric physics, oceanology, glaciology, and climatology. The first major undertaking of this sort was a special _ international conference of the PIGAP (Program of Investigation of Global Atmospheric Processes) having the purpose of writing iip a program to study the physical principles of climate and to model it; this conference was convened in August 1974 near Stockholm. The program written at this 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 r~n, uar, uivLY conferer_ce was later translated into Russian.* An all-union confer~nce was held a year later to prepar.P a draft program of climatic stiidies in - the USSR. The World Climate Conferanc~ was held in Geneva in February 1979. It adopted an appeal t~ all n3ta.ons, in wnich tne importance af the problem _ of c�imate and its changes tu the most vari~d aspects of the l~,fe of _ mankina was emphasized, as was the need for ,~road intPrnational cooperation in research on this problem (see METEOROLOGJYA I GIDROLOGIYA, No fi7, 1979). The atmosprere doubtlessly ,lays one of the most important roles in the climate generating system. Weather forms within the atmosphere, and lacal changes in weat:~er are directly associated with the instability of atmospheric circulation; the atmosphere is the principal carrier of heat from the tropics into mare-northerly regions; the atmosphere exchanges - heat, moisture, and momentum with the underlying surface, insuring constant turnover of moisture and transformation of the Sun's thermal energy i.nto - the kinetic energy of ~ind. Th~ camputation and modeling of all of these processes maice up one of the most significan~ parts of the program to model climate and i~s changes. The most important and immediate stage in this - sort of research is development of simplified mathematical models of climate and models of general circulation of the atmosphere, which plays - ~ an important climate-forming role. In particular the documents cited above _ suggest utilizing an entire hierarchy of climate models, beginning with the simplest models based only on an averaged zonal equation of the energy budget on the Earth's surface, and ending with complex models adapted to the , most powerful modern computers, models which numerically integrate the , multilevel equations describing joint circulation of the atmosphere and ocean with a consideration for the hydrologic cycle, the annual course of insolation, and so on. ~ Th~s collection is devoted to research on some of the questions mentioned _ - above. The papers contained herein reflect all of the basic directions of = research being conducted in the institut~ responsible for this problem, with the ~~xception of just the research on general circulation and climate ~ of the Earth and other planets with the help of the methods of similitude and dimensianality, a review of which could be found in a number of works.*** *"Fizicheskiye osnovy teorii klimata i yego modelirovaniya" [Physical Principles of the Theory of Climate, and Its Modeling], Moscow, Gidro- meteoizdat, 1977, 272 pp. "Fizicheskiye osnovy klimata i yego izmeneniy. Natsional'naya program�na - SSR PIGAP--klimat" [The Physical Principles of Climate and Its Chanqes. The USSR National Program PIGAP--Climate], Soviet PIGAP Commission, Inter- - depa.rtmental Geophysical Committee, USSR Academy of Sciences Presidium, Obninsk, VNIIGMI-MTsD, 1977, 148 pp. Golitsyn, G. S., "The Theory of Similitude in Soviet Works on Geo- ~~sical Hydrodynamics," IZ~� AN SSSR. FAO, Vol 13, No 11, 1977, pp 1132- - 1149; "Vvedeniye v@inamiku pl.anetnykh atmosfer" [Introduction to the Dyn~.mics of Planetary Atmospheres], Leningrad, Giclrometeoizdat, 1973, 104 pp. 6 - rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The collection begins with a paper by V. K. Petukhov, "A Zonal Climatic - Model of Heat and Moisture Exchange in the Atmosphere Above the Ocean." ~ According to t.~ modern classification, this model may be placed in the class of dynamic-statistical models: When given in its expanded form, , it contains a dependence on time and latitude, but the form of many of the dependencies on altitude is previously given. A large number of new - methods of parametric expression of ineridional and vertical transfers of momentum, heat, and moisture are proposed in the paper. The model has not been built in its entirety yet, but a number of its simplified variants provide inf~rmation on the distribut~on of ineteorological elements close to their mean climatic v~lues. ~ The article by A. S. Ginzburg and Ye. M. Feygel'son, "Parametric Ex- pression of Radiant Heat Exchange in Models of General Atmospheric Circu- - lation", offers a review of the methods and concrete procedures of ~ara- metric expression of radiation in the ultraviolet, visi.ble, and infrared ranges, generated by solar and thermal emissions depending on temperature and on the gas and aerosol composition of the atmosphere. The article contains concrete recommendations for madels exhibiting different degrees of complexity. Then follow three papers on so-called low-parameter mode]s of the atmosphere and other hydrodynar.�;c systems. The concept of hydrodynamic systems intro- duced by A. M. Obukh~v in 1969 played an important role in development of this direction.* A hydrodynamic system possesses the same integral in- _ variants and the same nonlinearity that we see in real hydrodynamic _ equations, except that they are characterized only by a finite and, usually, a small number of degrees of freedom; a hydrodynamic system correctly de- scribes many aspects of real fluid flows and, in particular, major at- mospheric movements. The first work of this group is the paper by - M. B. Galin, "Investigation of General Atmospheric Circulation on the Basis of a Twelve-Component Model". Applying the Bubnov-Galerkin method - to the spectral form of hydrodynamic equations, the author proposes a two- le�vel nonlinear baroclinity model describing interaction of waves with a - zonal flow. Questions associated with evolution of a zonal current under the influence of nonlinear interactions with planetary waves are examined, _ as are their relationship to linear theories of zonal current stability in the presence of energy sources an3 discharges. 2'he energy cycle of these interactions is analyzed, and it is found to be close to the cycle of _ eneray transformations in the real atmosphere. * Obukhov, A. M., "Integral Invariants in Hydrodynamic Systems," DOKL. AN SSSR, Vol 184, No 2, 1969, pp 309-312; See also Dolz~ianskiy, F. V., Klyatskin, V. I., Obukhov, A. M., and Chusov, M. A., "Nelineynyye sistemy gidrodinamicheskogo tipa" [Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Systems], Moscow, Izd-vo "Nauka", 1974, 160 pp. , 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 ~ rvc~ vrrl~iew uoc, vivLi The article "An Extremely Simple Nonlinear Model of Convection and Its Geophysical Application" by F. B. Dolzhanskiy and L. A. Pleshanova is a good example of research based on the hydrodynamic system concept. It examines a low-parametric model of convective currents arising under the influence of nonuniform heating of the system and its rotation as a whole. Many characteristics of 'che behavior of the system under analysis here, - particularly its energy cycle and the nature of arising instabilities, - are s imilar to those of large-scale atmospheric circulatior~. The article "Hydrodynamic Models and the Change-Over Phenomenon" by - A. B. Gluzhovskiy, V. I. Klyatskin, and A. M. Obukhov studies an issue important to the theory of climate and general circulation--the possible existence, in the same external conditions, of ~two or several patterns of flow, and the possibilities for transfer from one pattern to another. This inves tigation was performed with a simple hydrodynamic system with a very small number of degrees of freedom as the example. The article "One Stochastic Model Associated With the Problem of the Predictability of Climatic Processes" by M. I. Fortus is devoted to problems having a direct bearing on statistical prediction of climatic characteristics. - ~ Such predictions are meaningful in relation ta time periods in regard to - tahich dynamic prediction~becomes useless due to growth in errors generated by inaccuracies in the initial data, by simplifications at the basis of the model employed, by ignorance of the detailed physics of processes forming climate, and so on. Such prediction relies upon the use of info~ation on _ the s pectrums of climatic fluctuations, information that came into being in recent years. In this case, however, it is very important to establish - for precisely which climatic characteristics the error of the statistical prediction rises relatively slowly in response to an increase in the pre- diction time, and for which it grows so q~ickly as to deprive a prediction of th is sort of its practical value. The paper by M. I. Fortus seeks, in the best possible fashion, predictible characteristics for some special - classes of random processes, the spectrums of which extend upward from the low frequency range and possess sharp, widely scattered peaks--that is, a number of properties inherent to real spectrums of climatic characteristics. Two of the collection's articles are devoted to research on the boundary layer of the atmosphere. Through the boundary layer, the atmosphere inter- acts with the underlying surface, and therefore parametric expression ot processes occurring in this layer (mainly vertical transfer of heat, moisture, and momentum) is a very important part of work on a general circulation " model and on any climate models of any sort of detail. The K~ork by V. P. - Kuzharets, L. R. Tsvang, and A. M. Yaglom, "The Relationsr~ip Between - - Turbulence Characteristics of the Surface Layer and Boundary Layer of . the Atmosphere", reviews the results of ineasuring the characteristics of turbulent transfer in the surface layer and in the entire planetary boundary layer. The authors reveal a nu.mber of dependencies between vertical transfer ir the boundary layer and the characteristics of the atmosphere's boundary - 1~:,~r; these dependencies, when applied to :aeasurements made near to the 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y surface of the Earth, permit certain conclusions on turbulent processes in the boundary layer. A new method for detezmining the height of the boundary layer, important to parametric expression of the interaction between atmos- phere and underlying surface, is proposed incidentally. - The article "Universal Functions for At~nospheric Turbulence Alaove the Sea" by A. S. Aliyev, S. L. Zubkovskiy, and L. R. Tsvang presents the r~sults of numerous measurements, made fram a motionless platform on the _ - Caspian Sea 20 km from shore, of the characteristics of turbulence in the layer of atmosphere overlying the water. These measurements demor?strate that universal functions describing, within the framework of the well known Monin-Obukhov theory of similitude, the dependence between the height of - the mean temperature and dispersions of pulsations in the three components of wind speed and temperature differ little at a given point of observation from functions obtained from observations made in the boundary layer of the atmosphere.* As far as the dimensionless phasal velocity of waves = upon which, as it is often thought, universal functions af induced turbulence - should also depend significantly, is concerned, it is found to be closely correlated with atmospheric stratification. The coll.ection ends with an article by G. V. Rozenberg, G. I. Gorchakov, Yu. S. Georgiyevskiy, and Yu. S. Lyubovtseva, "Optic Parameters of Atmos- pheric Aerosol". It proposes a stratification ma3e1 and a set of optic _ aerosol parameters on the basis of a generalization of the results of statistically analyzing data covering many years of integrated research on atmospheric aerosol. This model is h~ghly valuable to the modeling of climate and general circulation, inasmuch as aerosol is one of the most - important and presently least studied optically active components of the atmosphere. The authors of this collection--specialists in mathematical physics-- attempted to a~.~ply the techniques of established sui:divisions of atmos- pheric physics to the complex problem of climate, and to sketch the new methods and approaches for solving this problem. We can hope that some of these proposals will enjoy development, and that they will be utilized in - the future with greater concreteness anci detail. We hope that this collection will be found useful to a broad range of - specialists in atmospheric physics and in meteorology in general, moreover not only to those who are directly associated with the problem of climate ar:d its changes, but also to many persons dealing with associated scientific problems. * For data on the surface layer of tYie atmosphere, see for example the following articles by A. M. Yaglom: Yaglom, A. M., "Data on the Ct?aracter- istics of Turbulence in the Surface Layer of the Atmosphere," IZV. AN S3SR. _ FAO, Vol 10, No 6, 1974, pp 566-586; Yaglom, A. M., "Comments on Wind and Temperature Flux-Profile Relationships," BOUNDARY-LAYER N~TEOR., Vol 11, No 1, 1977, pp 89-102. - CUPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1980 [8144/0041A-11004] _ 11004 g - CSO: 8144/0041A FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300054431-9 OCE_4NOGRAPHY UDC 551.~.65.15 MODEL OF INTERMITTENCE OF OCEAN TURBLZENCE Moscow OKEANOLOGZYA in Russian Vol 20, ito 3, 1980 pp 381-387 [Article by M. M. Lyubiu,tsei~, Institutz of Oceano.l_ogy imeni P. P. Shirshuv _ USSR Academy of Sciences, submitte3 for public.ation 13 January 1978, re- submitted after correction I7 January 1980] [Te;ct] Abstract: Tne author examines a model of a _ one-dimensional section of the field of in-- termittent turbulence. LJithin the framework of the model it ~aas possible to ascertain - _ the influence of intermittence parameters on some statistical cfiaracteristics of small- scale turbulence. It is shown that the semi- ; invariants of the interm~ .:ent process and also the mean rate of dissipation of turbu- , lent energy are proportional to the mean intermi.ttence coefficient; the dropoff of the c~rrelation and spectral functions with an increase in the argument is essentially dependent on the distribution of probabilities of the size of the "turbulent spots." An important proFerty of turbulenc~ is its intermittence, that is, the nonuniformity of the distribution of turbulent movements in space and - tirae. We should diff erentiate several types ~f intermittence. By the term "internal intermittence" we will mean the nonuniform distribution of the energy of movements in a well-developed stationary turbuZent flow. _ Its cause is the random character of the fragmentation of turbulent in- - homogeneities. There are mathema.tical models of such intermittence [5-7, 9]. A result of internal intermittence is fluctuations of the field of dissipation of turbulent energy, the investigation of which is the sub- ject of the fundamental studies j1C-11]. F.xternal intermittence is a nonuniformity in the distribution of the en- - e~, ~of turbulence in a flow with "spots" of turbulent fluid developing in lt s~oradically. The flow outside such "spots" is hydrodynamically - 10 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ stable and the current here is laminar. A flow with such intermittence can - - be statistically stationary. The phenomenon of external intermittence of turhulence in the ocean can be observ~d, in particular, between the tur- bulent and nonturtiulent regions at the lower boundary of the upper mixed _ layer and at the upper boundary of the bottom layer. In the main thicknes~ of the ocean this is the intermittence of turbulent "spots," arising, for _ example, due to the hydrodynamic instability of the internal gravitational ~ waves in the shear flow. _ Evidently there can be still aLOther type of intermittence the intermit- tence of turbulence in the last stage of its degeneration, when it is pos- sible to observe a field of randomly distributed "~pots" of slightly tur- - bulent fluid. Such intermittence is probably associated with internal in- - termittence, but differs from it considerably because it is essentially nonstationary, ~ In the experimental investigation of turbulence in the ocean the records - , of the signals of the measured parameters (fluctuations of velocity., tem- perature, etc.) by low-inertia sensors have the form of alternating pulses (of different shape and width), separated by noise intervals of irregular _ duration. Such a pulse modulation of signals is also a result of ex~ernal - intermittence of turbuience. For describing this type of signals in this - study we propose an elementary model within whose framework we examir:e the influence of the parameters of external intermittence on some s:.atistica~ characteristics of small-scale turbulence (henceforth, for the sake of hrevity in exposition, the word "external" will be omitted in reference to intermittence). = Now we will examine the random process ~(t), representing the product of - the stationary random process u(t) (with the mean value wo ce~ ~e, ~ 1 3~ c where BI('~) is a dimensionless correlation function satisfying the condi- tions ~ dB~ (T) ' - B~ ~0) = dt = - B~' ~t~ ~ (14) T=0 (the first condition also follows from (8) with k= 2). It can be seen from (8) and (13) that the ~(t) proeess is stationary, at least in a - broad sense, and therefore its energy spectrum is a Fourier transform of the B ~ (2 ) function. _ In order to find the function BI(~G) in explicit form it is necessary to stipulate the density W e(B ) analytically. As the scheme for the evolu- tion of turbulent "spots" we use the process of their independer.t frag- mentation. Then, in accordance with [3], the distribution of probabilities of the sizes of such "spots" should be described by the log-normal f unc- - tion ~ (In 9 - nstne)z ~8~ }/~2.-s o~nee exp 1 ~ ' - 2a1ne ~15~ where . _ - m~ne=~ln 6), 6jae =~(In A-m,Qa)'~. It must be noted that almost nothing is known about the density W p_ (Q) and the distribution (15) can be used only as a hypothesis. (In [1] a sys- tem of Pearson distributions was used as an apnroximation of W e( g). The _ choice of. any particular distribution from this system is based on a cri- - terion which in the experimental evaluations of the moments of the dis- = tribution of probabilities of the investigated parameter is very approx- imate. Therefore, apparently for most of the processed records (fluctu- ~ - ations of sea water conductivity) it is possible to obtain a B-d.istribu- tion of the first kind in a limited range of values, which is n~t physical- ly justified. Indeed, the very choice of the Pea?-son system is unsound.) Substituting (15) into (13), we obtain the expression = T - . Bi ~i) = � [N (xT - v~~s) - N ~ rt), , . ~16 ~ - where , _ (z~ = 1 - y2 �-r'~aCfl, XT = (III ti - Iri(no)I6 tne� n In the computations we then used the property of the distribution (15): `9 '~=~XP~km~~e-i-kz6ino%2~ and its corollaries: m,,,e=1n((0)2/(9=)'''; and Qine=In{ o~ ~ 0 - 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 y,0~~ 3,O 3,S 4,0� 4,,5~2 Fig. 2. Histograms of distributions of ~1 and ~ 2 values for layers l, 2, 3. In order to study the distribution of probabilities of the values under conditions of an unvarying background (or varying slightly) we computed the distributions of these values from samples from layers with an approx- i~~tely constant mean temperature gradient dT/dz,^.: -0.02�C m 1(layer 1) an~ dT/d2 ~-0.01�C m 1(layer 2), and also from a temperature inversion 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300054431-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY layer with dT/dz ~ O.OQ8�C ~ 1(layer 3). The position of the mentioned layers and their thickness, being approximately 50 m, varied from sound- ing to sounding. The volume of collected samples for layers 1, 2 and 3 was 136, 113 and 139 respectively. A comparison of the empirical distrib- ution functions ror different layers was made using the Kolmogorov~-Smir- nov test with a significance level 0.1. In accordance with this test it is possible to adopt the hypothesis that samples of ~j values for layers 1 and 2 belong to the same general set, whereas for layers 1 and 3, 2 and 3 this hypothes~s must be refuted. This is ev~idence that the regime of turbulenr movements in layers 1 and 2 is evidently identical, whereas in layer 3 it is essentially different. - Evaluations of Moments of Distributions of Probabilities of Values _ z, j = lg D(ri) Tie soxAK- KomtvecTeo "s~ 6s pOBHHNA y~~HOB 1, eti6�pKrQ "i I v ( A I E m I a I A E _ 1 236 2,2E 0,28 i,45 6.66 3,06 0,32 I-0,4f 2,~i8 2 231 2,76 0,~ 1,8~'e 7,16 3,55 U,26 O,U6 0,92 3 231 2,81 0,28 1,10 2,30 3,55 0,`l7 -0,0?. 0,74 4 245 2,72 0,30 0,97 2,35 3,50 0,34 -1,06 3,22 5 231 2,i2 0,33 1,31 2,90 3,49 0,27 0,56 U,57 3 Bcero 1174 2,65 0,35 0,46 1,70 3,43 I 0,3~ -0,55 f,47 KEY: ~ " 1~ No of sounding - 'L. Number of terms in sample 3 . To tal Figure 2 shows histograms of the distributions of the ~1 and f,2 values in layers 1, 2 and 3. Here we have also shown curves of the normal distrib- ution law with mean values and dispersions equal to the corresponding em- pirical evaluations. The hypothesis of a normal distribution of the ~1 and ~ 2 values can be adopted for all three layers. Thus, the distribution of probabilities of the current structural functions under some constant background conditions is described by a log-normal law and the parameters of this law are evidently determined by local conditions. An analysis of the distribution moments of the ~ values in individ~.ial layers shows that the d~fference in the empirical distributions in layers 1 and 3, 2 and 3 _ is attributable primarily to a change in the mean value, whereas the dis- persion remains virtually constant. ~ In an investigation of the distribution of probabilities of the current structural functions it must be taken into account to what interval of - scales the shift of r functions helongs. For example, it was demonstrat- ~ ed in [7] that if r belongs to the inertial interval then lg D(r) has a - normal distribution of probabilities and differs from it if r belongs to the transitional region of the inertial-dissipative interval of scaleso ` We computed the one-dimensional spectra of velocity fluctuations E1(k) by ~ the fast Fourier transform method for each of the layers 1-3. In the _ 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 interval of wave numbers 1.68�10-1~k ~2.98 cm 1(or scales 2.1 4yp ~ /4~~ ~ ~ 600 ~ . ~4e5 ~ ~ ' ~ >4B0 i~ i ~ , ~ ~ . ~ , B00 ~ ~1u~5 , ,y, s f000 ~ ~ - Il, nr � {u8~ i - Fig. 1. Vertical section of the speed of sound field along 145�E. 1) axis of underwater sound channel. 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As the initial data for the analysis of conditions for sound propagation in the eddy zone we used standard ob~ervations of temperature and salin- ity made by Japanese researchers the lifetime of a warm eddy (Feb- ruary 1970 - October 1971) [5]. On the basis of these data and the Wilson formula (1960), using the data in [2J, we computed the speed of sound _ field f~or the region 40-42�N and 143-146�E. During the time of observations the eddy moved to the northeast for a dis- tance of 400 miles. In July 1970 it had the following parameters: radius about 45 miles, vertical thickness 700 m, velocity of movement 0.75 mile - daily. Its center was situated at a point with the coordinates 40�55'N, 145�02'E. Along the contour of the eddy there was a sharply expressed ~em- perature front with a gradient up to 0.27� per mile at the ocean surface and more than 0.5� per mile at a depth of 50-125 m. _ The complex distribution of thermohaline characteristics in the region of - the eddy causes an equally complex distribution of the speed of sound. Figure 1 shows the vertical section of the speed of sound field along Z45� ~ for the period 23-24 July 1970 and passing through the center of the eddy. It can be seen that in the upper 40-m water layer the speed of _ sound varies from 1,495 to 1,520 m�sec-1. The greatest vertical gradients here exceed 0.7 m�sec-1 per meter (maximtun 0.95 m�sec-1 per meter) and are observed primarily in the layer 1~-30 m. Below the seasonal sonic _ tachocline the mesoscale eddy at it~ boundaries is characterized by con- siderable horizontal gradients which on the average are 1.64 m�sec'1 per - mile (see table). ~ Horizontal Speed of Sound Gradients at Boundaries of Mesoscale Eddy Horizon, m Horizontal gradients, m.sec-1/mile maXimu~n minimum SO 4.67 1.25 100 3.12 0.52 200 2.51 0.81 300 2.51 0.52 400 2.49 0.25 500 2.00 0.35 60Q 1.20 0.70 In the central part of the eddy the change in the speed of sound does not exceed 5 m�sec'1. In order to solve different kinds of practical problems (search for schools of f ish, fishery forecasts, et~c.) it is of great importance to determine the anticipated effective range of hydroacoustic instruments (HAI), depen- dent on the spatial-temporal variability of the speed of sound field. A factor of interest is the position of the speed of sound minimum or the depth of the USC axis. It is well known that if the sound source is situ- ated on the USC axis the effective range of the USC~can increase greatly. - 29 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 In Figure 1 it is easy to trace the distorting effect of the eddy on the depth of. the horizon, where the speed of sound has a minimum value. For example, on the outer side of the eddy the USC axis is situated closer to the surface at depths of SO-250 m. This agrees, in general, with the values cited in [3]. At the boundary of the eddy it drops downward aharP- ly and at the center lies approximately at tt~~e horizon 800 m. Accordingly, the speed of sound on the USC axis increases from 1,461-1,463 to 1,476- 1,478 m�sec-1~ Thus, the USC region in the eddy zone is far from stability - and homogeneity and this undoubtedly is reflected in the reliability of - the predicted effective range of HAI. ~ ~""O mf sec 5 >o KM ~n ~4 y,~ lS00 15Z0 0 , , / ~ ' -4� ~ ~ - ~o j 7� n,~/~ - / O ~ 4 ~ so G~n ~ ~ ~ . BOL' ' \ 1 ~ Fnl~ � 1' ' 1.~7�1G >2� 10 � g� - NM ~ Fig. 2. Trajectories of rays on boundary of eddy. ~ c m/sec ~~Ra ~soo ~szo a s ,a KM . . ~ -T-T-----T---T-, . r - , ~ :p/~ ~ � ~ \ /'Q(/ i \ \ : ; ~ ' ~ _ ~~~~p~� . , o hr ~ Fig. 3. Trajectories of rays within eddy. Accordingly, in practical computations great care must be exerted in select- - ing the characteristic profile of the curve of vertical distribution of the speed ~f sound in regions which in their geometric dimensions are commens- urable with the mean diameter of the mesoscale eddy (50-110 miles). The curve reflecting some special situation is especially limited in time. Therefore, in open regions of the oceans it is desirable that measure- ments of the vertical distribution of water or the speed of sound to a - d., _h of 400-500 m be made each 4-6 hours, and in the zone of the probable - ex~stence of inesoscale eddies and hydrological fronts this interval must - 30 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY evidently be reduced still more, We note that in [7], for the purposes of routine prediction, in describing the variability of the USC it is recommended that observations be made to depths of about 200 m at the five main horizons. In our case, for the rea- _ sons mentioned above, this probably does not ensure the required accuracy in obtaining the curve of the vertical distribution of the speed of sound ~ and accordingly, a proper evaluation of the effecttve range of HAI. The influence of a mesoscale eddy on the propagation of sound oscilla- tions can also be characterized by a spatial variability of the form of the trajectory of sonic rays, as is illustrated graphically using ray patterns for two different cases of the vertical profile of the speed of sound distribution curve. Figures 2 and 3 show the families of rays which we computed for a sound source situated at the horizon 150 m and accord- ingly situated on the southern ~boundary of the eddy and within it. In hoth cases the distribution of the speed of sound with depth along the - trajectory, directed toward the center of the eddy, was assumed to be constant (which corresponds to the ray theory). At the houndary of the eddy (Fig. 2) an exceptionally strong refraction - of the rays in the upper part of the subsurface sound channel was caused ~ by a sharp change in the speed of sound with depth (almost 60 m�sec-1 at - 50 m). As a result, the subsurface UCS takes in a relatively high percen- tage of the rays, although ttie sound source is situa.ted at a relatively _ shallow depth. This is particularly clearly expressed in the rays emanat- _ ing from the source at angles �4�. The geometric range at the source hori- zon (the distance along the horizontal from the sound source to the boun- - dary of the first shadow zone) is about 4.9 km. - Within the eddy (Nig. 3), as a result of negative refraction in the layer 0-75 m, the speed of sound first decreases to 1,490 m�sec-1 and then al, most remains constant to the 300-m horizon. Then it again decreases to the axis of the deep iJSC (horizon 600 m). The zone of th2 acoustic shadow oc- cupies here a layer which is considerably less than in Fig. 2 and the geo- metric range increases to 11 km, that is, more than doubles. Thus, the well-expressed acoustic uniformity of the eddy at depths from 75 to 300 m exerts a substantial influence on the spatial change in the tra- jectory of the sonic rays and considerably increases the effective geomet- ric range of the HAI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Pavlychev, V. P., "Water Regime and Position of the Subarctic Front in the Northwestern Part of the Pacific Ocean (1965-1973), IZV., TINRO (News of the Pacific Ocean Scientific Research Institute of Fishing and Oceanography), 96, 1975. - 31 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300054431-9 2. TABLITSY DLYA RASCHETA SKOROSTI ZViIKA V MORSKOY VODE (Tables for Com- puting the Speed of Sound in Sea Water), Izd-vo UGS VI~', 1965. 3. Johnson, R. N., Norris, R. A., "Geog~aphic Variation of Sofar Speed and Axis Depth in the Pacific Ocean," GEOFIZ. RES., 73, No 14, 1968. 4. "Movement and Acoust~c Influence of Cyclonic Eddies," NAV. RES. REV., - 28, No 6, 1975. (Prepared on the basis of materials from studies by different authors (A. Cecelski, M. Shank, W. Mathews, A. Crinnpler, R. - Cheney)� 5. "The Result of Marine Meteorological 3nd Oceanographical Observations," - No 48, 1970. - 6. Vastano, A. C., Owens, G. E., "On the Acoustic Characteristics of a , Gulf Stream Cyclonic Ring," J. PHYS. OCEANOGR., 3, No 4, 1973. - 7. Wolf, P. M., "Environmental Forecasting by Largest Marine Information Systems," MARIPlE TECHNOL. SOC. J., 4, No 6, 1970. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," "Okeanologiya," 1980 - [8144/175~J-5303] 5303 CSO: 8144/1750 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BOOK EXPLORES USES OF THE INTERNATIONAL OCEAN F7AOR Moscow MEZHDUNARODNYY RAYON DNA MIR(JVOGO OKEANA (The Tnternational Zone - of the World Ocean Floor) in Russian 1980 signed to press 8 Jan 80 pp 2-6, 263-265, 278-280 [Annotation, Table of Contents, Foreword, and Conclusion from book by K. A. Bekyashev, L. L. Lyubimov, I. M. Moqilevkin, V. A. Rc~manov, D. G. Tonkonogov, N. V. Shaskol'skiy, S. G. Shlykov, and I. I. Yakovlev, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", ~,100 copies, 280 pages] _ [Text] Annotation _ This work examines the economic, political, and legal aspects of using seabed territory beyond the limits of the continental shelf and exploiting the m3neral resources of the international zone of the World Ocean floor, and it analyzes the fundamental principles of the zone's international regime. Table of Contents Paqe Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 History of the International Regime of Using Seabed Resources 7 - Part One Resources of the International Zone and the - Grounds for Their Development and Use _ Chapter I. Present Ideas on Mineral Resources of the Inter- national Zone of the World Ocean Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . 34 Geomorphological ZonPs af the World Ocean Ploor . . . . . . . . . . 34 Basic Characteristics of the Ocean Floor's Geological Structure. Forms of Mineral Resources 37 - Chapter II. The World Economy's Demand for the Seabed's Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 - - 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 av~~ ViL1V1CiL VuL Vl\LL Chapter III. Technical Possibilities for Developing the Seabed's Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The TEChnology of Exploration and Prospecting . . . . . . . . . . 62 Marine 1Nlning Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 _ Metallurgical Conversion of Nodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 The Unique Features of First-Generation Technology and the Immediate Prospects of Its Development . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ~ Chapter IV. Assessments of the Technical-Economic Prospects for Developing the Seabed's Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 74 = The Profitable Reserves of Ferrcxnanganese Nodules . . . . . . . . 74 Economic Assessments of Different Phases in the Mining and Processing of Ferromanganese Nodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Some Problems Associated With Developing Deepsea Resources of the Seabed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Part ~ao Fundamental Principles of the Zone's International Regime Chapter V. The Seabed and Its Resources--"The Common Heritage of Mankind" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 - Chapter VI. The Principle of Using the International Zone of the Ocean Floor Exclusively for Peaceful Purposes 107 The Legal Content of the Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Implementation of the Principle in the Treaty Practices of States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e . . . 113 _ The Relationship Between the Principle and the General ~ System of the International Regime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 - The Prospects of Further Development of the Principle 121 Chapter VII. The Principle of the Impermissibility of Territorial Cla.ims and Seizure of the Zone's Resources. The - Principle of Nondiscrimination and Equal Rights of States 124 Chapter VIII. The Principle of Impermissibility of the Zone's ~ Monopolization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Chapter IX. The Principle of Protecting the Marine Environment 153 Chapter X. The Principle of Freedom of the High Seas in Relation to Superjacent Waters and Airspace, and the Freedom of Using the Territory of the Seabed to Lay Cables and Pipelines and to Install Submarine Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 - Chapter XI. The Economic Principles of the International Regime 177 = Chapter XII. The Issue of Periodic Reviews of the Convention's Action, and Its Reexamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Par~ Three ~ The International Agency for Seabed Resources Chapter XIII. The System of Exploring and Exploiting Mineral Resources of the International Zone of the Seabed 194 The Problem of Access to Seabed Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 - The International Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The Basic Conditions for Exploration and Exploitation of Seabed Resources on the Basis of Contracts With the Agency . 208 ~ Chapter XIV. The Structure of the International Seabed Agency. The Composition of Executive Agencies and the Decision Making - Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Disagreements in Conceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 The Main Agencies. The Relationship Between the Functions of the Assembly and the Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 The Agency's Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 The Agency's Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Chapter XV. The Problem of Resolving Disputes on the Seabed 241 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Biblioqraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Foreword _ In the last three decades, scientific and technical progress has created - significant prerequisites for accelerated inclusion of the resources and spaces of the World Ocean into the world's economic turnuver. The world economy's demand for uninterrupted conveyance of tremendous masses of commodities led to enormous gravth of commercial shipping. A significant - change occurred in the scale of the activities of expeditionary fleets, _ which increased their annual oceanic catch of biological resources to almost 70 million tons. Marine mininq industry devel~ped the mineral resources of the continental shelves with increasing success. The scientif ic research fleet grew at a fast pace. As activities in the World Ocean i.ncreased in their intensity, the need for improving regulation of such activities at all levels--national, regional, global--came to be felt more and more. International law of the sea occupies a special place in this regard. The Soviet Union and other socialist countries have always attached great significance to . progressive and democratic development of the law of the sea. It is precisely this sort of development that could promote wide international cooperation in the World Ocean in the interest of all countries, and insure sensible economic use of marine resources and spaces, and effective pro- tection of the marine environment. The UN, which has been making a great contribution to improving inter- national legal rules since the 1950's, is called upon to play the most - 35 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ3QOQ5Q031-9 1'Vi~ VL'1'1V1AL UJL VLYLL important role in this process. The principal phases of its activity in this area were the UN conferences on the law of the sea. A number of international conventions, to include those dealing with the high seas and the conti:~ental shelf, were adopted in the course of the first and second conferences (1958 and 1960, Geneva). On the whole these conventions, despite significant shortcomings in ~ome of them, were a substantial foundation for regulation of the activities of states in the World Ocean. Their regulatoxy action was extended to practically all forms of marine activities and sea spaces. Nevertheless a number of factors produced the need, just a decade following the Geneva conferences, fo-r undertaking further steps to improve inter- national law of the sea. One of the main tasks of the new stage in its development was definition of the principles of developing mineral re- _ sources of the seabed beyond the limits of the continental shelf. Some aspects of this problem, new to all mankind, have already been reflected in Soviet scientific literature.* However, integrated analysis of this problem is attempted for the first time in the present work. ~ The issues of regulating exploration and exploitation of deepsea mineral resources were posed about a decade ago. Since that time our knowledge of these resources, their r~serves, their distribution, and the mining and processing methods increased significantly~. Several drafts of the legal regime for using these resources arose as well. This issue was included in the agenda of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, _ the first session of which was held in 1973. The Third Conference had the purpose of developirig a sinqle universal convention on the law of the sea that would regulate all forms of economic activity in different spaces of the World OCean. The conference assigned the work of creating the regime of using mineral resources of the deepsea seabed to its First Conm~ittee. Four variants of an unofficial c3raft of the convention, to include a draft of the regime of exploitation of mineral resources in the international zone of the seabed**--that is, ~ seabed beyond the limits of the continental shelf--were successively written anc~ discussed in the course of seven working sessions of the conference. * Kalinkin, G. F., and Ostrovskiy, Ya. A., "Morskoye dno: komu ono pri- nadlezhit?" [Th~ Seabed: To Whom Does It Belong?], Moscow, 1970; "Okean, tekhnika, pravo" [Ocean, Technology, Law], Moscow, 1972; Kolodkin, A. L., _ "Mirovoy okean" [The World Ocean], Moscow, 1973; "Mezhdunarodnoye morskoye pravo. Rezhim vod i dna Mirovogo okeana" [International Law of the Sea. Thc Regime of the Waters and Floor of the World Ocean], Moscow, 1974, pp 256-286. For the sake of brevity, the international zone of the seabed will _~;bsequently be referred to as the zone, as is adopted in UN documents. - 36 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300054431-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In essence this was the first time mankind encountered the problem of _ creating an international universal organ:i.zation having broad regulatory powers and being endowed with the right to engage in economic activities. Such an organization, which i.nterprets mineral resources of the deepsea floor as "the co~non heritage of mankind", available for use by all countries, will maintain surveillance over exploitation cf these resourCes. - The prinicples governing the activities of this organization and ite structure have been under development for many years already. About 150 countries are taking part in this work. Their interests are sometimes deeply divergent in regard to this issue. Nevertheless agreement has been achieved on many provisions of the international regime in recent - years. However, a number of provisions still remain unregulatEd. This woxk analyzes world industry's demand for different forms of minerals contained within the zone, and the technical possibilities for their mining and processing. The technical-economic prospects of deepsea development of ferromang%.nese nodule deposits are assessed. The history of arisal of questions associated with the international regime governing - exploitation of the zone's resources and the history of this regime's development are traced, and the interest and positions taken by partici- pants of the conference during development of the fundamental princi~les of the international regime are assessed. The system for exploring and exploiting the zone's resources, the structure of the International Seabed - Agenc:y (subsequently referred to as the agency), and the mechanism fox resolving disputes in connection with the use and interpretation af the _ regime's provisions are analyzed. Naturally the authors of this study make no claim as to the completeness of the complex problems making up the international re~ime. It may be = said with certainty that work on these problems will be continued in the future by both Soviet and foreiqn scientists, especially with a con- sideration for future experience in operation of the international regime. The authors fully recognize tha't many of the issues examined here may and will elicit different interpretations and approaches. This is unavoidable in the study of any new phenomenon. However, such an analysis affords a possibility for understanding this phenomenon more deeply and for revealing the laws governing its arisai and development. It is precisely in this, in an attempt to broadly and integrally analyze the political and econamic _ principles governing the operation of a viable, mutually a.cceptable inter- . _ national regime--that the authors of this study saw their principal task. Conclusion Created in the course of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, the international regime of the zone of the World Ocean floor beyond the litni.ts of the continental shelf contains many mutually accept~ble provisions today. At the same time some of its elements still generate disagreement, failing to take account of the legal interests of one group of countries _ - or another. The possibility is not excluded that in the course of subsequent 37 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE fJNLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300054431-9 I rvn vrr i~icu, uo~ vivLi - , neqotiations we will be able to achieve a compromise in the regulatory provisions which would bring us closer to a consensus on the international regime as a whole. Examples of such an approach (consent to inclade pro- visions in a treaty which do not correspond fully with national intex�ests) are ofteri encountered in the international practice of preparing complex conventions dealing with many problems, when negotiations involve a package of issues and are conducted on the basis of a package apprcach. _ - In this case cancessions in relation to some issues of the package are = permitted such that a positive decision could be made on same other issues. _ The international regime of the zone is also being writteiz w:~thin the framework of a sin~gle convention on the law of the sea, and it is one of the elements of this package (though it is an extremely important and - complex one). Nevertheless it would have been most proper to define all provisions of the international regime of the zone on a balanced, mLtually acceptable _ ~ basis. After all, this regime is unique in many ways. This is the first _ time an international unive,:sal seabed organization will be created with such far-reaching powers. Its decisions will predetermine the poli cies in relatian to the international . ~one of the ocean floor, and it will govern cooperation among states in _ ~ development of its resources. This organization will perform independent economic activity. To a _ certain extent, in view of the present level of science and technology - the object of this activity is for the moment inconclusively defined. Out of the entire possible diversity of mineral resources within the zone, in - ' the next few decades the only objPCt of its acti~ity will be ferromanganese � nodules, the mining and processing of wh ich are treated in many concrete provisions of the international reg~me. Naturally, such provisions were written on the basis of available, gartial, far from complete knowledge of the zone and its resources. ~'hus the international will operate _ with some ambiguous provisions. At the same time it is in~portant to insure true recognition of the funda- mental eiements of the regime by all countries and groups of countries, - since it is aimed at strengthening international cooperation. This per- tains especially to fundamental principles of the international regime such as the provision that the region and its resources are available for use to all states exclusively for peaceful purposes, the provision of inadmissibility of territorial claims, the principle of prohibition of - monopolies, the principle of nondiscrimination and observance of equal right~ of sovereign states, the principle of protecting the marine environment, and the principle of maint aining freedom of the high seas. - The uniqueness of the future international reg.ime of the zone is pre- determined by the need for constantly studyingall of its elements further - ~,nd, after the regime gces into effect, the need for meticulously analyzing its results and for preparing recommenda;:ions concerning the policy of the 38 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY agency, a policy which would have the goal of protecting the interests of all countries without exception, and of the present and future generations of mankind. Only such a policy, based on truly equitable cooperation between nations in the development of the zone's mineral resources, can insure the agency's viability, avert seizure of the seabed's resources and their plunder by a narrow group of monopolies, and perm=t effective activity by the council assembly as well as the agency's secrEtariat and aiixiliary subdivisions. � Work on the zone's international regime is not yet finished. The nations of the entire world are hopefully antic'_pating that this important process ~ will come to its conclusion as a result of full consideration of the - interests of all countries, irrespective of their socioecono~�ic system, geographic location, or degree of economic development. Extensive and equitable international cooperation in development of the resources of the zone for the good of all mankind is suggested as an alternative to up the tremendous spaces and resources of the zone. This alternative is entirely possible, assuminq that in relation to all of the basic issues of the zone's international regime, we complete the task posed by our party in rela~ion to all "vitally important problems facing mankind as a whole today", and mainly the task of finding, for these problems, "a sen~ible collective solution, arrived at through planned international cooperation."* Imple- mentation of this alternative may serve as the most impcrtant factor for - reinforcing peace and security at sea, and developing relaxation of tension, _ peaceful coexistence, and cooperation among nations. * Brezhnev, L..I., "Leninskim kursom. Rechi i stat'i" [Following Lenin's Course. Speeches and Articles], Nloscow, Vol 6, 1978, p 597. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1980 [8144/0041B-11004] ~ 11004 - CSO: 8144~0041B 39 FOR OFFICT_AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300050031-9 aV