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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000304070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9494 19 January 1981 USSR Report EARTH SCIENCES (FOt10 1 /81) IFBIS_l FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATfON SERVICE FOR OFFIC[AL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English- language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing i.ndicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt) in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not ciear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body ef an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWDTERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICI.AL USE OiNLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 - FOR OFFICIAL U5E OYVLY JPRS L/9494 19 January 1981 USSR REPORT EARTH SCIENCES (FOUO 1/81) CONTENTS = METEOROLOGY Fhysical Principles for the Modification of Atmospheric Processes....... 1 _ Monograph on Dynamics of the Equatorial Atmosphere 72 - OCEANOGRAPHY Aerial Methods for Study of the Ocean and Its Floor ..................o.. 75 Systems for the Control of Industrial Robot Complexes 97 Man's Habitation of the Sea Depths. Life Support Systems 112 Towed Measuring System for Investigating Integral Temperature Variability in the Upper Layer of the Ocean 123 ~ T?lermal Effect o� Znternal Gravitational Waves at the Free Surface of the Ocean 130 - _ Effect of Films of Surface-Active Substances on Changes in the Spectra ` of Wind Waves Under the Influence of Internal Waves ..............a... 136 - a- (III - USSR - 21K S&T FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE: ONLY OCEANOGRAPHY UDC 551.509.61+509.68(075.8) PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE MODIFICATIOtJ OF ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES Leningrad FIZICHESKIYE OSNOVY VOZDEYSTVIYA NA ATMOSFERNYYE PROTSESSY (Physical Prin- - ciples for the Modification of. Atmospheric Processes) in Russian 1978 signed to press 17 Nov 78 pp 5-14. 169-177, 21.0-229, 263-273, 412-442, 451-455 [Excerpts from monograph by L. G. Kachurin entitled "Fizicheskiye Osnovy Vozdeyst- _ viya na Atmosfernyye Protsessy," Gidrometeoizdat, total copies and pages unknown] [Text] Introduction. In the not distant Future the science of mfldification of atmospheric processes will unquestionably become one of the leading sciences. This is attributable to the following circumstances. = Hurricanes, thunderstorms, hail, heavy showers, fogs and other dangerous atmo- spheric phenomena in many cases inflict significant losses on the national economy of even the most ecunomically well-developed countries. Accordingly, it is natural that science is seeking possibilities not only for predicting these phenomersa, but also preventing them. At the same time, an improvement in climatic conditions (such as timely additional moistening of the soil by precipitation artificially induced from clouds) can be an effective means for increasing the yields of agri- _ cultural crops. The first real steps in weather control were taken in the middle of the current century. They were taken to a considerable degree because atmospheric researchers have received new technical equipment: high-altitude aircraft, radars and rockets, _ The opinion exists that with the development of technology the power of natural forces over man will progressively decrease. However, this is not entirely true. ~ To be sure, a modern airliner cannot be compared with aircraft of the 1930's-1940's. _ The power of the engines and the strength of aircraft have increased sharply but . the energy of atmospheric turbule*,ce, exerting a destructive effect on the air- craft, in the atmosphere on the whole has remained as before. At first glance it appears that man in his single combat with nature has received enormous advan- tages. But aircraft, making .flights at great altitudes, in many cases enter jet streams which are characterizsd by great velocities and very strong turbulence. - In addition, the modern aircraft has become mQre senaitive to weather caprices, especially during takeoff and landing. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074429-0 FOR OFFICIAL USF. ONLN' A light-motor aircraft, even with aerodynamic qualities greatly deteriorating as a result of icing or thunderstorm activity, or with cessation of comuaunicat:Lons, can r_ontinue flight and make a landing. A modern sirliner is equipped with means for contending with icing and static electrification. However, as a resuZt of great speed and size it is charged in the clouds to a far greater degree, which increases t.he probability of thunderstorm discharges in a cloud disrupting the operation of radionavigationa 1 apparatus, as well as the probability of a direct strike of lightning on the aircraft. The probability of heavy icing of a high-speed aircraft in supercooled clouds has decreased sharply, but its sensitivity to a change in aerodynamic qualities has increased sharply. The icing of turbines is m.ore dangerous than the icing of propellors. It must also be remembered that the pilot of a light aircraft makes an endeavor to bypass the region of thunderstorm activity or wait at tlie airport for an improvement in the weather, whereas a mod- ern liner in many cases is forced to talce off in a thunderstorm situatio:z and when there is a threat that a fog will occur at the airport af destinaeion. And however perfect the instruments may be, at the moment of landing the pilot must see the ground and the distance must be the greaher the greater the speed of the aircraft. A completely automated "blind" landing under any weather conditions for the time being is not guaranteed at any airport in the world. The intensity of air traffic at the present time is so great that a disruption in the schedule for the takeaff and landing of aircraft at large airports, the mast comuvon reuson for which is a marked deterioration of weather, can create an e-mer- gency situation in the air space over the airport where aircraft awaiting their turn for landing "pile up." - A fog on a landing strip was always a reason for additional difficulties in the - takeoff anu landing of aircraft, but the progreasive increase in the size of air- craft and their flight speed causes a disproportionately large increase in the danger of catastrophes. In 1977 a fog at an airport in the Canaries resulted i.n a callision of two airliners, as a result of which 811 persons died in an instarLt. In the sam.e year, 1977, after a lightning strike on an electric power transmission line, the city of ?dew York, with 10 million inhabi.tants, was plunged into dark- ness. I* was possible to correct the results of the da.mage only on the next day, as a result of which the losses sustained amounted to several millions af dollars. The implementation of mining work with the use of directed explosions involves - a danger of premature detonation under the influence of thunderstorns are relatively weak and not observable visually. This is one of the exampies when a new, technologically progressive production method was in greater dependence on atmospheric processes than the methods preceding it and brought to life a new di- rection in the methods for passive and active protection against atmospheric ef- fects. � An important circum.stance stimulating the necessity for search for means to con- trol the weather is the increasing h{_ghly negative influence of man in the course of atmospheric processes, at the present time already very significant: In order = to confirm this it is sufficient, for ex.ample, at dacm in calm and cloudless . ~7eather to approach in an aircraft to a large industrial city and observe the dome of highly contaminated (and warmer) air covering the city and its neighbor- hood. "L FDR GF'FICIAI. U h~. Onal.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY In carrying out production and in the course oi his daily life man introduces into the atmoaphere impurities which are not characteristic of it (for example, freons). These impart to the atmosphere new properties: now sunrise not only disperses the mo rning fog in the streets of a large city, but at the same time favors the photo- chemical transformation of r_he introduced impurities into others, conaiderably more _ harmful for man and the animal and plant world surrounding h3m. The rate of such an artificial transformation of atmospheric properties is con- stantly incrPasing and this now forces one to think of the inevitable consequences and also the countermeasures because i;he possibilities of man (and the animal and pl ant world surrounding him) to adapt to the deteriorating conditions of existence = are limited. An increase in the number of diseases associated with contamination of - the environmemt and characteristic for the current century is evidence of this. Even now we are forced to begin a planned regulation of the anthropogenic effect on the atmosphere in order to prevent a calamitous deterioration of atmospheric - properties, which can lead to irreversible changes in the balance of heat and im- purities in the earth-atmosphere system capable of making our planet ill-suited - for man's habitation. ~ Ideas on to what degree man can control atmospheric processes and become a master of the weather have changed periodically with time. If one mentally constructs a - curve and plots time along the x-axis and the possibility of control along the - y-axis (at the top hopes, at the bottom disappointments), the graph wili have the form of a slowly attenuating periodic curve with high maxima and low miuima, but nevertheless with a gradually increasing mean value. Now we will trace the shape of this curoe for the current century. Be tween 1899 and 1902 several international scientific conferences were held on the subject of contending with hail, after which the governments of France, Italy and - Aus tria, foreseeing the success, appropriated great sums for carrying out experi- - ments with the cannonading of hail clouds. Over a series of years, under the di- rection of leading scientists, such experiments were actually carried out. They were unsuccessful. However, the very idea of controlling the weather was not abandoned. In September 1910, at the British Society for Applied Knowledge, a r.eport was presented on the ~ infl uence of electricity on the weather. In a discussion of this report the well- - l:nown scientist J. J. Thomson declared that according to his computa.cions it was suf ficient to use a moderate amount of electricity in order to change the weather ove r a significant area and that the difficulties along these lines were more of a pol itical than a scientific character. Unfortunately, the results of Thomson's cal- cul ations remained unknown and Thomson himself did not return to the subject. How- - ever, it is known that in the 1920's electrically charged sand figured as one of - the principal reagents in investigations of the possibiiities of artificially in- = ducing precipitatioa. - - In 1931 Feraat (Netherlands) for the first time was able to induce artificial rain by dimmping ground solid carbon dioxide from an aircraft into supercooled clouds. liowever, at that time his experiments were not evaluated with respect to validity, - It is true that the vertical extent of the clouds sub3ected to modification and accordingly, the intensity of precipitation from them, were relatively sanall. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The theory of control of atmospheric processes advanced greatly in the 1930's. In those years much was done in the Soviet Union under the direction of V. N. Obol- enskiy and in Bulgaria by L. K. Krystanov and his colleagues. 'I'he first sci- entific_zlly sound computations of condensation processes in the atmosphere were made and there were a great number of eaperiments iti laboratories and under nat- ural conditions. However, on the basis of these materials it was impoasible to formulate practical recammendations, although great hopes were laid on their basis. It is not without reason that in the tense prewar period the Soviet state went to = great expense for those times, cteating the Institute of Experimental Meteorology, its main task being the artificial inducing of precotforccontending~ regarde d as one of the most important potentially possible means with drought. Howeve r, it should be noted that at that time not everyone felt optimistically with respect to the fundamental possibilities for weather control. We can quote . Marvin, the director of the United States Weather Bureau: "...droughts cannot be stoppe d, that is, abundant or even appreciable quantities of precipitation cannot be pro duced either by aerial bombardment or by introducing insignificansest ies of any substances into clouds. All the means and forces which man posses const i tute only a negligible and insignificant fraction of that inexhaustible re- serve of energy which is required and expended by nature in order to induce or maintain an individual rain over a limited space." Today it can be said very definitely that the arguments expressed by Marvin are witho ut validity. However, it must be stated that at that t3me there was still no rasis for considering artificisl rain to be a real means for contending with drosght in the immediate future. - The S e cond Wor1d War in all countries stopped work on the control of atmospheric = proces ses. All attention was concentrated on the weather forecasts necessary for the support of military operations. But immediately af ter the end of World War II - the p r oblem of modifying atmospheric processes became one of the most important in atmos pheric physics. As early as 1946 Langmuir and his associates in the Ur.ited States carried out a series of effective experiments for inducing artificial show- ers. Aircraft with a maximum ceiling for that were used in dumping reagents into clourls. These made it possible to rise to the level of the tops of well-de- velo ped cumulus clouds. New and effective means for cloud crystallization were also found. Descriptions of the eaperiments filled the pages of many joumals thro ughout the world. Terms like "commanders of the weather" appeared. It began to s eem that control of the weather, at least control of precipitation, was al- ready in man's hands. - In ac tuality, during this period no unexpected results were obtained affurding fundamentally new possibilities for cloud modification, but they were accompanied by co rrect computations and by laboratory experiments. These were carried out by autho ritative scientists and this, probably, to a not lesser degree than the re- - sult s of the experiments themselves, favored advertisement of the nEw achievements in wo rk on the modification of clouds and precipitation. This was mAre than a. ~ claim. In the late 1940's and in the early 1950's specialists in the USSR, Asis- trali a and other countries carried out experiments which reliably confirmed the poss ibility of artificially inducing precipitation fron supercooled clouds. How- ever, the reproducibility of these experiments was not very high an3 precipitation 4 FOR OFFICIAL US'.: %"1MI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFtC1AL U5E ONLY was obtained only from those clouds which by the time of modification were suf- - ficiently well developed. In 1954 a group of experts of the World Meteorological Organization, siffmarizing the results of this period, indicated the unconditianal reliability of artificial inducing of precipitatior. from supercooled clouds and recommended. "sparing no effort;3." that work be continued primarily for "evaluating the limits of applica- bility of the developed modification method and their economic significance." In response to this call, work devel.oped on the construction of new meteorological = polygons in a number of countries; aircraft-laboratories were outfitted; special - radars were developed, etc. The "hope curve" climbed sharply upward. - The successes of modification attracted the attention of the lovers of the arms race. A new term, "meteorological war," appeared in the arsenal of the "cold war." For example, as early as 1953 the Bulletin of the American Meteoralogical Society - carried a paper by one Gugenheim concerning the possibilities, taking advantage of the geographical location of the Soviet Union, of artificial creation bf a drought over our country, or, on the other hand, of inundating its territory with rains; without risking anything similar in response. However, the very idea of using clouds as a weapon was not new. As early as 1750 Maria Theresa, empress of Austria, was forced to publish a law forbidding the cannonading of hail clouds or driving them away by the tolling of a bello T'he pur- pose of this law was the cessation of the "malicious directing of hail clouds toward agricultural fields in adjacent provinces." On the borderline between the 1950's and the 1960's the term "meteorological war" temporarily d3sappeared from the horizon. But also the prospects for the peace- ful use of inethods for controlling clouds no longer seemed so bright as a decade before. A report of a special commission on weather and'climate control of the Committee on Atmospheric Research in the United States is characteristic in this respect: it states that "for checking the hypothesis that the seeding of clouds eaerts an appreciable positive influence on the formation of precipitation there have been many statistical investigations based on experimental data. Almost all the results of these investigations have been negative: they could not prove the hypothesis of a positive influence of the seeding of clouds by reagenCs on the falZing of precipitation. Moreover, it can be asserted -that the more careful the - investigations have been, the lesser has been the assurance that they have yield- ed positive results." "Fifteen years of complex and costly investigations, for the time being yielding - only an insignificant result,represented an attempt at rapid learning how to control the weather. Not one scientist could expect such a result 15 years ago." A complete disappointment, it seemed: 10the curve of the possibility of weather coritrol" dropped sharply downward. But the science of weather control had already entered the stage of scientific maturity. New problems arose in the weather con- trol field; new aspects of old problems from this same field have appeared. New, , more modern means appeared for the modification of cloud development processes, _ and what was extremely important, new means and methods for monitoring the re- sults of modification. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFSCIAL 1JSE ONLY In the USSR rockets, antiaircraft artillery and radars have already appeared as antihail protection for enormous areas. The protection results for the most part have been successful, although in individual situations the hail has burst - through the protective gun and rocket fire, regardless of real intensity. At the present time a ntnnber of airports are being systeinatically cleared of supercooled fogs and low clouds, cumulus clouds are artificially created and local air basins are cleared of impurities. A1.1 this has now become a reality, having a solid sci- entific base, which precludes the possibility of campromising ths weather control idea. Even now, using theory and m,odel laboratory experiments, it is possible with a great degree of reliability to evaluate in advance what is fundamentally pos- _ sible and what is impossible in weather control. It is pXecisely to this subject , that this book is devoted. The book examines the fundamental principles of modification of atmospheric pro- cesses, not only those in practical use, but also those which, it can be assumed quite soundly, will have prospects for use in the future. But it is not impos- sible that new technical means for weather control wi11 appear which today are unknown or which simply have not come to our attention. In particular, new pos- sibilities may appear when methods are really feasiule for the transmission of powerful energetic and ionizing pulses over great distances in any direction. Proposals of this sort will be carried out in the foreseeable future. Elowever, as indicated by history, the long-range prediction of the development of science in many cases is erroneous. In the 1930's a commission which included outstanding American scientists attempted to mace a prediction of the develop- ment of science for 30 years i.n advance. This prediction did not foresee elec- tronic computers, nuclear energy, radars, transistors, or even, however strange this may be, rockets. At the present time predictions of the development of science and technology are becoming systematic. They are considerably more perfect and objective than the predictions of the 1920's ancl 1930's, but even now predictions in the field of science and techno,logy are sometimes based to a considerable degree on the intui- tion of scientists. It must be remembered that the significance of scientific and technical predic- tions has considerably increased in our time. This is understandable, because tne development of science, based on scientific and technical predictions, has become one of the most important problems in national policy and international relations. In the preparation of predictions of the develupment of the sciences and in the planning of their development in a number of cases the proposed cost of investi- gations and the anticipated economic effect of introduction are decisive factors. But the science of atmospheric control as a whole for the time being is still in a somewhat special position in this respect because without question not all the fundamental ideas of control are yet known and have an adequately sound physical- mathematical basis on which it would be possible to formulate a scientifically sound prediction of economic or other consequences of their realixacion. b FOR OFFiCIAL U5E CZ?pd4.'r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY _ Moreover, the mechanism of a number of atmospheric processes which it is propos- ed be controlled and which to some degree are already controlled remains un- clear, allowing different, sometimes mutually exclusive variants of interpreta- tion. And nevertheless, and possibly specifically because of this, the planning - of artificial intervention in the course of atmospheric processes, the relative sequence of theoretical, laboratory and field investigations here is still more necessary than for other sciences which are more "established" and which have a - more solid basis. The history of the rise and fall of our hopes for weather control, mentioned above, is evidence of the uselessness of vigorous attacks on the forces of nature not backed up by solid scientific and technical findings. The First International Conference on the Modification of Atmospheric Processes was held in 1973 and the second was held in 1976. They were attended by sci- entists of all five continents, most of them from the countries of Europe and America. They presented the results of the latest investigations with the use of the most modern experimental and analytical techniques and computer technology. And nevertheless when discussions arose at the conferences concerning the pros- pects and fundamental possibilities of modification, as well as the degree of reliability of presently available methods, they frequently acquired the nature of enlivened combat among the supporters of opposite, mutually exclusive points of view. Stories of illustrious victories over nature were mixed with reports of failures under seemingly similar situations. To some degree this is attributable to the fact that eaisting modification methods to a considerable degree provide for "frontal attacks" on nature. HowevQr, the ener gy of atmospheric movements is enormoi-s and whatever have been the successes in the artificial freeing of energy, such as atomic, the forces of nature will still for a long time be greater than man can cope with. Therefore, an approach "from a positiou of strength" in solv- ing thE problems relating to atmospheric control in most cases cannot lead to success. However, atmospheric processes are closely interrelated with one another, with direct and inverse, positive and negative relationships. In some situations in definite links of this chain of processes conditions are created for unstable equilibrium and the relationship between the Iinks is such that intervention in one of them, in some cases of little importance in energy respects, results in a change in the other links which is far more signif icant and sometimes truly cata- strophic. In planning modification it is necessary to know in advance how close the atmosphere is to such situations. In other words, in nature there are some, for the time being still only partially understood control channels by ably using which it is sometimes possible, with insignificant energy expenditures, to bring into action an atmospheric machine of enormous power. Here there is a direct analogy with atomic energy. The energy gain, if one speaks in orders of magnitude, in both cases is approximately identical. There is an analogy in another respect. Weather control requires a very precise analysis of the state of the atmosphere and its possible evolution and also a careful choice of ineans and methods of modification. In some cases an insignif- icant miscalculation not only can negate the modification itself, but even cause an undesirable effect either immediately directly in the experimental region or in the remote future and even in another region of the planet. As a result, there is _ a particular need for the international cooperation of scientists in the field of . control of weather and climate. In this connection it is fitting to recall the 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY - words of Ye. K. Fedorov that the "global nature of weather phenomena and the principal characteristics of cl imate are least of all suitable for individual 3.n- tervention in their state." However, in the 1970's the problem again came to the fcrefront of the need for in- cluding weather as well in the list of fields banned for military purposes and subject to international monitoring, together with nuclear energy, space, the ocean depths and bacteriology. During recent years, in connection with the creation of new technology for the mod- ification of atmospheric processes, publications appeared cn modern methods for meteorological war as a means for mass annihilation. The stratosphere came to be considered as an arena for the modification (advertent and inadvertent) of atmo- spheric processes, having the purpose of annihilation of life cz earth. All this cannot but cause alarm, especi ally since the very thought of the possibility of waging a meteorological war eaerts a psychological eifect on people, especially ag- gravated by the existence of weather anomalies characteristic for the modern period in development of the solar system, still not having an adequately precise aci- entific eaplanation. The control of atmospheric pro cesses for peaceful purposes can and should become one of the important means for the development of the productive forces of human society. Collective efforts in this direction should bring together all the peoples of the earth and not constitut e a threat of annihilation of life. References: [17, 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 36, 44, 45, 48, 55, 64, 69, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78, 79, 101, 107, 108, 115, 118, 127, 132, 135, 137, 1381. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON]L9' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAPTER 4 CONTROL OF THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES Ih CLOUDS In this chapter we will discuss the uadification of thermoaynamic processes in - clouds, excluding electrical processes, which are considered in Chapter 6. In - - general, electrical processes are inseparable from the others; in particular, all phase transitions are accompanied by electrical phenomena. But applicable to the problerzs which are examined in this chapter it is assumed that they play a sec- - ondary role and therefore methodologfcally it is feasible to separate the mater- ials into Chapters 4 and 6. 1 4.1. Means for Delivery of Reagents into Clouds At the present time the principal means for the delivery of reagents into c3.ouds - are nncontrolled rockets (of the "ground-air" class) launched from the ground and anti-aircraft shells. But in addition, reagents are dumpad into clouds from aircraft or clouds are cannonaded by sirborne rockets (rockets of the "air-air" class). Sometimes reagents are introduced into a cloud from the ground by as- - canding currents, either natural or artif ic ially 'created (nee Chapter 3). The - most promising means for the delivery of reagents are rockets launched from the ground and anti-aircraft shells. At the present time the most perfect Soviet anti-hail rockets are the "Oblako" and "Alazan'." The first Soviet rocket was the PGI (protivogradovoye izdeliye - anti- hail object). The PGI was created in 1957 and constitutes a turbo3et shell of the caliber 82.5 mm. The rocket (Fig. 4.1.1) consists,of a solid-fuel rocket engine (RE) 1 and a nese- cone 2. The nosecone holds a smokepot 3(active smokepot ASP), during whose combustion the reagent is released in an aerosol state. The reagent emerges through radial openings 4. The nosecone also holds a remote device 5 ensuring ignition of the ASP at a stipulated distance, to be more precise, upon the elaps- ing of a stipulated time. The rem4te device consists of a firing-pin mechanism, distance-setting mechanism and ignition device. The distance-setting mechanism ensures actuation of the fuse at a stipulated distance. It has a curved channel - into which the fuel mixture is pressed. The length of the working part of the - channel is regulated by turning the cap 6 relative to the nosecone of the rocket housing. On the cap there is a zero graduation 7 and on the housing a scale 8, graduated for time. With turning of the cap, the firing-pin mechanism turns to- _ gether with it and its displacements along the curved channel determine its - working length. The ignitioa device is used in igniting the ASP. - 9 _ FOR qFF[CUL USE 0NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 - FOR OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY In another design of the PGI the distance-setting device is situated campletely within the cap. In such rockets the setting for distance is accomplisbed within the cap in an inactive state. A Ba7ds J~SWYX ~ &6 118 5 10 2. l 12 Sd 11 ) "0 Agl B llpodyi zopeH g1 6 13 12 Fig. 4.1.1. Design of the PGI rocket. Fig. 4.1.2. Design of "Oblako" rocket. KEY: E1) Air B) Combustion products The engine ensures translational motion of the rocket and rotation which stabil- izes its flight as a result of gyroscopic effects. The engine housing is made of light nonmetallic materials. A jet assembly 9,is attached to its lower part. It has jet channels 10 arranged in a circle which are somewhat slanted relative to the circumference. All are slanted in the same direction (beveled). The fuel 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE. O^�LV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY combustion product of the rocket engine is gases which burst through the jet open- ings and impart to the rocket a translational motion. The slant of the channels ensures rotation of the rocket, being a necessary condition for its in-flight stability. At the center of the jet assembly is a screwed-in electrocapsular e.le- ment (percussion cap) 11 which is used in igniting the rocket engine fuel. The explosive charge 12 of the fragmentation element ensures fragmentation of the rocket into safe fragments; it is situated between the rocket engine and its nose- cone. The fragmentation unit is triggered a.fter burn-ouC of the p.SP. In addition, it has an autonomous igniting mechanism which is actuated after a fixed time inter- val if the circuit of the main fragmentation element has not been triggered by this time due to failure of the distance-setting fuse or preliminary cessation of ASP combustion. The PGI rocket with an aerosol reagent ogerates in the following way. After the rocket, by means of the launching apparatus, is impavid the necessary angle of el- _ evation, it is aimed in the firing azimuth, the distance-setting mechanism is set for the stipulated distance, the elPctric current generator is cut in. From there an electric pulse is fed thrcugh the plug 13 to the percussion cap mechanism, caus- ing ignition. The thermal pulse from the percussion cap is transmitted to the fuel engine, which is fired and imparts a translational-rotational motion to the rocket. As soon as the rocket goes into motion the wires connecting the plug and the elec- tric detonator are broken off. Then the rocket leaves the 2auncher.. - When the rocket attains a definite velocity of rotation the centrifugal firing pin of the distance-setting fuse and the duplicating firing pin of the fragmentation element are activated. After the firing pin is triggered the fuel mixture of the distance-setting fuse is ignited. After its combustion along the entire working length u` the curved channel the flame is transmitted to the ASP, during whose com- bustion the smoke of the reagent 4 passes through the openings and is scattered in the cloud along the flight path of the rocket. After combustion of the ASP the flame is transmitted to the f ragmentation element, shattering the body of the rocket. If the fuse fails or the ASP ceases to burn, at a definite time after rocket launching the duplicating circuit of the fuse is triggered and the rocket is destroyed. Cannonading by rockets can be accomplished both with individual firings and in a - salvo (with a short time between firings). A blocking device prevents the simul- taneous firing of two or more rockets from a multibarrel launcher. If a rocket daes not leave the launcher or after launching assumes a low velocity due to some mal- function it is not detonated because the firing pins of the fuse and fragmentation element are not activated. ~ The finned "Oblako" rocket (Fig. 4.1.2), created in 1964, has a greater firing range than the PGI and carries a greater quantity of reagent. Its basic specifications are ~ as follows: caliber 125 mm, length 2,110 mm, mass 35 kgs maximum altitude attained - 8.6 km, maximum flight range 12 km, length of path of active smoke up to 8 km. The crystallizing reagent is either an aerosol (of the AgI type) or carbon dioxide. If AgI is used, with a temperature in the cloud of -10�C with the triggering of one rocket (weight of pyrotechnic mixture 5 kg) about 1016 ice nuclei are formed in the 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY atmosphere. The rate of rocket descent by parachute is 8 m�sec'1. The "Oblako" rocket is a finned jet-gropelled shell which.consists of the following principal parts: nosecone, situated in the middle of the engine, and a parachute compartment. The nosecone is made in two variants, depending on what reagent is used an aero- sol (of the AgI type) or solid carbon dioxide. The rocket has two distance-setting fuses: head fuse 3 and bottom fuse 11, fwnc- tioning autonomously. Both fuses prior to rocket launching are set for a stipulat- ed time, in dependence on the distance to the cloud, its size and the modification tactics. The head fuse ignites the ASP or fires the explosive charge, scattering the solid carbon dioxide. The bottom fuse activates the parachute system. It is dupli.cated by a second fuse triggered a fixed time (30 or 60 sec) after rocket _ launching for the purpose of decrea$ing the probability of parachute system fail- ure. As in the PGI rocket, the mechanisms ensuring triggering of the nosecone of the "Oblako" rocket are activated only when the rocket attains a definite ve'locity of motion. The sensor of the velocity of rocket motion is a small air turbine 1 activated by - air with a velocity which is the greater the greater the flight velocity of the rocket. The small turbine coumunicates with the atmosphere through an aperture - at the tip of the rocket and a system of outlets 2. A mechanism connected to the small turbine triggers the distance-setting fuse and prepares it for operation only after the small turbine m.akes a definite number of revolutions and 3s twist- ed along its axis (the small turbine is held on the axis on a helical groove). An additional safety device is triggered when the limi'ting dynamic overload on the rocket attains a definite, prestipulated value. The "Oblako" rocket operates in the following way. With the feeding of an electric pulse through the plug 13 the percussion cap is "triggered" and this ignites the fuel 6 and this thereby brings the rocket engine into operation. The fuel combus- tion products are expelled through the openings 8 ici the jet assembly 7. When the force developed by the engine attains a definite limit the rocket is freed f rom its connection with the locking mechanism of the guiding launcher and begins - to move through the guide. The plug 13 is detached, the pin 12 of the bottom dis- tance-setting fuse is pulled and from that mament is actuated. Then the duplicating circuit of the distance-setting fuse is activated. During motion in the launcher the rocket assumes a rotatianal component of motion, but considerably less than for turbojet rockets. In-flight stabilization is created for the most part by the finning 10. When the rocket assumes a definite velocity the mechanism of the head distance-sett- ing fuse is actuated. Af ter flying a stipulated time after triggering of the head - distance-setting fuse the rocket begins to eject the reagent (either because the ASP begins to burn or as a res;il.t of explosion of a briquette with C02). Then the - bottom distance-setting fuse is actuated, a slide charge opens the cover of the parachute compartment and ejects a braking parachutea Entering into the air fZow, the braking parachute is filled with air and brings infio action the mechanism sett- ing free the main canopy of the parachute 9 by which the rocket is lowered to the ground. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE OPvI,! APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Depending on the relaL-ionship of the stipulated times of triggering of the distance- setting fuses main and bottom the release of the reagent by the ASP method .:an enter before or after deployment of the parachute. In the second case, de- scending, the rocket will continue to discharge reagent. In one of the variants of the "Oblako" rocket provision is made for discharge of - the reagent by means of expulsion of reagent by means of a which success- - ively expels one packet of reagent after another. Figure 4.1.3 shows the launchir_g of the lat-est anti-hail turbojet rockets which have been assigned the name "Alazan'." They are smaller in size than the "Oblako" rocket. These rockets have no parachute system. After the reagent is expended the rocket self-destructs as a result of an explosion whose timing is set by the distance-setting fuse. It is also important that the "Alazan has a uniformity of discharge of reagent and a greater rate of fire than the other rockets, which en- sures a greater maneuverability in the seeding of clouds, especially in the vari- = ant of automatic programnned telecontrol from the central command point in the poly- gon. 4 S 5 w b ~ o ij ~ 41 U r-I c ."4 QQ Fig. 4.1.4. 100-mm anti-hail shell Fig. 4.1.5. Trajectories of flight of "El'brus-2." "Oblako" rocket (1), "E1'brus-2" shell (2) and envelopes of trajectories cor- responding to different angles of ele- vation (3). 13 - FOR OFFICIAL USE OfVL.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 Firing range ,aol"eHOCnib cmFen6661 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A Japanese "ground-air" anti-hail rocket 400 g of pyrotechnic mixture to an altitude of 6--7 km. After ejection of the reagent the rocket is automatically ignited and burns up. An American rocket carried aboard an "Aztec" aircraft is an anti-hail rocket of the "air-to-air" class. `rhe launcher is situated in the tail part of the air- craft. The launcher launches rockets containing silver iodide or other reagent in a stipulated direction (usually upward). Cannon dding by rockets can be accom- plished either successively or in a salvo. The rocket body is fabricated from fiberglass; it carries rocket fuel, reagent and distance-setting fuse. The caliber of the rocket is 42 mm, its length is 21 cm and the mass is about 500 g. The rocket is propelled in the laimcher. When launched from an aircraft at an a'Ltitude of 3 lan the rocket attains alti- tudes of 5-6 km. A merit of the aircraft rocket variant is the possibility for - routine use over extensive territories not limited by the firing range. However, flights of modern aircraft under meteorological conditions characteristic for hail situations usually involve considerable risk and sonetimes are forbidden. Cannonading of hail clouds was also used in the last century. At that time hail- combatting mortars and guns were used. No reagent was present in the shell. It was assumed that the bursting of the missi?e in the cloud favored its transforma- tion from a hail to a�rain cloud. The "E1'brus-2" is a modern anti-hail, fragmentless shell with a caliber of 100 _ mm; it is shown in Fig. 4.1.4. The shell weighs 12.25 kg and itsoinitial velocity is 850 m�sec'1. It holds a reagent which at a temperature of -10 C is capable of forming 1013-1014 ice-forming particles. The body of the shell, with a screwed-on upper part, is fabricated from a material ensuring strength of the shell when fired from a iauncher but scatters in small - fragments when it is detonated in the air. Briquettes of explosive 3aizd reagent 4 are situated within the shell. I The shell is topped-off by a head fuse 1 with a distance-setting mechanism 2. The shell is held in a sleeve filled with a powder charge. A percussion cap is situ- ated in the lower part of the sleeve. At the time of firing the hammer strikes the percussion cap, which ignites the powder charge. A high pressure is developed in the sleeve, the shell bursts from the sleeve and moves translationally in the barrel. The shell slips along the grooves in the barrel by means of the e:;ements 5, fitting into the grooves and thereby acquires a rotational component of motion, imparting to it stability dur- ing flight in the atmosphere. At the time of firing the main fuse is actuated and when the stipulated time has elapsed the distance-setting device forces triggering of the head fuse, and there- after the explosive in the shell. An explosion oecurs and the reagent is scattered. At ttiis time the shell and fuse scatter into small pieces which can cause no harm to people or animals. - 14 FOR OE'FICIAL U5E flNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FaR or Fi0Ai, U`iE ONL`1 The "E1'brus-3" shell is similar in design. It is intended for anti-aircraft guns with a caliher of 130 mm. _ In the proposals for along-path anti-hail shells which have now been developed pro- vision is made for ejecting the reagent gradually along the entire flight path, not at a single point (instantaneous point source). On the approach to the modifica- tion zone the pyrotechnic mixture situated in the nosecone of the shell is ignited _ as a result of the first triggering of the distance-setting fuse. The second trig- - gering (with a delay) of the fuse is transmitted to the central part of the shell _ where the reagent is situated. The dispersed reagent, together with the smoke forms a track behind the shell. The track can be regarded as a linear source, and with respect to its time curve, a finite-action source, that is, intermediate between instantaneous and continuous. The detonation of the shell occurs automatically when a stipulated time has elapsed after triggering of the distance-setting fuse. In order to evaluate the possibility of using anti-hail missiles uncontrolled rockets and shells it is important to know their trajectory and payload. The quantity of reagent which they hold has been discussed above. A diagram of flight of the "Oblako" rocket and the "E1'brus-2" shell is given as Fig. 4.1.5. Within the limits of the information which is of interest to us, the flight dia- grams for rockets and shells are similar to one another, but as indicated by Fig. 4.1.5, the range and altitude of the shells now used are greater than for rockets. - On the other hand, the rockets carry substantially more reagent and are better adapted for gradual discharge of the reagent along the flight path; this is very - important in any segment of the trajectory. 15 FOR OFFIC[AL USE U!VL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4.4. Control of Processes in Convective Clouds Convective clouds in their development attain the cumiulonimbus :;tage wlien they have - sufficiently great vertical thickness and liquid-water content, enlarge- ment of cloud particles to such a size that with their falling under a ctoud they cannot evaporate. However, in many cases clouds pass through the entire cycle from generation to decay without developing to the stage of cumulonimbus (Cb). What are the possibilities for intervention in this process for tYie purpose of ar- tificial tr.ansformation into a rain cloud of a cloud which in its natural evolu- tion woiil.d not reach the rain stage? We will enumerate ttiem, first of all giving attention to ttie degree that they are feasible. First of all this is the possibility of intensification of convection for the pur- pose of increasing the vertical thickness of ths cloud. The factors favoring the development of convection were examined in Chapter 3. Atmospheric stratification is an important factor. However, by direct modification we cannot change the temper- ature, humidity and wind in the atmosphere at scales comparable to the dimensions of Cb. An increase in the horizontal dimensioxis of a cloud (increase in R, see Section 3.1) and a decrease in entrainment would favor the development of canvection. The hori- zontal movement of clouds for the purpose of bringing several clouds together would sharply increase the possibility of their vertical development, but we do not know how to do this. It is true that the considerations relating to R force us to reflect on whether it would not be more advantageous to employ the meteotron (see Chapter 3) to intensify the development of existing clouds than ta create new ones. With respect to an artificial decrease of entrainment, this undoubtedly is an unrealistic approach for modifying cloud davelopment. Thus, at our disposal we have only one other parameter cloud temperature T'(z) whose conC.rol in supercooled clouds by use of crystallizing reagents is entirely realistic. Chapter 3 exa.mined the possibilities and consequences of heating of the lower part of the cloud. There we brought attention to the dependence o� the ef- fect of heating on atmospheric stratification. The atmosphere must be prepared if the heating is to lead to an intensification of convection. In the case of strong atmospheric stability or a strong wind shear no realistically possible heating of the air can change the situation. In Chapter 3 there was a discussion of the artificial introduction of heat into the atmosphere. Now we will consider the control of the phase transitions in which there is a release of heat, which can also be used in increasing temperature in a cloud for the purpose of intensifying convection. The control of phase transi- tions for the piirpose of intensification of condeasation-coagulation processes of growth of individual droplets in a cloud will be discussed at the end of this sec- tion. However, here we will give several model computations by the method consid- ered in Chapter 3. We will stipulate two variants of temperature stratification: to an altitude of 5 km identical, but aloft mDre stable in the first variant and l.ess sr_able in the second variant. We will also vary th2 vertical wind profi.le in the atmosphere: - lo FOZ OFF[Ci,;L t;SE 0.-N?.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY in thQ main variant the wind vElocity does not change with altitude (v - const), in the other variant the wind velocity increases with altitude with a constant _ gradient dv/dz = 1.5 m�sec'1�km 1. Mean characteristic meteorological conditions _ arm sCipulated at the condensation level. - - Using the method presented in Chapter 3 we will fi.rst compute two variants of a naturally developing cloud 1 and 2(curves a) corresponding to temperature strat- if3cations 1 and 2 with v= const (Fig. 4.4.1). T1:e figure shows the profiles of - the vertical wind velocity camponent w and liquid water content q. In order not = to burden the figure the liquid water contents are given only for variant 2. _ As might be expected, in the second t(z) variant the cloud developed to a consid- erably greater altitude than in the first. Now we will artificially crystallize part of the cloud, introducing reagent into it. The results of such an operation will be examined in greater detail below, but now we will give attention only to the new w profiles for both t(z) variants (curves b). First we will examine variant 2. What occurred after introduction of the reagent? The artificial crystals appearing in the cloud grow and coagulate with supercooled droplets. This process additionally affects an almost 2-lm layer (compare the curves for the natural process and after modification). The heat of crystalliza- tion is released in this layer, as a result of which the cloud receives an additional thermal momentum and with a velocity comparable only to a sufficiently maneuverable aircraft rises upward and attains an filtitude of 9.5 km. But repetition of the experiment with a more stable atmosphere (with the tempera- ture stratification 1) leads to a far Ieseer effect: the upper boundary rises only 200 m. A comparison of variants 2 with v= const and dv/dz - const shows to what extent the convection intensification effect in this case attenuates as a result of an increase in the wind with altitude. The model computations, whose results are illustrated in Fig. 4.4.1, show that the ~ convection intensification effect caused by artificial crystallization is highly dependent on the state of the atmosphere and it no sease to carry out modif ic- ation experiments without preliminary computations of the artificial transformation of clouds. Experiments under natural conditions confirm that in actuality the intensification of convection is usually maximum in the artificial crystallizatiion of those clouds above whose tops there is atmospheric instability. In accordance with theory it is ' necessary to differentiate two cases. The first is when over the cloud the atmo- sphere is stable with respect to the condensation process but is un$table with re- - spect to the sublimation process. Then crystallization assists in overcoming the barrier existing between them. The second is when the cloud in its natural develop- ment has reached the level of stability with respect to condensation processes (a moist-stable stratification is noted directly over the cloud), but somewhat abovQ - there is a quite thick layer with strong iastability. Then the artificial crystal- lization, provided that it assists the cloud in breaki4g through the stability lay- er, causes vigorous convectian in the imstable layer. 17 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONd.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ L KN - ,O 2 ~ B \ 1 ~ ` 11 r ~ . ~ 4 ~ A \L ? . Yp08BH6 I BBBdBHUA ~ ~ 1 I Il I 1 o f0 20 w w�c ~ B o ? 4 q 84M _ -60 -40 -20 0 L�C Fig. 4.4.1. Transformation of cloud under influence of artificial crystallization: vertical profile of ascending currenfs in the cloud w(z) and liquid water content q(z) for different variants of the vertical profile of temperature t(z) and wind velocity v(z) in the atmosphere. a) naturally developing cloud, b) artificially crystallizing clouds; curves 1 and 2 for w and q correspond to temperature sfirat- ifications 1 and 2; curve 2' corresponds to a wind profile dv/dz = const, the re- maining curves are for n(z) = const. KEY: A) Level of inCroduction of reagent - B) w m�sec'1 C) Q S�kg7l In addition to the intensification of convection directly due to the release of - the heat of crystallization there are secondary effects accompanying the crystal- lization of a cloud and exerting an influence on the dynaffiics of its development: expansion of a cloud in a horizontal direction and an intensification of condensa- - tion-coagulation processes of droplet growth in the cloud. An increase in the horizontal dimensions of the cloud favors an intensification of convection and thus it leads, as we pointed out in Chapter 3, to a relative de- - crease in the role of the entraiument effect which as a rule impedes the develop- ment of convection. As a result of intensification of condensation-coagulation processes in a crystal- lizing cloud there can be falling of precipitation and as a result the cloud can receive an upward-directed additional acceleration propartionaZ to the mass of 18 F4R OFFICIAL USF ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY falling precipitation. At the same time the opposite effect occurs: large particles in the cloud create an appreciable aerodynamic resistance to the ascending air cur- rents whose value is proportional to the cross section of the particles and their number. However, the intensity of formation of precipitation should also be dif ferent in dependence on whether the cloud was overseeded with nuclei during modif ication or their concentration in the eaperiment is such that the conditions for the growth of the ice particles in the supercooled cloud are optimum. In the first case no precipitation will fall; in the second the effect of "washing out" of the cloud may be so great that the cloud begins to decay. It must be remembered that for the time being there is no sufficiently complete method for computing the mentioned secondary processes. Now we wi11 discuss the results of observations of the effects of artificigl crys- tallization of cumulus clouds in two experiments. = Figure 4.4.2 shows the evolution of a cumulus cloud penetrated by rocke ts with AgI. Prior to modification the cloud eatended to a considerable altitude, but there was no crystallization in it. The left margin of the cloud was subjected to modifica- tion first. Five minutes after entrp of the reagent it was completely crystallized. Then the topmost part of the cloud was modified. After 10 minutes the entire upper part of the cloud was crystallized. A photograph taken 21 minutes after the onset of modification shows that the upper part of the cloud was destroyed and transforar ed into an ice "shroud." In the experiments described above the principal ob3ect of observation was the uppar part of the clouds and observations of precipitation from clouds from an aircraft were made only incidentally, and visually at that. In experimental polygons with a dense network of rain gages the modificatian of - cumulus clouds, which will be discussed below, was carried out primarily for the purpose of inducing precipitation. It was necessary to deterenine with what para- meters of the cumulus cloiids artificial crystallization of the upper part of the cloud causes precipitation and with what parameters it does not. Figure 4.4.3 shows the results of a series of experiments for inducfng precipita- tion from cumulus clouds subjected to modification with solid carbon dioxide in the Ukrainian Experimental Meteorological Polygon. The vertical thickness of the cloud Qz and the temperature at the level of introduction of the solid carbon dioxide into the cloud (t�C) are plotted along the axes. The figure shows four re- gions corresponding to four groups of clouds: I) clouds from which prec ipitation reached the earth in all cases; II) same, in SOiL of the cases; III) light precip- itation reaching the ground in lOX of the cases; IV) not even a zone of falling under the cloud was observed. The mean value of the altitude of the lower boundary of the i.nvestigated clouds was 1.7 km over the ground level (minimum meam mnthly altitude 1.5 lm, maximum 1.9 km). The mean temperature at the lower boundary was +7�C (minimum mean month- ly temperature +5.1�C, maximum +7.9�C). 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE 01+iLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ e z xM � 5 � � _ � . ~ � / � � � . � 4 ll ~~~i f � x � 3 IV ! o 0�~ xio~ ~ � � ~oo 0 00� ~�00 i i ~x x ~ o y o � 00 o~oP x oo~%� -�o"~tT'~ 0 1 ~ M 0 � ~ x 2 - � 3 N 0 p -f0 -ZO -30t�C Fig. 4.4.3. Results of experiments for inducing precipitation from cumulus clouds with modification by solid carbon dioxide. 1) no precipitation, 2) light precipit- - ation, 3) heavy precipitation. _ Using the standard dependence of the moist adiabatic temperature gradient on pres- sure and temperature, we obtain the curve MN. This curve indicates a completely obvious relationship between the vertical extent of a cloud and the temperature of its upper part. It must be remembered that in constructing the MN curve use was made of averaged temperature values, as well as averaged temperature gradient and altitude of the lower cloud bouadary. Precisely this is primarily responsible for the scatter of points near the MN curve in Fig. 4.4.3. The relative position of regions I, II, III, IV is evidence that in accordance with the theory considered in Chapter 2 the success of artificial inducement uf precipitation from supercooled clouds was the greater the greater the vertical ex- tent of the cloud. It follows from a more detailed analyRis, in addition, that the success wi11 be the greater the greater is the liquid water content of the cloud, the closer the temperature of the upper part of the cloud is to the temperature of natural crys- tallization and the poorer the conditions are for the evaporation of precipita- tion under the cloud (that is, the lower the lower boundary of the cloud and the greater is the air humidity under the cloud). The line separating regions I and II in accordance with the theory of condensa- tion-coagulation consolidation of droplets in clouds developed in Chapter 2 is evidence that in these regions the higher the te~en~a~d e the teisothedtime p~art of the cloud the greater is the vertical ex Sreater required for the forming of pzecipitation (both artificial and natural). 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE OND,Y Now we will carry out three typical computations of the consolidation of small ice particles introduced into the cloud applicable to the results shown in Figo - 4.4.3. The first should characterize region IV, the second and third region Io In the computations it is necessary to lrnow such parametere of the cloud as ver- tical extent, temperature and liquid water content (and in precise computations, also the size of the cloud droplets), the velocity of ascending currents, posi- tion of Che lower boundary of the cloud and the hwnidity below it, and also the concentration of artificial ice particles. Then, using the method developed _ in Chapter 2, it is possible to compute the consolidation of droplets artificial- ~ ly crystallized in the upper part of the cloud and their evaporation under the = cloud. The results of computations of the growth of ice particles in a cloud and their evaporation under a cloud are shown in Fig. 4.4.4. - We will assume that the temperature and position of the cloud boundaries are the same as in Fig. 4.4.3 (we will use the line MN). In addition, in all three cases we will use the characteristic profiles of the vertical velocities (shown in Fig. 4.4.4) and liquid water content (not shown). We will limit ourselves to a case when the concentration of artificially introduced particles is small and there- - fore they, first of all, do not compete with one another, and second, the heat of crystallization is not reflected in the values for the vertical currents (we re- callthat in Fig. 4.4.1 this effect, on the contrary, is the main one). Bearing in mind that the computations are approximate, we will operate with the mean capture coeffici.ent. Then the computations can be carried out without allowance for the size of the cloud droplets. The humidity under the cloud is assumed equal to 60%. The crystallizing reagent is introduced at the optimum altitude in such a way that the ice particles, growing larger and rising upward (as long as they are small), do not emerge from the limits of the cloud. In case I the particles grew to 0.5 mm, but completely evaporated under the cloud; in case II there was falling of large rain droplets forming as a result of the - melting of large ice particles. In case III the artificial ice particles were transformed into graupel or hailstones. The main flaw in the figure is that no al- - lowance has been made for natural crystallization, which in this case should play a substantial role (for more details see Section 4.5). Figures 4.4.3 and 4.4.4 once again confirm that cumulus clouds with a supercooled upper part us ually pass into the rain stage after the onset of crystallization (natural o r artificial) if their vertical extent is sufficiently great. The model computations which we made can be considerably improved by introducing more detailed dependences of vertical velocity on vertical thickness of the cloud and on altitude above its base and also the dependence of liquid water content on . temperature and vertical thickness. It is also possible to upgrade the method for computing the enlargement of droplets, the cloud parameters can be varied, etc. All this will make possible a more detailed explanation of the results presented in Figures 4.4.3 and 4.4.4. However, this is not rational. It is more reasonable to carry out such computations applicable to specific clouds, for which the principal - "input" parameters are known. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL l,'SE ONLY 1 RM B 1 �C -?0 6 -10 4 0 ? 10 0 / R(z) OcodKU He do.xo- BA/II BO JBMAU 1 I I 0 5 IOmM�cf 1 I I 0 0,1 a,4 R Gv Ounua aoceBa w(z) D H neBaa ujomepwa m(z) R(z) R (z) g g /leBaNOp Kpyno AuBena (r aD) I I ~ I I I I I -f 0 S f0 w M�i ' F 0 5 f0 1S w M�c t I 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ I 0 Q? 0,4 Rc,w 9 0,1 0,4 0,6 Rt,v Fig. 4.4.4. Growth and evaporation of ice particles forming in cloud after intro- duction of crystallizing reagents. I) corresponds to region IV in Fig. 4.4.4; II and III) correspond to region I in Fig. 4.4.3. KEY : A) Precipitation does not reach ground B) Shower C) Seeding line D) Zero isotherm E) Graupel (hail) F) m�sec'1 A typical example of successful artificial inducing of precipitation ia the Ukrain- ian Experimental Meteorological Polqgon on 17 June 1967 at 1707 hours is illustrat- ed in Fig. 4.4.5. The left part of the cumulus cloud, in the development stage, was modified by the crystallizing reagents. Prior to seeding the top of the cloud was sharply defined, as is characteristic for purely water clouds (see right part of Fig. 4.4.5a, part not subjected to modification). The cloud parameters, whose values were taken from the eaperimental program and the weather bulletin, are in- dicated in the figure. The liquid water content (q) and the vertical currents (w) were not measured in this experiment and therefore were taken as the mean charac- teristic values for such clouds. At 1730 hours there was visual observation of crystallization of the upper left part of the cloud; now a fibrous structure of the top is visible, as is characteristic for Cb; the falling of precipitation has begun. The intensity of natural crystallization (ti1) was evaluated using formula (2.3.3). The rate of natural crystallization does not exceed W a 10-10 sec-1 at any levelo The results of computations of the enlargement of particles passing through the entire cloud from top to bottam, taking into account their evaporation in the layer under the cloud, are shown in Pig. 4.4.5b. The computations of the enlarge- ment of water (prior to modification) and ice (after modification) particles were made using equations (2.2.9) and (2.2.10). 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The water droplets, which under the influence of this process increased to 400 pt,m at the lower boundary of the cloud, as a result of evaporation in the layer under the cloud, to all intents and purposes do not reach the ground. 6J I KN &pXNAN d~00N(/((,0 ~ IsS~~~ A 5 1 ~ 4 ~ B N .r�Qop tu u.mmepro ~ ? C NYiCNAA ?pONf/l~O~~ Konna D Rpucmoe.r E ~ D Kcn,on E Kpuanc~i I I I I .TPM,7A H F : MUN BO 40 2O O 200 4pO 6QD R MXN I Bpewa Gcmo ~ I i I i ~ O,.S i0 1,5 w r�c" ~ J o K. Fig. 4.4.5. Modification of cumulus cloud by crystallizing reagents for purpose of inducing precipitation. 17 June 1967 (Ukrainian Experimental Meteorological Poly- gon). a) [not reproduced here] photograph 23 minutes after introduction of re- agents into left part of cloud; b) computation of enlargement and edaporation of cloud particles before and after modification. KEY: A) Upper boundary B) Zero isotherm C) Lower boundary D) Droplet E) Crystal F) min(utes) G) Time Qf growth H) Ground I) �m J) m�sec'1 K) g�kg"'1 The situation changed with introduction of the reagent. Ice particles are enlarged in the cloud more energetically than droplets and precipitation reaches the gro und surface. The time necessary for the passage of particles of natural precipitation along the path from the upper to the lower boundary is 70 minutes. The particles of precipitation forming as a result of modification overcome this path twice as rapicily. Artificial precipitation generated at the lower, rather than the upper boundary of the cloud, falls to the ground still more rapidly. This example is close to the case of maximim success in modification. However, if one were to be objective, it would be necessary in evaluating the success of mod- - ification to be able to precompute the natural development of a cloud and be sure 23 FOR OFF[CIAL 1'JSE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY that the cloud in the course of natural development does not reach the Cb stage. In the case considered heavy precipitztion was no t observed in the polygon re- gion beiu re the end of the day. But this became known after ending of the exper- - iments and on a practical basis this must be known in advance, at the time of adopti.on of a decision concerning modification. Data are available on the results of experiments for the artificial inducing of precipitation from cumuliform clouds carried out in Canada, Australia and South Africa. Their results are similar to those shown in Figures 4.4.4-4.4.5. The thicker the cloud is and the closer the temperature of irs upper part is to the _ temperature of natural crystallization, the more probable is its transformatian into a rain cloud. - Thus, only in a case when the supercooled cloud in its natural development is suf- ficiently prepared for its rain stage will artificial crystallization be highly = productive. Strictly speaking, above we have examined two processes induced by artificial crystallization: intensification of convection and intensification of the process of enlargement of cloud particles. In the event that the effects intensify one another (that is, there is a positive feedback between them), the total effect will be maximum. In order to end our examination of the proulem of inducing precipitation f rom super- cooled cloudb it remains to tell of the so-called norms for the seeding of clouds with crystallizing reagents. Experience shows that with a great vertical extent and great horizontal dimensions of the cloud the excess of the reagent (overseed- ing) is not counterproductive in reasonable limitso In this case "too many cooks do not spoil the broth." If in the upper part of the cloud there is "overseeding" (see Chapter 5), the largest ice particles, falling downward more rapidly than the others, at altitudes below the level of introduction of the reagent an op timtun concentration is formed and precipitation is nevertheless formed. Relatively small ice particles, propagating in different directions, also at some distance from the seeding site, create an optimum concentration. Hawever, if the cloud has a small thickness, the excess concentration of introduced particles leads to their mutual competition, as a result of which the cloud becomes iced, but yields no precipit- ation. Accordingly, the lesser the size of the cloud, the more critical are the conditions for the formation of precipitation from it with respect to the quan- tity of reagent. In this case the concentrations of artificial ice nuclei should be computed with great certainty. Experiments seemingly confirm this: for clouds of great volume the result of mod- ification is not dependent on the seeding norm; there is such a dependence for small clouds. Some mean norm is optimum. It is rrue that this conclusion was drawn on the basis of a small number of experiments and requires confirmationo We have discussed clouds having a supercooled part. However, with large vertical eatent and liquid water content so-called warm clouds (such is the name given to clouds not having a supercooled part) develop to the stage of warm clouds. There are also cases when the cloud does not quite reach the rain stage and artificial - intervention in the course of the process can yield results. As in the case of 24 FOR OFF[CIAL U5E i!;lZ,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY supercooled clouds, here there are two fundamentally possible intervention vari- ants: intensification of convection or inten.sification of condensation-coagula- tion enlargement of selected droplets in the cloud. In conclusion we point out that during recent years attempts have been made to seed thick cimmulus clouds forming over forest fires for the purpose of extinguish- ing the latter. As follows from the material in Cnapter 3, the success of such measures is determined primarily by the extent to which the atmosphere is pre- pared for the creation of a"meteotron" imder the influence of heating of the air - over the fire. With a great stability and dryness of the atmsphere, which, unfor- tunately, is often characteristic in.the case of large forest fires, small cumulus clouds are fo rmed whose effectiveness against fires is small. However, the loss = from forest fires is so great that even the slightest possibility of using clouds agatnst them cannot be neglected. There are many cases when large forest fires arise in the presence of frontal cloud cover or during its propagation over a territory affected by forest fires. In such cases the artificial expansion of zones of heavy precipitation from clouds is an effective means for contending with the centers of forest fires or restricting the possibilities of their expansion. 25 FOR dFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4.6. Dynamic Methods for Cloud (Fog) Dispersal In this section we eaamine methods for the dispersal (scattering) of clouds (fogs) ~ in which use is made of directed descending movements either created by flight ' vehicles (aircraft, helicopters) or arising as a result of the discharge of re- agent into the cloud or fog. A flight vehicle, moving over,a~cloud,~or fog, creates a descending current. The aircraft creates a momentum which is particularly strong if the aircraft rises steeply upward pitches. A helicopter, moving slowly or hovering above a def- iaite point, creates a quasistationary descendir.g air current. First we will examine the action of a stationary descending current. As a simplif- ication we will assume that the cloud is mpnodisperse and in computing its evapor- ation we will use the approximate formula (2.1.31), which makes it possible to es- _ timate the time of evaporation of a cloud particle with dT'/dC > 0, where T' is cloud temperature (we note that i,n Chapter 2 it is denoted T)a Assuming . dT' -Yw dT (4.6.1) and assuming that the change in E'yw/T'2 in the segment of motion of the air par- ticle is relatively small, from (2.1.31) we obtain the tjme of total evaporation of the cloud particle . 4=pdnkNT'''Mprl T- 3LE;OYw ' (4.6.2) where IpWater is the density of water. If the liquid water content of a cloud (in g�cm 3) is introduced into consideration 4 T'~3nPPa, (4.6.3) 4- 3 ' , then T _ qkNT'ZM p LEu2pYw . (4.6.4) Accordingly, the total evaporation path is - qk,VT'2Mp (4.6.5) , . z =wc = LE112pY ' - Stipulatino w, q, T', we obtain the characteristic time of total evaporation of a = cloud particle (Fig. 4.6.1). The temperature gradient Y is stipulated without tak- ing mixing into account, that is, is somewhat exaggerated, to the greater degree the lesser the cross section of the current (see Chapter 3). Figure 4.6.1 shows that nonconvective clouds (they are characterized by currents of about 1 cm�sec'1) decay naturally very slowly: this requires several hours; however, they are formed equally as slowly. At the same time the figure shows that an ar- tificially created descending flow, having a velocity qf only a few meters per 26 FOit OFFICIAL USE L11V LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY second, is capable of very rapid local scattering of a nonconvective cloud re-- gardless of its stage of development. A w cM�c, 103 \ ~ \ to? B Q=1,021M3 q�O.Jt/NJ ~ 101 f00 Q=0.12/w3 \ - - - T=?73x T=?83K 10-i \ \ 10 102 f0~ !04 f0 ti C i i i i i 1� D/MUM 14 lo4 E-WaV'G - Fig. 4.6.1. Time of total evaporation of cloud as function of velocity of descend- ing flow. KEY: A) cm�sec 1 D) min B) g/m3 E) hours C) sec Q) - , . A9unm~ r / w? - _ _ ffJ . ~ ~ ~ -~-CeveNUef +a p ~ B . , - - - CeveMUe? C Pamw Fig. 4.6.2. Descending air current from helicopter propellor operating "in place." = a) flow lines; b) pressure curve KEY: A) Propellor B) Section 1, 2 C) Patm 27 FOB OFFICIAL USE 4NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We should also point out the circumstance that with a change in vertical velocity there is an inverse proportional change in dispersal time but the path covered by - the cloud particle prior to its evaporation remains approximately the same. We will assume that a helicopter has appeared over a cloud or fog. A descending ai.r current is formed under it. The currents near the propellor are shown in Fig. 4.6.2. The propellor forms a vertical current. Its velo city in the section in which the propellor is situated (section 1), the so-called characteristic velocity of the descending current of the helicopter, can be computed using the approximate equa- tion ~ (4.6.6) Wj-12 SXP 1'/~ where P is the per-second thrust momentum, S is the area swept by the propellor, )C-is the coefficient of end losses. Aere reference is to velocity averaged over - the area of the current section. a A 5 0 BOCSOdptuuu nomoK 500 ~ I I I~ 1000 ZM -5 -10 -15 B 6) RM ZM 2 Fig. 4.6.3. Velocity of descending movements w(a), radius of current R and time of total evaporatinn of cloud *e(b) in current from helicopter. 1) y= 1�C/100 m, 2) 0, 3} y= 1�C/100 m, 4) computation without allowance for stratification; dots results of ineasurements under conditians of moderately unstable atmo- sphere. KEY: A) Ascending current B) Descending current C) m�sec 1 _ D) sec 28 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE ONLY -2n C -25 wM� ~~~-C CD APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Formula (4.6.6), with an accuracy to the factor 'C. expresses the correlation be- tween flow velocity and dynamic pressure ~ W11 (4. 6. 7) S -p 2 � - In section 2(Fig. 4.6.2), where the pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pres- sure, the vertical velocity w2, as indicated by theory, is approximately twice as great as in section 1, whereas the area of section 2 is twice as small as the area of section 1. The distance between sections is approximately equal to the diameter of the rotor blades. The dashed line in Fig. 4.6.3 shows the velocity of the descending flow under the helicopter and the radius of the isothermic current, computed for an Mi-1 craft. We will assume that the helicopter hovered directly over the cloud. Judging from the computations, it is capable of "breaking through" a cloud of considerable vertical thickness. Hovering over the cloud, whose vertical thickness is 1 km, the helicopter "breaks" in the cloud a conical window with a radius of about 5 m in the upper section directlq under the helicopter and 220 m in the lower section. Above the computations were made for an isothermic current. However, the theory presented in Chapter 3 indicates that even for short distances the nonisothermic- ity of the current in the real atmosphere can substantially change the pattern of vertical currents in the flow, and accordingly, the results of computations of ' the rate of cloud evaporation. Descending into a region of higher pressure, the air is heated; at the same time, as a result of evaporation of cloud droplets a heat loss develops. A temperature difference arises between the currents and the surrounding air, even if it was uot st flrsL dire:.ciy oeiow the '.:�'_icopter; tLe 2-ow experiencPS ArcMmedean ac- cleration, and as a result, is either slowed clown or is additionally accelerated. It was demonstrated in Chapter 3 that this effect is essentially dependent on the temperature stratification in the cloud (or fog). It is taken into account in the theo ry developed in Chapter 3. Using the theory, we obtain the possibility for re- peating the computations of cloud dispersal, but now already with allowance for ' change in the temperature of the current in the process of its movement in the cloud. Three eaamples were considered, diffezing with respect to the degree of at- mospheric stability (inversion, isothermy, decrease of temperature with altitude). It appears that already at a distance of 100-200 m below the helicopter the tem- - perature stratification begins to exert its influence (Fig. 4.6.3). Both the size of the window and the evaporation time in examples 1, 2 and 3 are substan- tially different and differ from the computed values under the condition o� iso- thermicity of the flow. Allowance for stratification considerablq changed the results of the computations. In an unstable atmosphere the current reaches the ground. Hawever, in the case of isothermy the current descends dowciward only 250 m, then is imparted an accelera- tion which is directed upward, experiences several upward-downward cycles of move- ment and then attenuates. In an inversion all this occurs in a still higher cloud 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 , FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY layer. 1'he branch of the line w with the sign is conditional. In actuality, an air particle, i.mparted an acceleratiom directed upward, collides with a par- ticle moving in a downward direction and as a result there will be a"spraying" of the current to the sides and downward. A so-called air cushion is fotmed be- luw this level and the current does not penetrate through it. As a comparison, this same Fig. 4.6.3 shows the results of ineasurement of the de- scending flow beneath the helicopter with similar parameters under conditions of a moderately unstable atmosphere. The axial velocity was measured, and for conversion to the mean velocity in the section use was made of the universal prof ile of excess velocity in the main seg- ment of a free axially symnetric air current, which is usually used in gas dy- r namics : w (r) w (0) - (p 1 R J' where R is the radius of the current, r is the momentary radius (0 < r< R).. Taking (4.6.2) into account k I - 7E 2 ~or~ dr = 2 f R R )d( k _ ~ r ` 0 0 The accuracy of the comparison is low because the helicopters were different and the positions of the measurement points were inadequately determined relative to the axis of the current, but nevertheless the comparison makes sense in the upper part of the current where the role of atmospheric stratification is small. Figure 4.6.3 indicates the possibility of use of helicopters for "breaking" win- dows in clouds and fogs, but the degree of success of this measure is highly de- pendent on atmospheric stratification. - Figure 4.6.3 shows velocities averaged along the section of the currento In more detailed computations it is necessary to take into accou.nt the radial distribu- tion of the parameters of the current. The descending flow along the axis of the current can considerably exceed the mean velocity. This excess is the greater the lesser is the section of the current. Experiments with the dispersal of fogs using helicopters were carried out in 1968 in the United States (in western Virginia) and then were repeated many times. = Figure 4.6.4 illustrates a successful eaperiment in which after five helicopter passes the landing strip was freed of fog. The spatial scale of clearing can be judged fram the landing strip, whose Iength was 2 km� In this case the spatial corridor was maintained for approximately an hour. The dynamics of regeneration of the scattered fog is illustrated by an eaperiment carried out on the next day (Fig. 4.6.5). Three or four minutes after ending Che clearing operation the air- port was again covered by a fog. For practical purposes it is necessary to know at what rate the cleared region (window) in the fog or cloud disappearr. This region is gradually drawn in be- cause of two factors: diffuse (turbulent) flow of fog from the surrounding space into the window and the simultaaeous condensation of water vapor in the window 30 FOR OFF[CIAL L1SE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY if the cloud (or fog) as a whole develops. Both can be computed if the themo- pressure field of the atmosphere and the tendency of its development are known. Figure 4.6.6 ehows the track which remained in the cloud after the flight of two aircraft over it. It is probable that the descending component of the "wakes" which were created by the aircraft penetrated for a small depth in the cloud. Ac- cording to the observer's report, the width and depth of the track was about 250 m; the track from the aircraft was 3 1m in leAgth. The "wake" behind the aircraft has a rather complea structure. Eddy currents, which with increasing withdrawal of the aircraft gradually expand and attenuate, develop at the ends of the wings. A descending flow is created directly under the aircraft and a compensating ascending flow is created along the sides. The rate of decay of eddy currents is dependent on the degree of atmospheric turbu- lence. Under average conditions the descending flaw of more than 1 m�sec-1 can persist in them for several minutes so that the "wake" can extend several kilo- meters behind the aircraft. In accordance with the theory developed above, a clearing can be formed in the wake in the region of descending movements in the case of adequate instability. The depth of penetration of the descending flow behind the aircraft (or helicopter) into the lower-lying layer of the atmosphere is dependent not only on the degree of atmospheric stability, but also on the flight speed of the flightcraft. This circumstance is graphically illustrated in Fig. 4.6.7, which schematically shows the results of typical computations of the current in an unstable atmosphere for different speeds of horizontal movement of a helicopter. If the aircraft pitches over a cloud decaying or developing when there is little instability, the effect of its modification input is small. However, if the cum- ulus cloud is vigorously developing, this is evidence of strong thermal instabil- - ity of the atmosphere and then the pitching can lead to the decay of the cloud. Corresponding experiments were carried out in the USSR in the 1960's. They con- firmed the ideas developed above. Several minutes after modification there was a substantial decrease in the upper boundary of cumulus clouds with a thickness up to 5-6 km or they disappeared completely. The experiments also confirmed that the more unstable the atmosphere, the stronger and more rapid was the destruction of the cloud. Thus, the more favorable the conditions for cloud development, the more effective is their modification by descending currents. A similar effect can be achieved by detor.ating sufficiently powerful charges in the cloud. The cannonading of clouds with explosive shells, especially if it is thereby possible to create a directed explosion, is a rather effective means for destroying clouds in an unstable atmosphere. The dumping of hea�ry particles into a cloud creates forces in it additional�to - those which were examined in Chapter 3. This can lead to deformations in the ver- tical velocities in the c_loud and thereby exert an influence on its fate. In order to take this into account it is now necessary to introduce into formula (3.1.5) the additional force of aerodynamic resistance F', related, like F, to the per- - second mass. 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ _Z M- 150 a) a ~ - ~ 6) b foo ~ ~r`-� _ 50 a 0 ~ f00 ` 50 0 50 f00 0 100 200 J00 11 tso e) c 2) d , foo - so - U !00 ?DO J00 0 100 200 300 M _ Fig. 4.6.7. Diagram of descending air flow for different apeeds of helicopter move- ment in absence of wind. a) 0 km�hour'1, b) 10 lan�hour"1, c) 30 km�hour'l$ d) 60 1m/hour. If the particles are distributed uaifarmly in the_volume of the current, then 00 1) F'.-S'ztrnp 1 C,rz ~ (r) dr, (4.6.8) where the following are new parameters: n is the concentration of particles dumped into the cloud, 1Z(r) is the fimction of their distribution along the radii r, wr is the rate of fallfng of particles, Ca is the drag coefficient. _ If the concentration of dumped particles is great their drag is less than the sum of the resistances of individual particles. If the concentration is small, it is evidently possible to assume that the movement of the dumped particles does not differ very greatly from steady movement and the drag force can be replaced by the equivalent gravitational force - " - ---FI-_S~wntg, (4.6.9) where m is the mass of the dwnped particles, related to a unit air volume (g�cm 1). Then, summing (3.1.5) and (4.6.9), we obtain the equation - - I dw T'-T in W2 C_ T' (4.6.10) g dT T P g R T~ which makes it possible to evaluate the relative role of superheating of the cloud in relation to the atmosphere (first term), mixing (third term) and dumping (second ' term). The dumping, which can change the sign of acceleration of the current, is - determined if we assimme that the left-hand side in (4.6.10) is equal to zero. Then in dimensional units - in T' - T w2 C T' p-T 8 R T' (4.6.11) As might be expected, the dumping effect is highly dependent on the state in which the cloud is situated. Tf prior to dumping (with m= 0) at sume level there is satisfaction of the condi- tion dw/d < = 0, after dumping a downward-directed acceleration of the current ap- - pears regardless of how small a quantity of matter is dumped. However, in the ac- tive part of the cloud, where the first term in (4.6.10) is considerably larger than the third, this acceleration is capable of appreciably changing the velocity 32 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY if the left-hand side of (4.6.11) is of the same order of magnitude as each of the terms on the rigfit-hand side: P~ T T T 5 10-3, (4.6.12) - or with fJ N 10'3 g�cm 3 the value m;p 10-6 g�cm 3 a 1 g�m 3. In order by means of the dumping of particles in a small concentration to attempt to decrease the as- cending flow it was necessary to introduce into the cloud an anormous quantity of _ substance, not less than the mass of water in tlaat part of the cloud to be modif- ied. Above reference was to particles which, upon entering into the cloud, do not change = their size. The situation is considerably improved if the particles dumped grow in the cloud. - Then the m value, and accordingly the dumping effect, can increase by many times; in this case the dtmaping effect is dependent on both the degree of dispersivity = _ of the particles and on their surface properties. A powerful descending flow which destroys the cloud appears in a considerable part of the cloud. Sometime later it is replaced by another cloud, since, in annihilating a cloud, we did not elimin- ate the factors which led to its appearance, but time is required for the appear- ance of a new cloud. In some cases such a temporary freeing of space from cimmulo- nimbus clouds makes sense. If a cloud has already formed, for the creation of a descending flow it is neces- sary to overcome the ascending flow. It is possible to create a descending flow in a thermally unstable atmosphere in a place where for the time being there is still no ascending flow by the dumping of a small quantity of substance. Then, - much as is shown in Fig. 4.6.3, a descending flow wi11 develop, drawing the en- ergy of thermal instability from the atmosphere. Then the property of air continuity exerts its effect: either the development of the descending movements leads to the disappearance of ascending movements in surrounding space, and accordingly, in clouds, or, despite the energy reserve of instability, the artificially created descending flow attenuates. In evaluating the results of computations it must not be forgotten that we are considering the "fate" of the flow, a flow isolated from other vertical and hor- izontal movements in space. In the 1960's a series of experiments was carried out in the L1SSR with the dumping of pulverized cement into cumulonimbus clouds. The experiments were successful. = Several tens of kilograms of cement particles with a diameter of several tens of microns in many cases led to the decay of clouds. As already mentioned above, a downward-directed momentum can be created by an aircraft. Diving into the cloud from above, it changes the momentum in the cur- rent by a force proportional to the mass of the aircraft and the acceleration of diving; pitching, it sends toward the cloud flow a powerful high-velocity de- scending flow created by the turbines of its engines. An estimation of the diving 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY effect can be made much as was done in the case of dumping of particles. An eval- = uation of the pitching effect involves solution of the countercurrents problem. References: [1, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, 39, 40, 42, 52, 64, 65, 70. 72, 84, 85, 87, 93, 95, 99, 104. 105, 117, 119, 124, 125, 129, 1321. 34 FOR UFF[CIAL LJSE ON1LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAPTER 3 MODIFICATION OF THE HIGH LAYERS OF TEIE ATMOSPHERE 8.1. Fundamental Principles The high layers of the atmosphere are those layers situated above 10-15 km. The field of aeronomy is concerned with investigation of these layers. _ The atmosphere at great altitudes differs fundamentally from the surface layer both with respect to its properties and with respect to the role which it plays - in the earth's life. The ozonosphere and ionosphere have been investigated mpst completely. Both these layers are filters blocking a large part of the short-wave part of the solar spectrum and cosmic ioaizing radiation acting on the animal and plant world. The ionosphere, in addition, is an important element in systems for global radio communications. In the upper layers of the atmosphexe there are such phenomena as auroras, magnetic storms, meteorites, etc. The role of the high layers of the atmosphere in the formation of weather and cli- mate on the earth is less known. Considerable efforts have now been directed to study of their role. In addition, there is basis for suspecting that some pheno- _ mena in the upper atmosphere exert a direct influence on the biological rhythms of life on earth. Figure 8.1.1 shows the principal molecular-kinetic parameters of the high layers of the atmosphere. The troposphere is characterized by an intensive turbulent mixing of sir masses - as a continuous medium and therefore the troposphere contains no stationary, clearly expressed layers with specific properties. The molecular camposition df the air is virtually constant. In the stratosphere the turbulent mixing of air as a continuous medium attenuates, but on the other hand in the higher layers the - length of the free path of air molecules and, accordingly, kinematic viscosity, governed by the thermal motion of molecules, become so great that they are pre- dominant in diffusion processes. Gradually, with upward ascent, mixing becomes free molecular, different air components behave independently and for each of them the vertical distribution is deternd.ned, this being governed by their molec- ular mass and accordingly the rate of molecular diffusion. In this sense one can speak of the diffuse separation of air components at great altitudes. Precisely for this reason the molecular mass of air as a whole (this parameter, as is we11 known, is conditional) is an index of the intensity of diffuse separation of its component parts. The criterion for conversion from motion of a continuous medium to free molecular motion is the Knudsen number 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Kn=R, (8.1.1) where t is the length of the free path of molecules in the medium, R is the char- acteristic dimension of the body around which the flow occurso ZKN 10000 5000 ~ I r 1lpomoHOC~epa D i C I Matnumoc pa M l000~ S00 3X3ocqepaA t A~ y3uo oeaa~� Tenuot~epa1N~E TepMOCq~epa B deneNUe (tso6od~r o� N ~1Ia�oc~pQp I I La _ Moncxynnproe dBu~IlonApxei� ~ f00 y,ta~ XtNUe CUAHUA ~+n - 'J ~ ~ M- Memeopa0 ..M1r�.J ~ o ~onsc Q ~ ~ ~~~6~/neNmHOe ner.r+e-p[ ~uuBaHUe(~Bw+ceNUe I s cnnocuHOU cpeder) ~ ~ 0 500 f000 lK 11 16 10 14 18M 6 S+)?' f Lag,V ,,.n tn'' + rostM 1. 10 fo` R Cp,a:op Fig. 8.101. Principal layers and molecular-kinetic parameters of the atmosphere. Vertical profiles: T-- temperature, J-- length of free path (Knudsen number with characteristic dimension of body 1 m), M-- molecular mass, Ne ionospheric electron concentration, p-- ionospheric ozone content. KEY: K) Diffuse separation (free molecular _ A) Exosphere motion) B) Thermosphere C) Magnetosphere L) Turbopause M) Turbulent mixing (motion of contin- D) Protonosphere ous mediuma E) Heliosphere u F) Mesopause N) Auroras G) Mesosphere 0) Meteors H) Stratosphere P) Ionosphere I) Tropopause Q) Ozonosphere J) Troposphere If it is assumed that R~ 1 m, the length of the free path and the Knudsen number otion of f coincide numerically. rom m Figure 8.1.1 shows the region of transition (with R= 1 m). This region is i on the continuous mediimm to free molecular mot 10-3 and 10; it is called the turbopause (the name limited by Knudsen num bers was given by analogy with the tropopause). In the region of free ulolecular motion the coefficient of molecular diffusion _ (molecular kinetic viscosity) is computed usiag the formula 36 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Y ~ 3 IV, (8.1.2) Here L is the mean length of the free path of air molecules, V is the mean velo- - city of their thermal motion, which is determined from the expression ~ `~N' ~ 2 kT, (8.1.3) where M is the molecular mass of air, N is the Avogadro number, k is the Boltz- mann constant. z KH r � 16ri~ S ~ ~ ~ e j _ 140~ 110 � � -1 . sec f000 5 ios~ 10, 10� DcM~C_f Fig. 8.1.2. Coefficient of molecular diffusion, computed for standard atmosphere (1) and from observations of diffusion of trimethyl aluminum, sodium, lithium and other artificial clouds (2). 1961-1965 (United States). Figure 8.1.2, for the stratosphere (above the turbopause), shows the results of ob- servations of artificial aerosol clouds; on the basis of the rate of their dis- persal it was possible to determine the diffusion coefficient (see Chapter 3), which was also computed using formula (8.1.2) for the standard atmosphere. The figure shows that in actuality at such altitudes diffusion of the impurity is for the most part determined by molecular processes and formu2a (8.1.2) is en- tirely suitable for approximate computations, although it is known that in ac- tuality both the self-diffusion of the component parts of the air and the dif- fusion of impurities at such altitudes have a more complex nature. This is at- tributable to the fact that a considerable percentage of the molecules is ionized and in the process there is "intervention" of electrical forces. The charged par- ticles move under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Different kinds of electro- and magnetohydrodynamic effects of different scales arise. Their ea- amination is beyond the scope of this book. Accordingly, in the text which fol- laws in the estimaCes of diffuse mixing in tize high layers of the atmosphere, both at the altitudes to which Fig. 8.1.2 pertains, and at greater altitudes, as - the coefficient of diffusion of impurities we will use only kinematic molecular viscosity of electrically and magnetically neutral air. The vertical distribution of ozone aad free electrons will be discussed below. In Fig. 8.1.1 it is sho,m for completeness of the picture (here the characfieris- tic daytime concentrations of 4zone and electrons are given). In order to estimate the rate of diffusion of impurities in the high layers we will recall (see Chap ter 3) that the rate of propagati.on of the maximum concentra- tion of matter from the source is determined by formulas in the form _ 37 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r2=KDi, . (8.I.4) where Y. is a numerical coefficient varying in the range of several units in de- - pen:3ence on the specific properties of the source; D is the diffusion coefficient; - ~G is the time during whicli the maximum concentration of impurities is attained at the distaace r from the source. Assuming in (8.1.4) that r= 100 lan and assuming that the diffusion coefficient - is equal to tlie coefficient of kinematic viscosity of air (D = y), we obtain the t=ime 2 of propagation of the impurities, measurf for a an altitude lan( Cin days), for an altitude oL 400 km (in winutes), and se.conds). Thus, at altitudes characteristic, for example, for the ionospheric F layer, im- purities can be propagated as a result of molecular--atomic thermal mation with an - enormous velocity horizoatally and upward, but with a considerably lesser velo- city downward, toward the earth. In other words, propagating alobally through the stratosphere, impurities can per- sist for a long time in the stratosphere, accumulating in it, without penetr.ating into the tronosphere. This is one of the circumstances explain-;-:g why contamina- tion of the high layers is a special danger. The second circumstance is related to che fact, as will be clear f rom the text which follows, that the ozone and ion layers are exceedingly sensitive to the impurities playing the rale of catal.ysts of ozone and ion formation or decay; therefore, even an insignicant quantity of catalyst-impurities can have serious consequences. Impurities can penetrate into - the stratosphere from the lower layers of the atmosphere, but witl% each passing year they are directly entering into the stratosphere in increasing quantitiesa Even now supersonic aircraft have assumed flight altitudes of 15-20 km, that is, - altitudes where the ozone layer is situated. In the years immediately ahead the number of aircraft and their flight altitude will increase. TruP, the progress of i:echnology should result in a decrease in the harmful effluent of aircraft and rocket engines, but the total quantity of discharged i.mpurities, according to availaLle estimates, will increase, altho ugh not so quickly as the ntunber of aircraft flights. We will cite two .figures in order to cbtain some idea concerning the quantity of - impurities which can be discharged into the atmosphere by supe?-sonic aircraft. The engine of a"Boeing 2707-300" aircraf.t, during a flight at an altitude of 20 km with a Mach number 2.7, according to computations in one hour of flight should, among other combustion products, discnarge 18.6 tons of water vapor and 0.65 ton of carbon monoxide. - Considerable quantities of impurities are discharged by rockets. For example, the "Saturn" carrier-rocket, which on 14 May 1973 was used for putting the "Sky- _ :Lab" space laboratory into orbit, ir. the final stage, at an al*_itude of 440 lan, as a result of combustion of hydrogen in an oxygen medium in the engines of the s econd stage, discharged into the atmosphere 3�1028 molecules of water and 1 028 molecules of hydrogen per second. With a f'Light velocity of the rocket of 7.3 km�sec 1 this co,~_responds to a discharge of approximately 1027 mol.ecuies of HZO 38 I'fZR OFIIC1AL U SE ONT 3' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and HZ per kilometer of path. Assimming in formula (Tr.64) that Q' = 1027 km71 and in accordance with Fig. 8.1.1 D= 107 m2�sec'1, at a distance r= 1.000 km, under the condition of a maximum of the concentration, during the time ~ r2 � _ ,p = 420 minutes we obtain the concentration of HZO and H2 molecules c=Q' ~ 21 =10l.' M-3. (8.1.5) r.r This value is of the same order of magnitude as the electron concentration in the ionosphere at this altitude and therefore is entirely adequate for an appreciable - acceleration of the reactions of disappearance of electrons in the ionosphere. The reactions of formation and disappearance of electrons and ions themselves in the ioiio- and ozonosphere will be ciiscussed below. Now we note that some of them have become known quite recently and it was found that the rates of such reactions, measured under ordinary laboratory conditions, are difficult to extrapolate into the r.egion of stratospheric conditions. For the time being direct measurements of _ the rates of reactions directly in the stratosphere are impossible due to lack of appropriate instrumentation. 8.2. Modification of Ionosphere - The ionosphere is the layer of the stratosphere from approximately 50 km to several hundred kilometers in which there is an adequate quantity of ionized particles capable of exerting a substantial influence on radio wave propagation. Ia the first approximation in the ionosphere it is possible to discriminate the D, E and F regions, within which there are nari-ower regions. The ionosphere is formed under the influence of solar irradiation (UV, X- and cor- puscular radiation), as well as fluxes of cosmic ionizing radiation. The principal charge carriers in the ionosphere, exerting an influence on radio wave propagation, are electrons. Therefore, the electron concentration in the ionosphere is usually considered. The properties of the ionosphere are subject to regular and irregular variationso Until recently the ionospheric regime was considered exclusively in relation to the solar and cosmic effect on it. However, investigations of recent years have indicated that the stratosphere also sensitively reacts to processes transpiring in the troposphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Volcanic activity, tsunamis, earthquakes, cyclones, thunderstorms, launching of large flight vehicles, trans- mission of adequa.tely gowerful radio signals, acoustic and thermal signals all these processes find a response in the ionosphere. In order to understand what is involved, first of all we wi11 examine transforma- - tion of an acoustic signal during its movement from the earth to the ionosphere. As is well known, the flux density of a plane acoustic wave (this is also called sound intensity) is equal to [3 B = sound] 2 P5.W 2~12, (8.2.1) 39 FUR OFF[CIAL USE IJNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY where P is air density, csound is the speed of sound, W and A are the angular frequency and amplitude of the acoustic signal. The flux density of the acoustic wave (Umov vector) is a vectorial parameter. The speed of sound in the air is determined using the formula KNT (8.2.2) Csound � Y M ' where 'y is the ratio of specific heat capacity at a constant pressure to the spe- cific heat capacity for a constant volume. If there are no losses of acoustic energy (I = const), the signal amplitude with - - motion of the signsl upward would increase approaimatel.y proportionally to the de- crease in the square root of air de7T/-M-). t (with altitude the speed of sound varies far more weakly proportional to But in actuality the signal experiences attenuation in the atmosphere at great altitudes primarily due to losses in molec- ular viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiation. The first two factors are most important for not excessively great signal inten- sities. Accordingly, the attenuation of intensity of an acoustic wave in the stratosphere is registered in the form d!=-4 dz. (8.2. 3) Here � is the attenuation coefficient, related to a unit path (upward) and W' 4 b ~ (r- 1 1 > (8.204) [3 B= sound] C~, [ 3 cPp ~ where 'V is the coefficient of molecular kinematic viscosity of air, cP is heat cap- acity at a constant pressure, a is the thermal conductivity coefficient,/O is . density (the first term is the coefficient of sound attenuation as a result of - losses in friction, the second term is the coefficient of sound attenuation as a result of losses in thermal conductivity). Replacing V and 9 bv corresponding expressions, we obtain r- t .2 y3 .21M 8.2.5) - ~s 1V [ 3-f- 3 YCs lV KNY'/ZT ' ~ 38 33 from which it can be seen that the coefficient of sound absorption in the atmo- sphere is determined by the frequency 4J of the acoustic signal, and also by the length of the free path of air molecules since the parameter V/cSOUnd �O M/T varies with altitude far more weakly than j, . Thus, the coefficient of attenua- tion of the acoustic signal at great altitudes increases with altitude as a re- sult of an increase in the length of the free path of molecules rather rapidly (see Fig. 8.1.1) and becomes significant the more rapidly ihe greater the fre- quency of the acoustic signal. In accordance with formulas (8.2.1)-(8.2.4) the signal amplitude increases with propagation of the acoustic wave upward fmm the earth's surface as long as the coefficient of sound absorption is small and the signal propagates virtually without losses. Then, with an increase of the attenuation coefficient ~ with 40 FOR OFF[CIAL USE OIVLY r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY al.titude, the signal amplitude A begins to decrease (see formula (8.203)). Z KN soo, - 400 ,300 200 100 . _A . B 0 1 I I i I 1 I AO 10-14 l0-12 to-f0 to -A 10 �6 104E C~N.r I 1 I D 0 J 0 0 200 P C E Fig. 8.2.1. Vertical change in curve of sound attenuation ~!./4)2 and relative am- - plitude of acoustic signal A/Ap without allowance for attenuation a 0) and - real attenuation for different periods of acoustic signal, and also isoline of altitudes, where dA/dz = 0 for different periods (frequencies) of acoustic sig- nals. KEY: A) sec B) rad�sec'1 C) with D) sec2�ID 1 E) sec When the acoustic signal contains components of different frequencies we obtain the picture represented in Fig. 8.2.1; it shows the curve of sound attenuation tI./W 2 and the altitudinal change in the relative amplitude of the acoustic sig- nal A/Ap, taking into account both i*.s increase as a result of a decrease in air density and attenuation. The greater the period of the acoustic signal (the low- er its frequency), the lesser are the altitudes which it attaine. The alti.tude at which the signal amplitude begins to decrease can be found from the condition of a maximum of the amplitude of tre acoustic signal: ._dA..==.O- (8.2.6) dz 41 FOR 4FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 A . w APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY Combining (8.2.1) and (8.2.3), we obtain fii 2?(p(--uZ)= j PC3e0 2A2� Taking the logarithmic derivative of z(in thia case neglecting the change in - the speed of sound with altitude), we have 2 dA =0. (8.2.7) - + ~ p dP az + A dz The amplitude of the acoustic signal begins to decrease with altitude, where the thiYd term is equal to zero: 1 dP �-I- P d =0. Figure 8.2.1 shows that the atmosphere is an e.xtremely effective amplifier of ' acoustic signals and at the same time is a singular filter sorting out by alti- - tudes the components of different frequencies (periods), as a result of which a possibility appears for observing the response of different layers of the iono- sphere to acoustic signals of different frequencies (periods). It becomes understandable why the ionosphere reacts (responde) appreciably to rel- atively weak acoustic disturbances arising in the low layers of the atmosphere (explosions, cyclones, tsunamis, etc.). - Observations of ionospheric fluctuations are made by radio methods. As the prin- cipal metric property we will use the plasma properties of the ionosphere: the - concentration of free electrons and the dielectric constant caused by them. The fut'iuamt-~itaZ formulas for the dielectric properties of plasma were given in Section 1.8; we will supplement them with the following: 1) the phase velocity of propagation of a monochromatic radio wave . Vph = c _~`1- ~ ~ � (8.2.8) - ~ ~ L( ~ 2) the group velocity of a wave packet forming as a result of dispersion, which is different from the phase velocity, V gr ' cs (8. 2. 9) ~ ~ ~ ] In the ionosphere, with upward propagation of the sounding radio signal, in the region of high concentrations of electrons, the signal frequency gra~aduallap proaches the local plasma frequency; the phase velocity increases, g Y more and more exceeding the speed of light, whereas the group velocity, on the other hand, decreases. Upon reaching the altitude where the frequency of the sound- ing signal and the local plasma frequency coincide (8.2.10) Vph--+ ao , Vgr 0, the sounding radio signal experiences complete reflection. With a frequency of the sounding radio signal less than the plasma frequency (e.3 < _ uJPl) the signal will all the more be completely xeflected from the boundary of the ionized medium. With cJ.>4Jpl the signal will pene~rate into the ionized 42 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL 115E ONLY _ medium to a depth which will be the greater the higher the frequency of the , sounding signal in comparison with the plasma frequency. - If, for example, ne = 5�1011 m 3= 5�105 csri 3(typical electron concentration in the daytime in the F layer), the critical angular frequency of the sounding radio _ signal is u1 = cJpl Q 41. 84.106 sec 10 which corresponds to the linear frequency f=")/2n' = 6.66�106 Hz = 6.66 MHz. With lesser frequencies the signal will be refl ected from the ionized layer of the atmosphere; with greater frequencies the signal will penetrate into it. It is possible to measure the electron concentration by selecting the minimum fre- quency of the radio signal at which it is reflec ted from the investigated layer of the tonosphere. The altitude of this layer is determined by the travel time of the radio signal from the transmitter to the reflect ion level and back to the receiw er. When measuring the total (integral) quantity of electrons in the ionosphere it is customary to use a method based on measurement of the Faraday rotation of the polarization plane of a high-frequency radio si gnal. which is directly proportion- al to the quantity of electrons along the signal path. The plane-polarized high- frequency radio signal, during passage through t he ionosphere, rotates by some angle which is dependent on the parameters of the signal itself, the ionosphere and the geomagneCic field. If the direction of p ropagation of such a radio signa2 coincides with the geomagnetic field vector, the Faraday angle of rotation in an isotropic segment of the length L is equal to ~ Tr = pl(asma) L � tu (8.2.11) 2c w7 H. where c is the velocity of propagation of the el ectromagnetic wave, 4JH is the Larmor frequency of rotation of an electron in the magnetic field (in formula (8.2.11) it is assumed in advance that c~~qi, -v If cjP1 is replaced by its value, and in addition, r W H - m~ �xN~ (8.2.12) where H is geomagnetic f ield strength, �H is space permeability, we obtain the Faraday angle of rotation in the form wz` ne3�H~ . ( 8 0 2 .13) Ce p1l1 e Measuring J2, with a known geomagnetic field strength it is possible to determine Lne the integral quantity of electrons on the radio 5ignal path. If the electron concentration varies along the radio signal path, in (8.2.13) it is necessary to convert to d SZ and dL and then in t egrate the equation along the radio signal path. 43 FOR Ok'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY If the vectors c and H do not coincide, it is necessary that this be taken into account in computing the integral quantity of electrons. However, during ver- tical sounding of the ionosphere in many cases use is made of formulas which do not take this circumstance into account. Now we will proceed to an examination of intentional and unintentional modifica- tion of the ionosphere. Response of ionosphere to launching of space systems. An example is the "Saturn- Skylab" system. The "Saturn-�5" rocket, launched from Cape Canaveral on 14 May 1973, put the "Skylab" space laboratory into orbit. This caused a considerable disturbance of the ionospheric F layer. The launching was accomplished at 1230 hours EST. The laboratory wasput into orbit at an altitude of 442,2 km with a flight velocity of 7.3 l~n�sec_1 at 12 hours 39 minutes 59 seconds. , Five ionospheric stations observed the change in the quantity of electrons on the path to them of polarized radio signals from the two geostationary satel- lites ATS-5 and ATS--3. Figure 8.2.2 is a diagram of the observations. It can be seen that the tralectury of the radio signal or the path ATS-3 - Sagamore Hill approached closest to the trajectory of the "Satum-5" rocket in its final stageo Figure 8.2.3 shows how Che integral quantity of electrons on the path from the ATS-3 satellite to this station changed after launching of the space system. It is easy to see a sharp dropoff of the curve approximately 10 minutes after the launching at a time close to the time of the maximum convergence of the rocket and sounding signal trajectories. Figure 8.2.2 shows that the distance between them at this time was less than 100 km. Judging from the estimates, the impurit- ies discharged by the rocket engines in a fraction of a minute are propagated to such a distance at the altitude of the ionospheric F layer that it cannot be not- ed due to the scale of this figure. ~ At stations for which the paths of radio signals from satellites passed fart er from the rocket trajectory the lag in response is more conspicuous and the re- sponse is accordingly weaker. - Figure 8.2.4 shows the characteristic diurnal variation of the integral electron concentration and its diurnal variation on the day of launching of the space 1ab- oratory 14 May 1973. Their comparisan was difficult because precisely on 13 and 14 May there was a strong magnetic storm which exerted an influence on the Fara- day rotation of the polarization plane (see formula (8.2.11)). However, the scale of response of the ionosphere to launching of the space system can nevertheless be seen clearly. The mechanism of disappearance of electrons in the ionospheric F region is a two- stage process. The first stage is ion-atom exchange in the reaction p+-}-V,,~ NO}-f-N (8.2.14) or charge transfer in the reaction p_ r- p, 0 :1 O. 44 FQR OFFIC'IAL C'S1; ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Recombination reactions occur in the second stage No}+e_ ~ N+O. (8.2.16) p� e_": p-}-O. ( 8. 2.17 ) Here ki is the rate of the corresponding reaction. A Ha'capcyait I ygo # fyc�6ti - B - g0  ~ K qse r IIAtA _ (Owrapa o) L+ ~ C7far0p i\YI L� (rp~~~, D +9 a arc-1 ~ o I aQ~`' erc-a H Ic Y.K~MMf~M J, _ E A1C-J pTC-3 6~ ~s G ~ . 90 �3.q. w ?0' VC-J Fig. 8.2.2. Horizontal projections of the trajectory of the "Saturn-Skylab" space system and lines of sight of ionospheric stations to ATS geocentric satellites. The asterisks on the lines of sight indicate the projections of their intersec- - tion with the surface z= 420 im and the short transverse lines indicate the pro- jections of their intersection with the surface z= 1,000 km. 14 May 1973 (United States). KEY : A) Narsarsuak G) Center Cape Kennedy B) Goose Bay H) Launching 1230 hours C) London, Qntario I) Saturn-5 D) Urbana J) Putting of station into orbit E) Sagamore Hill 12 hours 39 minutes 49 seconds F) ATS-5 (ATS-3) K) Skylab station 45 - FOR OFF'[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY C Fig. 8.2.3. Integral quantity of electrons (record of polarimeters measuring Fara- day rotation) with direction of sounding to ATS-3; according to data for Sagamore _ Hill station. 14 May 1973. (United States). KEY : A) Integral quantity of electrons B) Launching C) hours - N1f3cH =A nycKg 15�f0~? ~ i t0�1017 ~ ? 5-10'? ` 1 C n s fz 1e sa tiq Fig. 8.2.4. Variation of integral quantity of electrons on 14 May 1973 (1) and its characteristic diurnal variation (2) according to data for Sagamore Hill sta- : tion (United States). KEY: A) Integral quantity of electrons B) Launching C) hours The rate of reactions (8.2.14) and (8.2.15) is approximately 100 times less than the rate of reactions (8.2.16) and (8.2.17). Accordingly, the rate of disappear- ance of electrons on a practical bas is is determined by the rate of_ reactions (8.2.14) .and (8.2.15). If the concentration of nitrogen molecules is n(N2), of oxy- gen is n(02) and of electrons is n(e *_he rate of disappearance of electrons is equal to : dn (e-) Ik,n(H2)+k2n(00jn(e ) dT (8.2.18) or 1 dn(e-) n(e-) dt (8.2.19) where )B(z) is the coefficient of losses of electrons at a given altitude (the ex- pression for p (z) is obvious from a comparison of (8.2.18) and (8.2.19)). 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY With the introduction of molecules of hydrogen H2 and water H20 into the iono- _ sphere by a rocket ion-atom exchange transpires in the reactions O+-{-Hz OH++H; ( 8. 2. 2Q) p++H2p- k# Hzp++p, (8.2.21) In the second stage this is follawed by dissociative-recombination reactions OH+-}-e--�O-{-H, . (802.22) IizO++e-- Hs-f-O. (8.2.23) H20++e --OH+H. (802024) The rate of reactions (8.2.20) and (8.2.21) is approximately 103 times greater than the natural reactions, similar in sense (8.2.14) and (8.2.15). Accordingly, the rates of natural and artificially induced disappearance of electrons in the F layer have the same order of magnitude even at those distances from the source of impurities where the H2 and H20 admixtures in their concentration are only 1/1000 of the natural N2 and 02 impurities. Using an equation of the type (TT.64) for computing the concentration of admixed - HZ and H20 molecules at different distances from the trajectory of their discharge into the stratospher.e, then using an equation of the type (8.2.19), it is possible to compute the rate of artificially induced disappearance of electrons. Those re- gions where the role of artificially induced reactions of disappearance of elec- trons is greater than for natural reactions are of practical interest. There it is possible to assume that _ P(z) = kbn (.H2)-I- ksn (Hs0)� ( 8. 2. 25 ) For comparison with experimental data, that is, in order to obtain an artificially induced change in the integral guantity of electrons, it is necessary to integrate dn(e )/dti along the tra3ectories of the sounding signals. Evidently it is possible to detect artificial impurities even more energetic than HZ and H20 favoring the decay of ionospheric layers. It is important to know their properties along these lines in different stages in the development of new space technology so that their harmful effect is not expected. Response of ionosphere to tsunamis. 1wo types of surface seismic waves arise in the earth's body during earthquakes, and also at its surface: horizontal shear waves (Love waves) and waves with a vertical component (Rayleigh waves). If the epicenter is situated in the ocean, the earthquake is accompanied by ocean waves. If these waves attain a great size and a great destructive force they are called tsunamis. It is considerAd established that Rayleigh waves and tsunamis are caused by the re- lease of potential energy as a result of vertical subsidence of sectors of the earth's crust. The Rayleigh wave is propagated with a velocity approximately 20 times greater than the destructive tsunami wave and therefore it reaches great distances considerably earlier than the tsunami wave. Accordingly, a warning con- cerning the approach of a tsunaffii can be obtained by analyzing the vertical compon- ent of the Rayleigh wave, to be more precise, its long-period camponenta. 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IloHqe~e � : . ' C ~ B~ s QO ~ 3 a BonNO BonNo ((IfHOML D PeneA E /lepedomvuK F RpueMxuK G Fig. 8.2.5. Diagram of warning of approach of tsunami on basis of ionospheric re- sponse. KEY : A) Ionosphere E) Rayleigh wave B) Radio signal F) Transmitter C) Acoustic signal G) Receiver D) Tsunami wave The vertical component of the Rayleigh wave at the ocean surface or at the ground surface forms an acoustic signal which under corresponding conditions can attain the high layers of the atmosphere. Observing the ionospheric response to acoustic surface signals, at the point for observing the ionosphere it Ps possible to obtain an idea concerningo h~o f the u ancy spectrum of the vertical com onent of the tsunami ahead of time, pri P- proach of the tsunami wave. A diagram eaplaining detection of ionospheric response to tsunamis is shown in Figo - 8.2.5. On two islands in the ocean there is a radio transmitter and radio receiver with a continuously adjustable frequency which are synchronously tuned to the plasma frequency of that layer of the ionosphere whose oscillations are caused by an acoustic signal of a stipulated frequency and from which it is necessary to obtain - reflection of the radio signal. If the ionosphere is continuously souaded, at each moment it is possible to know the verticaZ concentration of electrons, and accordingly, also the plasma frequen- cy of the ionosphere, which makes it possible to select the necessary radiosonde frequency. By gradually changing the frequency it is possible to obtain reflected signals fram different layers of the ionosphere, modulated by acoustic oscilla- tions of different periods. Direct measurements are made of the Doppler frequency shift of a radio signal re- flected from the ionosphere caused by acoustic oscillations of the ionosphere and also the travel time of the signal from the transmitter to the ionosphere and 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY then to the receiver. The Doppler frequPncy shift is caused by both the direct ver- _ tical displacement of the ionosphere and by change in the concentration of elec- trons as a result of acoustic change in sir density at the ionosphe re level. The phase path of the sounding radio sig-nal vertically propagating in the iono- - sphere, with allowance for dissipation, is deteimined as _ - - - s - ~ 2 ~ [r p= group, f'= f ~ dz =J I 1-~ lTdz' (8.2.26) - 7f = pl (asma) ) s� vrp s� where integration is carried out along the path of movement of the saunding signal from zp to z. Accordingly, the Doppler shift of the angular f requency of the sound- ing radio signal in the ionosphere is I dP (8.2.27) ~ - - c dt ' Substituting (8.2.6) into (8.2.27), we obtain ~?T ~ pl (asma) ] Gm 1 dP d'~n 1 2 ( wn 12- 2"'~ d In i1r Ci2. (8.2.28) c) c d,~2 dt 2c ~ I- t W/] _ n Zo If in (8.2.28) we convert to the derivative of the vertical concentration, making the replacement dlnnt _V dlnrt, [42 = ph] dT dz we obtain s~, 1 s �n 2-2 w; d!n n ---~~[1-~~)~ : vz~dz. , [11'= pl(asma) ] ~ sd 'I'he continuous registry of the relative Doppler shift,6tJ/41 at several frequencies makes it possible at the observation point to reproduce the f requency spectrum of the vertical component of tsunamis prior to the arrival of the destructive ocean wave. Vertical movements with a period from several seconds to several tens of seconds are of practical interest in connection with the tsunami problem. Modification of the ionosphere by the radiation of powerful short-wave transmitters. In the irradiation of the ionosphere by powerful radio radiation, under correspond- - ing conditions it experiences considerable absorption, as a result of which the electron temperature of the ionosphere increases. As a reGult of heating it will be possible to observe local peculiarities of the properties of plasma, which can lead to the appearance of plasma instability, expressed, in particular, in the genera- tion of plasma waves and turbulent mnvements of different scales, as well as the transformation of radiation by the ionosphere itself, etc. Artificial ionospheric disturbances are capable of reflecting radio waves at fre- quencies exceeding the local plasma frequencies under undisturbed conditions. Ac- ~ cordingly, they are used for distant comunications at high frequencies. In addition, they are also of interest in connection with the possibility of carrying 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY out of direct experiments with plasna, which are difficult to carry out undar lab- . oratory conditions, where the scales of the investigated space are always limited. In contrast to other methods for the disturbance of ionospheric plasma, associated with the introduction of chemical admixtures into the stratosphere or atomic explo- sions, etc., this method is attractive in that the ionosphere is not contaminated and the eacperiments themselves can be reproduced without harmful residual effecCs. The radio signal, passing through tne ionospriere, experiences particularly strong _ absorption in those layers of the ionosphere where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency, that is, where its group velocity is close to zero. The absorbea energy, related to a unit volume of plasma and a unit time, is approxim- ately equal to 2 (8.2.29) 1 q ~ n ? Q aEo= 2 z eoEav, where Eo is the amplitude of electric field strength, 0~is the conductivity of plasma for the particular signal,-y is the frequency of the mutual collisions of electrons; as above, it was assianed that u1~ Some part of the energy is also lost due to the collisions of electrons with ions, but this part is rr_latively small. A greater role is played by energy losses in the excitation of plasma turbulence at different scaleso It is still inadequately clear under what conditions it arises. - It goes without saying that formula (8.2.29) is correct only when u)> 4l, since sig- nals w ith lesser frequencies do not penetrate into plasma. Thus, in actuality Q-~-max when cJ-+41 from the direction of greater c,! valueso In a mpre detailed eaamination of the problem it is necessary to discriminate two radio signal components into which the electromagnetic wave in the ionosphere is split as a result of the presence of the geomagnetic field: one rotates clockwise (ordinary, or 0-wave) and the other rotates counterclockwise (extraordinazy, or X- wave). They differ with respect to velocities of propagation, and accordingly, also with respect to trajectories, and therefore by virtue of the difference in properties they exert a different effect on the iunosphere. For example, ionospheric radiation at a wavelength of 6300 A, which owes its origin to excited oxygen atoms, can be modulated by pawerful radio pulses. The extraordinary wave causes a decrease in the intensity of radiation (luminescence), whereas the extraordinary wave, on the other hand, intensifies luminescence. Figure 8.2.6 i?lustrates modiilation of ionospheric radiation at a wavelength of 6300 A using an ordinary radio wave of a surface transmitter operating at a fre- quency of 5.3 MHz and ha~rir.a a power of 1.6 MW. The transmitter operated cyclical- - ly (switched on and off each 6 minutes) and strictly synchronously with this there = was also a change in ionospheric luminescence. The figure shows that against a background of a monotonic decrease in the characteristic luminescence of the atmo- _ sphere there are artificially induced radiation bursts. In the ionosphere particularly powerful directed radiation can cause a substantia.l decrease in the electron concentration as a result of direct heating and dynaini_c trarsformation of the ionospheric layer caused Uy it.. There were casns when unrier 50 FOR OFHCIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY the influence of one or more sufficiently powerful short-wave pulses the electron concentration decreased to such an eatent that the subsequent pulses penetrated through the ionosphere. Figure 8.2.7 shows the results of observations of the reflection of radio signals from the ionosphere made using an ionosonde ('^nospheric station), which is a puls- ed radar with measurement of a signal carrier frequency discretely changing in space. The ionasonde makes it possible to determine the apparent range (virtual height) of the ionospheric echo at different signal sounding frequencies. The virtual height is determined from the signal travel time to the reflection level and back (to the sounding apparatus) on the assumption that the velocity of irs propagation is equal to the speed of light. The true height is less because in actuality as the signal advances into the region where the electron concentration is high the group velo- city of movement of the signal decreases (see Section 1.8). Figure 8.2.7 shows ionograms; signal freqiiency is plotted along the x-axis and vir- - tual height is plotted along the y-aais. The upper ionogram, for the undisturbed ionosphere, clearly shows the tracl;s of the 0- and X-waves. At an altitude of ap- - proximately 300 km, with an increase in the carrier frequency, the signal tracks (signals of the 0-wave, and then the R-wave) move sharply upward. At the critical frequencies the signals penetrate the ionosphere. On subsequent ionograms (after - cutting in the powerful transmitter operating at a-frequency of 5 MHz) it can be seen how the region of signal reflection is broadened and the tracks become more blurred (a rather complea phenomenon is observed). An artificially induced blurr- ing of ionospheric structure appears; it is called "artificial diffusivity." It is precisely this which is the main reason for broadening of the tracks. _ A1?0 B C N : T � b ' 100 a 1~ . tz I iZ3BO ~ v a 60 e} e Y C~ C`~~�. F m EmOC1 Oaa IE �1 2 z 40 0 12 14 36 49 MuMD BpeNa om Navcno oneima E Fig. 8.2.6. Modulation of intensity of luminescence of red line of atomic oxygen in the ionosphere caused by 0-waves with cyclic operation of radio transmitter at a frequancy of 5.3 MHz (beginning of experiment 2030 LT; 1 rayleigh - 106 photons� _ cm-2�sec 1). 25 September 1970. (United States) KEY: A) B) C) D) E) Intensity of luminescence, rayleighs On Off minutes Time from onset of experiment 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074429-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - With prolonged heating of the ionosphere additional, clearly expressed tracks can appear, as well as an additional sharp signal attenuation in a broad frequency _ band near the frequency of the modifying transmitter, atmospheric lumi..nescence (sen Fj.g. $.2.6) and otner phenomena still inadequately fully investigated. The ionospheric absorption of radio waves is also considered in relation to the problem of transmission of electromagnetic energy through space. The high-energy beam must be su`ficiently high-frequency in order to ensure high directivity and minimum absorpti:,n in the ionosphere. In accordance with the Sxamples considered - above it is necessary to be oriented on a frequency of 102-10 MHz. An attempt is made to solve the problem precisely at such frequencies. A geostationary satellite situated in an equatorial orbit carries so lar cells. They are illuminated by the sun almost continuously, except for short time intervals (each 1 hour 14 minutes) for 22 days before and accordingly after the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes when the satellite enters a region of so lar eclipse. The solar energy is converted into electrical energy. Tl:e d-c current produced by the cells supplies SHF generators. The powerful SHF signals emi.tted by them are transmitted to the earth and there can be converted into those more convenient for - practical use. In the plans for such a system, called a satellite solar power station (SSPS), pro- vision is made for supezL powerful sources (103-104 MW) which can compete even with large-scale atmospheric formations. Therefore, the sporadic use of S SPS for the - modification of atmospheric processes at the times of critical situa tions will be _ entirely realistic in the future. SHF beams with stipulated paramet ers can be form- ed on SSPS and directed to objects to be modified by signals from the earth or from - orbital stations. Semiconductor d-c converters, producing a high-frequency current by means of solar cells, are extensively used in cosmonautics. In the future plans cal 1 for the use - of powerful magnetrons for this purpose; in such cases they are usually called am- plitrons. Their efficiency is high and can attain 0.8-0.9. The electromagnetic energy is focused into a narrow beam by different methods. The - most perfected method is based on the use of horn emitters and ellip soidal dishes, as in radars (seP Section 4.2). Phased antenna arrays (passive or active) are more suitable for space systems. However, the difiiculties in use of SSP S are not re- lated to technology alone. The schematic diagrams for energetic control of atmo- spheric processes for the time being have not yet been adequately developed, al- though the ideas themselves clear (they have been examined to one degree or another in all preceding chapters). = Ionospheric phenomena caused by nuclear explosions. Nuclear explos ions cause a num- . _ b~_r of geophysical phenomena. They have not all been studied suffic iently that def- inite judgments could be drawn concerning their effeets near aud distant. For this reason nuclear explosions must be regarded as a completely uns uitable tool for geophysical investigations and it is to be hoped that experiments with nuc- ~ tear explosions will not be repeated in either scientific work or for any other = purposes, particularly since the most interesting geophysical phenor.iena which were studied with them can be reproduced even without atoraic bombs. _ 52 - FOR OFFICIAL USE OtiLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY The first geophysical result of such an explosion (underground or utmospheric) is acoustic waves, which in accordance with what has been saii above must cause - oscillations of the ionosphere. Such ionospheric oscillations have actually been observed. Only sufficiently low-frequency components of acoustic signals, whose absorption _ coefficients are relatively small (see formula (8.2.4)), travel great distances. - For example, over points situated at a distance of several thousands of kilo- meters from the site of a nuclear eacplosion there wera observatians of acoustic _ signals with periods of 10--102 sec and simultaneously oscillations of ionospher- _ ic layers with the same periods. They were registered using the Doppler shift of thF sounding radio signal of ionospheric stationso A direr_t consequence of high-altitude auclear explosions is the formation (as a result of A-decay) of a large number of relativistic electrons. The electrons set free in the geomagnetic field are entrained into motion around the ma.gnetic lines of force, and in addition, are displaced eastward, gradually forming a thin electron shell an artificial ionosphere around the earth. T-he fission reaction in a detonating bomb with a.l-megaton power gives about 1026 0-decays. If it is assumed that only one of the relativistic electrons, forming as a result of each decay, is trapped by the geomagnetic field, this means that only one such explosion is already capable of creating a significant electron con- centration in the earth's atmosphere. In order to appreciate this it is sufficient to recall that the earth's w lume is 1027 cm3, whereas the volume of the atmo- sphere is cons3derably less. As a result of Coulomb interaction with atoms of air gases the electron fluxes gradually attenuate, but this effect, naturally, is the weaker the more rarefied the air, that is, the greater the altitude above the earth. As demonstrated in Chapter 6, the path of the relativistic electrons is inversely proportional to air density. Using formula (6.5.7) and substituting the parameters of the stan- dard atmosphere into it, for great altitudes we obtain paths of kilometers (Table 8.2.1). As a comparison, for altitudes of 50 and 100 km the table gives the ratios of the electron path to ehe length of the circumference of the earth's equator, equal to 4�104 lm (second line). The table shows that at altitudes for which auroras are characteristic (auroras are relatively well-studied geophysical phenomena) relativistic electrons can - travel global distances and accordingly can cause artif icial auroras at a time inopportune fo r natural processes. This was observed, in actuality, at the time of atomic exp losions. Yonizing the atmosphere at altitudes of about 103 1m, the electrons induced a characteristic limminescence. It was observed visually, photo- - graphed anci also investigated by more precise spectroscopic and radar methods. However, electrons can be introduced into the atmosphere at any altitudes and by other means mo re suitable for this purpose, more controllable, and not causing _ any direct danger of radiation damage. Computations show that after the detona- - tion of a 1-megaton nuclear bomb the radiation in surrour~ding space becomes com- mensurable with the lethal dose for man. 53 FOR 0FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Modern technology of acceleration of elementary particles makes possible the di- rect installation of electron generators on satellites and rockets far the pur- ' pose of their direct introduction into the atmnaphere. Such Soviet-French experi- ments have been carried out successfully during recent years. Small accelerators ' (see Chapter 6) make it possible to obtain electron fluxes adequate for creating thousand-kilometer curtains of artificial auroras. - Table 8.2.1 Path of Relativistic Electrons in Atmosphere at Different Altitudes Altitude, 1m Electron energy, MeV 1 lp 100 500 1000 25 0.13 1.3 49 8 300 19 720 25 910 50 4.6 1�10'4 1 1.2�10- 3 0.75�10'2 11.8�10-2 2.3-10'2 100 . 9.2�103 9.8�104 6�105 1.4�106 1.9.106 0.23 2.4 15 35 48 8.3. Stratospheric Ozone as a Biological Shield. Anthropogenic Effects on Ozone The element oxygen in a free state can eaist in the form of ux."Pcular allotropic modifications of more stable ordinary 02 and less stable ozonr Qz- With respect to its physicochemical properties ozone is characterized by a high chemical activity. The characteristics of its absorptive properties in the short-wave biologically active part of the solar spectrum are most important for further consideration. - The total ozone content in the atmosphere is measured as the thickness of the layer which would be formed by all the ozone reduced to normal conditions. The measurement unit is centimeters or their thousandths, a unit which has been given the name "dobson." The total ozone content in the atmosphere varies in the range 0.16-0.45 cm. The main mass of ozone is situated in a relatively narrow layer of the atmosphere from 10 to 50 lam with a maaimum between 20 and 25 km, At greater altitudes the concentration of 02 is small; its dissociation serves as a beginn- ing of the ozone forma.tiorL reaction. There is a small concentration of catalysts of this process. A small part of the ultraviolet radiation, under whose influence 02 dissociation occurs, genetrates to lesser altitudes. The ozone concentration at the maximum level is only 1012-1013 molecules per cubic centimeter. The quantity of ozone in the earth's atmosphere is small, but its role . is gre4t. In the creation and penetration of the ozone layer the biologically ac- _ tive part of the W radiation is attenuated by many times. Virtually all forms of life on earth to one degree or another react to variations in UV radiation. A nor- mal intensity of W radiation exerts a favorable influence on them, whereas a high intensity exerts a destructive effect. Accordingly, there is basis for assuming that . life on the earth did not develop until the ozone stratospheric layer had formeda For the time being the consequences of variation in the intensity of W radiation have not been adequately studied. It was established that a decrease in the ozone _ shielding from UV radiation can cause an increase in allergic diseases, skin can- cer, different kinds of mutations in the animal and plant world. With respect to 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL`1 the influence of variation of W radiation on climate and weather, for the time being there is no clarity in this problem, as ia the caae, however, in other problems rel ating to the influence of physicochemical processes in the upper layers of the atmosphere on the surface weather. It has been postulated that such an inf luence is quite strong. For example, an attempt has been made to demonsCraCe the presence of direct correlations between the intensity of W radiation and the - quantity of polar ice, ocean plankton, etc. - Figure 8.3.1 shows the relationship between W radiation at the upper boundary of the atmosphere and at the earth and also gives the coefficient of absorption of radiation by ozone }L. The � coefficient is usually related to the elasticity of ozone, equal to 1~ Hg. The characteristic elasticity of ozone in the ozono- _ sphere is 104 times less. This same figure shows the corresponding path of photons 1 If it is taken into account that the characteristic thickness of ths ozone layer is 20-30 km, it becomes understandable why at the earth's surface W racliation is virtually absent in the region /N = 2700-3000 A(Fig, 8a3o1). p cM-r 0,f2 _ ,oor o, to 0,08 ' 1 0,06 30 ~ 0,04 0,01 0 A JKM Fig. 8.3.1. Ultraviolet radiation at the upper boundary of the atmosphere and at the earth's surface (characteristic values)a 1) coefficient of absorption of UV - radiation by ozone, related to an ozone pressure of 1 mm Hg; 2) path of photons at partial pressure of ozone 10-4 m Hg; 3) UV radiation at upper boundary of atmo- sphere; 4) UV radiation at ground level; 5) W radiation at ground level corres- ponding to a 50% decrease in the ozone contento 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . ~ / / \ ro'' \ ' 3 / ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ /4 ~ j a io 1100 1800 2900 3000 3100 0 3300 ,1 A Fig. 8.3.2. Biological effect of ultraviolet radiation. 1) relative sensitivity of human skin to erythema (W burn); 2) relative rate of protein decay; 3, 4, 5) relative spectra of erythemic biological effect of W radiation at upper boun- dary of atmosphere, at ground under ordinary conditions and at grotmd with a 50% decrease in ozone content. The decrease in ozonE content is proportional to the 3ncrease in the photon path and displaces the boundary of total absorption of W radiation in the direction of shorter waves (harder radiation). In an approximate estimate of the change in intensity of radiation reaching the earth it can be assumed that a decrease in the ozone content in the ozonosphere by a factor of k will lead to an increase in the intensity at the earth from I to I': ~ , where IO is the intensity of W radi.ation at the upper boundary of the atmosphere. Figure 8.3.2 illustrates the natural shielding of life on earth against UV radia- tion. The sensitivity of human skin to W radiation in different parts of the spectrum is different. The maxi.mum of W burning, as indicated by Fig. 8.3.2, falls in the . region near 2980 A. The maximum of the rate of protein decay is in a still shorter- range region. Thus, in the region of the maximum of harmful biological activity (UV burning, protein decay, etc.) a completely insignificant part of the UV radi- - ation reaches the earth. By multiplying the functional intensicy of W radiation and the relative sensitiv- ity to erythema, we obtain the so-called spectrum of the erythemic biological ef- fect in relative units. Its value, especially in the region of maaimum sensitivity, 56 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY determines the real degree of the W burn. 'I'he spectrum of the biological effect _ of W radiation on protei.n can be determined in a similar way. Figure 8.3.2 shows the spectrum of the erjthemic biological effect of UV radiation - at the upper boundary of the atmosphere and at the earth, and also at the earth with a hypothetical two-fold decrease in the ozone content in the ozonosphere. The change caused by a decrease in the absorption of W radiation was considerable, and as it is easy to understand, the liarm from W radiation increases far more strongly than the intensity of W radiation with a decrease in the quantity of ozone in the atmosphere. The vaiiations in the spectrum of erythemic biological ef- fect as a result of the hypothetical weakening of ozone shielding of the atmosphere fall in the limits between curves 3 and 4. Photochemical reactions in the stratosphere, in particular leading to the formation or decay of ozone, have still been poorly studied. This is attributable to imper- fection of inethods for making measurements in the stratosphere and the difficulty in reproducing stratospheric reactions in the laboratory. Therefore, the relative role of particular reactions of ozone formation and destruction must not be re- garded as finally established, particularly since for the time being they still are not all known. - The principal ozone formation reaction in the stratosphere is considered to be the i:ombining of ordinary molecular oxygen with atomic oacygen. The rate of this reac- tion is essentially dependent both on the quantity of atomic oxygen which is form- ed as a result of the dissociative decay of oxygen molecules into atoms and on how _ intensively catalysts intervene in the ozone formation process. In the stratosphere these catalysts are nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, etc. The energy of dissociation of 02 molecules is A= 5.08 eV. Such an energy is char- - acteristic of a light quaatum with the frequency h -9_ (8.3.1) where h is the Planck constant. The corresponding wavelength of light is c ch ~d = Y = A ~ ~8.3.2) where c is the speed of light. Substituting A= 5.08 eV = 8.13�10'12 erg, we obtain va 1.23�1015 Hz, Ad = 2441 A. Such a wavelength belongs to the W part of the solar spectrum. The solar energy in the region of shorter wavelengths a> d is all thP more intensively absorbed by molecular oxygen and favors its dissociation (with the formation of atomic oxy- gen in an excited state). In the region of longer wavelengths the dissociation of oxygen molecules attenu- _ ates, but to /k = 3100-3200 A it is still eignificant (see Fig. 8.3.1). With a~ad a single-event encounter of a photon with an oxygen molecule does not result in its dissociation, but a stepped dissociation can be observed: with the first encounter with a photon the molecule passes into an excited (metastable) state; in the second 57 FOR OFFICIAd. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY (or subsequent) encounter the molecule passes from a metastable state into a dis- sociated state. Usin g the terminology in Section 5.11, it must be said that when X> Xd the quantum y ield of the dissociation reaction is less than unity. Here reference is to relat ively low-intensity radiation fluxes. In intensive fluxes, in addition to multistep photoionization, it is possib.le to observe multiphoton photoionization, when one molecule absorbs two (or more) photons simuitaneously (aee Section 6.3). Ozone is destroyed as a result of direct combination with free atoms of oxygen 03 +O 20._. However, ozone is des troyed most energetically in a catalytic cycle of interac- tions with nitrogen oxides: No+o3-. yoz+o, o,+hy-.o2+0 N 02+O-- NO -j- 01 203 +hy 302 in interaction with atomic hydrogen H, hydroayl OH, fl02, both directly, for example in the reaction - - H-E- 03 -0 H-}- O2, and as a result of eaclusion from the reaction of ozonization of atcmic oxygen, for _ eaample, in the reaction - - - - O H-}- O-- H+OZ and evidently as a result of other still unknown mechanisms. The anthropogenir- increase in the content o�� such components of stratospheric air as nitric oxide or watervapor favors the clecay of ozone, but the penetration of ~ other nlore energeti c destroyers of ozone into the stratosphere is especially anger- ous in this respect. For example, atomic chlorine, which is virtually absent in a natural unimpaired s tate in the stratosphere, but which is introduced into the stratosphere as a result of human activity, is a more energetic catalyst af ozone decay than are nitrogen oxides. The corresponding ca talytic cycle of reactions has the following form: ~ C1-f-03-00-}-02 Oa-}-hv-- OZ-}-O - CIO-{-O C1-}-02 203-}- h 'J 302 58 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Among the presently known still more energetic catalysts of ozone decay is bromineo It can enter the atmosphere, for example, due to the combustion of ethyl gasolines and from the use of inethyl bromide. The inadvertent impairments in the rnobile, poorly stable photochemical equilibrium between ozone and other components of the stratospheric medium are associated with the gradual penetration and accumulation of impurities in the stratosphere, which is attributable, in particular, to the flights of supersonic aircraft, rockets, nuclear explosions and industrial sources. In discussing the consequences of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere the main em- phasis is usually on the direct effect of the explosion and radioactive contamina- A tion. In comparison with this, the effect of explosions on ozone may be of little importance. However, the high temperatures accompanying an explosion so favor an intensification of the dissociation of nitrogen with the formation of its oxides that even in the case of a limited nuclear war this coutd substantially (or even irreversibly) disrupt the ozone equilibrium, that is, could favor the breakdown of the ozone protective layer on a global scale. Such a process transpires rela- tively slowly: the ma.ximum ozone decrease should be attained 106-107 sec after a - nuclear explosion. During this time the dissociation products can be propagated for distances commensurable with the dimensions of the earth. Such phenomena were seem%ngly discovered in the 1970's after French and Chinese nuclear tests. The observations were made using the "Nimbus-4" satellite, which carried appropriate instrumentation. However, information of the opposite character is available; ~ specifically, after a nuclear explosion in China along the track of the radioac- tive cloud over Japan a number of ozonometric stations observed a considerable increase in the total ozone content. s ? tars '!0 t Fig. 8.3.3. Rate of natural appearance of ozone in atmosphere (1) and its decay as a result of the influence of oxygen (2), nitrogen oxides (3) and also rate of decay of ozone as a result of anthropogenic effect of chlorofluoromethanes for two variants: their produc;.ion will increase (4) and their production will cease (5). 59 FOR OMCIAL USE 0NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 Nc-~ N aec 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY With the improvement of engines and other flight vehicles even now attention is - being given zo the need for decreasing substances favoring the decay uf ozone. _ International norms will evidently be introduced along these lines in the future. - With respect to the intentional destruction of the earth's ozone shield, this is theoretically possible, unfortunately, rather realistic. 'rhe principal obstacle to this should be man's reasoning and conscience. Figure 8.3.3 gives some idea concerning the degree of reality of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. It shows the ratio between the natural rate of ap- pearance of ozone anci the rate of its decay. Ozone decays as a result of combina- tion with pure oxygen and nitrogen oxides, usually present in the stratosphere; however it also decays not less intensively as a result of the reaction with chlorine atoms forming during the decay of chlorofluoromethanes, primarily CFC12 and CFC13, which enter the stratosphere as a result uf flights of vehiclesa with atus, 3et engines, the operation of different kinds of surface refrigerating app etc. The figure shows the results of computation of the rate of appearance and decay of ozone for two variants of use of chlorofluoromethanes, differing from one another with respect to the prospects of their use in the fu[ure. In the first variant the production of chlorofluorouc�;thanes is constantly increasing - doub- ling each 3.5 years; in the second var.iant such production completely ceases. The natural processes of appearance and decay of ozone are considered constant during the entire period of analysis. It follows from the figure that already in the next decade the situation can be- " come threatening as a result of the entry of only one destroyer of the ozone layer into the atmosphere chlorofiuoramethane. In constructing Fig. 8.3.3. the losses of chlorofluoromethane on the patih from the earth to the ozonosphere were not taken into account. Until recently it could be assumed that in actuality impurities of surface origin cannot without considerable transformation reach the altitudes of the ozonosphere. However, the experiments carried out in American test polygons with the use of ground instrumentation, radiosondes aad satellites have shown that this is not so: chlorofluoromethanes, retaining their chemical inertia, reach the stratosphere where they decompose under the influence of W radiation, setting free chlorine atoms which also destroy ozone molecules. The accimmulation of another impurity in the atmosphere carbon dioxide has been studie3 more thoroughly. Observations of C02 have long been made and at the ~ present time rather detailed data are available. Attempts are being made to pre- c;ict accumulations of carbon dioxide for decades in advance. The results of observations and prediction can be used as a base in the predic- tion of the accumulation of other impurities, the behavior of which has been stud- ied to a lesser degrep. 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE OIVLY The influence of carbon dioaide on the thermal regime of the atmosphere is con- sidered known, hut its influence on other properties of the atmosphere, its par- : ticipation in general gas eachange prncesses, the catalytic role in ozone foYm,a- - tion end decay, all this is known onlp in its most genEral outlines. The strong dependence of the rate of ozone-forndng processes on the concentration of known, and also still unknown catalysts, makes it necessary Co seek effective methods for observing the content of impurities in the stratosphere natural and anthropogenic. A method has been developed for tracking the global distribution of hydrochloric acid in the stratosphere and is in use. It is based on measux-gment of the absorption of solar radia*ion by HC1 in the narrow band near 3.5 �m. The absorption bands of other air components are situa ted in this same region and therefore it is necessary to have instrumentation with a high spectral resolution. Changes in the absorption spectra of solar radiation on slant paths at the time of a solar eclipse of an artificial earth satellite make it possible to determine the HC1 content (and the coatent of some other absorbing components) with a high sen- sitivity to a ten-billionth of the total mass of the air components on the path from a satellite to the horiaon. This is approximately 0.1 of the mean liCl content in the stratosphere. 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M., FIZIKA GROZY (Thunderstorm Physics), Leningrad, Gidrometeo- izdat, 1974, 351 pages. 76. Nalivkin, D. V., UR.AGANY, BURI I SMERCHI (Hurricanes, Storms and Waterspouts), - Leningrad, Nauka, 1969, 487 pages. = 77. NAUCNNYYE PROBLEMY UPRAVLENiYA POGODOY. DOKL. PROBLEMNOY KOMISSII PO UPRAV- LENI'UT POGODOY I KLIMATOM KOMITETA PO ATMOSFERNYM ISSLEDOVANIYAM (Scientific Problems in Weather Control. Reports of the Special Commission on Weather and Climate Control on the Basis of Atmospheric Investigations), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1965, 63 pages. ~ 78. NEPREDNAMERENNYYE VOZDEYSTVIYA NA KLIMAT (Inadvertent Effects on Climate), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1974, 260 pages. 79. Nikandrov, V. Ya., ISKUSSTVENNYYE VOZDEYSTV;YA NA OBI.AKA I TUMANY (Artificial Modification of Clouds and Fogs), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1959. 80. OSLABIFNIYE LAZERNOGO IZLUCHENIYA V GIDROMETEORAKH (Atteauation of Laser Ra- diation in Hydrometeors), edited by M. A. Kolosov, Moscow, Nauka, 1977, 176 - pages. - = 81. panchenkov, G. M., Tsabek, L. K., POVEDENIYE EMUL'SIY VO VNESHNEM EI.EKTRI- CFiESKOM POLE (Behavior of Emulsions in an External Electric Field), Moscow, ~ Khimiya, 1964, 190 pages. $2. Pastushkov* R. S., CHISLENNOYE MOllELIROVANIYE VZAIMODEYSTVIYA KONVEKTIVNYKH = OBLAKOV S OKRUZHAYUSHCHEY IKH ATMOSFEROY (Numerical Modeling of the Interac- - tion of Convective Clouds With the Surrounding Atmosphere), edited by S. M. - Shmeter, Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972. 83. POVERKHNOSTNYYE YAVLENIYA V ZHIDKOSTYAICH (Surface Phenomena in Fluids), edit- ed by A. I. Rusanov, Leningrad, izd-vo LsU, 1975, 346 pages. 84. Polovina, I. P., VOZDEYSTVIYE NA VNUTRIMASSOVYYE OBLAKA SLOISTYKH FORM (Mfldification of Stratiform Air-Mass Clouds), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1971, 215 pages. 85. PRIMENENIYE RADIOLOKATSII V METEOROLOGII I OKEANOLOGII (Use of Radar in Meteorology and Oceanology), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972, 83 pages. 86. Priestley, H. B., TURBULENTNYY PERENOS V PRIZEMAIIOM SLOYE ATMOSFERY (Turbu- _ lent Transport in the Atmospheric Surface Layer), Leningrad, Gidrometeoi2dat, 1964, 123 pages. _ 67 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 - FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY 87, Prikhot'ko, G. F., ISKUSSTVENNYYE OSADKI IZ KONVEKTIVNYKH OBLAKOV (Artif- _ icial Precipitation from Convective Clouds), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1968, 172 pages. - - 88, PROBLEMY ATMOSFERNOGO ELEKTRICHESTVA (Problems in Atmospheric Electricity), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1969, 361 pages. 89. PROBLEMY KONTROLYA I OBESPECHENIYA CHISTOTY ATMOSFERY (Problems in Mon- itoring and Ensuring Atmospheric Purity), edited by M. Ye. Berlyand, Len- ingrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1975, 191 pages. 90. RADIOAKTIVNYYE VYPADENIYA OT YADERNYKH VZRYVOV (Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Explosions), Moscow, Mir, 1968, 342 pages. - 41. Rayzer, Yu. P., LAZERNAYA ISKRA I RASPROSTRANENIYE ZARYADOV (Laser Spark and Propagation of Charges), Moscow, Nauka, 1974, 307 pages. 92. RASPROSTRANENIYE OPTICHESKIKH VOLN V ATMOSFERE (Propagation of Optical Waves _ in the Atmosphere), edited by V. Ye. Zuyev, Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1975, 252 pages. 93. RASPROSTRANENIYE UL'TRAKOROTKIKH RADIOVOLN (Propagation of Ultrashart Radio Waves), M4scow, Sov. Radio, 1954, 710 pages. 94. Ratcliffe, J. A., MAGNITO-IONNAYA TEORIYA I YEYE PRILOZHENIYE K IONOSFERE (Magneto-ionic Theory and its Application to the Ionosphere), Moscow, Izd- vo Inostr. Lit., 1962, 248 pages. - 95. Rozenberg, V. I., RASSEYANIYE I OSLABLENIYE ELEKTROMAGNITNOGO IZLUCHENIYA ATMOSFERNYMI CHASTITSAMI (Scattering and Attenuation of Electromagnetic Radiation by Atmospheric Particles), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972, 348 pages. 96. Rusanov, V. D., SOVREMENNYYE METODY ISSLEDOVANIYA PLAZMY (Modern Methods in Investigating Plasma), Moscow, Gosatomizdat, 1962, 182 pages. _ 97. Rusanov, A. I., FAZOVYYE PEREKHODY I POVERKEiNOSTNYYE YAVLENIYA (Phase Trans- itions and Surface Phenomena), Moscow, Khimiya, 1967, 388 pages. 98. Sedunov, Yu. S., FIZIKA OBRAZOVANIYA ZHIDKOKAPEL'NOY FAZY V ATMOSFERE _ (Physics of Formation of the Liquid-Drop Phase in the Atmosphere), Lenin- grad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972, 206 pages. 99. Selezneva, Ye. S., ATMOSFERNYYE AERfJZOLI (AtmDspheric Aerosols), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1966, 174 pages. 100. SVECHENIYE IONOSFERY PRI VOZDEYSTVII MOSHCHINOY RADIOVOLNY (Lum.inescence of ~ the Ionosphere 'Jnder the Influence of a Powerful Radio Wave), by T. G. Adey- shvili, et al. [Preprint 369]. Preprint Space Research Institute USSR Acad- emy of Sciences, Moscow, 1977, 19 pages. - 68 _ FOR OFFICIAL USC vNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - 101. SIMPOZIUM PO FIZIKE OBLAKOV. SOFIYA, 20-24 NOYABRYA 1967 (Symposium on Cloud Physics, Sofia, 20-24 Novemher 1967), Sofiya, Izd-vo Bolgarskoy Akad- emii Nauk, 1969, 199 pages. 102. SPRAVOCHNIK PO GEOFIZIKE (Handbook of Geophysics), translated from English, . Moscow, Nauka, 1965, 572 pages. 103. Styro, B. I., SAMOOCHISHCHENIYE ATMOSFERY OT RADIOAKTIVNYKH ZAGRYAZNENIY (Self-Purification of the Atmosphere from Radioactive Contaminations), Len- ingrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1968, 288 pages. - 104. Sulakvelidze, G. K., LIVNEVYYE OSADKI I GRAD (Showers and Hail), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1967, 410 pages. 105. Stepanenko, V. D., RADIOLOKATSIYA V METEOROLOGII (Radar in Meteorology), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1973, 343 pages. 106. Tikhonov, A. N., Samarskiy, A. A., URAVNENIYA MATF.iKATICFiESKOY FIZIKI (Equa- tions of Mathematical Physics), Moscow, Nauka, 1972, 735 pages. 107. Thomson, J., PREDVIDIMOYE BUDUSHEYE (Foreseeable Future), Moscow, Izd-vo In- - ostr. Lit., 1958. 108. Fedorov, Ye. K., VZAIMODEYSTVIYE OBSHCHESTVA I PRIgODY (Interaction Between - Society and Nature), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972, 87 gages. 109. Frank-Kamenetskiy, D. A., DIFFUZIYA I TEPLOPEREDACHA V KHIMICHESKOY KINETIKE - (Diffusion and Heat Transfer in Chemical Kinetics), Moscow, Nauka, 1967, 491 pages. _ 110. Frenkel', Ya. I., SOBRANIYE IZBRANNYKIi TRUDOV (Collection of Selected Works), Moscow-Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1959, 460 pages. 111. Fuks, N. A., MEKHANIKA AEROZOLEY (Mechanics of Aerosols), Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1955, 352 pages. . 112. Khagan, M., KLATRATNYYE SOYEDINENIYA VIQ.YUCHENIYA (Clathrate Occluded Com- pounds), Moscow, 1Ki.r, 1966, 165 pages. 113. Khantadze, A. G., 1VEK0'PORYYE VOPROSY DINAMIKI PROVODYASHCHEY ATMOSFERY (Some Problems in the Dynamics of a Conducting Atmosphere), Tbilisi, Metsniyereba, 1973, 278 pages. 114. Khirs, D, Paund, G., ISPARENIYE I KONDENSATSIYA (Evaporation and Condensa- tion), Moscow, Metallurgiya, 1966, 195 pages. 115. Khrgian, A. Kh., FIZIKA ATMOSFERNOGO OZONA (Physics of Atmospheric Ozone), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1973, 241 pages. 116. Chalmers, J. A., ATMOSFERNOYE ELEKTRICHESTVQ (Atmospheric Electricity), Len- ingrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1974, 419 pages. 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 117. Shifrin, K. S., RASSEYANIYE SVETA V MUTNOY SREDE (Light Scattering in a Tur- - bid Medium), Moscow, Gostekhizdat, 1951, 288 pages. J 118. Shishkin, N. S., OBLAKA, OSADKI I GROZOVOYE ELEKTRIMESTVO (Clouds, Precipit- ation and Thtmderstorm Electricity), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1964, 401 pages. 119. Shmeter, S. M., FIZIKA KONVEKTIVI3YKH OBLAKOV (Physics of Convective Clouds), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972, 231 pages. 120. Shonland, B., POLET MOLIdIY (Flight of Lightning), Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat, _ 1970, 160 pages. 121. Yuman, M., MOLNIYA (Lightning), Moscow, Mir, 1972, 215 pages. , 122. Yur'yev, B. N., AERODINAPff CHESKIY RASCHET VE1tTOLETOV (Aerodynamic _ of Helicopters), Moscow, Oborongiz, 1956, 560 pages. 123. Banks, P. M., Kockaris, G., AERONOMY, Academic Press, New York-London, Part A, 422 pages, Part B, 355 pages, 1973. - 124. Batton, L. J., RADAR OBSERVATION OF r'HE ATMOSPHERE, Chicago Union Press, 1973, 344 pages. 125. CLOUD DYNAMICS, edited by S. Han and R. Pruppacher, Department of Meteorol., University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA, 1976. _ 126. CONFERENCE ON LIGIITNING ANll STATIC ELECTRICITY, Culham, 14-17 Apr. 1975. 127. Godev, H., Levkov, L., IZKUSTVENO V"ZDEYSTVIYE NA ATMOSFERATA (Artificial Modification of the Atmosphere), Sof ia, 1971, 169 pages. 128. Dufour, J. Defay, R., THERMODYNAMffCS OF CLOUDS, New York-London, 1963, 255 pages. 129. Fletcher, N. H., THE PHYSICS OF RAINCLOUDS, Cambridge University Press, 1962, - - 386 pages. 130a Fletcher, N. H., THE CHE14ICAL PHYSICS OF ICE, Cambridge University Press, 271 pages. 131. i:r"stanov, L., Miloshev, G,, TEORETICfINI OSNOVI NA FAZOVITE PREKHODI NA VOD- _ ATA V ATMOSFERATA (Theoretical Principles of Phase Transitions of Atmospher- ic Water), Sofia, Izd-vo na B"lgarskata Akademiya na Naukite, 1976, 215 pages. 132. Mason, B. J., THE PHYSICS OF CLOUDS, London, Oxford University Press, 1971, = 671 pages. 133. Pasquili, F., ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION: THE DISPERSION OF WINDBORNE MATERIAL FROM INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER SOURCES, 2d Edition, Chichester, Horwood, 1974, 429 pages. 70 FOR OFFICIAL LISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 134. PROBLEMS OF ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE ELECTRICITY, edited by S. C. Coronity, Amsterdam-London-New York, 1965, 616 pages. 135. Scheidegger, A. E., PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF NATURAL CATASTROPHES, Amsterdam-Ox- ford, Elsevier, 1975, 289 pages. 136. Volmer, M., KINETIK DER PHASENBILDUNG, Dresden-Leipzig, 1939. 137. WEATHER AND CLIMATE MODIFICATION, edited by W. N. Hess, New York, John Wiley, 1974, 842 pages. 138. WEA1`HER MODIFIGATION AND THE LAW, Oceana Publications,Inc., New York, 1968, 228 pages. COPYRIGHT: Gidrometeoizdat, 2-e izd., pererab. i dop., 1978 [8144/0328-5303] 5303 - CSO: 8144/0328 71 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF[CIAL U5E ONLY UDC 551.51 MONOGRAPH ON DYI3AMICS OF THE EQUATORIAL ATMCSPHERE Leningrad DINAMIKA EKVATORIAL'NOY ATMOSFERY (Dynamics of the Equatorial Atmosphere) in Russian 1980 signed to press 31 Mar 80 pp 5-7, 288 [Foreword and Tab1e of Contents from book by Ye. M. Dobryshman, Gidrometeoizdat, 1000 copies, 288 pages] [Text] Foreword. In global models of general circulation of the atmosphere the peculiarities of the processes transpiring in a narrow equatorial zone with a width of approximately 1,000 km are usually not taken into account or in the _ best case are taken into account very approximately. This occurs for three rea- sons. The zone is small and within it the variations of the principal meteorolog- ical parameters are 10-20 times less than in the middle latitudes. Moreover, in nimmerical models of general circulation for a hemisphere it is simpler to "set" a wall at the equator; in global models (of which there are few for the time be- ing) it is simpler to "stride" across the equator. Finally, the methods for anal- ysis of the equations of hydrothermodynamics customary for the entire remaining atmosphere do not reflect the specifics of the processes near the equator; for the zone itself it is not easy to formulate models of physical processes and it is difficult indeed to relate them or tie them in to the processes transpiring outside the zone. In addition, the intertropical convergence zone exists at the boundary of the equatorial zone. Typhoons develop a little beyond Che boundary of _ this zone and in the process of development of necessity "flee" from the equator. ~ Not one typhoon has crossed the equator. This can scarcely be attributed only to the ,8 -effect. Indeed, some hurricanes (Carlotta 2-11 July 1975, Denise 4-15 July 1975), arising at latitude 8-10�, rose to latitude 17-18� and then dropped down to 13�. But Denise on 10 July made a loop at latitude 13� [193). The narrow equa- torial zone with a very s-mall variability of ineteorological parameters "frightens off" typhoons. Why? We are far from an answer to this question. First it is neces- sary to carry out a careful analysis of processes in the equatorial zone. A nuur ber of difficulties are involved here. One of them is related to a detailed cal- culation of heat influxes. Therefore, as usual, in the first approximation the heat influxes are considered either stipulated or such as will ensure a"back- ground." Then it remains only ta consider the dynamics. In order to reveal the specifics of processes in the equatorial zone more clearly, we will first briefly present the results of a study of the interaction of the pressure and wind fields in the atmosphere, then we will describe the character- istic features in the transition zone 15-5� latitude and only thereafter will we - consider processes in the zone itself. It is to be understood that the choice of material and the interpretation to a considerable degree reflect the points of - 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY view of the author and are not always indisputable and clearly substantiated to an identical degree. The style of exposition of different subjects is not the same, this ref lecting the tastes of the author. Unfortunately, the volume of the book did not make it possible to include detailed calculations, which sometimes are long and not always obvious. Insofar as possible, one and the same method is used in solving different problems and in simple cases it is in principle easy to trace the calculations. I would hope that the monGgraph will help in drawing attention to the difficult but interesting and important problems involved in the dynamics of the atmosphere in the low latitudes on the part of the greatest range of specialists "sensitive" to meteorology. It is more difficult to become indoctrinated in the field of ineteor- ology than to learn to use different mathematical methods for the solution of prob- lems and nevertheless the physicists most frequently are able to give a correct in- terpretation of the resulti. The book makes no pretense at complete coverage of the problems involved in the dy- namics of the equatorial atmosphere. The interaction and regime in the boundary layers, the processes of radia.tion transfer, the circulaticn mechanism in the stratosphere and a number of other problems have remained almost untoucheda _ Very little attention has been devoted to thermodynamic processes. But here there is justification for the weak discussion of the problem because the recently pub- lished monograph of A. I. Fal�kovich [178] analyzed extremely carefully many of the principal problems relating to the intertropical convergence zone. The bibliography as well in no way gives a proper idea concerning the numerous articles.dir-~ctly or indirectly pertaining to the considered problems. But the principal GATE problems are now being published in special numbers of the GATE BIBLIOGRAPHY. At the time of publicati.on of this monograph two such numbers have appeared. The preliminary results of analysis of TROPEX-72, TROPEX-74 and GATE have been published in the form of collections [169, 170, 207, 263 (28*-50*)], where there is an extensive bibliography. [The references to the literature mark- ed with an asterisk are cited in the appendix to the list of basic literature.] The table of contents gives some idea concerning the content of the book and ac- cordingly there is no need for a brief description of each chapter. The nunbering of the formulas in each section is independent. Therefore, refer- ences to a formula in the same seetion are indicated simply by the sequence num- ber of the formula; if a figure precedes the number of the formula, this refers to the number of the section in this same chapter. In the case of references (rare) to formulas from another chapter, the latter is indicated by a Rpman numeral at the very beginning of the citation. There is an introductory part at the beginning of each chapter; in citations to farmulas from these introductory parts the number of the formula is preceded by an "0." In citations to formulas from the "Introduc- tion" a"V" is indicated. The nimmbering of the figures is independent in each chap- ter. The tables are numbered in sequence throughout the book. 73 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY In an era af an exceptionally fast pace of life the affording of the necessary and adequate conditions for writing a book on a"related" field of specialization is a task not Iess than the writing of the book itself; this accounts for the apprec- iation which I express to my wifeo The thankless task of a very rigorous, but also very objective reviewer, A. I. Fal'kovich, won my deep appreciation. This applies to a still greater degree to the work of the exacting and attentive scientific edi- tor M. A. Petrosyants. ThP book deals with many matters, set forth in implicit or explicit form, constitut- ing problems for which there is no solution; in any case these solutions are un- known to the author. One of the purposes of the book i.s a deep desire to bring im- portant and interesting problems in tropical meteorology to the attention of the scientific community. Any criticism, reviews, wishes and comments will be received ' with sincere appreciation. - TABLE OF CONTENTS Page From the Editor .................a...... .e...... ..................o..........oo. 3 Foreword o..................o........oo.o.o....o.oo.. 5 Introduction 9 Chapter I. Interaction of the Atmospheric Dressure and Wind Fields....o.........0 14 Chapter II. Determination of Width of the Equztorial Zone o...oooo����� 29 Chapter III. Some Characteristics of Atmospheric Processes in the Latitude Zone 5-150 ...oo............................o. 42 Chapter IV. Simplification of the Equations of Hydrothermodynamics for the Equa- torial Zone .....,..o .................o..........o................0 86 Chapter V. Wave Movements in the Equatorial Zone With a Stipulated Temperature Field 103 Chapter VI. Study of Atmospheric Reaction to Heat Sources in Equatorial Zone.... 125 Chapter VII. Stationary Models of Circulation in the Equatorial Zone 224 182 - Chapter VIII. Nonstationary Models of Low-Latitude Circulation ......v..a�.����. Chapter IX. Some Problems in the Stabili.ry of Movements 238 SuffiQary �.......................a.........�... 0 ...o...s......263 Bibliography 272 .................................o..... Supplement to Listing of Main Literature 284 ......................o.................................oo...o..o. - Subject Index 286 COPYRIGIiT: Gidrometeoizdat, 1980 [8144/0336-5303] 5303 CSO: 8144/0336 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY METEOROLOGY AERIAL METHODS FOR STUDY OF THE OCEAN AND ITS FLOOR Le ningrad PROBLEMY ISSLEDOVANIYA I OSVOYENIYA MIROVOGO OKEANA in Russian 1979 - signed to press 30 Oct 79 pp 135-165 [Article by V. V. Sharkov] [T ext] In the study of the earth's surface, the surfaces of the oceans and their d eep layers extensive use is made of survey materials obtained employing differ- en t types of instrumentation (detectors) which are carried aboard aircraft, heli- copters and other aerial or space carriers. These methods have come to be known as remote aerial methods. Aerial methods, in contrast to other methods in oceanology, observations with which ar e made at individual stations at different times, make it possible to ob tain in- fo rmation on features and phenomena over extensive expanses of the ocean virtually s irnultaneously or during a relatively short period of time. - Such phenomena and features can be studied only in parts and over a long ti_me when us ing other methods. After first interpreting the materials from aerial surveys it is possible to plan the use of other oceanological methods. Th e possibilities of different aerial methods in the study and special mapping of th e oceans are still far from clarification. Without question, the improvement of ex isting aerial methods, as well as the further development of new (laser, lumin- es cent, ultraviolet, geochemical surveys, etc.) methods considerably increase the ef fectiveness of study of the ocean and make it possible to solve many scientific and practical problems in oceanology. 1. Classification of Aerial Methods [Most of these methods are also used in surveys from space carriers.] Mo dern highly sensitive detectors carried in flight vehicles are capable of reg- - is try of the radiation of the ground and water surface in narrow zones of almost the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves. The collected data can be represented in the form of two-dimensional images (photo- graphs) or one-dimensional profiles or curves [4]. Depending on the range of electromagnetic waves and registry apparatus employed, _ i t is possible to define different types of aerial surveys, the comparative char- acteristics of which are given in Table 1. [Table 1 uses data from [1] and [9].] 75 F(1R (1FRTrTAT. TTCF. (1Nf.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In addition, surveys are classified as passive, registering the characteristic radiation of features or reflected solar radiation, and activ.:, in which there is irradiation of the earth's surface, orith subsequent reception of reflected radia- tion. Most of the active methods can be employed at any time o� day or night, and a radar survey can be made in virtually any weather. Passive surveys, except for an IR survey, can be made only in the daytime. Most frequently in the study of natural features use is made of photographic, tele- vision, multizonal and spectrometric methods (scanner, IR and also aerial radar and airborne magnetometer, aerospace surveys). Laser surveys are already used in measuring distances and depths of the sea within the limits of shallow seas. The materials from aerial siirveys, and accordingly, the information obtained from them, are tied in to geographic coordinates by means of radiogeodetic equipment. Angle-measuring, range-finding and mixed systems are available. The greatest accur- acy in determination (up to f20 m) is attained using a range-finding system. In those cases when radiogeodetic apparatus cannot be used, the tie-in of features is acconplished using navigational methods in which an allowance is made for the course of the aircraft and the time expended on reaching a definite point. When working near a shoreline aerial survey routes are calculated directly from shore landmarks. 2. Materials from Photographic, Television and Scanner Aerial Surveys - In the process of the above-mentioned surveys there is registry of reflected solar radiation primarily in the visible zone of the spectrum (0.4-0.74 ~km) in the form of two-dimensional images aerial pho tographs. The principles for an aerial pho- tographic survey are widely known. f Aerial television surveys (with nonscanning apparatus) differ from aeri.a:l photo- = graphic surveys in that the image is fo rmeci on a conducting target a vidicon, and not on a photographic film. The images from the vidicon are transmitted to re- ceivers (on the ground) in a of phototelegraphic transmission or are regis- tered on an aircraft on magnetic tape. _ Aerial photographic and aerial televis ion images are constructed on the central pro,jection principle. A scanner image is obtained as a result of scanning of the terrain perpendicular to the flight direction using an oscillating mirror or a rotating drum to whose lateral walls are attached mirrors showing a narrow terrain band in the form of a line. With the motion of the aircraft and synchronous movement of the photographic film on which the line is registered the individual lines are "put together," as a result of which there is formation of a two-dimensional terrain image in an equi-- angular projection [4]. The materials of these surveys are used extensively in a study of both the ocean surface and the surface water layer and also for study of the structure of the floor of shallow seas. 76 FUR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In order to ohtain aexial photographic images o� the water surface use is made oi panchromatic, is.opanchromatic or infrachromatic films. In order to ohtain images of the sea floor, taking into account the strong absorption of long-wave and the scattering of the sfiorr-wave part of the spectrum 6y the water layer, use is made of films sensitized to the yellow-green (in the case of Curbid coastal waters) and blue-green (in the case of transparent waters of the open sea) range of the electro- magnetic spectrum. For this reason, in a survey of the sea floor in coastal s hallow waters it is recommended that use be made of isochromatic and isoorthochromatic f ilms. The use of multizonal (photographic, television) and zultichannel (spectrometric or scanner) surveys is common. A multizonal survey is made using several syn- chronously operating or multiobjective camer-is with films of different types or on one film with different light filters. The images are obtained in relatively broad spectral ranges. A multic}iannel survey makes it possible to obtain images in both broad and narrow spectral ranges. - Thus, surveys of an ocean area and the sea floor can be made in optimum spectral ranges. When there is a set of multizonal and multichannel photographs in t~he course of their interpretation it is possible to have a more reliable separation of images of the sea floor or features in th,e water thickness from features on the - sea surf ace, s ince the first are registered better in the blue-green and green, whereas the second are registered better in the red spectral range. Photographs taken in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, with availability of the corresponding equipment can with a high accuracy be matched on a single screen. Using different light filters, from black-and-white images it is possible to ob- tain color images reflecting the natural or conventional coloration of images. Such images are characterized by a high information content, which considerab ly simplifies and accelerates interpretation and increases its reliability. The photagraph scale I/m is of considerable importance for the interpretation of aerial photographic images; it is dependent on the ratio of the camera focal length f and survey altitude H, specifically: I/m = f/H. The materials of aerial surveys, on the basis of scales, are arbitrarily classified - as large-scale (lar.ger than 1:15,000), medium-scale (1:15,000-1:70,000), small- scale (1:70,000-1:250,000) and ultra-small scale (smaller than 1:250,000). Th e scale of these surveys is selected in dependence on the formulated problems. Recently there has been a tendency to carry out aerial surveys at smaller sca les, especially from space. This is attributable to several factors. First, photographs taken from great altitudes, and especially from space, are bet- ter in quality hecause on the camera focal plane there is no incidence of scatter- ed light of the atmosphere,which in this case can be regarded as a natural li ght filter. In the course of a survey of the sea floor from great altitudes over a considerable area the light rays pass through the atmosphere and water layers at tnore vertical angles than in the case of a survey from low altitudes. This prede- - termines a lesser absorption and scattering of light by the water. 77 FnA !1L'FT!'TAT TTCF 01,TTV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY q i ia � > H o d H c0 ~ ~ N 3 U -H a ~ Cd ~ a 0o N ~ o i' cp 0 ~ A f. ~ a~ ~ vi o0 00 0 � � ~ o n w w 0 -W ~ A o ' ~ 41 U i~ R! v P4 cd m r-i v-1 ~ ~ ~ c j O 7 ~ co O ~ b O ~ 10 > c+1 00 t0 N ~ ~ >1 Cd a' ~ O O t0 A y.~ cn ~1 rn cd m o cd d oo l -I W O r r W 1 ~ Cl > ~ W ~ N ~ C! .C G~! O O ~ 41 n4 ~ 4-4 ~ H~ 00 > � a ao P c 0 d O 3 0 .e ~ 44 a) 1+ ai ~ ~ � a) o"o i~ ~m ~ o a~i 9 o a ~+1 t~ a~? p t~ > CI N d N 4+ 4 m O tJ $4 co a~ cli N cd w a) b .v a .0 a co Qv 'i O O di (A t0 Q U H tA 7$ FOR OFFTC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ ~ � a �1 ~ > o 0 ~ ~ ~ q .c v c~ ,a w a oo ~ ~ - H ~ u a ~ � � c a q a 0 , m � � � ~ a 41 41 H a $w o a ~ U bo u ~ a cc u c~ u ca ~ ~ o 0 a~ 00 1 ~ '+a 0 ~ u w W V 0 V }4 7 V w z 'L7 ' ~ a a ~ ~ a i ; as q U Ol p c~ ~n ~ d ~ y~ w 4.1 0 v ~ ~ 0 U 4-~ m a 0 0 o cd ~ ~ ~ m am i~j w v a~ r-I c0 I I w ~ td 41 0. ~ 0 E ~ p U t G) W C 14 ~ 00 44 w O ~ W ~ ~ ~ 3+ b0 1 O w u ~ ~ ~ i ~ v r I ~ - a .ee u o ~ a~ 0 u ~ w ~ ~ v i c i n w cu ~ .C cd o g ~ ~ ~ ` O _ u '1 l N C F+ ti-I tn } ~ d d O 0 ~0 w $ O 00 ~ p cA Q rl U cn F+ 0 10 - ro 'H ~ m m o u � ~ ~ u a ~ u f~ $4 a � a 4) 0 0 A a ~b a a ~ o i ~ + 3 + 79 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY o sa cvo ~ ~ ~ z w ~ ; co 0 - ~ r4 ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ d A , _ 41 a) d c u a c~ oo ,H ~ ~ o 'd 4-1 0 a) co w - o ~ - U 4-1 � d m ~ e z ~ U tl f+ ~ ca . � o ~ > > ~ a ~n = + . c o 00 0 o o o i ~ $4 ~ a ~ ~ p., z d ~ ~ _ Cd w 3 u~ ca b > c o 0 0 'H ~ ~ ~ > 4+ O 4.3 U 0 N cd _ ~ ~ ch d D 3 ~ ~ ce H 4-4 'U ~4 o ~ ro d cr ~ - v CV) ~ x _ H 0 p Cd O - .,..1 � 3 b N ro - � ii ~ � o 0 3cn � 0 " � o ; m A p ~p U tn O 44 ~ p rl M '-1 � N r-1 O a) . a ~ U .C o c d o0 y tA 1l- N -H ~ ~ - a H b R7 ~ M ~ 1 J � 'C3 'L7 ~ � a ~ ~ - ~ 2 - b � - .,.i r~ 1 > - ci ~ rLni rz ao �w b 3v) ~ C . . O~--I ::S-- ro-1 G o � Hd tr1 ~ ~ 14.4 L1 C+ ~ p p ~ .C O ~ H w ,q (1) 0 a N ~ cC t0 3a Rf ~ N U~ p cd �r~ ~ a 3 c~ ~ z mEl d,H u 1-+ u E-+ m . 8 0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONLY ~ w ~ N 0 r ~ r-1 , -1 I S + 41 ~ 1 l ~d CJ N I tn a O a~ D vcf a D 1-4 oo ~ u I w v co +1 a 0 0 v o r+ ro H w a) ~ w cO v oo a~ ~ ~ 00 .~4 8 U +J A~ 00 u W O r-1 00 O w F U 44 W 0 � u ~ p ~ i 0 a i 0 O od 14 U a.+ H U Cl O O r-I d O GJ u :3 W cU :j Rf V) W v1 GJ ~ -H 00 r1 m 44 ~t a) 44 ~ p ~ i~ m U 4~l d R 1 O p c V c) G! O GJ O 60 U �rl ~ U 0 0 0 U iC N ,-1 C. ~ 0 ~ al ~ C+ 00 11 i I L q d l t CJ r U r W O ~ c~ 41 8 ,H a o cn ~ 8 x~ cn w ~ -W m I'a 0 rl U -1 'Ll 'C t F+ w O O 41 a o o cn uo.a U m Cr1 ri N U 41 O 00 iJ 00 ~ � � ~ ~ ~ i Q. t- ~ e- 4 . -i 9=1 o, p m co b ai co a~ N m oo u a Y+ cti v cti 4-4 ro w O c 0 H ~d ~ 0 ~0 O a . 0) CJ G! W bo CL N U d > H 41 S + ~ O :3 -H u b ~ co ce a oo co o m ~ ~ a) ao o w o 0 4+ a H O F + cd 44 U W a 44 N O 44 d 34 00 '-I cC ia cd i c0 v 41 41 E O .C r1 Pd ro C N ~ a r- v 3 . .C H P. 00 N ~ 00 " o � o m or-i w co ca r. ~ 41 H 00 ri c13 Cn ~ ~n x a u o ~ ~ O ~ a i . Y u w. ce d 4- O U 1j rn u ~ ~ co , 3 q b R. ~ a i i o i a ~ o o w :3 a ca m a w u o o4 81 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Second, such aerial photographs with a high resolution can 5e multiply enlarged to the necessary scale without a sufistantial loss in quality. Third, in the case of a small-scale survey it is possible to cover a great area s imultaneously, which reduces the time expended on the processing of materials and their interpretation. ~ The special interpretation of aerial photographic, aerial television and scanner photographs in principle does not differ in any way. 2.1. Interpretation of Azrial Images of Surface of Water, Features and Phenomena in its Layer On aerial photographs of the water surface at the present time it is already pos- sible to identify a number of features and phenomena, specifically waves, currents, water color and transparency, Langmuir circulations, etc. Sea waves show up clearly on aerial ghotographs. In their interpretation it is pos- sible to detect all systems of waves and determine their characteristics [lOJ. Stereoscopic measurements from overlapping aerial photographs, taken from two air- craft with synchronously operating cameras, make it possible to compile maps of isohypses of the wave-covered surface of the oceans. All the wave parameters can be read from such maps. Using individual photographs (taken with a single camera) it is easy to measure the ;:svelength of swell. The use of cylindrical lenses or rotating screens facil- itates the study of different wave systems. This is achieved by the diffraction method, in which an aerial photograph with images of waves is regarded as an im- perfect diffraction grating. WavE systems are determined from the position of the maxima in the diffraction pattern obtained using special apparatus. On small-scale aerial photographs with images of the wave-covered sea surface with three-dimensional waves it is possible to note ordered waves, not observed from ships or on large-scale photagraphs. On the basis of materials from an aerial photographic survey it is possible to make a detailed study of the refraction and diffraction of waves (Fig. 1) and use these data fo: clarifying the characteri_stics of bottom relief, and sometimes (on the basis of wave refraction) also for making an indirect determination 3f the sea depth [12]. Sea currents in many cases are easily recognized on ordinary aerial photographs on the basis of image tone. This is possible if the water layers moved by the cur- rents, depending on their properties, differ from the surrounding water expanses, and also from the waters transported by other currents. For example, to the east ' of the Japanese islands there is a cold (Qyashio) and a warm (Kuroshio) current. The first is enriched with nutrient substances, and accordingly, is saturated with plankton, which imparts a yellowish-brownish color to the waters. The warm _ {uroshio Current is characterized by a water transparency of a. dark aquamarine color. Accordingly, on the aerial photographs these currents are represented in different tunes. 82 FOR OFFICIr1.L USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FGR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An improved method for studyiag surface currents from an aircraft for the coastal parts of ocean areas has been developed in the Aerial Methods Laboratory of the _ USSR Geology Ministry [8]. In accordance with one of the variants of the method ~ the water surface is marl:ed by means of floats, impregnated with fluorescent salts, dropped from an aircraft and forming hright spots. Then an aerial photo- _ graphic survey of the marked ocean area is carried out twice at definite time in- tervals. After orientation of the aerial photographs measurements are made of the direction and degree of displacement of the spots relative to fixed reference marks (features on shore, structures above rhe water or the photoimages of bottom contours). Thus, it is possible to make a detailed study of the structure of cux- rents. In another variant of the method, in order to mark the water surface a bottom in- dicator is dropped from an aircraft; from this bottom indicator two floats with dyes are successively released by neans of special devices at a rigorously set time interval and these float to the sea surface. After floating-up of the second float aerial photographs are taken in such a way that on a single photograph there is immediately an image of dye spots from both floats. The direction of movement of the dye spots and the distance between them, with allowance for the survey scale, are determined on the aerial photographs. By knowing the time it� erval between the surfacing of the two floats and the distance between them, it is possible to - compute the velocity of their movement, that is, the velocity of drift under the - influence of the currents. The position of the floats can be registered in th2 course of radiogeodetic measurements. Water color is recognized on black-and-white aerial photographs from the tone, and on synthesized color photographs is recognized from definite colors. On black-Z.nd- white aerial photographs turbid waters, having yellowish or gray-brown hues, a-:e relatively light, whereas tratLsparent waters have dark hues. Using these criteria, - it is possible to ascertain, and map on the basis of the relatively light tone of the aerial photographic image, the areas of propagation of river runoff waters; turbid waters, forming after storms in the limits of coastal shallows or over ~ sand banks; waters enriched with suspended material from eruptions of underwater - lava and mud volcanoes; sectors of upwelling of bottom waters to the surface, usually having a brownish color as a result of their enrichment with phytoplank- ton, etc. The discharge of ground or juvenile water at the sea floor is sometimes manifested at the sea surface in the form of spots of transparent water, corres- - ponding to darker sectors oa aerial photographs. On the basis of the change in the tone or color of the image of the water layers within the limits of coastal shallows - (when homogeneous ground is present) it is possible to make a photometric determin- ation of the sea depth, since under these conditions the image tone on black-and- t white photographs and the color on color aerial photographs are dependent on the - latter [11]. Langmuir spiral-like circulations (eddies). These, ae ; well known, predetermine on the surface the concentration of floating objects (surface-active substances, foam, vegetation, etc.) in the form of long and relatively narrow bands. These bands, formed 6y a surface-active substance (Fig. 2,a) and foam (Fig. 2,b), can be seen clearly against the background of the wave-covered sea surface. An analysis - of photographs in combination with an analysis of hydrometeorological data at the time of an aerial photographic survey can be of substantial a.ssistance in an inves- tigation of a still inadequately studied phenomenon a Langmuir circulation, 83 , Fnu nIMrrrsr TrcL' rnsrv i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and will make it possible to determine the interrelationship hetween the distribu- tion of bands and wind directions and thE directions of the principal systems of waves and sea depths and ascertain the dependence of the distance of the hands and their structure on the ahove-mentioned factors, and also internal waves. Internal waves are formed in the water layer at the boundary of layers of differ- ent density. At the crests of these waves the turhtd surface water is of a lesser thickness than in the troughs and therefore the latter on the photographs have lighter tones than the first [13]. ~ In addition, it can be expected that at the houndary of water layers with differ- ent density there is an accumulation of dead valves of plankton and other f ine particles, and this, with the high transparency of the upper water layer, assists in discriminating internal waves on photographs [14]. An analysis of images of internal waves makes it possible to evaluate their para- meters: period, phase velocity, direction of propagation. Discontinuous currents disrupt the system of coastal wind waves and the surf zone, as is manifested on the aerial photographs. In addition, the mass of water of dis- - continuous currents is usually distinguished on the basis of color as a result of the great quantity of suspended material. This can be seen clearly on the photo- graphs. Their analysis makes possible a detailed study of this phenomenon. Plankton colors water in yellowish-brownish or greenish tones. Such sectors are - clearly discriminated on the photographs (their tone differs from the tone of the remaining sea surface). As already mentioned, the high productivity of plankton organisms is frequently associated with upwellings or the presence of cold currents. Turbid water, as already noted, on aerial photographs is lighter in tone than pure sea water. The mapping of the propagation of turbi.d water is of substantial im- portance for clarifying the conditions of modern sedimentation at the limits of the shelf. 2.2. Indirect Indicator of Local Change in Water Temperature American astronauts [19] discovered clouds of a special form whose format_ion was associated with the presence of eddylike circulations of cold water, suc.h as amidst the warm Yucatan Current. Over cold water eddies they observed a clear sky, whereas along the edges of the eddies, that is, at the boundary of cold and warm waters, there was a powerful sickle-shaped form of the cloud cover. Thus, on the basis of the form of the cloud cover it is possible to make an indirect determin- ation of local areas of propagation of cold water (such as upwellings) amidst the _ relatively warmer surface waters of the ocean. An analysis of the characteristics of structure of the cloud cover in the case of a relatively qt__et synoptic situa- tion can assist in a study of temperature anomalies of surface waters of the ocean, sea currents, etc. The greatest effect for study of the cloud cover over the ocean is from materials of aerial and space surveys. 84 FUR OFFICIr1L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2.3. Interpretation of Features on the Sea Floor Modern technical equipment makes it possi5le to ohtain an aerial photographic im- age of the sea floor at depths from several meters to several tens of ineters in dependence on water transparency. As a result, the width of the band of the isnder- water shore slope, within whose limits it is possible to survey the sea floor, varies from several hundreds of ineters to tens of kilometers. In addition, the sea floor shows up on aerial photographs within the limits of isolated banks both in the open sea and on the shelf. On_such aerial photographs it is possible to identify many underwater features whose office and field interpretation favors their detailed study and mapping [2, 3]. At the present time the materials from aerial surveys of the sea floor are already in use for geological-geomorphological investigation and mapping, engineering-geo- logical field work, search for minerals, study and mapping of underwater vegeta- tion, compilation of sea and landscape maps or coastal shallows, etc. Geoiogical-geomorphological study and mapping. On aerial photographs of the sea - floor in coastal shallows it is common to see clearly both rocks and unconsolid- ated sea bottom material, whose photopatterns frequently differ sharply in depen- dence on their mineralogical composition, texture and structural characteristics [2, 3]. This can be seen cleariy in the cited aerial photograph of the sea bottom (Fig. 3). In this same photograph it is easy to mak.e out disjunctive dislocations in the form of straight or curved lines bounding individual tectonic blocks. The interpretation of such aerial photographs makes it possible to obtain ex- tensive geological information: determination of the bottom propagation of dif- ferent rock compleaes, including those to which various minerals can be related; measurement of horizontal thicknesses (that is, the width of outcropping on the bottom) of individual strata, layers, suites, etc.; determination of the bedding elements of strata (azimuths and dips); clarification of stratigraphic and angular unconformities; recognition of different accumulative and abrasional relief forms, etc., and also geological structures and their elements (Fig. 4), the clarifica- - tion of which is of considerable importance in the search for marine petroleum and gas deposits. Due to this, as we11 as the clear image of the boundaries between the features,it is possible to compile geological, geomorphological, bottom material and other special maps of the sea floor which with respect to reliability and detail are in no way inferior to maps of the land. Geological engineering field Work. The materials of aerial photographic surveys can be used for study of the geological engineering characteristics and compilation of y,eological engineering maps of the underwater shore slope and the coastal parts of - the land which are necessary for the designing of hydroengineering structures. These materials have great importance in clarifying and predicting the dynamics of . shore processes. Tn particular, on the basis of the character of the image of shore and bottom accumulative and abrasional relief forms it is possible to determine the direction of along-shore movement of flows of sediments and their relative thickness, sectors of abrasion or acc rmulation of unconsolidated deposits, etr_. 85 FnR (1FFT(:TAT. TTIRR (1NT.Y l APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Allowance for the dynamics of these processes is important in predicting the pos- sible erosion of shores, or, on the other hand, the silting-up of hydroengineer- ing structures during the period of their operation. Search f or minerals. Aerial photographs of ocean areas show a number of features, phenomena or processes which can be used as criteria in the search for some miner- als. Thi s makes it pos-,ihle to localize sectors of ocean areas promising for the formulat ion of more detailed exploration and reconnaissance work. Thus, sectors of ocean ar eas beneath which petroleum and gas are present can be discovered from the - aerial photographic images of rocks which contain petroleum (Fig. 3); anticlinal folds (s ee Fig. 4,a); constantly renewable films of petroleum floating on the sea surface ar.eidentified on aerial photographs from a specific aerial photographic pattern of a light tone, under which the image of the sea floor can be seen (Fig. 5); underwater mud volcanoes, identifiable from their characteristic shape (Fig. - 4,b); ga s eruptions (Fig. 6), etc. Sectors promising for coal deposits or iron ores of sedimentary origin, etc. can be discr iminated from the characteristic images of underwater outcrops of coal- bearing, iron ore and other suites and strata. The left part of Fig. 7 shows a coal-bearing suite represented by rocks of a clayey-silty composition with strata of sands tones, coal and coaly shales. It is characterized by a clearly expressed bedding and a strong warping of the rocks represented on the photograph. These indicato rs make it possible to establish the presence and distribution of such suites on the sea floor. Coastal-marine placers of minerals aze detectable from the change in the photo- graphic density (image tone), reflecting the coloration of beach sands enriched with minerals; on the basis of the images of elements of accumulative forms of relief above and below the water it is possible to localize sectors within which there is separation of heavy fraction minerals. Construction materials within the limits of the sea floor and the coastal part of the land are represented primarily by unconsolidated sediments making up differ- ent accunulative fozms of relief or filling in U-shaped vallPys. These forms, like the unconsolidated deposits themselves, show up clearly on aerial photographs. Thus, t he latter give exhaustive information on their distribution on the bottom and the possible conditions for their exploitation without impairment of the dy- namics of shore processes, that is, without disruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the shore. [It must be remembered that the production of construction materials along the coasts frequently leads to disruption of the dynamics of shores and their destruc tion. The collection of unconsolidated material can be accomplished in the upper parts of submarine canyons without damage to the dynamics of shores.] Underwa ter vegetation is easily identifiable on aerial photographs. Sometimes it is poss ible to identify not only different algae, including useful algae (sea kale, grass wrack, etc.), but also to determine the limits of their distribution and to calculate the reserves (Fig. 8). Compila tion of sea charts. Stereophotogrammetric *_-~asurements of the local relief of the sea floor are made for compilation of sea charts when the bottom contours are vis ible on the photographs. In the absence of contours use is made of the 86 FOR OFFl:,IAL USE ODTI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY already considered (2.1) photometric method, making it possib le, on the basis of the image tone or color af the water layer (in the case of homogeneous ground) to determine sea depth. Sometimes stereoscopic measurements are comhined with data from depth measurements made with echo soundings or lasers and by the photo- _ metriC metfiod. The materials of an aerial photographic survey considerably facil- _ itate the carrying out of hfdrographic work and the compilation of sea charts, es- pecially in the region of shallows, since they give a relatively precise and ob- j ective idea concerning underwater relief. ` Compilation of landscape maps. The detailed and objective representation of under- water features on aerial photographs makes thein indispensable for landscape study and mapping of the sea floor. In the interpretation of aerial photographic images it is possible to identify not only different landscape components and elements, but in many cases ascertain their interrelationship and interdependence. Study of the dynamics of processes transpiring on the bottom of shallow seas. When there are repeated aerial surveys within the limits of one and the same ocean area it is possible to judge the changes in the landscapes of the sea floor occurring during a rigorously determined time period. By such a method it is possible to de- _ termine changes in the forms of bottom relief, rate of formation of new or destruc- tion of already existing coastal relief forms, overgrowth of the bottom with under- - water vegetation, etc. A comparison of materials from repeated aerial surveys is ; one of the most modern and reliable methods for the study of the dynamics of pro- cesses transpiring within the limi.ts of the bottom of coastal sea areas, making it possible to obtain both a quantitative and qualitative description of these pro- - cesses. 2.4. Obtaining Information on Features on the Sea'Floor Using Indirect Criteria The materials of aerial photographic surveys of the sea floor can be used in solv- ing many scientific and practical problems. However, their use to a considerable degree is restricted to a relatively narrow band of the coas tal part of the - oceans and individual shallow-water banks. Only the image of the water surface - is obtained on aerospace photographs of very extensive areas of the open sea and oceans. The assumption of some researchers [5, 6, 181 that in a survey from great altitudes and from space it is possible to observe and photograph the sea floor with depths of hundreds or even thousands of ineters is improbable. The attenuation of - light by the water layer is so great that for practical purposes, as demonstrated by experimental studies, Lhere is no possibility, using modern technical equip- ment, to obtain photographs of the sea floor at depths more than 100 m. This is also confirmed by numerous visual observations of divers, who have noted a rapid attenuation of light with depth and by measurements of the light flux at different depths in the sea with different water transparencies. The maaimum sea depth at which a photoimage of the sea floor was obtained was 70 m. In connection with w.-tat has teen said above it can be concluded that the photograph- ing of the sea floor bc:yond the limits of the underwater shore slope and indi- vidual shallow-water banlcs is impossible over the areas of th e seas and oceans. 87 FOR OFFTCTAI. TTSF. (1NT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Nevertheless, the materials from aerial photographic surveys and space photo- graphs of the surfaces of the seas and oceans can he used for obtaining informa- tion on some characteristics of structure of the sea floor. This is becoming pos- sible due to the fact that definite features and phenomena, present or developing at the water surface and in its layer, are interrelated to the structure of the sea floor and also to processes transpiring in ita deep layers. Such interrela- tionships can be used as indicators of some characteristics of its structure. The first attempt at study of the sea floor with the use of such indicators was undertaken at the Aerial Methods Laboratory [14]. Indicators of underwater volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions are manifested in the form of a change in the optical properties of the water due to the ejection of ash material; presence of local sectors of swirling water or strong and irregular waves amidst the calm sea surface; ejections of ash, smoke and the release of steam above the water surface; concentrations of floating fragments of pumice, and sometimes also the formation of temporary or permanent volcanic islands. Indicators of underwater mud volcano eruptions. These eruptions are manifested in the form of small fountains and waterspouts, emanations of gases (see Fig. 6), making the water foamy, water turbidity due to the e,jection of pelitic material, and sometimes in the form of hot flares of hydrocarbon gases. Temporary or perman- ent islands are also formed in many cases. Indicators of discharge of ground fresh, thermal and juvenile waters. The discharge of these waters at the bottom in the case of a calm sea surface is manifested in the form of sectors of swirling water, and when waves are present, in the form of sectors of relatively smooth water; sometimes powerful underwater springs form sectors of more transparent water at the sea surface. Indicators of possible petroleum and gas deposits. The presence of petroleum in the deep layers of the sea floor is sometimes manifested at the sea surface in the form of spots of petroleuin constantly renewed at one and the same places and eruptions of gas, usually making the water foamy. The following indicators can be used for clarifying the fo..ins of bottom relief: Waves. These sensitively react to positive relief forms present at sea depths less than 1/2 of their length. Beginning with this depth the waves experience deforma- tions, specifically, there is a decrease in the length and aii increase in lieigtit and velocity. Such a deformation of the waves can be reflected on aerial photo- graphs and on the basis of the change in the nature of the photoimage of the wave- covered sea surface it is possible to detect positive relief forms on the bottom, sometimes at considerable sea depths. For example, Yu. M. Shokal'skiy notes that "...even at such great depths as are present in the Wyville Thomson Ridge, betxaeen the Faeroe Islands and Scotland, that is, at depths of 400-500 m, there was a shortening of the waves" [16, p 277]� In the coastal parts of the sea, on the basis of the change in the nature of the wave-covered surface, it is possible to detect submarine valleys, within which at the time of a storm, due tu the considerable depths, the waves experience a 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY lesser deformation in compaxison thL- shallow-water sectors separating the submarine valleys. Wave destruction. In shallow waters it i:-,. voserved a decrease in sea depth approximately (on the average) up to 3/4 of the wave height. At the time of wave destruction breakers can be ohserved and an aerated (foamy) zone is formed which can be seen clearly on the aerial photographs. A particularly energetic destruc- tion of waves occurs over ohstacles. Speciflcally from photographs of breakers - it is possihle to ascertain the presence and number of underwater bars, under- water ridges, rocks and reefs, shoals, etc. For example, breakers were observed along the shores of Syria over underwater reefs with sea depths as great as 84 m [16]. Refraction of sea waves. This shows up clearly on aerial photographs. It is pos- - sible to ascertain the angles of approach of waves to the shore, measure the length of waves, and under certain conditions ascertain the steepness of their slopes and even the velocity of propagation. The latter is determined as the ratio of displacement of the characteristic points of waves on adjacent photo- _ graphs, determined relative to corresponding fixed landmarks on the shore or at sea, to the time intervals between adjacent exposures. l:nowing the length ?~and the velocity v of waves at a definite point, it is pos- _ sible to determine sea depth as well [12]. For this we use the Stokes formula, ~ establishing the correlation hetween H, v and /N , specifically: v2 = ga /2Jl th 2StlI/a , where g is the acceleration of gravity; H is sea depth at a particular point. In addition, from the curves of the refraction waves it is possible to make out elements of relief of the underwater shore slope troughs, rises, etc. Upwellings, that is, a rise in deep waters to the sea surface, in the open parts of the seas and oceans are often manifested over banks, underwater mountains and ridges. [Upwellings can also be caused by the wind driving the water away from the shore and by divergent currents; they can arise along the leeward sides of is- lands, etc. However, in the open sea, if there are no divergent currents, they are usually associated with bottom relief forms.] As already noted above, waters ris- ing from the bottom predetermine the fluorishing development of plankton and a change in the optical properties of the water. An attentive analysis of aerial znd space photographs makes it possible to detect local changes in the image tone, from which it is possible to judge bottom relief, and if the underwater ridges are genetically related to faults, also determine their position. Turbid waters. These arise after sturm waves in areas of shallow waters and show up clearly on aerial photographs. The systematic renewal of turbid water in the form of isolated areas, sometimes observed far from the shore, can be evidence of the presence of underwater sand banks. Thus, turbid water marks a shallow-water zone along sandy and silty shores, and also sandy-silty banks consiclerably distant from the shore. 89 FOR 0FFICIAI. i1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Transport of turhid water by rivers. This sometimes occurs along submarine valleys (canyons) and therehy marks the continuation of the latter into the sea. 3. Infrared (IR) Aerial Survey An IR aerial survey is based on the regigtry of reflected solar radiation and the characteristic thermal radiation of features on the earth's surface in the form of electromagnetic waves in the range from 0.74 to 1,000 Ftm. It was established - experimentally that for the IR radiation in the atmosphere there are three prin- cipal atmospheric windows of transparency, determini ; the aerial survey in three - ranges: 0.74-1.35; 3.5-5.5; 7.5-14.0 fA M. In the first atmospheric window (0.74-1.35~1m) use is made of reflected solar radi- ation and therefore use is made of ordinary methods of aerial photographic survey- ing on films sensitized to this wavelength range (to be more precise to 0.74- 1.2~11m). Such an aerial survey can be called infraphotographic. - An IR aerial survey in the second and third atmospheric windows 3.5-5.5 and 7.5-14 ~l,m makes it possible to register the characteristic thermal radiation of the earth and the thermal anomalies of features arising as a result of heating by solar radiation (induced thermal anomalies). It is carried out by scanning apparatus - television sets, making it possible to obtain two-dimensional images (thermal aer- ial photographs) or using IR radiometers registering changes in the temperature of the earth's surface along the aircraft flight axis. Instrumentation has also been developed which operates in narrow spectral IR zones. The synthesis of photographs taken with this equipment makes it possible to reproduce color IR iffiages. Such an aerial survey is called a thermal survey. 3.1. Infraphotographic Aerial Survey The near-IR spectral zone, in comparison with the visible zone, is characterized by a lesser scattering of rays during propagation through the atmosphere. This in- creases the range of the su-vey, and the differences in the reflection and trans- mission coefficients favo.: an increase in the contrast of individual features and their details. An IR aerial photographic survey is not used for obtaining an image of the sea floor because the first meters of the water layer already completely absoib all the long-wave part of the spectrum. FIowever, as a result of the difference in the - reflection coefficients of this part of the spectrum and the visible part on the _ IR photographs there is a clear representation of the boundary between the water surface and the land. This is determined by the property of the water to absorb IR-red radiation, as a result of which there is a sharp contrast in the reflection of rays in the IR range from the land and water surface. Accordingly, an IR aerial photographic survey can he used for study and mapping of shorel.ines, maximum and minimum positions of sEi level during incoming and outgoing tides, wind-driven level changes, etc. 3.2. Thermal Survey 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FGR OFF7Cirti. USE ONLY A thermal survey, carried out using IR radiometers, makes it possible to register the temperature of the water surface along the flight profile. In oceanology it is used for determining one of the most important and spatially and temporally variahle characteristics of the ocean water temperature at the surface. A thermal survey made using thermal sensars makes it possihle to register thermal contrasts (anomalies). It is used for the clarification of hydrodynamic processes, underwater volcanic and mud volcano eruptions, contaminations of ths sea surface, etc. - Hydrodynamic processes cause a nonuniform distribution of temperature at the sea surface and therefore on thermal aerial phatographs there is a cl ear representa- ' tion of warm and cold currents, their structural characteristics, zones of con- vergence and divergence of currents, and also cold waters of upwellings, great discharges of ground or juvenile waters, fronts of cold and warm waters, convec- tive ce11s, Langmuir circulations, etc. Underwater eruptions of volcanoes can increase the water temperat ure over them either as a result'of direct heating in the case of a close posit ion of the funn.els of volcanoes to the sea surface or due to the rising of bottom heated water to the surface together with the sol id products of volcanic ejecta during an eruption occurring at great sea depths. These "traces" also can be registered on photographs. - Discharge of ground water at the bottom of the oceans usually cau ses local ther- mal anomalies at the sea surface. During the discharge of fresh ground water the latter rises to the surface and reduces water temperature. On the othgr hand, dur- ing the of thermal waters the water temperature at the sea surface over thPSe sectors increases. Thus, a thermal aerial survey can be use d in the search - for fresh and thermal waters. Taking into account that the discha rge of the latter is frequently associated with faults, the mapping of thermal waters can be of as- sistance in the tracing of large disjunctive dislocations within the limits of aceari areas. The contamination of the sea surface by petroleum products is clearly registered on ttiermal photographs. Petroleum products reduce the evaporation of water, as a result of which in such sectors of the sea surface there is no co ld layer, to a considerable degree arising due to evaporati.on. This situation can also be applied, evidently, in the sectors of the sea contaminated by wastes of anthropogenic ori- gin. Within the limits of coasta]_ shallow waters, using a thermal survey, it is possible as well to r,~-gister wave and discontinuous currents, river runoff, sandy and rocky drained areas, vegetation, etc. Due to the different heating of water over shalloL;� er and deeper sectors, it is possible to see underwater valleys, shoals, undezwater bars and other features in shallow-water sectors of the underwater shore slope. 4. Radar Aerial Survey ~ A radar survey is an active research method [7]. The terrain surf ace is irradiated - from an aircraf t by radio waves, whose raflected are registered by receiv- ing apparatus, iiie survey can be made in virtually any keather, duzing ddytime or _ nighttime. 91 'Pnv nWVrrT AT r,cLI MrT v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFZCIAL USE ONLY Radar photograph.s St10G7 only the surface of the oceans. If the water surface is smooth, tnere is a mirror reflection of radio rays in the direction away from the antenna (receiver), as a result of which the water surface on the photograph shows up as a uniform dark color. Accordingly, a radar survey must he carried out when there is a wave-covered surface, when the r.ays retlected from the slopes of the wavES, and also radio rays scattered Prom the foamy water,are incident on the re- ceiver. In this case the radar photograpfis make it possible to obtain information on sea waves, different circulations and other phenomena at the surface of the oceans. The radar photugraphs clearly show petroleum films 6ecause the latter "quench" cap- illarv waves. Tte sectors of the smoothed sea surface forming here, from which radar rays are mirror-reflected in the direction of the receiving apparatus, appear dark on the photographs. On the bssis of the image or waves which are breaking up (bands of foamy water) in - thE coastal shallow-water parts on the radar photographs it is possible to iden- tify some forms of bottom relief (underwater bars, shoals, individual ridges or underwater rocks). Radar photographs are also used successfully for the evalua- tion of ice conditions in polar ocean areas because they make-it possible to de- tect leads and fissures amidst the pack ice; sometimes it is even possible to es- timate the relative thickness of the floating ice. 5. Laser, Luminescent, Ultraviolet Surveys As already mentioned, laser, luminescent and UV s urveys are in the stage of testing or development. 5.1. Laser Survey Experimental investigations indicate that in transparent iaaters, using a laser op- erating at a wavelength oE 0.55 � m with a zone width of 0,003'�Lm, it is possible to measure sea depths of several tens of ineters. By combining the interpretation of aerial photographs of the sea f'-oor and measur ement of sea depths by means of a laser it is possible to carry out a hydrograph ic survey of shallow waters [17]. 5.2. Luminescent Survey. [Sections 5.2, 5.3, and also 6 were written using materials supplied by A. V. Do- livo-Dobrovol'skiy.] A luminescent survey is based on the fact that during irradiation the atoms of some substances enter an excited state which is then unstable. The return of the elec- trons to the former level is accompanied by the emission of a quantum of energy in the form of rays of a greater length than the irradiating radiation. This is nonthermal luminescence. A strong luminescence is characteristic of petroleum and gases, chlorophyll. Evidently, this survey can b e used not only for registry of petroleum films en the water surface, but also plankton. In the active mettiod there is irradiation of the ground surface by artificial W = rays which in the presence of l~inescent subscances can cnuse a nonthcrmal lun:in- escence. It is registered on film in the visible range., This survey cali bc� made 92 - Fi}R t)FFI:CTAL USE ON1,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY only at nighttime and from low altitudes. ~ In a passive luminescent survey use is made of special apparatus making it pos- sible to register the deviations of the constant of the ratio hetween the inten- sity of solar radiation near the Fraunhnfer line and directly at its center, caus- - ed by luminescent objects. On the 6asis of this method, proposed in the Soviet Union by A. N. Kozyrev, as well as in the United States, a special instrument of the radiometer type was created. 5.3. Ultraviolet Survey At the present time work is proceeding on the development of effective instrumenta- tion for carrying out an W survey. In such a survey use must be made of special types of aerial films whose light-sensitive layer includes luminophors which dur- ing the transmission of UV rays give a burst of light registered by the light- sensitive layer. Such a survey can be useful in a study of contamination of the _ sea surface by petroleum and the detection of hydrocarbons reaching the water surface from deep layers beneath the bottom. The measurement of the spectrum of reflected sunlight emanating from the sea also makes it possible to study phytoplankton and estimate the chlorophyll concentra- tion. The latter in the visible part of the spectrwn absorbs violet-blue (0.42- 0.46 � m) an.d red (0.66-0.70~1,m) light. Howevzr, these studies, made from an air- craft, are comp'-icated by the influence of thP atmospheric transfer function, al- lowance for which makes possible the use of aerospectrometric measurements for the study of chlorophyll, determining photosynthesis. 6. Aerogeochemical Survey An aerogeochemical survey makes it possible to register areas of scattering or gases or fine suspended particles in the air. On a practical basis it is accom- plished in a suction process with the pumping of outside air into the aircraft. The outside air is passed through a system of absarbents selectively absorbit.g the - sought-for components and is analyzed by means of a counter measuring the radioac- ~ tivity of the air. Suspended particles can be col.leceed my means of grids of arti- ficial polymers, etc. Specialists have also developed procedures based on the spectrometrtc study of atmespheric composition under and over the aircraft by means of the Fraunhofer lines method. _ The appearance of new lines in the surface profile of an atmospheric column of - air is evidence of the presence flf aureoles of some substances. For the time being an aerogeochemical survey is virtually not used at all for an investiga+.ion of ocean areas. It evidently can be used in detecting hydrocarbon gases arriving at the sea surface from deep layers beneath the sea floor and indicative of the presence of petroleum and gas deposits. The practical use cof aerogeochemical methods is difficult due to the absence of a method for the tie-in of observations to the feati:res responsible for the presence of areas of scattering of different gases because it is difficult to take into account the motion of air masses. 93 - L'!1D AL'IITf`TAT iTCV A*TfV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 7. Aerogeophysical Survey FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Amon3 the aerogeophysical methods for study of the geological structure of the floor of sea areas use is being made of an aeromagnetic survey and an aerograv- ity survey is in the development stage. 1.1. Aeromagnetic (Airborne Magnetometer) Sur,ey An aerornagnetic survey is intended for study of the characteristics of the magneti.c ~ : ield of the seas and oceans, which are predetermined by the rocks miking up the = deep layc,rs of r_he bottom of the seas and oceans. The survey is made using air- - horr.e nagnetometers carried aboard flightcraft. Magnetorneter investigations of ttie or:eans made it possible to reactivate the mobilistic theory of Ct:e earCh's devel.opment and servec? as a basis for creating a theory of the new global tecton- ics; by means of these. i.nvestigations it was possible Lo determine deep and transformed taults on the rloor of the oceans which can be traced for many hun- dreds and even thousands of kilometers. On the basis of magnetic susceptability of dix"ferent rocks it is possible to use aeromagnetic measurements in geological mapping For ttie tracing of individual geological suit-es (strata, bodies, etc. On the basis of the detected magnetic anomalies it is possible to :;peak of the _ deep geological structure of layers beneath the sea floor, in parLicular, con- - cerning the presence of intrusions of basic and ultrabasic rocks and even con- rerning geological structuies which are promising for petroleum and gas. 7.2. Aerogravity (Airborne Gravimeter) Survey An aerogravity survey, together with gravity iavestigations made from ships at sea, iacilitaces the de'-ection of bravlty anomalies. This type of survey for tr.e time being is of an experunental character. An analysis of gravimetric maps makes it possib.le to the deep structure of layers beneath the sea fl.oor, the pres- ence of .intrusions, and sometimes anomalies indicating the presence of anticlinal stL�uctures. This makes it possible to use materials from gravity surveys for de- . termining ocean areas promi.;ing with respect to petroleum and gas. - The use of materials from aerial surveys in a study of the ocean for al"1 praccical - pt:rposes has only begun, but already at this scage it is obvious that i*_ is neces- sary for solvi:ig both scientific problems and some practical problems in mastery of the ocean. Taking this into account, it can be expected that the interpretation of materials _ rrom aerial surveys of ocean areas will make it possible to obtain extensive in- formition on the physical phenomena transpiring in the ocean, on some of its bio- - iogical char.acteristics and geological structure of the bottom. The multisidect use of different types of aerial metnods, together with other oceanographic metliods, can substantially reFine our ideas concerning the laws of the nature of the oceans - and seas, as is necessary far more effective use of its resources. BIBLIOGRAPHY l. AEROi�iETODY GEOLOGICIiESKIKH ISSLEDOVANTY (Aerial Methods for Geol.ogical Re- _ search) , edited by V. K. Yeremin, Moscowy yedra, 1971, 703 paKes. nq ~ - Fr)F, OFFIC.i~.L iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074429-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. Gur'yeva, Z. I., Petrov, K. M., Ramm, N. S., Sharkov, V. V., GEOLOGO-GFO- MORFOLOGICHESKOYE IZUCHENIYE MORSKIKH MELKOVODIX I BEREGOV PQ MATERIALAM AEROFOTOS"YEMKI (Geological-Morphological Study of Marine Shallow Waters and Shores from Materials of an Aerial Photographic Survey), METODICHESKOYE RUKOVODSTVO (Methodological Handhook), Leningrad, Nauka, 1968, 365 pages. 3. Gur'yeva, Z. I., Petrov, K. M., Sharkov, V. V., AEROFOTOMETODY GEOLOGO-GEO- MORFOLOGICHESKOGO ISSLEDOVANIYA VNUTRENNEGO SHEL'FA I BEREGOV MOREY: ATLAS ANNOTIROVANNI'KH AEROFOTOSNIMKOV (Aerial Photographic Methods for Geological- Geomorphological Investigation of the Inner Shelf and Sea Shores: Atlas of _ Annotated Aerial Photographs), Leningrad, Nedra, 1976, 277 pages. 4. Dolivo-Dobrovol'skiy, A. V., 6EOMETRIYA RADIOLOKATSIONNYKH, INFRAKRASNYKH I DRUGIKH NOVYKH VIDOV AERQSNIMKOV (Geometry of Radar, Infrared arid Other New Types of Aerial Photograph$), Moscow, Nedra, 1976, 50 pages. 5. ISSLEDOVANIYE PRIRODNOY SREDY S PILOTIRUYEMYKH ORBITAL'NYKH STANTSIY (Inves- _ tigation of the Envi_onment from Manned Orbital S*ations), Leningrad, Gidro- meteoizdat, 1972. 6. Kobets, N. V., "Geological and Geomorphological Interpretation of the Bottom from Space Photographic and Television Photographs," PRIMENENIYE NOVYKH VIDOV AEROS"YEMOK PRI GEOLOGICHESKIKH ISSLEDOVANIYAKH (Use of New Types of Aerial Surveys in Geological Investigations), Leningrad, Izd-vo VSYeGYeI, pp 21- 35, 1976. 7. Komarov, V. B., Starostin, V. A., Nyavro, B. P., "Uevelopment of Investiga- tions in the USSR for Use of Images for Geological Purposes," ISPOL'- ZOVANIYE PRIRODNOY SREDY KOSMICHESKIMI SREDSTVAMI. GEOLOGIYA I GEOMORFOLOGIYA (Use of the Environment by Space Vehicles. Geology and Geomorphology), Vol 2, Moscow, ViNITI, pp 103-107, 1974. 8. ,ETODY IZUCHENIYA MORSKIKH TECHENIY S SAMOLETA (Methods for Study of Sea Currents from an Airc?_'aft), Leningrad, Nauka, 1964, 227 pages. 9. Mikhaylov, A. Ye., Ramm, N. S., AEROMETODY PRI GEOLOGICHESKIKH ISSLEDOVANIYAKH (Aerial Methods in Geological Research), Moscow, Nedra, 1975, 196 pages. 10. PRIMENENIYE AEROMETODOV DLYA ISSLETX?VANIYA MORYA (Use of Aerial Methods for Investigation of the Sea), edited by V. G. Zdanovich, Moscow-Leningrad, 1963, 546 pages. 11. Semenchenko, I. V., Bakhareva, L. V., Kal'ko, A. G., "Remote Method for Deter- mining Water Turhidity in Reservoirs on the Basis of Measurement of Spectral Brightness Coefficients," TRUDY GGI (Transactions of the State Hydrological Institute), No 237, pp 65-70, 1976. 12. Ug1ev,,Yu. V., "indirect Methods for Estimating the Depths of Shallow Seas from Aerial Photographs," PRIIENENIYE AEROMETODOV DLYA ISSLEDOVANIYA MORYA (Application of Aerial Methods for Investigating the Sea), Moscow-LeninArad, - Nauka, pp 407-430, 1963. . 95 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-0085QR000304070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - 13. Fedorov, K. N., Remote Methods for Investigating the Ocean," ITOGI NAUKI I _ TEKHNIKT. SER. OKEANOLOGIYA (Results of, Seieace and Technology. Oceanology Series), Vol 4, Moscow, VINITI, pp 132-161, 14770 14. Sharkov, V. V., Gur'yeva, Z. I., "On the Problem of Geological Interpretation of Space Photographs of Ocean Areas, PRIMENENIYE NOVYKH VIDOV AEROS"YEPffOK PRI GEOLOGICHESKIKH ISSLEDOVAPIIYAICH, Leningrad, Izd-vo VSYeGYeI, pp 11-21, 1976. 15. Shilin, B. V., Karizhensk~.y, Ye. Ya., Infrared Aerial Survey a New Method for the Study of 4later Resources," AEROFOTOS"YIIAKA METOD IZUCHENIYA PRI- RODNOY SREDY (Aerial Photographic Survey A Method for Study of the Environ- ment), i,eningrad, Nauka, pp 64-69, 1973. 16. Shokal'skiy, Yu. M., OKEANOGRAFIYA (Oceanography), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1959, 537 pages. 17. Bright, D., "Coastal Aerial Photo-Laser Survey (CAPS)," PROCEEDINGS OF THE - AMERICAN CONGRESS ON SURVEYING AND MAPPING, 35th Annual Meeting, Washington, 1975, March 9-14, pp 249-259. 18, Haase, E., Kaminski, H., Pfannenstiel, M., "Versuch einer meersmorphologischen Deutung von Satelliten-Luftbildern," DEUTSCHE HYDROGRAPHISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, Heft 5, S 193-204, 1969. 19. Stevenson, Robert E., "Observation from Skylab of Mesoscale Turbulence in Ocean Currents," NATURE, N 5468, pp 638-640, 1974, COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1979 j 29-5 3031 5303 CSO: 5303 a 96 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 F042 OFFIC[AL USE ONLY SYSTEMS FOR THE CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOT COMPLEXES Leningrad PROBLEMY ISSLEDOVANIYA I OSVOYENIYA MIROVOGO OKEANA in Russian signed to press 30 Uct 79 pp 343-359 [Article by Ye. P. Popov] [Text] In many branches of the national economy and scientif ic f ields extensive practical use is being made of manipulators (industrial robots), as well as master and slave manipulators, remotely controlled by a man-operator. In particular, master and slave manlpulators are being used with manned and unmanned underwater vehicles and structures. However, extensive problems in mastery of the world ocean cannot be solved using existing simple manipulators. There is a need for more universal, multipurpose - industrial robot manipulator complexes with unmanned working craft controlled by a combined man-computer system. A whole series of considerations dictates the need for them. First, an unmanned craft when performing a great volume of work at depth can con- tinuously over a prolonged period of time be located near an object, whereas.a - manned vehicle or a diving complea, due to the limited operating time of its life- - support system, is forced to go through several cycles of submergence and surfac- ing. This considerably protracts and increases the cost of the entire operation. Second, the mass of a manned vehicle will always be much greater than the mass of an unmanned vehicle intended for the very same operations. This results in a cunsiderable increase in the weight of the rai.sing and lowering apparatus on the surface carrier-ship, and this means also an increase in the minimum admissihle tonnage of the latter, which reduees the easy operability of the system and also increases the cost of the operation. Third, in order to carry out a whole series of jobs at depth there is a need for universal manipulators with a number of degrees of freedom not less than six (similar to the human arms, not counting the wrists). They can be multipurpose with a simple readjustment to different operational cyc'les. This is one of the advantages of manipulation robots over traditional automatic devices. In many cases they can completely replace the heavy and dangerous work of divers. 97 FOR qFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY cs CH 31 ~ , - --WA PA F igure 1. Biotechnical system for control of manipulators from carrier-ship. CS carrier-ship; WA working apparatus. L` ~ L_ � ~ Figure 2. Diagram of operation of command control system. Fourth, a manipulation system mus t have a sufficiently "intelligent" control sys- _ tem, adapting itself to the actual circumstances in the place of operation of the manipulators, similar to the human brain, controlling the purposeful m4tion of the - arms during the work process. For this it is necessary that the manipulators be "s ensitized" and that a digital computer or specialized computer be included in the control circuit. As a result of the compleaity of the operation and the "un- predictability" of underwater conditions for the total automation of operation of - a manipulation robot it is necessary to create elements of an artificial intel- _ lect. However, it is still premature to speak of solution of the latter problem at the present level of development of science and technology. Accordingly, it is in- evitable that a man-operator, located aboard the surface carrier-ship, be included in the process of control of underwater manipulators. Tn such cases control _ 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - signals must be transmitted remotely along the supporting and electric cable from _ the ship to the undezwater craft, whereas in the opposite direction, from the vehicle to the ship, there must be tranamission of television and other informa- tion for thE representation of underwater conditions on a TV screen (reception panel). - li r---+--- ~t--~--~4 Figure 3. Diagram of operation of slave control system. I ~ L'===~=1 Figure 4. Diagram of operation of semiautomatic control system. SC designates the = special computer employed. - Thus, the intellect of a man-operator is used in the recognition of undetermined and changing underwater circumstances and conditions and in controlling the motion _ of the manipulators. Different ways for designing such a control system are pos- - sible. In the simplest variant the system is designed in such a way that the operator at all times controls each motion of the manipulators, using his hands on the control mechanisms and on the screen observing the underwater conditions near the under- water object (Fig. 1). Such systems are called biotechnical. These biotechnical systems can be divided into three principal types: master, slave and semiautomatic. In master control systems the operator by means of buttons, toggle switches or levers with buttons brings abQUt the motion of the manipuZators, corresponding to - different degrees of freedom, separately. In this case there is simply remote activation of individual drives ii, the manipulator (Fig. 2). In slave control systems there is a master mechanism near the operator completely similar to the underwater manipulator. The operator takes these controls in his hand or simply moves just tl-,e end of the controls with his hand. Then the manipul- _ ator will precisely dup'li1cate the motion of the controls in all its degrees of 99 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 " Specia]L computer APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074429-0 FOR OFF'1CIAL USE ONLY freedom. This occurs because each degree of freedom of the manipulator corres- ponds t o a degree of freedom of the controls in accordance with the servosystem princip le (Fig. 3). The manipulator includes the actuating part of the servosys- tem whe reas the control unit is at the operator's post. Thus, tYe total number of servosystems is equal to the number of degrees of freedom of the usnipulator. The servosystems are closed. Accordingly, two signals direct and return pass through each of them through the ship - vehicle comnunication channel. - As is well known, two-directional slave sysCems are in use. In these systems both the con trols and the manipulator have motors for transmitting to the hands of the man-op e rator, at some scale, the forces arising during the operation of the man- ipulato r. Then man, as a link in the control system, receives two feedback sig- nals: visual through the television chann.el (on the screen) and tactile (reflec- tion o f work forces), which considerably increases the effectiveness of his ac- tions. In semiautomatic systems there is a control lever at the operator's control post which has several degrees of freedom (in a gen2ral case six). Small movements are po s sible for each degree of freedom. In this case man's pressure on the lever for each degree of freedom creates a movement proportional to it, which is con- verted into an electric signal. Thus, the operator, pressing on the control lever and rotating it, thereby imparts the de s ired movement to the end of the unde=water manipulator (gripping device or too 1) in six space coordinates (linear movements and angular orientation) _ simult aneously. In order to execute this the signals received from the control lever in a]t degrees of freedom are sent to a special computer (Figures 4 and 5). Ttie latter scales them in such a way that the control coffinands for all the drives formed as a result will bring about the combined motion of the drives, under whose influence there will be the desired linear movement and angular ori- entation at the end of the manipulator. Semia utomatic systems have a number of advantages: first, their control devices _ are m:)re compact, and second, there is a lever convenient for operation, in the plann ing of whose kinematics, independently of the kinematics of the manipulator, _ it is possible to take advantage of convenience of work with it. _ There are three principal methods for the control of such semiautomatic systems: speed, force and position, and also combinations of these. The s p eed method for semiautomatic control. In this method when the operator press- es on the control lsver the special computer shapes such control commands for the drive s so that the velocity of movement (linear or angular) at the end of the manipulator will be proporti.onal to the displacement of the control lever or the _ pressure imparted to it. The fo rce method of semiautomatic control. In this method there is formation of an ef fort (forces or moments) at the end of the manipulator proportional to the comp ressive force on the lever. It is desirable that it be used in a case when � tt a gripping device or tool on the end of the manipulator is in contact with the obje c t in the work area. The free motion of the manipu~ator when using the force 100 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR n'r'FICIAL USE ONLY method using a special computer is formed as if its end point is drawn w.ith a force proportional to the operator's compressive force on the control lever. However, the force control method is undesirable for the free moLion of the gripping apparatus because the imparte_~ force does not directly deternine the direction of motion. Finally, the p03ition method for semi3utomatic control differs in that in this method the man-operator by means of a control lever sets the momentary coordin- - ates of the eud point of the manipulator and the momentary angular position of gripping, that is, the trajectory of motion and the angular orientation of the gripper or tool at the end of the manipul.ator. The special computer in this case shapes control signals for the drives of all degrees of freedom of the manipul- - ator in such a way that the above-mentioned mption is realized. 0 _ cH cs ~ = CB CB- speeial - camputer- PA - Figure S. Automated system with special computer aboard working apparatus. ll"M a digital eomputer-- d 9--' - Figure 6,. Automated system with dig- ital computer aboard carrier-ship. It is desirable to construct a combined semiautomatic control system in which for transfers (transport movements) of the end of the manipulator use is made of the speed control method, whereas the position method is employed for local small - movements with precise positioning of the gripper or tool and the force method of semi3utomatic control is used for carrying out working operations in contact with . objects. Such a combined system can be designed with a single control lever with a single special computer with the addition of only a simple switching device con- nected to this lever. The effectiveness of operation of the entire system is in- creased if the control lever is "sensitized" for signals from sensors placed on - the undetwa::er manipulator. Thus, the three principal types of remo*_e control systems (master, slave and semi- automatic) are biotechnical, since the operator in these systems, watching the screen and instruments for the motion of the manipulatAr and the prevailing 101 FOIt OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLII conditions, continuously imparts control signals with his liands. Human hands at all t9.mES control operation of the manipulator. I Marn-o erator Representation of ~ P conditions - ' 1 ~ i ~ i I Control mechanism Digital computer ~ ~ l I Special computer-' I I 1 I I tLanipulator ~ Feedbaek sensors i ~ I t 1 I Medium Data sensors -i I Figure 7. Functional diagram of automated control system. With such a continuous work load, creating a stressed work regime, the operator cannot continue a long time. In order to increase the effectiveness of carrying out ttie operation it is necessary to reduce the operator's load considerably and - increase the duration of his work considerably by a reduction in fatigue. This can be achieved in part, true, to an inadequate degree, by shifting from slave to semi- _ sutomatic control. The effectiveness of operations of the umderwater manipulation robot increases if some of the operation, subject to rigorous programming or fleaible programming with very simple adaptation, is carried out in an automatic regime. The con- trol system for this part of the operation can be completely placed on the working i-- apparatus (WA) itself; in this case it is possible to use either an on-board spec- _ ial computer in the WA (Fig. 5), that is, without loading of ttie information chan- nel of the electrical and supporting cable, or a shipboard digital cc+mputer (Fig. 6). On the screen and instruments at his post the man-operator observes the conditions and operations of the underwater manipulators in an automa.l-ic regimer and in de- pendence on this, one or another automatic regime is cut in or ciit out, and in case 102 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLI' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 F'OR UtrFICIA1. USE ONLY of necessity can take control into his hands (changeover to one of the biotech- nical regimes described above) (Fig. 7). CS cH CS eM - PA-I pA" DA WA _ uer+ digital computer UBM Pk2 -WA-2 - digital computer Figure 8. Industrial robot system with Figure 9. Industrial robot system with intermediate master apparatus. several working apparatuses. Such a combined system, which can be called automated, is extremely promising. It makes possible a canside'cable increase in the praductivity of labor (due to auto- matic regimes), facilitares the work of an operator (frees him from continuous - manipulations with his hands) and thereby increases the duration of his effective _ operations. The autonomy of operation of the working apparatus, without an increase in its weight, can be increased by introducing an additional master apparatus which includes an on-board digital computer (Fig. 8). Then the actuating level for con- trol of the drives with a very simple computer will be placed in the vehiclc and the digital computer for the next hierarchical level of the control system the adaptive Iavel will be situated in the master appara*us. We note that two or more working apparatuses can operate simultaneously with such a master apparatus (Fig. 9). ~ It is desirable that this master apparatus be used in working at great depths. First of all, the light working apparatus cannot contend with the oscillations of the long electrical and supporting cable by means of its own motors (see Fig. 6) if it is not strengthened. In this case the masLer apparatus (see Fig. 8) serves as an anchor from which a relatively short electrical and supporting cable will run to the working anparatus. Second, such a master apparatus will serve as an intermediate power unit. Power is transmitted from the carrier ship to the master apparatus along a long electrical and supporting cable in a form most advantageous for transmission. On the master apparatus there are current converters in different forms. The current is then fed 103 FOR qFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY to the users on the working apparatus along a short cable. Tn addition, storage batteries can be installed on the masier apparatus as extra power sources. Pian-operator RePresentation of conditions I I Supervisor control I sys t2m I 1 Digital computer I ~ 1 Special computer rtanipulator I Faedback ~ sensors Data senaors ~ Figure 10. Functiona.l diagram of "supervisor" control. Third, :he master apparatus can be supplied with measurement and recording appar- atus for the registry of different properties of the medium along the entire line of descent from the carrier-ship and at the ocean floor. The descent of the working apparatus from the ship is carried out in stages: first it is lowered together with the master apparatus to the necessary depth and then moves with it toward the stipulated work object. The already described automated control system, including automatic and biotech- nical regimes (see Fig. 7), is a very simple type of system with interactive con- trol. The latter assumes active interaction between man and machine. Control in a "supervisor," and also in the most perfect "dialogue" regimey is included under tne term interactive control. In the "supervisor" control regime all the individual elements of the operation are - programmed. The elements of the operation are performed by manipulators, each indi- - vidually, automatically under the control of a digital computer or special computer. 104 FOR OFFICIAL U5E (7NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OF F(C'IA1. USE ONLY I ~ ~I I Man-operator I I ltepresentation of conditirms I _ t Dialogue means Computer for pra- I+-----' ducin decision I t - 1 ! ~ Com}~uter for ree- l I Control computer I I ognizng conditio I 1 rianipula.tor ~ I I Feedback sensora I Medium I -'I Data sensors Figure 11. Functional diagram of "dialogue" control system. - The man-opera tor, by means of feeding of a designated command (with a"light pen" on a screen, using a lever or other method) gives the machine an order to carry out a def{.nite element of the operation (Fig. 10). Thus, the recognition of the conditions and the strategy of actions of the manipulation robot is the task of the operator. Observing the conditions on the screen and using the instruments, he determines the sequence for activating different elements of the operations and their direction in the developing circumstances. Within the elementary opera- - tion there can be not only rigid programs, but also very simple adaptation, such as homing and search regimes. In a dialogue control regime in the most complete form there is active interaction between the digital computer and the ma.n-operator. The digital computer partic- ipates jointly with man in the recognition of conditions and formulating a decision concerning further actions of the manipulation robot (Fig. 11). In this case the digital computer is a"creative" partner of the operator in the observation and control processes. For this purpose the manipulation robot must be supplied with - corresponding sensitization (visual, tactile, sonic, etc.), that is, with a defin- ite set of sensors of different information and perception apparatus, and means for the primary p rocessing of this information. The control computer must be supplied with corresponding devices for the input of such initial data, as well as appar- atus for the graphic representation to the man-operator of the results of his per- ception and recommendations on further actions. It is also necessary to have means for dialogue interchange, input of the control object and feeding of the control commands by man. 105 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY In general, the system will have a hierarchical structure with three levels, sep- arated with respect to tasks and territory: a) an actuating control system with drives with a special computer aboard the working apparatus (see Fig. 8) ; b) a digital computer tn the master apparatus for the primary processing of inform- ation and adaptive control of the manipulators; c) a digital computer and operator post on the carrier-ship for interactive recog- nition of conditions, adoption of a decision and dialogue control. Ir_ is very important to solve the problem of the deairable separation of functions between these three levels, taking into account the loading of the information - channels of the electrical and supporting cable in both sectors (WA-MA and MA-CS). - 'I'he observation and control apparatus must be tested, taking into account the dis- creteness of transmission of information along the electrical and supporting cable in a rather narrow frequency band. Then it is necessary to solve the problem of visualization of the place of opera- tion of the under.water robot at the operator's posto The fact is that in under- water work the water medium is turbid. Television info r.nation is unreliable; it must be supplemente-d by ultrasonic, laser and tactile information. In this case all _ four types of information together must give a three-dimensional representation. Only the complex representation of these types of information with output to a cour - mon display will make it possible, under different conditions, to represent the underwater conditions more satisfactorily than when using each of them separately. _ But this problem still remains unsolved. We have already considered underwater telecontrolled manipulation robots with a combined man-machine control system. Even now it is possible to speak of the cre- ation of autonomous working apparatuses wi[h a control system based exclusively on an on-board digital computer, without cable connection with the carrier-ship. They can be used for carrying out s imple manipulation operations and the collection ot information. ~ CH CS - ~ - - . pA WA - - ~ UBM d~igi computer _ Fig. 12. Diagram of industrial robot complex. 1()0 FOR OFF'ICiAI_ ~iSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Drives of angular movements Operator's '-TT- \ post (10CT OflEPA10PA Digital computer AHADO(9 -UN~D~OBON KOMMEKC Analog--d-igital computer Figure 13. Diagram of complex laUoratory stand for semireal modeling. In this case the industrial robot complex (Fig. 12) consists of a master apparatus and a working apparatus, joined by a short cable. The principal digital computer controlling and processing information is placed in a master apparatus and the simpler special computer is placed in the working apparatus. The hierarchical principle for constructing the control system of the manipulator is retained, but with purely automatic regimes, programmed and adaptive, and in the future with elements of an artificial intellect, as described above. Now we will examine key problems in the designing of remote man-machine systems for the control of unmanned manipulation robots. As we see, the Gystem inrludes a large complex of technical apparatus, diverse in content and scattered territorially, but nevertheless constituting a single whole. - All links in this system are interconnected in the work process. Accordingly, there is a need not only for a detailed planning of these as individual technical - devices, uut also a systemic designing *aith a tie-in of the principal parameters ~ of these elements on the basis of the general requirements imposed on effective- ness, quality, accuracy and dynamic properties of the entire system. 107 FCyR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY Drives of linear movements Analog computer ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFIC(A1. USE ONLY The first stage in such planning is a determination of the actuating leve.l of the system for conr:olli_ng the manipulators within the working underwater apparatus. Proceeding fzom an analysis of tIe operations whi,.ch must be performed, we will as- certain the principal requirements on the servicing zone, the kinematics of the - caaanipulators, energetics and dynami.c qualities of the drives and algorithms for operation of the special computer. It is necessary to ascertain the necessary set of sensors for "sensitiaing" the manipulator and the information sensors concerning - the properties c`, the medium. The dynamics of ttie manipulator as a whole is described by a complex system of differential equations whose investigation for the synthesis of a control system is possible only using univezsal computers. This investigation is complicated in a case wnen provision is made for operation of the manipulators with a floating apparatus (in a hovering regime without attachment). In this case all the move- ments and working forces of the manipulator play the role of disturbing effects _ on the system for control of the apparatus itself. This makes difficult its stab- ilization in the process of f unctioning of the manipulation system. In order to salve the problem it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of the apparatus _ jointly with the manipulators and sometimes it is necessary to install an addi- - tional mechanical arm for attachment af the apparatus to the body of the object. It is possible that in this case the system for control of the motion of the work- ing apparatus must be interrelated to the system fer the control of mocion of the links of the manipulator so that as a result of their joint actions the necessary manipulation operation will be performed. This introduces a definite contribution to the algorithms for operation of the on-board special computer in dependence on the signals of the sensors for sensitizing the manipulator. Such are the principal problems in designing the actuating control level aboard a working underwater apparatus. Then the communication line between the underwater working apparatus, the master apparatus and the surface carrier-ship enters into operation as a link in the contral system. The communication line is necessarily multichannel and has a Iiut- - ited frequency band. The transmission of a considerable number of information sig- nals (including TV) in one direction, and also command and control signals in the o ther direction,leads to a s ubstantial discxeteness in the transmission of signals, and as a result there can be a time lag. This exerts a substantial influence, - first of all, on the effectiveness and dynamic qual.ities of the adaptive auto- matic part of the system for control of the manipulators, including the digital - computer for the master appa-ratus. Second, this exerts a substantial effect on - the quality of operation of the observation and control circuit passing from the working underwater apparatus through the operator's panel on the surface ship. Accurdingly, in the second stage of systemic planning it is necessary, on the one hand, to take into account the characteristics of the communication line when de- termining the effectiveness and dynamic qualities of the general control contour, - and on the other hand, impose requirements on the communication line (within the possible limits), proceeding on the basis of the necessary effectiveness of opera- tion of the general control ci.rcuit. In this case it is necessary to take into account the noise and distortions of the information and command signals, for which it is necessary to make corresponding statistical computations of the i0: 8 EJR OFFICtA1. USE O1tiL`1' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFI'ICIA1, L!SE ONLY control system both with respect to the units directly related to the communica- tion line and with respect to the total ef.fectiveness and dynamics of the con- trol system as a whole. In order to cut such a communication line into the control circuit it is also necessary to be concerned with the serious development of elements for the coup- ling of the outputs of this line to the main units of the control system. All these elements must be minimized, taken together, with respect to mass and size ct~~aracteristics and with respect to power requirements,and at the same time an effort must be made to achieve maaimum reliability. In the third stage of systemic planning it is necessary to construct the upper levels of the man-machine interactive control system with the use of a digital computer, special computer, and with allowance for all the characteristics and properties of the already considered actuating level, communication line and sen- - sitizing system. In the fourth stage it is necessary to represent the information on underwater con- ditions in a form convenient for man, and in the last, fifth planning stage carry - - out biotechnical testing of the technical means for observation and control, that is, match them with the physiological characteristics of man. In this case the control system as a whole, like the interactive system, must automatically perform - the maximum possible nimmber of elements of manipulation operations with the minimu-n - use of manual labor of the man-operator at the control panel. This requires the usL of all modern technical means and man must be drawn into the control process only when his active participation is zeally necessary. However, during the entire per- = iod of operation of the underwater manipulation robot, including in automatic re- - gimes, the man-operator makes continuous observations of the screen and instruments to ascertain its actions and if necessary, at any moment in time can take control into his hands. Thus, the automated, "supervisor" and "dialogue" interactive control systems, sup- plemented by semiautomatic biotechnical systems with a control lever and a special computer, must be regarded as the most promising. We note that all the tasks of systemic planning considered above are closely related to one another and in the last analysis are solved jointly. In order to carry out systemic planning of remote control with success when using underwater manipulation robots it is necessary to create special complex labor- atory s tands for semireal modeling, including an analog-digital computer complex, - an oscillating model of a working apparatus with real manipulators, a model of the work objects, an operating model of the operator's post with instrumental repre- - sentation of conditions and control units (Fig. 13). The m,odel of the post must be situated in the neat room beyond direct visibility of actions of the manipulators. In the analog-digital complex there is modeling of the equations of motion of the apparatus, taking into account hydrodynamics, the properties of the measuring in- stxuments and the motive-rudder complex, the effects of the electrical and support- ing cable, etc., and also algorit' for control of the motion of the vehicle and - the manipulation system, taking into account the properties of the communication line and interference, must also be employed. e 109 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Such a stand makes it possible, under laboratory conditior.s, first of all, to check how correctly the preceding computations of the control system raere made for all the tasks of systemic planning, including the results of compute r plann- ing with preliminary purely mathematical modeling. Second, it makes it possible to test the control algorithms, intu account the resl representation of the manipulators and post of the man-operator in the stand. Third, it makes i t pos- sible to introduce the necessary changes into these real parts of the system for increasing the effectiveness of operation of the entire system. Fourth, it makes it possible to test the ergonowic and biotechnical characteristics of the system. In addition, such a stand can be used in laboratory tests of different remote sys- eems for control of manipulation robots, and also become the principal training complex for the teaching, selection and hreaking-in of operators. Such a stand for semireal modeling is a powerf ul universal means for the planning and laboratory testing of a system making it possible, in a well-prepare d state, eo proceed to real tests at sea. It must be said that it can be used for laboratory perfecting and testing of any other remotely controlled industrial robot complexes, intended, for examp_le, for unm~.~nned operation in mine sh3fts or under other extremal conditions, in cluding in space. - We note in conclusion that in a simi.lar way it is possible to carry out planning and laboratory testing of systems f.or the remote control of manipulators for - manned underwater and space vehicles. In this case the man-operator can be within tlie oscillat;i-i- apparatus in the already described stand for the purpose o� bring- - ing the conditions of his activity closer to real, in particular, for p utting his vestibular apparatus into operation. _ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Belyanin, N. P., PROMYSHLENNYYE ROBOTY (Industrial Robots), Moscow, Mashino- stroyeniye, 1975. 2. DISTANTSIOi~iiVO UPRAVLYAYENIYYE ROBOT`i-MANIPULYATORY: SB. STATEY (Remotely Con- trolled Manipulation P.obots: Collection of Articles), translated f rom English and Japanese, Moscow, Mir, 1975. 3. Ignat'yev, M. B., Kulakov, F. M., Pokrovskiy, A. M., ALGORITMY UPRAVLENIYA ROBOTAMII-MANIPULYATORAMI (Algorithms for the Control of Manipulation Robots), Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1977. 4. Kuleshov, V. S., Lakota, N. A., DINAMIKA SISTEM UPRAVLENIYA MANIPULYATORAMI (Dynamics of Systems for the Control of Manipulators), Leningrad, Energiya, 1971. 5. Medvedev, V. S., Leskov, A. G., Yushchenko, A. S., SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA MAN- IPULYATSIONNYKH ROBOTOV (Systems for the Control of Manipulation Robots), Mos- cow, Nauka, 1978. 11 l') FOR aFFIC1AL USE ONLN' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FdR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY 6. PODVODNYYE ROBOTY (Underwater Robots). Leningrad, Sudostroyeniye, 1977. 7. Popov, Ye. P., Vereshchagin, A. F., Zenkevich, S. L., MANIPULYATSIONNYYE FtOBOTY. DINAMIKA I A.LGORITMY ('Matiipulatian Robots. Dynanics and AZgorithme), Moscow, Nauka, 1978. 8. Yastrebov, V. S., TELEUPRAVLYAYEtiYYE PODVODNYYE APPABATY S MANIPULYATORAMI (Telecontrolled Underwater Vehicles with Manipulators), Leningrad, Sudostro- yeniyp, 1973. - COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1979 [29-5303] - 5303 CSO: 1865 111 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MAN'S HABITATION OF THE SEA DEPTHS. LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS Leningrad PROBLEMY ISSLEDUVANIYA I OSVOYENIYA MIROVOGO OKEANA in Russian 1979 signed to press 30 Oct 79 pp 391-403 [Article by P. A. BorovikovJ [Text] Man's habitation of the sea depths can be dictated by both economic and social factors. The first are related primarily to the search for new food, mineral and energy resources and the second to the search for living space as a result of overpopulation of the land. As of now, it is possible to speak, with allowance for the foreseeable future, only of the economic mastery of the ocean, about transformation into a day-to-day inhab- ited medium, that is, for the time being there can be no talk of a social expansion f because this problem has simply not been considered in depth. Accordingly, hence- forth the sea depths will be regarded as an arena of man's productive activity. Thus, man's presence underwater is restricted to weeks, possibly months, but no more. ' The engineers and physicians concerned with the problem of habitation of sea depths must successively solve three interrelated problems: man's maintenance of life, health and performance under water. In order to understand more clearly the essence of the problems to be solved, their nature and scope, we will discuss the specifics - of the underwater medium. First, water does not support the respiration of man, developing as a biological _ species under conditions of an air, gas medium. Accordingly, independently of all other conditions, for breathing under water it is necessary to use a gas mixture ensuring normal vital functioning of the human body, that is, depending on submer- gence conditions having a very definite composition and parameters. When working under water it is necessary to use means For the individual or collective protection of man as a whole, or at least, his respiratory passages, from the effect of water on them. Second, the water layer exerts a pressure on the body greatly exceeding atmospheric pressure. In this case all the conditions for man's life change sharply. True, it has been experimentally demonstrated that man's vital functions, when he is uniform- ly subjected to exposure to increased pressure (from 0.3 to 60 atm or more), are not disrupted wheA there is an appropriate composition of the breathing mixture. He ex- periences such pressure when submerging under water to depth of 600 m or more. - 112 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY However, in general, the problem of man's li�e support in hyperbaric conditions, many times over the course of many days and even weeks, is new and by no means so lved . At the present time tnere are two methods for carrying out underwater work. Method of total isolation from the surrounding water. People are in submarines, working in underwater structures, working chambers, etc., that is, in structures whose solid twusing receives increasing water pressure. In such structures condi- tions to the greatest degree are close to ordinary terrestrial conditions. The - pressure acting on the body is kept equal to or extremely close to atmospheric _ pressure, the breathing mixture is air and comfort zones are not deformed. Method of prolonged, multiday presence of man under pressure. This method is re- ~ ceiving increasing recognition because diving training is now assuming secondary importance and is becoming only a means for adaptation to the water medium in which definite work is performed. The principal task of a man submerging under - water is the performance of different operations in the assembly of equipment, its repair, underwater welding, and also inspections, expert examinations, etc. The - present-day objects ot underwater work are at depths of 200-300 m or more; the vol- umes of work attain tens and hundreds of man-hours of underwater time. In such cases it is necessary to be concerned not only with the safety of people, but also the effectiveness of their work under water. In order to put man under water, afford him the possibility of working under water on a project and returning him to the surface alive and healthy it is necessary to meet a number of requirements. Thus, rigorously in accordance with the depth of submergence and the rhythm of descent it is necessary to change the pressure of the breathing mixture, and in accordance with pressure the composition of the breathing mixture, its temperature and humidity. In addition, these characteristics are also dependent on time of presence under pressure under specific conditions, and also on the class of technical apparatus used. In modern diving technology there are three classes of equipment intended for the creation of conditions necessary for man's presence under pressure: shipborne pressure chambers, diving bells and individual diving equipment. They differ with respect to the level of comfort afforded and the time people are present in them. Divers live for days and weeks in the pressure chambers carried on ships operating on and under the water. Such a prolonged presence of people in a closed volume un- der pressure of tens of atmospheres requires the maintenance of the necessary living - conditions of the crew at a high level and j.r the most complete volume. Diving bells are used in practical work for several hours a day and then the bell is either inactivated or a second crew is sent down to replace the first. Naturally, the life support system in them is considerahly simpler and the living conditions are less comfortahle. Individual diving equipment is used continuously for only two or three hours and therefore it can he used to create the minimum necessary conditions for man's pres- ence underwater. 113 F(1R l1RFT(`TAT TTCF f1NT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL,Y On the whole, a life support system must satisfy the following requirements. First, it must maintain a working pressure of the respiratory mixture with an ac- curacy to f0.25 m H20. , Second, there must be a change in the composition of the breathing mixture with an increase in the working depths and therefore pressure. For example, with submer- gence to 60 m or more the inert component of the air nitrogen must be re- placed by helium. The presence of fielium in the breathing mixture sharply changes all its properties and accordingly there is a change in the requirements on hab- itation conditions. - Third, there must be precise regulation of the content of oxygen and carbon diox- ide, whose presence in the breathing mixture is important for the normal vital func- tioning of the human hody. At the present time researchers feel that a biological effect is not exerted on the human body by the relative percentage content of the bio].ogically active component, but by its absolute mass content in a unit geometric volume of the compartment. In addition, regardless of the pressure of the breathing mixture the mass content of the oxygen and carhon dioxide in a unit geometric volume can remain approximately at the "surface" level. Life support systems are planned with these two considera- tions in mind. In the course of vital functioning the human body releases into the surrounding medium a whole series of gaseous products, so-called anthropotoxins. The presence of these gases in the breathing mixture in large quantities can lead to poisoning of the body. Among physiolugists up to the present time there is no clear idea con- cerning the nature of prolonged, multiday exposure of the human body to anthropo- toxins under conditions of increased pressure. It is usually assumed that their mass content in a unit geometric volume of a com- partment will be acceptable for hyperbaric complexes as well. Fourth, it is necessary that the heat and moisture characteristics of the breathing mixture be maintained in the necessary range. They are maintained by means of spec- ial equipment externally not connected to systems for regulating the composition of tYie breathing mixture. It has been demonsCrated in repeated experiments that with an increase in the pressure of the breathing mixture, especially with the replace- ment of nitrogen in the mixture by helium, the zones of heat and humidity comfort are deformed. For example, at a depth of 200-300 m a temperature of 30-32� (fl�) and a humidity of 40-50% are considered comfortable. However, strictly speaking, = for each breathing mixture, for each pressure, and especially for each life sup- port system, the comfort zone will be different. This is attributable to the fact that the concept of comfort is based on the processes of heat and moisture ex- change between the body and the external medium. Naturally, these processes are also influenced by the thermophysical characteristics of the breathing mixture, the moisture content, the organizatf.on o� its flows through the chamber and the = velocity of these flows. The problem of the heat and moisture balance of the human body under hyperbaric conditions nevertheless is in need of careful investigation, especially with the practical introduction of new equipment and gear in diving work. 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Existing life support systems usually handle the complex pracessing of the breath- ing mixture, eliminating carbon dioxide and anthropotoxins from it, adding oxygen - and maintaining the temperature and humidity of this mixture within the necessary range. _ However, this is by no means a full listing of the tasks assigned to the life - support sysCem. It must purify the breathing mixture of the microflora constant].y emanating from crew members; this microflora, under the conditions of a closed volume, is acctmnulated at an extremely significant rate. Moreover, the presence of microflora in a manned compartment is especially dangerous because the resis- tance of the human body under hyperbar3c conditions is sharply reduced. Usually n prior to the onset of work there is careful disinfection of the pressure chamber and equipment. The crew members also undergo disinfection. The disinfection is periodically repeated. In addition, special filters are installed in the system through which the breathing mixture circulates. These filters trap not only micro- flora, but ordinary dust as well. Finally, in the life support system provision must be made for supplying food to the people under the water or tmder pressure. Under conditions of noxbnal pXes- sure within solid hulls the feeding problem presents no special difficulties. In solving thts problem for divers exposed for many days under pressure it must be remembered that their taste sensations are different from the sensations arising under ordinary surface conditions. Researcheis must ascertain how food is assimil- ated in hyperbaric media, in order to devise a ration. Thus, at the present-day stage of knowledge concerning the characteristics of vital functioning of the human body under undeiwater hyperbaric conditions our informa- tion is of a semi-empirical nature and is obviously inadequate. It is evident that the most important task is a maximum exPansion of the volume of fundamental re- search in the field of diving and undexwater physiology. Only then will practical - recommendations be based on the results of scientific studies, and not on the trial-and-error method. Today man's habitation of the sea depths involves the use of shipboard diving com- _ plexes: movable unit and stationary complexes. Deep-water variants of both types of complexes are intended for supporting multiday work under pressure and differ - from one another with respect to the number of divers occupying the compartment and accordingly the volume of work. Mnvable complexes hold two or three divers and - - are employed in carrying out random work in small volume, such as checking on the condition of bottom equipment or small repairs. Stationary complexes can hold 8-12 - - divers simultaneously and these carry out work of considerable volune, such as the ` assembly of underwater equipment, pipelines, etc. - The requirements on the conditions of habitation in the pressure chambers of div- ing complexes of both classes in general are similar and their technical solutions in general are similar. ~ The pressure of the breathing mixture is on a practical basis maintained in the necessary range by means of fPeding into the pressure chamber (through lines) the - gas stored in cylinders in compressed form or by discharge of the excess breath- ing mixture from the pressure chamber. In the circuit for regulating pressure it is customary to include devices for the collection of the mixture released from the 115 F(1R (1RFT(`TAT. 1TCF (IUT.V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY compartments, separating out the helium from this mixture (if the mixture contains it) in pure form and the pumping of the gurified helium again inCo the cylinders for repeated use. The circuits for regulating pressure are u.gually controlled man- ually, especially in the stage of reduction of pressure decompression. Variants ' of autotnated circuits for c:ompression, stabilization of pressure and decompression are being considered, but :or the time being they are in the stage of experimental checking. The monitoring of the composition of the breathing mixture and its maintenance in stipulated limits are accomplished by means af circuits regulating the breathing medium parameter or the parameters of several media at the same time. Each circuit consists of a device for measuring the values of the parameter to be regulated (temperature, hwnidity or oxygen content) a unit for shaping a control signal and an actuating mechanism, which also regulates the value of the stipulated para- meter. Tt is very important that measurements of the composition of the breathing mixture and its parameters temperature and moisture content be highly precise in the entire pressure range. We have already stated that with a change in pressure the composition of the breathing mixture changes: relative, percentage cont4:nt of the components (other than the inert component) decreases proportionally to the pres- sure increase. For example, whereas in air the normal oxygen content is 20%, at a depth of 100 m the normal content will already be 1.8%, at a depth of 300 m-- 0.65%, and a depth of 500 m-- 0.39%. Accordingly, any gas analyzer measuring the relative, voltnnetric content of the hreathing mixture components should have a fantastic accuracy, especially for great deptlis unattainable at the present time. Therefore, as was already mention- ed above, it is possible to make a sufficiently precise analysis of the composi- tion of the breathing mixture only by the method of ineasuring the absolute content of the component in a unit geometric volume of the compartment (the measurement must be made directly in the compartment, under the working pressure of the medium being analyzed). In this case the accuracy of the measurements may be relatively low, but, most importantly, it must not change with an increase in the depth of submergence because there must not be a change in the mass content of components of the breathing mixture (other than the inert component). Thus, the problem of in- creasing the accuracy of the gas analysis in shipboard pressure chambers, and es- pecially in diving bells, and also breathing apparatus, is still not solvedo The measurement of the temperature and moisture content of the breathing mixture is a somewhat simpler problem than the analysis of composition of the mixture, but in this case as well the method used for the measurement must be insensitive to a change of both pressure and the composition of the breathing mixture. The unit for shaping the control signal, comparing the readings of the measuring instrument (sensor), determines to what extent the value of the parameter to be monitored has deviated from the stipulated value, and cuts in (or cuts out) the corresponding actuating element. In automatic regulation systems this unit is designed in the form of a special instrument. It should be noted that an increase in the depth of submergence of a diver results in an intensification of intracircuit, cross-connectiona between individual, seem- = ingly unrelated parameters. It is very difficult to tak,e all these re].ationships 116 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY into account when shifting the life support system from one regime to another when a man-operatar is involved, and during recent years work has begun on the many- sided automation of a diver's descent and the inclusion of a specialized control computer in the system as the unit fer shaping the control signalo The actual actuating elements regulating the content of different components of the mixture or its parameter operate by commands from the unit for shaping the con- _ trol signal. Oxygen for compensating for that expended by the crew in respiration is fed into the breathing mixture usually from an external source through lines and through a dosing unit. The latter is the principal element of the circuit for the feeding of axygen, since the quality of its operation to a considerable degree governs the quality and reliability of operation of the entire circuit. There are two variants of dosing units. In one the oxygen is fed into the compartment at a constant rate (for example, dose-by-dose) and the quantity of supplied oxygen is regulated by the feeding time; in the second the oxygen is fed into the compartment in ready-- prepared dnses. Both these variants have their merits and shortcomings and are uaed to an equal degree in diving systems. In creating a circuit for the delivery of oxygen into the compartment it is neces- sary to contend with oxygen "flares" jets of pure oxygen flowing from the dosing unit. The velocity of the flowing oxygen, its quantity, point of delivery 3nd para- meters of the mixer at the output of the dosing unit must be selected in such a way that the oxygen entering the compartment is already mixed with the breathing mixture and its concentration in the breathing mixture constitutes no danger of f ire . Tn actual practice use is usually made of several types of oxygen sources: cylinders with compressed gaseous oxygen, containers of liquid oxygen, electrolyzers producing oxygen by decomposing water into oxygen and hydrogen, and finally, solid chemical composnds releasing excess oxygen in the course of one reaction or another. All the units for purifying the breathing mixture of carbon dioxide and anthropo- toxins are usually combined into a single circuit, including units for absorbing impurities and a device pumping the breathing mixture through these units a so- called stimulator of mixture discharge. The breathing mixture is usually purified of carbon dioxide either by its chemical bonding with some substance an absorbent, or using physical adsorption by sub- stances of the zeolite type or its freezing-out using deep-cold apparatus. Most commonly use is made of quite simple, reliable and inexpensive chemical absorbers of carbon dioxide. The principal shortcoming of chemical purification of the Ureathing mixture from carbon dioxide is a very great expenditure of the absorbent, attaining 10-30 kg or more per person per day, depending on operating conditionso In the case of multiday and even multiweek exposures of crews of four, six or more men the expenditure of absorbents attains many tons. This quantity must be deliver- - ed to the work site, stored, loaded into capsules, all of these operations involv- ~ ing definite difficulties. Precisely for this reason an intensive search is being made of absorbents of carbon dioxide of the adsorption type which can be regenerat- ed or nonexpendable means of purification of the cryogenic apparatus or molecular sieves type. _ 117 L+/1D ATT7T/ITAT TiCV MrtV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The breathing mixture is purified of gaseous anthropotoains also by special ab- sorbers in the course of pumping the breathing mixture through them. The filters- absorbers of harmful impurities usually are adsorbents of the activated carbon i - type or compounds similar to it, included in a single circulation circuit with catalysts, ensuring the oxidation of products of the carbon monoxide type to carbon dioxide and subsequent elimination of oxidation products in corresponding filters-absorbers. The filters are quite capacious with respect to absorptivity, are relatively small in size, and, it can be said, satisfy practical purposes. - In order to create the necessary heat flow, heating the breathing nixture, elec- tric, steam and water heaters are cut into the circuit for circulating the mix- ture. It is necessary to maintain the temperature of the mixture in stipulated, _ frequently extremely narrow limits. Experience shows that in helium-oxygen hyper- baric media the temperature fluctuations must not exceed a fraction of a degree and the maintenance of this degree of fluctuations, especially in an automatic regime, is a complex technical problem. . The regulation of the moisture content of the respiratory mixture involves the elimination from the mixture of the water vapor entering it due to breathing, from food, showers and sanitary units. Moisture can be absorbed from the breath- ing mixture by different methods. One of the principal methods is the condensa- tion of water vapor by cooling of the breathing mixture to the dew point, cor- responding to a stipulated regime, and the expulsion of the condensate beyond the limits of the chamber. For this purpose a heat exchanger is cut into the circuit - for circulating the breathing mixture. A coolant with a temperature ensuring the _ necessary cooling is fed into the heat exchanger. Beyond the heat exchanger and droplet trap there is a unit for the heating of the breathing mixture cooled in the heat exchanger to the initial temperature. The condensation method for the absorption of moisture is in the most common use since it is sufficiently reli- able and simple in operation. However, for its application there is a need for refrigerating units, heat exchangers, p:imps for pumping coolant through the heat exchangers, etc. In addition, this method requires exceptional energy expendi- tures there is double thermal processing of the respiratory mixture: first it is cooled, and then it is heated. It should be noted that the energy expenditures on condensation absorption increase with an increase in the pressure of the breathing mixture. The second method for the absorptian of moisture used in diving practice is adsorp- tion drying. Water vapor is eliminated from the breathing mixture by adsorbents of the silica gel type, by zeolite, etc. Energetically this method is more advan- rageous, since for its implementation there is no need for thermal processing and technically it is simpler. Its shortcoming is the need for a periodic regeneration of the adsorbent, which complicates the operation of the system and increases the operating losses of breathing mixture, and this, taking into the cost of helium, is of more than a little importance. Adsorption drying is not sensitive to an in- crease in pressure and therefore at the present time it is regarded as the most promising, especially for the drying of breathing mixtures at pressures of several tens of atmospheres. Finally, it is necessary to mention the need for careful organization of flows of breathing mixture in the chamber. Usually this breathing mixture is collected for regeneration in one of the ends of the compartment, anyd processed, returns to 118 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 xGR (il'FICLr1L IrSE ONLY the other end. Thus, there is a constant movement of breathing mixture from the "clean" to the "dirty" end, that is, the required mixing in the compartment ir.- self. However, in this case, on the one hand, in the compartment there should be no fo:ination of stagnant zones in which there is no constant exchange of breatttng mixture, aad on the other hand, the rates of movement of the flow, the velocity gradients and the drops of temperature and humidiCy along the flow must be limited and cannot exceed comfortable values. Al1 the manned pressure chambers of divicig complexes include sanitary-suction units. Cold and hot water are usually supplied to the sanitary units and fecal-suction sys- tei3 water and waste are expelled from the chamber. Naturally, for a chamber exper- iencing a pressure of 30 atm, for example, i.t is necessary to supply water under a pressure exceeding by several atmospheres the pressure within the chamber. This is usually done using an intertnediate pressure tank which is filled with water at nor- mal pressure and then a counterpressure of a definite level is created in this tank ensuring the entry of water into the chamber. This system is simple in design but creates some additional operating difficulties: it is necessary to monitor the water level in the tank and the counterpressure in the tank, regulai:e pressure during filling of the tank, etc. In addition, the water supply in the pressure tank is limited and it usually runs out at the most inconvenient time. Recently high- pressure water pumps have been included in the water delivery lines and by means of these pumps it is possible to replenish the water in the pressure tank and thus ensure an unrestricted wa[er supply. The fecal-suction system water is collected by special units (shower trays, wash- stand basins, commodes); through a line the collected water is removed from the chamber into a strong storage tank and from there it passes into the ship's gen- eral system. The shut-off valves installed along the outlet line must reliably close the line even with the passage of foreign objects through it.. In examining the habitabi]_ity of hygerbaric compartments it is impossible not to mention the acoustic communications. The great speed of sound in helium, the dif- ferent density of the breathing mixture, lead to a shift in the resonance fre- quencies of voice communications of man into the region of higher frequencies. This stiift increases with an increase in pressure, and at depths of 200--300 m or more the human speech is understandable only after its processing in special el- ectronic instruments speech correctors. Their creation is a still unsolved problem. ' IJp to this point we have examined the problems arising in ensuring the normal vi.tal functioning of the crew when it is in ttie manned pressure chamber of a diving com- plex on a submarine or surface vessel. Approximately the same problems must be solved in ensuring [he entry of a diver in individual gear into the water. As a � result of the brief presence of a diver in the water (up to several hours) there has been solution of a number of problems, such as conformity to the comfort zone with respect to humidity, the consumption of food and satjsfaction of natural " needs, as well as the control of microflora. On the other hand, the remaining problems are becoming still more acute. First, direct contact of man with the water is creating an additional load on the physiological systems of the body. Second, the individual gear for a diver is a far more dynamic problem than a mann- ed pressure chamber. 119 FnR nFFTf:TAT. iTSF. (1NT,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In the case of failure of the apparatus fnr purificati.un of the breathing mixture, Eeeding oxygen or heating the diver spends minutes on eliminating the irregular- ity. Virtually any irregularity can be eliminated only in a diving bell or even at tha surface. All this imposes very rigid requirements on the reliability of Individual diving gear. ~ Thus, a breathing apparatus must supply the diver a mixture for breathing in pre- cise accordance with th e pressure of the surrounding medium. An equality is achieved between the pressures of the bxeathinK mixture and the medium surrounding the diver by means af including a highly sensitive element in Che breathing CllStlllel of the gear in the form.of a rubber bag, from which the diver brear_hes,or a fine ruhber membrane which brings the gas-feeding mechanism into Regulation of the compositiun of the breathing mixture in individual gear is en- sured by two methods. In the first the diver receives a fresh breaChing mixture - t.hrough a hose the surface or from a diving bell and the mixture which he exhales is returned through another hose to the surface or to the bell for regen- eration and repeated use. In the second the diver uses a sel.f-contained breattiing apparatus, that is, one not connected to the surface or bell. Such an apparatus automatically replenishes the oxygen expen3ed by the diver during breathing and el.iminates the carbon dioxide from the mixture. In diving practice it is most comnon to use hose breathing apparatus as being more reliable in operation, light and less unwieldy than self-contained apparatus. The principal diFficulty is determination of the composition of the breattiing mixture in the apparatus. Unti1 now no one has created an industrial moclel of sensors for registering the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the breathing mixture of a self-contained apparatus, although individual variants of such sensors have al- ready appeared. The problem of keeping the diver warm under the water must be regarded as more acute. In the pressure chamber the diver is in an atmosphere with a comfortable temperature and breathes it; in the water he is surrounded by a water medium with a temperature reaching as little as -2� and breathes a gas mixture from an apparatus having a temperature cl.ose to the water temperatureo Thus, a normal feeling of well-being of the diver can be ensured by heating his body to a comfort- able temperature and at the same time heating the gas mixture breathed by him in order to avoid respirator heat losses. The problem of maintaining the thermal comfort of the diver for the time being has not been satisfactorily solved be- cause the available gear eitner does not ensure the necessary heat transfer or is unwieldy and restricts the actions of the diver. At the present r_ime the most widely used gear is that with heating by hot water fed through a hose f rom the sur- face or from a diving bell, but it is far from perfect. An individual but impo rtant problem in ensurin g the normal vital functioning of a diver in the water at depths of hundreds of ineters is monitoring of his feeling of well-being. Experience has shown that the self-monitoring of a diver is inade- quate because not all the symptoms of increasing impairments will be sensed and in parricular the diver cannot properly evaluate the dQgree of 1ii5 clanger. 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -a Several systems have been created for monitoring the state of the principal indic- es of well-being of the diver, such as the respiration rate, frequency of cardiac contractions and body temperature, but they are still in the stage of experimental checking. In examining the problem of habitation of sea depths by man we should particularly _ dwell on the problems relating to rendering the necessary medical assistance to - a diver in trouble (sick or who has experienced an accident). First, there can be "purely" divers' maladies: all kinds of compression and decom- pression disorders, the consequences of deviations in the composition of the breathing mixtures= etc. These diseasea in general are quite well studied; methods have been developed for their prevention and treatment. Second, when carrying out work under water there can be accidents on the job. And even a small trauma, absolutely safe for man's life on the land, can lead to a lethal outcome under water. For example, if a man loses consciousness on the land it is 100:1 that he will be saved, whereas for a diver this ratio decreases to 4:1., Third, during prolonged work under water and under pressure (to several weeks or raore) any diver can fall ill with ordinary, "everyday" diseases, catch cold, ap- pendicitis can cc.cur, ulcers can be aggravated, etc. It is impossible to bring - the victim out from press.ure at once; he must undergo decompression with an average rate of reduction of pressure of 1 m/hour, that is, beginning with a depth of 300 m a man, regardless of the severity of his state, can be brought out only after 300 hours or after 12.5 days. The treatment of a patient under pressure is also complicated by the fact that the diagnosis is made at a distance doctors are not sent down to a chamber at great depths and for the time being the nature of the effect of inedicines and - the consequences of surgical intervention on a body under pressure are unclear. At present it is not even known how to decompress a person who has undergone a surgical operation. As long as the voltune oE diving work in a particular region is small in scale, accordingly the number of diseases or in3ured divers is also small and the problem of rendering them medical specialized assistance is not so acute as when carrying out diving work in a restricted region. As a model of such an aggrava- - tion of the situation it is possible to cite the petroleum and gas deposits of the North Sea where about 2,000 divers are working at the present time; the mortality - among them is 1% per year. [See S. A. Warner, "Diving Fatalities Lead to Corrective _ Action," OCEAN INDUSTRY, Vol 12, No 4, pp 124-126, 1977.1 A specialized hospital is now being established in the North Sea basino It will - have a barooperations unit (pressure 30 atm), intended for the therapeutic or sur- gical treatment of afflicted divers. Yn this region about 2,000 persons are engaged _ in underwater work. The afflicted divers will be delivered from the work place to the hospital by helicopter and placed in single-patient movable-mobile pressure chambers, that is, at the same pressure at which they were under at the time of the illness or accident. 121 lonsr nimYrTaT. rtcu nrrr.v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY > The depth of submergence is becoming greater and greater. Depths of 610 m have - - been attained under laboratory conditions; in real dives into the sea men have reached n depth of 501 m. Practical work on the servicing of petrolewn wells at sea is being carried out at depths of about 300 m and the average working depth for divers today is 100 m. Researchers anticipate that soon depths of 600-800 m will become the realistic working depths possibly 1,000 m. The duration of presence of a crew of divers is increasing. The maximum working time for divers in a regime of prolonged presence under pressure is, according to data from foreign diving firms, 100 days a year or more. An increase in the depth and time of man"s work under water will be dependent on the quality of the life support system, creating comfortable and safe conditions _ for his existence. As we see, an indispensable task is a fundamental medical-physiological investiga- tion of the behavior of the body under the extremal conditions of the hydrosphere, the collection of information concerning the postponed aftereffects of increased pressure, because the process of man's habitation of the world ocean is becoming - more intensive with each passing day. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudos*_royeniye", 1919 [29-5303] 5303 ~ CSO: 1865 1?2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY - UDC 551.46.087 TOWED MEASURING SYSTEM FOR INVESTIGATING INTEGRAL TIIMPERATURE VARIABILITY IN THE - UPPER LAYER OF THE OCEAN Moscok OKEANOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 20, No S, 1980 pp 937-942 'LArticle by A. N. Paramonov, N. A. Grekov and A. F. Ivanov, Marine Hydrophysical In- ~ stitute Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol'] [Text] Abstract: The "Shleyf" towed measuring system with a distributed temperature sensor has been develop- ed and came into extensive use in the hydrophysical investigations aboard the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy." The article describes the structure of the system, gives its principal tech- nical specifications and presents the characteris- tics of calibration of the integral temperature measurement channel. The use of antenna systems consisting of distributed temperature sensors (DTS) has made it possible to obtain new data on the structure of internal waves from a drifting ship [4]. Interesting material on the variability of heat and salt _ component and the mean weighted speed of sound on a run along 35�N, determined using the "Istok" STD probe [salinity-temperature detector],was collected during the 14th voyage of the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" [3]. In this work the need arose for devel~ing towed instruments for measuring the inte- gral characteristics (temperature T, ._onductivity )6, speed of sound C, density/0) in the surface layer of the ocean. Such measuring systems are most effective in in- vestigations over extensive areas of the ocean, including the range of synoptic scales; this roakes possible a routine search for eddy formations, a study of their dynamics and spatial structure. 24aking use of the great experience of the Marine Geophysical Institute Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in the development and operation of towed instriunentation at sea [1, 2, 5], the autc,roation detachment on the 17th voyage of the scientific re- search ship "Akadenik Vernadskiy" tested a method for using a system for measuring the integral temperature T for investigations of the surface layer of the ocean while the ship is underway. The integral temperature of the layer from the depth _ zl to z2 is determined by the expression - - - - - - . T = ~ (z) dz. ~-z,~ 123 1T/1p nL'L`T/'TAT TiCL' llAiT V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY The investigations were made using the towed "Shleyf" measurin~ system. A diagram of the towing and a structural diagram of this system are shown in Fig., 1. - The system consists of submergihle and on-board components. The suhmergihle unit ~ includes primary converters of integral T, surface Tp and deep Tdeep temperatures, as well as a primary pressure converter Pdeep (at depths) on the end of the DTS. - In addition to the primary converters Tdeep and Pdeep the hn_rmetically sealed cap- sule of the submergible unit contains: a temperature - frequency converter and a channel commutator, alternately sending data on deep temperature and pressure into the communication channel. The hermetically sealed capsule is submerged using a streamllned, drop-shaped hydrological weight (100 kg). As the primary converters of deep Tdee and surface Tp temperature use was made of - quartz plates with a temperature cutofy, placed in protective housings. The ac- curacy of tempErature - frequency conversion (Fdeep) is determined for the most part by the stability of the reference quartz oscillator, which in the range of working temperatures -2 -+32�C is equal to �1�10-5 With a useful operating time of 2,000 hours. In measuring the depth of submergence of the capsule use is made of a primary pressure converter (PDV-50A) with an accuracy class 0.25. The primary integral temperature (T) converter is a three-strand electrical and supporting cable of the KTB-6 type with rubber insulation of the copper strands and with a length of 3,000 m. The sensing element of the distributed temperature converter consists of two internal copper strands of cable connected with one another and hermetically sealed at the submerged end. The third strand of the elec- trical-supporting cable and its external braiding serves as a communication line between the submergible capsule and the converters and the on-board unit of the towed system. - Information from the primary and measuring converters of the submergible unit is Eed into the on-board unit of the system. The primary integral temperature con- verter is cut into the arm of a precise bridge which is housed in a thermostat and fed a stabilized d-c voltage. In addition to a resistance box, a compensator, con- stituCing a segment of the KTB-6 electrical and supporting cable, is connected to the other arm of the bridge. An electronic aLtomatically recording potentiometer of the KSP-4 type is cut into the bridge diagonal; this potentiometer is simultaneoss- ly for measurin.g and recording ttie integral temperature T. The frequency signal from the deep temperature Tdeep and pressure Pdeep converters is fed through a LF-filter to a frequency meter, from whose output, in the form of a parallel binary-decimal code, it is fed to a code-analog converter and then to the input of a KSP-4 auto- matic recorder. The surface temperature is also measured and registered using an automatic recorder. In addition to data on temperature T, Tp and Tdeep and pressure Pdeep> the tapes of the automatic recorders carry automatically applied LAG (coor- dinate) and time marks. The calibration of the primary temperature (Tp and Tdeep) converters is accomplished in the laboratory using sample equally graduated thermometers of the TR-2 type, whereas the calibration of the primary hydrostatic pressure (Pdeep) converter is accomplished using a piston-type manometer (MP-600, class 0.05). The pYincipal technical specifications of the "Shleyf" towed system are: .L 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR (1iFFiC3AL tIS[? nNLY xesponse of device for measuring integral temperature (6T) 0.020C; response of device for measuring surface temperature (OTQ) 0.005�C; response of device for measuring deep temperature (L1Tdeep) 0.005�C; time constant of device for measuring integral temperature ('G) 16 sec; time constant of device for measuring deep temperature deep) 18 sec; time constant of surface temperature ( 'ip) 3 sec; - working length of distributed primary temperature converter (L) 3,000 m; depth of towed end with ship's speed of 15 knots 220 m; accuracy in determining depth tl m. Razpymae,.+ue yr.mpaicmBo 3 i /IrpBuvNae npeo6puaoBainen 14 0� TR ~ Z81 i 5 ~ i ~ I ~ T ----T' I ~ i i J To ~ 8 I L J 2 6opmoBoe ycmpouun6a - ---10 ---11-- - ~2--- ~ i i 9 ~ ncn I ~ Ny I dep rr~r+{ pK ~ I I ~ ~ i ea,~p nA r ~ comop ~ 20 ~ 1 i . 1 ~ 1 ~ i ~ Mvtm KC/1 T ~ 121 I i 9 10 18 1  i i I ~un . 4acmvns mK 'Me ~ T ~ I NV p o ~ I I ~---------------------J L------J Fig. 1. Diagram of towin.g (a) and structural diagram (b) of "Shleyf" mzasurement complex. KEY : 1. Submergible apparatus 2. On-board apparatus 3. Primary converters 4� Pdeep 5. Tdeep 6. Commutator 7� Fship 8. Converter 9. LF filter 10. Frequency meter 11. Code-analog converter PdeepTdeep u 12. Autorecorder TdeepPdeep 13. Compensator 14. Time 15. Coordinate(s) 16. Bridge 17. Autorecorder T 18. Code-analog converter Tp 19. Autorecorder Tp 20. Operator 21. Electrorlic computer 22� TdeepPdcsep 125 FOR Ok'F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY KEY : A) Supporting and electrical cable B) Bridge C) KSP automatic re- corder ll) On-board instr u- mentation b _ y IA T-4'OC lf t MLLH miIl Fig. 2. Structural diagram of device for measuring tension oti supporting and elec- trical cable (a); s amples of records of integral temperature T and tension on sup- porting and electri cal cable Y(b). Ou the 17th voyage of the scientific research vessel "Akademik Vernadskiy" a great volinne of work was carried out for investigating the metroZogical and oper- ational characteris t3cs of the "Shleyf" complea. During the voyage specialists tested a method for letting out and bringing in the towed line of the complex while the ship was proceeding at normal speed (15 knots). As a result of this testing it was established tnat the records of integral tem- perature T contain h igh-frequency oscillations. A unit was fabricated for clar- - ifying the nature of these oscillations. It makes it possible tc register the ten- sion on the supporting and electrical cable. Its structural diagram is shown in Fig. 2a. The unit consisted of a primary converter of linear movement I into an - electric parameter resistivity R, which was cut in to the measuring bridge. The signal was fed from the bridge to the input of a KSP-4 automatic recorder. The integral temperature and tension on the supporting and electrical cable were reg- istered synchronously. The experiment revealed that the high-frequency fluctua.- tiozs of integral t emperature and the tension on the supporting and electrical cable correlate with one another. Samples of the records of these parameters, _ registered with a high speed of KSP tape movement (2400 mm�hour-1), are represent- ed in Fig. 2b. 126 i'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 A Kv6enr-mpvc Q T APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFF[CIAL IfSE ONLY a b rig. 3. Records of integral temperature imder calm conditions (a) and with waves of class 7 (b). sem w 240 'ZJO ZZO 2I0 Fig. 4. Calibration curve for integral temperature channel. Dots data from the 17th voyage; crosses data from the 18th wyage of the scientific research ves- sel "Akademik Vernadskiy." Figure 3 shows samples of records of integral temperature T made under calm condi- tions and with waves up to class 7. A comparison of the records indicates a con- siderable increase in the level of high-frequency oscillations in stormy weather. These oscillations, caused by the tensometric effect of the cable strands, have a periodic character; they can be filtered out and do not reduce the overall re- sponse of the device for measuring integral temperature. An evaluation of the accuracy characteristics af the channel for measuring inte- gral temperature in the "Shleyf" complex was made under field conditions. 7tao meth- ods were used in calibrating the distributed primary Cemperature converter: static and dynamic. The first method was used on drifting stations. The distributed 127 FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 0 540 700,0 150,0 ZOOp APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY temperature sensor was fully or partially lowered over the side of the ship. The readings of integral temperature, temperature in the winch cabin and the length of the towed supporting and electrical cable were registered synchronously. Sound- ings with the "Istolc" salinity and temperature apparatus were made in order to ob- tain the standard integral temperature valuee. These data were used in compuCing the calibration coeff icients. The distributed temperature sensor was calibrated in a dynamic regiroe while the vessel was proceeding on course. Virtually the entire supporting and electrical cable, which was arranged as indicated in Fig. la, was lowered over the side. The readings of integral, surface and deep temperature and the depth of the end of the distributed temperature sensor were recorded simultaneously. During the course of - the towing "breakaway" thermobathysondes were dropped overboard, Their data were used in computing sample integral tempesature values. Calibrations in a dynamic regime were carried out during the 17th and 18th voyages of the sci.enti.fic re- . search vessel "Akademik Vernadskiy." The results of the processing are given in Fig. 4. The dots represent data from the 17th voyage and ttie crosses correspond to data from the 18th voyage. The calibration curve is approximated well by the straight line T= a+ bN with the coefficients a= 20.68�C and b= 0.0125�C-unit'13, which were determined by the least squares method, N are the readings of the in- tegral temperature channel of the "Shleyf" complex. The standard deviation of the - computed data from the standard values was t0.0530C. This error is attributable to the static errors of the unit for measuring integral temper.ature and sample measures (thennobathysondes) and the dynamic error of the unit for measuring inte- ral tem erature whose calibration was carried out in the frontal zone of the girculation where the horizontal temperature gradients were 2�10'3 �C�mile-1. In addition to study of the metrological charactexistics of the towed "Shleyf" complex on the voyages of the scientific research vessel "Akademik Vernadskiy" it was employed in carrying out systematic investigations of the temperature field of the upper 200-m layer in the ocean. The measurements were made both on runs for obtaining the background characteristics of the field and ascertaining the regions of anomalous distribution of integral temperature and in the POLIMODE polygon with respect to detection, study of structure and determination of the kinematic characteristics of individual eddy formations. The simplicity of the electrical and mechanical construction of the "Shleyf" complea, its high reliability in operation under complex weather conditions and in different climatic zones dur- ing the 17th and 18th voyages of the scientific research vessel "Akademik Vernad- skiy;' made it possible to carry out extensive investigations of the upper layer of the ocean for a distance of more than 15,000 km, which was 750 hours of continuous observations. The high results of these investigations make it possible to draw the conclusion that it is necessary to introduce a complex of the "Shleyf" type on scientific research ships. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Babiy, V. I., "Experimental Investigation of the Small-Scale Statistical Struc- ture of the Speed of Sound Field in the Ocean," Author's Summary of Candidate's Dissertation, Marine Hydrophysical Institute AN UkrSSR, 1977. 2, Karnaushenko, N. N., "Three-Component Sea Magnetometer," TRUDY MGI UkrSSR (Transactions of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute UkrSSR),VoL 40, pp 224-16, 1968. 12 8 f'Oft OF'EICi,4i. USE Oi'rLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3. Paramonov, A. N., Ivanov, A. F., Grekov, N. A., "Variability of Integral Hy- drological Characteristics in the Neighborhood of a Synoptic Eddy," MOR. GIDROFIZ. ISSLED. (Marine Hydrophysical Research), No 3(82), pp 134-139, 1978. 4. Sabinin, K. D., ISSLEDOVANIYE PROSTRANSTVENNO-VREMENNYRH KHARAKTERISTIK VNUfiREN- - - NIKH VOLN V OKEANE (Investigation of the Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Internal Waves in the Ocean), Author's Summary of Doctoral Dissertation, Mos- _ cow, Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1977. 5. Khokhlov, A. V., ISSLEDOVANIYE POLEY TEMPERATURY I SOLENOSTI BUKSIRUYEMYM UPRAVL'YAYEMYM KOMPLEKSOM (Investigation of the Temperature and Salinity Fields by a Towed Controllable Complex), Author's Summary of a Candidate's " Dissertation, Sevastopol', Marine Hydrophysical Institute AN UkrSSR, 19730 _ - COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Okeanologiya", 1980 [20-5303] 5303 CSO: 1865 129 FOR qFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.466.8:551.465063 THERMAL EFFECT OF INTERNAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AT THE FREE SURFACE OF THE OCEAN Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR, FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA in Russian Vol 16, No 10, 1980 pp 1077-1081 ' [Article by Yu. A. Volkov and Yu. M. Kuftarkov, Institute of Physics of the Atmo- sphere USSR Academy of Sciences and Marine Geophysical Institute Ukrainian Acad- emy of Sciences] [Text] Abstract: Within the framework of the international - JASIN-78 program an experiment -was carried out for ascertaining the interrelationship between internal waves of the seasonal thermocline and temperature fluctuations at the free surface of the ocean. The article gives the results o� observations made on an expedition carried out during the 18th voyage of the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy." The measurements of the parameters of internal grav- itational waves were made using distributed tempera- ture sensors. Observations of temperature of the ocean surface were made using an infrared radiometer from shipboard. The nature of the coherence and phase shift indicate the presence of a correlation between fluctuations in the thermocline and at the ocean sur- face. Despite extensive investigations for study of the spatial-temporal structure of the field of internal waves in the ocean, the possibilities of tleir indication by re- mote methods have still been poorly studied. It is only possible to mention a few studies [1, 2] in which the first steps have been taken for observations in the optical range of internal waves from artificial earth satellites and from aircraft. In this article we give the preliminary results of investigation of the possibility of indicating (sensing) internal gravitational waves from the characteristic ther- mal radiation of the free surface of the ocean in the IR spectral region. It is well known that the IR radiation of the ocean is formed in the thin surface layer (several tens of micrometers) and is determined by its thermal structure. It is also known that at the free surface there is almost always a cold inversion lay- er in which the temperature drop from tenths of a degree to a degree is concentrat- ed j_n several millimeters. The thermodynamic parameterp of this layer are formed 130 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY under the influence of processes transpiring both at the discontinuity of the ocean and the atmosphere itself and in the upper boundary layer of the ocean. Under definite conditions internal waves can exert an appreciable influence on some parameters of the spectrum of surface waves [2, 31, whose high-frequency part evi- dently makes the maximum contribution to formation of the thermal structure of the inversioa layer. As demonstrated in [4], it is short capillary waves which exert the greatest influence on the temperature drop and the heat flow in the inversion layer. Thus, the effect of internal gravitational waves in the temperature of the ocean surface can be manifested, for example, through the reaction of the field of cap- illary waves to the variable current induced by internal waves, which in the long run leads to variations in the temperature of the free surface. In September-October 1978, during an expedition on the 18th voyage of the scien- tific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" in the North Atlantic, carried out un- - der the direction of B. A. Nelepo and A. M. Obukhov, with investigations under the international JASIN-78 program, an experiment was carried out whose objective was a clarification of the possibilities of eaistence of the above-mentioned correla- _ tion. Methodologically the experiment was carried out in several variants. In the first of these variants observations of the field of internal gravitational waves were carried out from the drifting ship using a system of three spatially separated distributed temperature sensors (DTS).[5]. - In the second variant, which we will discuss in greater detail, the ship was an- chored to a depth of 120 m in the neighborhood of Ampere Bank (near Gibraltar)o [We note that the observational data obtained at drift and at anchor are iden- tical with respect to the effect of the interrelationship of temperature fluctua- tions in the upper thermocline and at the ocean surface; therefore, below we will give only some results of the experiment carried out on Ampere Bank.] The steep slopes of this bank (horizontaY scale along the 2,500-m isobath 30-40 km) make - it a natural generator of internal waves. Observations of the field of internal waves were made using a system of distributed temperature sensors. This system included two groups of sensors which were formed of elements of different scales and occupied almost the entire thickness of the water from the surface to the top of Ampere Bank. The time constant of the entire measuring system was 15 sec. The response was better than 0.06�C. The depth distribution of the sensors was a3 fol- lows: first (DTS-100) lowered from the prow of the vessel, occupied the water - layer from the surface to the depth of 100 m; on this same vertical there were six ~ other decimeter sensors (DTS-10), arranged successively one after the other, be- ginning with a depth of 10 m; three senaors (two 10 m and one 50 m) were low- ered from the stern of the vessel. _ Measurements of the temperature profile were made with an "Istok" (STD) instrument for computing the mean profile of the Brent-Vaisala frequency, characterizing the f ield of internal waves. At the same time the "Iatok" data were used for calibrat- ing the distributed sensors. Measurements of the radiation temperature of the ocean _ surface were made using an IR-radiometer (in the range 8-12 � m) with a time const- ant of 3 sec and a response not less than 0.03�C. The radiometer was mounted 131 FOR OFFICZAL i1SE OIdLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - on a boom at the ship's prow and was directed vertically downward. The angle of view of 5� ensured averaging of the radiation temperature in a circle with a radi- us of 1 m. s(i),Spae' Mup degrae2 min io� k � 1S 17 19 il l.`C ~ 0 20 40 60 d0 i00 7 V ' ~ f A \ ~ ~ \ 1 aoaozv~s ~n s mun min Fig. 1. Vertical distribution of water tem- Fig. 3. Initial records of effective perature T and Brent-Vgisalj frequency N in water temperature for series 1, 2, 3 region where experiment was made. for depths indicated in table. Table 1 Time Series of Temperature Fluct.uations Instrument Number Depth, Duration, Discreteness Number of of series m T, hours t, min terms in . series IR radiometer 1 0 7.8 0.62 760 DTS-10 2 50-60 7.8 0.62 760 DTS-100 3 0-100 7.8 0.62 760 In the analysis we used data from an 8-hour measurement interval in the evening and nighttime as the most favorable for observations of radiation temperature of the ocean surface. Below we give some results of observations for investigation of temperature fluctu- ations in the upper thermocline and at the ocean surface, and also present their cross statistical analysis. 132 z , r y~ IO' ; 1 1 \ )0 = ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r, 0 c 1 0,9 f 0,6 D,J 0 3,0 2,4 I,B 1, 2 0, 6 0 - 1,8 ~ . 1,2 0,6 . Q 19 ZO 21 22 ZJ -.0 O7 b2 16.1 17.a Fig. 3. Spectral densities of temperature fluctuations for series 1, 2, 3. r _ 0,6 a~ Q ~ i L � 40 JO ~60 2-J ~s 210 180 90 ~ i~ l~ LD JS JD 3 T, ffiiril, wnM ~ 40 JO . ZO IS ` l0 3 T. min i, MuH Fig. 4. Cross spectral analysis of series 1,2,3: a) coherence Y, b) phase shift The depth distribution of temperature and the Brent-Vaisala frequency in the re- gion where the experiment was carried out, as can be seen from Fig. 1, indicates the existence of a sharply expressed thermocline and a quite well-developed quasi- homogeneous layer. During the time of the measuretnents there was a weak wind (0.5- 4 m/sec) and poorly developed wavPS (class 2). The characteristics of some series of ineasurements subjected to statistical process- ing are given in the table for the period of observatipns from 1820 hours on 16 Oc- - t;ober to 0208 hours on 17 October. 133 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONi,Y J Figure 2 shows the initial records of water temperature fluctuations (series 1-3) - for the 8-hour measurement period. Thereafter the derived series were filtered - using a cosine-filter; the value of the maximum shift of the corr.elation function - when carrying out the spectral and cross spectral analysis was assumed equal to 1/12 of the length of tfie entire initial series, which gave 30 degrees of freedom _ and the statistically supported evaluations of the spectral characteristics. - A preliminary analysis of the primary results of observations, obtained using six 10-meter distributed sensors arranged on one vertical, indicated that the tempera- ture fluctuations in different water layers at almost all the considered frequenc- ies are cophasal. In addition, the maximwn amplitude of the fluctuations was regis- = tered by sensors situated in the layer of observed maximinn temperature gradi- ents. 'Ln our opinion this is already adequate for identifying temperature fluctu- ations in the thermocline as internal waves. Figure 3 sfiows the spectral densities of temperature fluctuations of series 1, 2, 3. Figure 3 shows that the spectral densities for time scales from 5 to 40 min ' for series 1 and 3 were close in value, indicative of a comparability of fluctua- tions of the effective temperature of the upper 100-m layer and the temperature of the free surface of the ocean. The intensity of the temperature fluctuations for _ series 2, registered by the sensor situated in the layer of maximum temperature - gradients, at all the considered frequencies was an order of magnitude greater than the spectral densities of series 1, 3. Common for all the spectra is a rather steep (f-3 and f-4) decrease from tfie low to the high frequencies; this can serve as an indirect confirmation of the wave nature of the investigated process. The cross spectral analysis of series 2 and 3 made it possible to ascertain the co- herence and phase shifts between the indicated series. Figure 4,a shows that the evaluation of the coherence between the temperature fluctuations in the thermocline and in the 100-m upper layer of the ocean is very high, considerably greater than the coherence values for confidence values at the 95% level. The insignificant de- pendence of phase shift on frequency (Fig. 4b) and the high coherence of series 2 and 3 not only confirm the wave nature of the investigated process, but also make it possible to assume that in this case there is a predominance of internal fluctuations of the first mode. The coherence and the phase shift between series 1-2, 1-3, represented in Fig. 4, were computed for an evaluation of the field of internal gravitational waves (ser- ies 2, 3) and temperature of the ocean surface (series 1). It can be seen that the values of the coherence evaluations in the range of time scales from 35 to 15 min considerably exceed the limiting level Y= 0.36, attaining values 0.66 and 0.7 re- respectively. If series 1-2 and 1-3 are uncorrelated (Y= 0), with a number of de- grees of freedom equal to 30 the value of the coherence evaluations will not ex- ceed the level 0.36. In analyzing the phase spectra one should note the stability of the phase shift in periods from 35 to 15 minutes, which also indicates a high level of correlation of the field of internal gravitational waves and temperatare of the ocean surface. It can be seen frarm Fig. 4,b that for series 1-2, 1-3 in periods 35-15 min the phase shift is close to 200�, that is, the fluctuations of effective temperature in the - thermocline (with an accuracy to the registry and procQssing of data) are in 134 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340070029-0 FUR UFFICIAL USI: UNLY - antiphase with the radiation temperature of the ocean surface. This important r.e- _ sult merits great attention and special theoretical analysis. Thus, the stability of the phase shift and the high coherence level in periods from 35 to 15 min indicate an interrelationship of temperature of the ocean surf ace and the field of internal waves of the upper thermocline. The cited cross statis- tical analysis makes it possible to assume that on the basis of the JIR thermal ra- diation of the free surface of the ocean it is possible to carry out a remote in- - vestigation of internal gravitational waves of the seasunal thermocline. In conclusion the authors express appreciation to K. D. Sabinin and G. G. Khund- zhua for assistance in preparing the experiment. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Apel, J. R., Byrne, N. M., Prom, J. R., Charnell, R. L., "Observations of Oceanic Internal and Surface Waves from the Earth Resources Technology Satel- lite," JGR, 80, No 6, pp 865-881, 1975. 2. Hughes, B. A., Grant, H. L., "The Effect of Internal Waves on Surface Wind Waves. Experimental Measurements," JGR, 83, No Cl, pp 443-454, 1978. 3. Hughes, B. A., "The Effect of Internal Waves on Surface tdind Waves. Theoret- ical Analysis," JGR, 83, No C1, pp 455-465, 1978. 4. Witting, J., "Effect of Plane Progressive Irrotational Waves on Thermal Boun- dary Layers," J. FLUID MECH., 50, Pt 2, pp 321-334, 1971. 5. Konyayev, K. V., Sabinin, K. D., New Data on Internal Waves in the Sea Obtain- ed Using Distributed Temperature Sensors," DOKL. AN SSSR (Reports of the USSR - Academy of Sciences), 209, No 1, pp 86-89, 1973. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka', "Izvestiya AN SSSR, Fizika atmosfery i okeana", - 1980 - [25-5303] 5303 CSO: 1865 135 FOR nFFICTAI. i1SE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074429-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY L UDC 551.466(38+8) ~ EFFECT OF FILMS OF SURFACE-ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON CHANGES IN THE SPECTRA OF WIND WAVES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL WAVES = Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMLI HAUK SSSR, FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA in Russian Vol 16, _ No 10, 1980 pp 1068-1076 - [Article by S. A. Yermakov, Ye. N. Pelinovskiy and T. G. Talipova, Institute of Applied Physics USSR Academy of Sciences] ~ [Text] Abstract: A study was made of the mechanism of for- - mation of slicks of surface-active suhstances. T�e = authors give an analysis of the attenuating proper- ties of real sea films. The redistribution of the matter in the film in the field of the internal wave and the inodulation of the coefficient of attenuation - . of ripples associated with this redistribution were - - analyzed. On the basis of a linear model of wind wa,es - it was possible to compute the changes in the spectra of wind waves in the centimeter range under the in- _ fluence of an internal wave. - Introduction. As is well known, the investigation of internal waves (IW) in the ocean by traditional oceanographic methods and instrumentation involves great dif- " ficulties. However, the methods of aerial photographic surveying, optical and radio oceanography make it possible to study IW direct'Ly on the ba5is of their - manifestations at the sea surface. Some of these manifestations of IW are the slicks frequently observed at the ocean surface: sectors with a relatively small intensity of the surface waves. T'ne slicks can be.caused by different factars (for example, petroleum contaminations, convective cells in the surface layer, - etc.), and depending on the mechanism of their formation can have the most differ- ent structure [1]. In this study we examine slicks caused by IW; they have the _ form of long parallel bands separated from one another by a distance of a hundred meters. There are now a great number of observations of such bands from ships and _ aircraf t and from space in both the optical and in the radio 2-11]. relationship between slick bands and IW was demonstrated in [3, 4, 9 , the observations of slicks were accompanied by simultaneous registry and measure.- ments of the parameters of IW. Now we wi11 enumerate the principal results of these observations. It was establish- ed that slicks are observed, as a rule, when there is a weak wind (wind speed W-2- 4 m/sec); with an increase in wind speed their width decreases. The rate of 136 FOR OFk'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ movement of the slick bands coincides with the phase velocity and the distance be- _ tween bands crincides with the length of the IW. According to data in [3] slicks - were situated over the bottoms of waves, but according to [4] the greatest number of slicks was displaced toward the rear slope of the internal waves. The reason for the discrepancy in observed data with one another at the present time is not clear. The amplitudes of the jump-forming internal waves, according to the data in [3, 4, 9, 10] assumed values in the range from 1.5 to 7.5 m; the cQrresponding values of the horizontal velocities of fluid particles in a wave, as can be easily estimated, is of the order of 5-10 cm/sec; the same velocities were regis- -tered directly in [11]. With respect to changes in the spectrum of surface waves under the influence of IW, they can be judged only on the basis of radio and optical images and also on the basis of ineasurements [11] which for the time being are few in number. Avail- able optical images of slick bands are evidence of change in the mean square slope _ of wind waves in slicks; synchronous radio images of slicks in the SHF range [7] show that this change is caused, in particular, by changes in the high-frequency part of the spectrum the range of ripple waveso [As is well known, the radio and optical image of the sea surface is essentially determined by the spectrum of surface waves; in radar when working in the SHF range by the spectral component of ripples with a resonance wavelength [12]; in optical measurements by the in- _ tegral characteristic of the specttum the mean sqiiare slope [13]oJ Thus, in a slick there should be a"smoothing-out" in the centimeter waves and possibly in the longer-wavelength range. These conclusions are confirmed by the data in [11], according to which the value of the spectral components is essentially less than the undisturbed values. This effect is strongest for the meter waves (0.5 m, U), then the changes in the KSp value are determined by the ratio U/W and accordingly are less than the Kj values, de- = pendent on U/cg. As a result, the contrast KSP changes slightly and it can be as- sumed equal to unity. Unfortunately, there are presently no experimental data orhich could confirm (or refute) this hypothesis. - 143 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Now we will examine the contrast K y governed by the presence of the film. We f irst of all note that K y cannot exceed unity, that is, the film can lead only to a"smoothing out" of the waves, not to their attenuation. The dependence of the K r parameter on the wave number for ripples for values r l/ ro - 0.05, 0.1 is shown in Fig. 4,b. It can be seen that changes in the apectrum caused by surface- active substances are more significant than the changes due to the Doppler fre- - q uency shift; the maximum variability of the waves falls at a wavelength 2-3 cm. Thus, the mechanism of formation of slicks by an internal wave, associated with the presence of a film of surface-active substance, leads to a rather consider- ab le contrast in the high-frequency part of the spectrum of surface waves. - Now we will compare the determined values of the contrasts with the experimental d ata in [11]. First of all, it can be seen from a comparison of the undisturbed s pectrum of surface waves and the spectrum in the presence of an internal wave that in the range of centimeter waves the waves are "smoothed out," that is, the contrast is less than unity (in the meter range there is both a smoothing out and intensification of the waves). The contrasts, according to [11], in order of mag- n itude are rather close to the computations made above, based on a linear model. _ These experimental values were noted by dots in Fig. 4,b. We note that in the ex- p eriment the wind was quite weak (WN 2 m/sec), which corresponds to the condition of applicability of the linear model; the U/c values on the average were about 0.1. The agreement between theory and experiment which was obtained is evidence in support of the considered smoothing mechanism, related to the film of surface- - a ctive substance, although, it goes without saying, it cannot be regarded as proof of its correctness, since, first of all, in [11] no study was made of the surface f ilm, and second, available experimental data for the zime being are scattered. S umma ry l. On the basis of known experi.mental data j25] it was possible to analyze the at- tenuating properties of sea films. The coefficient of attenuation of waves in the c entimeter range i.n the limits of the transition region increases ::harply to maxi- mum values. 2. It is demonstrated that disturbances in the concentration of surface-active sub- stances are proportional to the displacement of the level of the fundamental mode of the internal wave. For the waves observed under actual observation conditions these disturbances are of the order of magnitude of the transition regions of iso- therms of sea films, as a result of which (with satisfaction of condition (6)) the decrement over the bottom of the wave increases sharply. 3. The necessary condition was obtained for the formation of slicks associated with a film of surface-active substance and this is confirmed by the results of observa- tions [25). 4. On the basis of a linear model of wind waves and the results of computations of the redistribution of the decrement y in the field of an internal wave it was pos- s ible to compiite the variability of the spectra of waves. The position of the slick corresponds to the bottoms of the IW (wiiich agrees with [3], but diverges with the data in [4]), and the value of the spectrum in the slick can be an ozder of magni- tude less than the undisturbed value of the spectrun,. Comparison of the computed contrasts with the data in [111 gave satisfactory agreament. 144 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY : APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300074429-4 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Roll', G. U., FIZIKA ATMOSFERNYKH PROTSESSOV NAD MOREM (Physics of Atmospheric Processes Over the Sea), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1968. - 2. Dietz, R. S., La Fond, E. C., " Natural Slicks on the Ocean," J. MARINE RES., 9, No 2, 69, 1950. - 3. Ewing, G., "Slicks, Surface Films and Internal Waves," J. MARINE RES., 9, No 3, 1950. ' 4. La Fond, E. C., La Fond, K. G., "Sea Surface Features," J. MARINE BIOL. ASS. INDIA. 14, No 1, 1972. 5. ISSLEDOVANIYE OKEANA IZ KOSMOSA (Investigations of the Ocean from Space), Len- ingrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1978. 6. Apel, J. R., "Ocean Science from Space," TRANS. AMER. GEOPHYS. UNION, 57, No 9, 1976. 7. Brown, W. E., Elachi, Jr. C., Thompson, T. 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I., Transformation of Short Surface Waves on Inhomogeneous Currents," IZV. AN SSSR, FAO, 13, No 7, 1977. 17. Peregrine, D. H., "Interaction of Water Waves and Currents," ADV. APPL. MECHo, 16, No l, 1976. 18. Phillips, 0. M., DINAMIKA VERKfINEGO SLOYA OKEANA (Dynamics of the Upper Layer of the Ocean), Moscow, "Mir," 1969. 19. P elinovskiy, Ye. N., Linear Theory of Formation and Variability of Wind Waves in the Case of a Weak Wind," IZV. AN SSSR, FAO, 14, No 11, 19780 20. Horn, R., MORSKAYA KHIMIYA (Marine Chemistry), Moscow, "Mir," 1972. 21. Levich, V. G., FIZIKO-KHIMICHESKAYA GIDRODINAMIKA (Physicochemical Hydrody- namics), Moscow, Fizmatgiz, 1959. 22. Dorrestein, R., General Linearized Theory of the Effect of Surface Films on Water Ripples," PROC. ACAD. SCI. AMST., B54, 260, 1951. 23. Adam, N. K., FIZIKA I KHIMIYA POVERKHNOSTEY (Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces), - Moscow, OGIZ, 1947. 24. Zhurbas, V. M., Principal Mechanisms of Propagation of Petroleum at Sea," MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA (Mechanics of Fluid and Gas), 12, 1978. 25. J arvis, N. L., et al., "Surface Chemical Characterization of Surface-Active Material in Seawater," J. MARINE RES., No 1-2, 1969. 26. Davies, J. T., Vose, R. V., "On the Damping of Capillary Waves by Surface Films," PROC. ROY. SOC., A286, No 1405, 1965. 27. Ozmidov, R. V., GORIZONTAL'NAYA TURBULENTNOST' I TURBULENTNYY OBMEN V OKEANE (Hortzontal Turbulence and Turbulent Exchange in the Ocean), Moscow, "Nauka," 1968. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Izvestiya AN SSSR, Fizika atmosfery i okeana", 1980 [ 25-5303] 5303 ' - ErtD - CSO: 1865 146 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070029-0