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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9495 19 January 1981 - ~.atin Ar,n~erica Report (FOUO 2/81) FBIS FOF~EICN BROAD~AST INFORMATION SER!lICE FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language , sources are translated; those from English-language sources _ are ~rans~ribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets - are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the ~ last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- - mation was summar.ized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are _ enclosed iu parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item origina te with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. _ COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE O~~TLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE OIYLY JPRS L/9495 19 January 1981 LAT I N I~MMER I CA REPORT (FOUO 2/81) CONTENTS " II~TERGY ECONOMICS INTER-AMERICAN AF'FAIRS Socioeeonomic Significsuce of River Plate Basi.n Highlighted (~stela Araujo; LA O1~I1vI0N, 23 Nov 80) 1 OfPicial Discusses Erosion Problems in Salto Grande (Miguel Angel Viviani Rossi Interview; LA OPINION, 19 Nov 80) - COL~TRY SECTION CUBA Status Report on Results of UNGA Session (PEdro Martinez Perez; BOHF~iLA, 28 Nov 80) 8 National Translation Service Described - (Elvira Arencibia Valle~a; BO~A, 28 Nov 80) 13 Importance of Mariagerial Independence Discussed (Raul Lazo; BOHEMIA, 2g Nov 80) 16 Developments in Food Industry Described (Alberto Pozo; BOHEMMIA, 1~+ Nov 80) 18 Developments in Pharmaceutical Industry Noted (Aida Cardenas; BOHEMIA, 11~ Nov 80) 29 Construction Pro,jects in Cotuitry Reviewed - (Gloria Marsan; BOHII~A, 28 Nov 80) 33 Construction Pro~ect Achievements in Matanzas Reported (Miguel A. Mas~uan; BUHE[~A, 7 ftov 80) 45 - Briefs Sugar Delegation Vis~t 51 - a - ~III - LA - 144 F~UO] r. nn nr. ?~r~n � r � ror. ni?n a~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 ~ s~vanox FMLN's Salazar Optimistic About Revolutionary Victory (Manuel Gonzalez Bello; BOHENa'A, 5 Dec 80) 52 VEPIIEZUELA Former President Perez Cited on Aquittal of Cubans (BOHE[~A, 31 oct 80) 56 ~ - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY EN~;RGY ECONOMICS INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF RIVER PLATE BASIN HIGHLIGHTED Buenos Aires LA OPINION in Spanish 23 Nov 80 p 9 [Article by Estela Araujo: "The Heart of the Plate Basin"] [Text] Corrientes is a province with features of its owre which are so entrenched in the personality o� its inhabitants that one would think that Corrientes was a country rather than a province. Its recent history dates back to the Jesuit missions that were established in its territory. Its lovely Guarani language, spoken by over 400,000 Corrientes inhabitants, is blended into the Indian fibre of its soul, mingled - with the centuries-old warbling of its birds and the murmur of the water that rocks its chil3ren to sleep from the great rivers or mar.shlands scattered over its 88,000 square kilometers of territory. At the beginning of the century, when the situation with Chile became a serious threat to peace, the then governor of Corrientes coined a phrase which became part of the legend: "If. Argentina goes to war, Corrientes will aid it." With their courageous and frateYnal spirit, the people of Corrientes, nearly surrounded by water, consti- tute a world apart. But it is precisely this mythical world of lethargy and a warm climate that is begin- ing to awaken, trying to start a new period in its history, filled with struggles, showing a modern image of an ambitious province, establishing its triangle of the future with three energy projects. Salto Grande, Yacyreta and Parana Medio are the basis for its plaris for the coming years. Certainly nu province could have projects of such magnitutde in its terri- tory or sphere of influence. Not to mention two binational dams with Brazil, within its boundaries, and another in its sphere of influence: that of the Alto Uruguay. The governor of Corrientes, Gen Luis Carlos Gomez Centurion, stated: "The territory of Corrientes is emblazoned in the very geographical heart of the Plate Basin and, bordering three neighboriag countries, acts within the ~asin and for Argentina as a great continental territorial hinge, and therefore, as a zone for political, demo- graphic and economic contacts." The genuine awakening of Corrientes has appeared, on the one hand, as an acquisition of awareness by the provincial government of its inhabitants and, on the other, as 1 F(1R (1FFT!'TAT. TTCF (1NT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 rvn urri~.iew u~c viv~i the overwhelming force represented by the great hydroelectric projects that have been planned. Salto Grande, which is putting its fifth turbine into operation, is - intended to have an energy groduction of 1,900 megawatts, of which volume 675 Mw are already being obtained. Althougfi this aam is located in Entre Rios Province, its water surface extends to the very boundary with Corrientes, which affords the ports on the Uruguay River a feasible route to Buenos Aires that, up until now, was inter- rupted by Saltos Grande and Chico. The navigable channel will afford easy access. Ir_ cooperat~on Gri:th Brazil, three dams are planned on the Uruguay River, which are, from south to north: San Pedro, Garabi, and Roncador. The three combined represent a.i energy potential of 2,200 megawatts, to be shared with Brazil. The danger involv- ed in these dams is that a river connection its established with the Ibicuy-Yacuy axts on Braz-ilian territory, something that could convert Corrientes into an Argentine province dependent on a foreYgn superimposition, namely, the Rio Grande. _ _ Yacyreta, with a g~eater potential and with its construction already begun, wi11 be the real driving force for its development. With its completion scheduled for 1990, it will leave at the bottom of the pr~vincial capital, on the Parana River, a poten- tial oi 4,000 megawatts, to be shared ~~ith Paraguay, but which will uncioubtedly be purchased by Argentina. Paraguay does not need more energy than that of Itaipu, which it must sell only to Brazil, and at a lower price. i The Republic of Paraguay is divided, geographically, into two zones: the eastern, I with the larger human and productive habitat, wherein the aforementioned major hydro- electric projects are being established, plus Corpus, at Misiones, which will also wield an influence on the northern section of Corrientes Province. The population of Paraguay (2.25 million inhabitants) exerts demographic pressure on the coast of Parana, particularly in Guarani Province, owing to the affinity of its language. Yacyreta will increase the settlement of Paraguayans which, with an overall density of 5.5 inhabitants per square kilometers, has kept the western zone almost a desert. Corrientes will be forced to withstand far more pressure. - The Parana Medio represents the third major project which will directly affect the destiny of the province. The 5,600 megawatts of potentcial energy that it will give - off will be only a part of its true importance. The river route established by the reservoir of its two dams will constitute a genuine inland sea, connecting Corrientes Santa Fe, and extending as far as Rosario and Buenos Aires, with actual dredging or similar projects in the Parana Inferior. Corrientes, an overseas port with commu- - nication that can readily be extended to Asuncion, has acquired unusual significance. The bridges over the Parana and Uruguay Rivers have changed its almost insular fea- tires, integrating it with the territory of the neighboring provinces and the three countries with which it can communicate: first, with Brazil (Paso de los Libres- Uruguayana); then through Entre Rios, with the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (Paysandu- Col~n, Fray Bentos-Puerto Unzue and, finally, Salto Grande, which will soon complete its highway and railroad connection). On the Parana, it was the under-river tunnel which salvaged thz Mesopotsmian area (Santa Fe-Parana),tief'R~�cemp~eted~to the north ' with the Corrientes-Barranqueras connection. The hydreElectric projects will increase the bridges, to which wi11 be added two more communications routes with Paraguay: Clorinda-Asuncion and, in the bidding stage, Encarnacion-Posadas. For the establisiunent of industry, Corrientes offers a future aspect as a genuine sellex of energy, which may be summarized as follows: 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Salto Grande: 900 Mw (Argentine part) Alto Uruguay): 1,100 Mw (Argentine part) Yacyreta: 2,000 Mw _ (.Argentine part} Corpus: 2,000 Mw (Argentine part) Parana Medio: 5,600 Mw (completely Argentine) 11,600 Mw in its sphere of influence. Considering the fact that Brazil is proud of its Itaipu project, with an estimate of about 10,000-12,000 Mw, in collaboration with Paraguay, one has an idea of the indus- trial power that the province could summon. Although the nature of the projects cited is national or inteXnational, one cannot help but observe the advantages that are accrued from the proximity of the pro~ects and the association with two connect- ing systems that are under way. The northwest sysCem extends from Corrientes to Bella Vista, including the area with a larger popuZation. The southeast system is fed in Salto Grande, to provide power to the localities from Mon~e Caseros on~.~ard. Corrientes' original status as a producer of calves for fattening on the wet pampas, and of certain varieties of vegetables will be revised in all respects if the plan under discussion involviag the Ibera marshlands is carried out, converting the area o into a great inland lake for the province and a river route that could connect the Parana directly with the Uruguay, making the unification of the two great rivers possible. This plan, which would perhaps reduce the amount of land usable for agri- culture and livestock raising, would increase the output of the remaining land; ~ because there are at present expanses of land that have been underwater for 10 months. It is estimated that nearly a third of its territory is underwater. This situation, which in some instances might be negative, has converted it into a unique water source, with the largest supply of fresh water of the Argentine pro- vinces. There is also speculation about converting it into the country's leading source of lumber, by rationalizing the forestation in the province. The governor maintains that Corrientes has left behind "the predominating influence of a bucolic consciousness that originally prevailed and became entrenched, which visualized and exhausted the province's destiny." The fundamental step taken by Corri.entes is, at the outset, a reconsideration of it as an updated region in search of development with specific guidelines and intentions. With the noise of thei~ falls, the energy projects will awaken the sweet peacefulness of the Corr~entes ' sky . COPYRTGHT: LA OPINION, 1980 2909 CSO: 3010 3 FOR OFF7~TAi. iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 N'UK Ur'r'1C:lAL U'~ UNLY ENERGY ECONOMICS INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS OFFICIAL DISCUSSES EROSION PROBLEMS IN SALTO GRANDE Buenos Aires LA OFINION in Spanish 19 Nov 80 p 11 ~nterview with Maj Gen (ret) Miguel Angel Viviani Rossi, secretaxy of the Join~ Argentine-Uruguayan Technical Committee, b Jose Corzo Gomez, on 18 November 1980 at the Salto Grande hydroelectric complex~ ' ~Text] The Uruguay River is gradually heing converted into a frontier, a bridge. It no longer separates, but now unites Argentina and the Oriental Republic. Yester- day, during the course of a function held at the Salto Grande hydroelectric complex, the sixth turbine, which will make it possible to double the power production from the Atucha nuclear poweL�p'ant, was put into service. Moreover, the fact that it is , the first binational proje~t undertaken in Latin America reFresen:ts, owing to its dimensions, a starting point for all the countries of the Southern Cone. The com- plexity of the matters that have had to be confronted strengthened further still the bonds of brotherhood uniting both countries. Salto Grande is located on a site ' known as Ayui, a Guarani term that means "running water." - The water is an energy source, and the ene�rgy is a source of progress. This is why Salto Grande was declared a priority project. In order to give a clear notion or its importance, it should be pointed out that, once the seventh turbine is put into operation in February of next year, it will have a power similar to that of E1 Cho- con. When the official ceremony ended, the secretary of the Joint Technical Commit- tee and chairman of the Argentine delegation, Maj Gen (ret) Miguel Angel Viviani Rossi, with his usual kindness, made exclusive statements for LA OPINION. [Question] Gen Viviani Rossi, how would you briefly describe the importance of the - opening of the sixth turbine to Salto Grande? [Answer] It is very important, not only because of the significance of adding 135,000 ' KW of power to our energy resources, but also because new machines are continuing to be put into service, according to the stipulations in our timetable. So, from those two standpoints, it i~ an ~.mportant and highly significant event for Uruguay and Argentina. [Question] Official estimates indicate that, with the sixth turbine, the power of the Atucha nuclear plant will be more than doubled. [AnGwerJ It is fitting to mention these comparative examples, because in this way we can observe the importance and size of this project in comparison with others related to energy development. I would like to stress that, once the seventh turbine goes into service, it will have power comparable to thpt of E1 Chocon. ~ FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Question] Lately, there has been a great deal of discussiDn about the erosion problem at the Salto Grande dam. What are the true dimensions of the problem? - [Answer] In every hydroelectric project, the part of the civil construction most needed, I would say, using technical terms, on the basis of the river's development and the volume of water that ~t pravides, is the spillway, because it must absorb all that power from the water which is not centr.ifuged by the machinery. The spill- way is a part of this project which must be built to cope with the magnitude, in all its reality, imposed by the efforts of nature, per se. Hence it is in the spillways that the civil engineering must be calculated, planned, designed and constructed meticulously. It is the spillway wherein most of the hydroelectric projects show new features which must be accommodated with the passage oi time. What has happened at Salto Grande? A cavitation problem has occurred in our sp:ill- way because of the manner in which it is built. In other words, the large volume of flow of water in the various sections of the spillway has caused subpressures _ - as if the water were creating a vacuum, scraping the wall of our energy disperser blocks and creating a large ~umber of very small water bubbles which, upon entering in a state of collapse, allow the water to strike against the stone again. So the incessant striking against the stone, which is not a normal water passage, is what causes the erosion. In order to learn the dimensions of the problem, we hired inter- national exports to advise us what to do in order to eliminate these cavitation effects in our spillway. Taking those views into account, we contracted for a physics laboratory in Grenoble, which is part of a French institution engaged in hydraulic research, that has provided us with the pertinent solutions. Uf them, we have selected the one which affords the best chances for success. But I must make it quite clear that it does not offer 100 percent security. Hydraulic science cannot, a priori, give a certificate claiming that, as a result of a painstaking study, nature will behave according to all the calculations made for a certain type of construction, in this case, that of the spillway. ~ [Question] What provisions have been made to prevent disturbances in the complex? - [Answer] We think that the best way of carrying out the operation is~in the "dry state," closing the spillway and constructing a cofferdam downstream. For this purpose, have to take advantage of a season of the year when the river is at low watermark, so that the entire liquid mass can be displaced by our engine room _ and prevent the spillway from operating. [Questian] General, how long will the spillway be out of operation? [AnswerJ We estimate that the operation will be successful if we keep our spillway closed for 40 days, the minimal time required to attain the basic goals of the repairs. If the river's low water allows, we shall extend the closing of the spillway. For all the repairs, both 4he main and supplementary ones, it would be ideal to have between 60 and 90 days. [Question] Is erosion common in large i~ydroelectric projects? [AnswerJ Situations such as that at Salto Grande occur in many dams. There are institutions in the world, for example, in the United States, engaged :Ln studying these new situations that occur in spillways, in depth and almost exclu- sively. There are dam s which have suffered serious d~terioration in their 5 FOR OFFICZAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 r~x ur r i~lru~ uoc vivLi spillways, to the point where 400,000 cubic meters of tiles were carried away from stilling pools. In our case, the erosion has not been of that magnitude, but it must be repaired to prevent damage that could occur to the project. However, it is not dangerous, because tfie main structure at Salto Grande has not been aff.ected. [Question] Will there be a delay in the project on account of tl:ose repairs, or not? [Answer] I would say that there will be a delay in part of the project, especially in the access routes which will experience a lag of about 90 days. I would like to emphasize that the energy production will not be affected whatsoever. [QuestionJ When will Salto Grande's 14 turbines be in full operation? [Answer] I estimate that it will be between April and June 1982. The current diffi- culties are not affecting the timetable for the Salto Grande projects. [Question] I would like to make a comment. A recent study points out that, in our country, only 10 percent of our hydroelectric power has been used to date. In Swit- zerland, the utilization has reached nearly 100 percent. Why? [Answer] It has not reached nearly 100 percent. It has been completely used up, and ~ they have had to resort to nuclear powerplants. Public opinion is very well inform- ~ ed about thermonuclear powerplants, so much so that there must always be a kind of compensatory action maintained between the hydroelectric and thermonuclear projects. [Question] In other words, the construction of Yacyreta-Apipe, Corpus and Parana Medio involves projects that are indispensable to the Argentina of the future. (Answer] Indispensable, and for the entire national development. This is a policy that is very well developed and stipulated by the Armed Forces government. We have an energy plan extending to the year 2000, and I believe and am totally convinced that the public has acquired a degree of awareness of the need for its implementa- tion. I think that we are pursuing a good course of action, which is so obviously necessary for national development that I am certain it will be continued until the end of this century, regardless of the goals of subsequent governments that may . come later. [Question] At the present time, we Argentines may have a variety of views of a political, economic and social nature. But it is obvious that we are all agreed on the matarialization of these major projects in the shortest possible period of time. Isn't that so? [Answer] I am convinced that we are all united. Furthermore, these projects have a proliFerating nature, because wherever they are established there is a real focal point for expansion in an infinite number.of activities, such as the improvement of tourism, and the environment, the utilization of renewable resources, more irri- gation, etc. In addition, they allow for employment on all levels, from the pro- fessional to that of the ordinary laborer. Moreover, there is in this country a shortage of electrotechnicians, electromechanics and electrical engineers; and our universities and professional centers will gradually have to learn to look at the energy plan that exists in Argentina, in order to guide the young people toward 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 fields o� endeavor which are extremely advantageous; in other words, toward future ~,rork, so as to prevent useful citizens from leaving. The author of this article wishes to reiterate a comment that he heard during his stay in Ayu~: "What started with Salto Grande muGt continue after Salto Grande.'~ , ~ .t: ~ .r i ~ ~ .u _ , i � � - - - - ~ ~'i . ~ x.. a;,s;,..; kti ~ :~if . .i r~ :Y~~ . . Above the dam, the highway and railroad systems of two countries complement one another, in a genuine fraternal eml~,race over the waters of the river. COPYRIGHT: LA OPINION, 1980 2909 CSO: 301Q 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CUBA COUNTRY SECTION - STATUS REPORT ON RESULTS OF UNGA S~,SSION Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 28 Nov 80 pp 57-59 [Article by Pedro Martinea Perez, Radio Havana Cuba special correspondent: "A Well- Aimed, Exemplary Blow"] [Text] The 35th period of sessions of the General Assemb ly about to come to a close will go down in the history of the United Nations as generally positiv?, ~~~pite the fact that the capitalist countries, led by the United States, managed to keep the legitimate representation of Kampuchea out of that maximum international organiza- _ tion and gain approval of an anti-Soviet resolution on the situation in Afghanistan, a resolution that naturally omits the causes leading to the internationalist aid of the USSR, requested by the Kabul government exercising its rightful sovereignty. Nevertheless, it can be stated that the agenda of 122 items approved at the beginning of this p eriod of sessions and the work of the s~ven General Assembly commissions and special c ommittees show the positive change that has come about in the ratio of forces in the world since the United Nations officially came into existen~e on 24 October 1945, when it included less than one-third of the nations that are now members. At the current period of sessions, the United Nations condemned the expansionist policy of Israel and ratified the legitimate ri;hts of the Palestinian peuple. The South Af rir_an regime was reprimanded by the entire world because of its policy of apartheid and its illegal occupation of Namibia, and broad support was given to the ~ cause of independence of Belice, East Timor and the Western Sahara. Important resolutions are now being considered to condemn the fascist regimes of E1 Salvad~r, Guatemala, Chile and Bolivia, and other significant economic, social and cultural accords have been approved or will be before 16 December, the date on which the current period of sessions officially comes to a close. But there is one action, closely related to Cuba, which f or over three weeks from 20 October to 13 November held the attention of the representatives of the 154 countries now making up the United Nations. It is the process for the election of a nonpermanent member of the Security Council replacing Jamaica, whose mandat~ ex- pires on 31 December. _ When, on 13 November, 111 countries gave Panama the place on the Council, it was not only a major defeat for the United States, the main backer of the candidacy of Costa 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 rux urr l~ltu. ua~ 1/1VL1 in the world, but also for the COPEI [Social Christian Party] leadership of the _ government of Venezuela, which in GRULA the Latin American Group in the United Nations was the major promoter of the government of Rodrigo Carazo. An exception witness to this im~~rtant political event was Cuban Vice Minister of Foreign Ftelations Ricardo Alarcon, in New York throughout the entire process of the diplomatic maneuver against Cuba. For Alarcon, who served as our permanent ambas5a- dor to the United Nations for nearl,y 12 years, this was a magnificent experience in a forum whose activity he knows thoroughly. For that reason, we went, on the night of 13 N~vember~ to the Cuban mission on Lexing- ton and 38th Street, in search of an explanation of the significance and effect of the election of Panama to the Security Council. "I believe it is necessary," Alarcon said, "to reconstruct the baclcground to the election. As you will recall, the General AssemhI.y was forced last year to become bogged down in a long process of 154 votes, a process involving the candidacy of Cuba, which since 1977 had announced its intention of becoming a member of the Security Council, and Colombia, whose candidacy came late, was great~.y advanced last year and obviausly had the~backing of all tae forces in the United Nations that were trying to impede the election of our country to the Securi~y Council. "That year, the United Nations witnessed intense activity by the American delegation, the Chinese delegation and other imperialist delegations aimed at b~ocking the elec- tion of Cuba to the Security Council. On 154 occasions, Cuba obtained a ma~ority of the Assembly's votes. It was obvious that the other candidacy was meaningless. It would never have lasted if it had not beez~ intended to block and impede the election of our country. "Never in the history of the United Nations had a country tried over 150 times in vain to win an ~lection and persisted in trying to gain a post after a demonstration - of lack of support in the General Assemb ly. "In 1979, in order to emerge from the impasse to which imperialist pressure against Cuba had led it, the General Assembly found the solution of the election of Mexico, which was a candidate, a country which obviously satisfied the progressive forces that had backed Cuba in its effort to be elected. "But from that time on, when Cuba accepted the solution on the basis of the election of Mexico, it indicated that it would continue this year to try to occupy the post - to which it legitimately has the right on the Security Council. "At that time, no other Latin American cesntry had indicated its intention of being a candidate for the Security Council and again in 1980, the same operation of last year occurred that is, in the spring of this year, in the month of May, if I am not mistaken, the so-called candi3acy of~Costa Rica for the post was announced. "In order to spare the Assembly the painful experience of the past year, our govern- - ment decided to withdraw its candidacy and reminded the Assembly of what had happened the previous vear. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "The General Assembly was then faced with a pec:uliar siCuation when Cuba withdrew or was not present as a candidate because our announcement came b~efore the first vote of thi~; year, on 20 October. - "When Cuba announced its decision, Costa Rica wae the only candidate in the Latin American region to occupy the place on the Security Council corresponding to the regian. There then occurred samething totally unusual, which was that in spite of the fact that it was the only candidate, unopposed, Costa Rica could not, on the morning of 20 October, obtain the two-thirds vote required by the Charter of the organization in order for a country to become a member of the Security Council. "In other words, what Cuba could not obtain last year because aaother candidacy was erected against it, Costa Rica could not achieve even without ~in adversary. "This extraordinary situation, which had never before occurred in the United 1~ations, lasted nearly a month, throughout 22 votes, in which Costa Rica was the only candi- date from the Latin American region, and yet, the Assembly did not cast the necessary votes to give it the seat on the Securit~ Council. - "There finally emerged the candidacy of Panama, which in a~ingle afternoon placed Costa Rica on the bxink of defeat and as you know, caused that country to finally decide to withdraw its own candidacy. On that afternoon, what had to happen with - Panama finally happened; It was elected with a very comfortable, very broad margin of votes. "I believe that this entire experience contains several important lessons: On th~ one hand, the General Assembly has in fact given a very lond, very clear expressiun of solidarity with Cuba, in morally sanctioning what was done against our country last year. "The Assembly had no way last year to punish or sanction those who went along with this play against Cuba. It could only act when the operation was repeated and when the Assembly had to speak out on those who lent themselves to maneuvers aimed at blocking our country. The response was clear and obvious. The Assembly went to the extreme of doing something it had never befor.e done in its history and in addition, it repeated this unusual conduct every time the Assembly voted, evexy time the Assembly had to speak out on what could clearlq be identified as ti~e candidate which opposed or was used against our c.ountry. Th~e Assembly reiterated each and every time that it would not going along with the raa;zeuver. This is a lesson for those w;o attempt to block Cuba. The General Assembly of the United Nations not only wtll not serve as an accomplice for the enemie:s of ~uba, but is also willing to pu:iish them, which is what it did. "Moreover, it is important to emphasize that the Panamanian candidacy, as presented by the Yankee press itself, appeared as a challenge to the imperialist policy. "Votiisg for Panama not only meant rejecting the anti-Cuban maneuvers which since last year have been applied in the Assemblq. In addition,, it meant an affirmative vote against Yankee imperialism and this occurred in a ver~~ eloquent way because as I said, without being an officially presented candidate and without having con- ducred any campaign, in one afternoon Panama came out of nowhere to gain nearly two-thirds of the votes, causing Costa Rica to withdraw, and on the next day, today, was elected to the Security Council. - 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 _ _ ....y.W - "I believe that that is the general impression which all the delegates have~ There is a reason why Panama's election this afterrioon came in an unusual atmosph~re for this type of elections. The president's announcement of the election resul.ts was accompanied by an ovation in the Assembly and many delegations ~-rent to the Panamanian bench to express their congratulations and ~oy over the results obtained. "I believe that the progressive forces in the United Nations have won an important victory and in addition, have demonstrated that they can defeat imperialist plans, that they can exercise their influence in the organization, that they can show that the union of all progressive, anti-imperialist forces in the United Nations continues to be the main f actor in the Assembly, despite all the maneuvers, all the pressure, all the attempts which in recent years have caused reactionary forces to weaken the progressive camp and sow confusion in its ranks." [Question) Because of the fact that Panama is a full member of the Movement of N~nalined Nations, it could be said that the election is also a victory of the Move- ment of Nonalined Nations here in the United Nations. - (Answer] "Naturally., Since last year, the imperialists and reactionaries have tried to prevent Cuba, which is president of the Movement of Nonalined Nations, from becaming a member of the Security Council and they tried to repeat the maneuver i this year. In addition, the makeup of the Security Council, from the standpoint of the representation of nonali_:ied countries, was weakened. "One must bear in mind the fact tha*_ because of the system of rotation, certain non- alined countries leave the Council this year, to be replaced by other countries which are not nonalined, which do not belong to our movement. "There was the case of Malta, which ran as a candidate for Europe and was defeated. In its place, countries linked with the Western alliance were elected. In the case of Asia, something similar occurred. "The AssembYy~also faced the dilemma, in the case of Latin America, that the Latin American seat was held by,.Tamaica, elected 2 years ago under the government of ~ Michael Manley, which goes out of office on 31 December, and the seat of that ~ country, which has had an outstanding record as part of the nonalined countries, would be occupied by another not similarly involved, not a member of the Nonalined Movement. "In the f ace of this possibility, the Assembly outed for a country like Panama, a member of the movement, a member of the coordinating bureau, and in addition, a country that has been outstanding in the movement and in Latin America. Panama is inextricably linked with one of the most i.mportant causes of the struggle of Latin American nations for their sovereignty, their independence. Its claim on the Panama Canal, the struggle of the Panamanian people to exercise their sover- eignty over their entire territory, is undeniably one of the principal banners of the anti-imperialist and progressive movement on our continent. "In a way, because of the very way in which it was presented by the American press, its election was linked to this struggle. One has the impression that the American press, especially the NEW YORK TIMES in two consecutive articles, was trying to frighten the Assembly, to infuse the fear that voting for Panama meant challenging - the United States. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "If this hypothesis is accepted, then the response is obvious: Without hesitation, 111 nations decided to express their support�for Panama through their votes." [Question] In addition to the form and time when Costa Rica's candidacy emerged, late and obscurely, there may be other aspects of the foreign policy of the current Costa Rican Government which hurt its chances in the so-called Third World. [AnswerJ "Obviously, this was not a candidate which enjoyed sympathy among the dele- gations of Africa and Asia, since it has not taken a clear position on the struggles of the peoples of southern Africa, the fight against racism, Zionism, or the deter- mination of the Palestinian people to exercise their national rights. "All of these matter~ before the Security Council are of strategic importance to countries of the so-called Third World. In addition, nonpermanent members play a fundamental role from the standpoi~t of the possibility of having the new votes needed for all procedural decisions, decisions concerning which the veto cannot be exercised. These may such fundamental questions as, let us say, whether or not the PLO may speak before the Security Council. In order to achieve this, nine coun- tries must be willing to favor this request for the PLO to participate in a debate of the Council. "For such matters, in order to guarantee that the nonalined countries wi11 have the necessary votes in the Security Council, the country occupying the Latin American seat was decisive. "I believe that the Assembly has been aware of this when it came time to vote. I believe that one might sum it up by saying that on the one hand, one had the feeling, the reaction to attempts to block Cub a, the awareness of the ma~ority of the Assembly that it was necessary to teach a lesson to those who had blocked us in the past and show them that actions of this nature also had negative consequences for them and that this could be shown. This is clearly one of the factors present in these elections, but in addition, that Cuban connotation, to put it one way, was linked with a more universal aspect, which was the interest of all progressive forces in having adequate representation on the Security Council. "In other words, it was not a narrow, selfish interest of just one country, but really, our aspiration and our position embodied the interests and aspirations of all nonalined countries and in general, of all progressive forces. "That is why it was a battle of major importance throughout which, through this _ entire month, a growing number of inembers of the Assembly showed great awareness and great firmness in the way they would vote, even d~fying tradition, custom, dip- lomatic routine, demanding above all the fundamental need to have adequate repre- sentation on the Security Council in order to respond to the interests of our peoples while at the same time showing the imperialists and those who have served them ~hat we are no longer living in a time when they could impose their will on the Assembly. This has been an important diglomatic victory for Cuba, for the Movement of Nonalined Nations and for all the progressive forces. It was a well-aimed, exemplary blow to those who insisted on blocking our country." COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1980 - 11,464 - CSO: 3010 12 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 ~ox or�r�lc:l~. u5~ unLz COLAVTRY 5ECTION CUBA NATIONAL TRANSLATION SERVICE DESCRIBED Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 28 Nov 80 pp 90-91 . [Article by Dr Elvira Arencibia Vallejo, head of IDICT [Sci~ntific and Technical Documentation and Information Institute] National Translation Inspectorate] [Text] A man has no special rights by virtue of his belonging to one race or ~ another.11 The very word 'man' inherently contains all rights." (Thought translated into 40 languages.) ~ The origins of translation are found in antiquity because eveu in those times, poli- tical, religious and literary documents we~re frequently translated into Greek and ! Latin. 5cientific and technical translation is a relevant activity throughout the world , and the object of study not only for linguists, professional translators or amateurs and language teachers, but also for electronics engineers and mathematicians. If . translation consists in reproducing words and turns of phrase from one language to , another, the task appears easy, but if we delve more deeply into the problems of translation, the difficulties begin, along with a whole range of opinions about whether translation is an "art," problems inherent in "faithfulness to the text," whether that which is translated is "words" or "ideas," procedures that are estab- lished for "mechanical" translation, recognition of "roots" and "affixes,". which is more suitable: free translation, literal translation, or word-for-word translation. ~ In Cuba, until the end of the 18th centurq and the beginning of the 19th, only Latin . was taught in the schools. Later, the European languages began to make headway among academicians. As a result, in Havana and Santiago de Cuba, EL KALEIDOSCOPIO, EL COLIBRI, SEMANARIO CUBANO, EL CORREO and other publications began to feature them. Prominent figures in Cuban letters such as Jose de la Luz y Caballero (1:800-1862), Jose Maria Heredia (1803-1831) and Jose Marti (1853-1895), among others, began to translate literary and scientific work-. In the puppet republic, translation was mainly done 3.n the private enterprises on , a very small scale in order to cover their needs. It was only after the triumph of the revolution, due to socioeconomic changes occurring in the country and the need to assimilate advanced techniques and scientific and technical progress, that trans- - lation emerged as a means of breaking the language barrier and offered our workers knowledge from other countries. ~ 13 : FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY i To a great extent, scientific work now depends on cooperation and the exchange of knowledge between technicians and scientists throughout the world. The accelerated ~ development of ineans of coo~nunication between countries makes the rapid transmission . of knowledge possible. It is the task of translation to help disseminate such know- ledge among technical experts and scientists in a country. Scientific and technical translation is a fundamental element ror the utilization of all international inf ormatien received in our countzy and it contributes to the fulfillment of what has been set forth in the Programmatic Platform of the Commun- ist Party of Cuba with respect to the fact that "in the application of scientific policy, the establishment and development of a system of scientific and technical information are considered of prime importance in order to take maximum advantage of international information received by the country and in order to cooperate with friendly countries, especially those belonging to the socialist community." - At the present time, translation constitutes one of the indispensablP elements of work in the f ield of inf ormation. To a great extent, the productivity of scientific and technical work depends on translated literature. No matter how small, any translation requires an intellectual effort with a given economic value, justifying its recording and conservation for future users. The effective and systematic coordination of translations at all levels of informa- tion in the country is the only means of avoiding the duplication of efforts result- ing in an unjustified investment of human and material resources. llue to this fact, at the end of 1967, the National Translation Service (FNT) was set up within the - Scientific and Technical Documentation and Information Institute (IDICT) for the pur- pose of concentrating information with respect to translations being done in the country in the field of science and technology. In order to be able to achieve the objectives for which It was created, the FNT has a record of translations to be begun and those finished, supplied by the coun- try's center of documentation. From the time it was established, the FNT has coor- dinated this task with centers of documentation, departments of translation, enter- prises, institutions, universities and so on throughout the country. This coordination of foreign literature and docum~nts extends to books, articles in periodicals, works, reports, theses, material on national and international scientific and technical events, catalogs, prospectuses from commercial and industrial firms, descriptions of machinery and equipment, patents, copyrights, ttze registra.tion of inventions and foreign standards. At the same time, the FNT information to organizations, institutions and enterprises, as well as to scientists and independent specialists wita respect to translations of scientific and technical literature done in the country. At the present time, this centralized translation service has some 20,000 bibliographic ` sources registered and has 8,000 translations on microfilm. These organizations, institutions, enterprises and individual can request the refer- ence service for zranslations being processed as well as those completed and in addition, may use the microfilms or hav~ Xerox copies made of translations available, either by going through the card catalog or the quarterly publication called the National Translation Bulletin put out by the IDICT FNT. 1~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 In order to continue improving the effectiveness of this work, all organizations must report to the FNT on any translation they propose 4o do before it is begun and send a reproducible copy of the translation done so that it may be put on microfilm and incorporated into the centralized library. The translation is returned to the organization once the microfilm is part of ehe centralized FNT library. In order to ensure the rationalization and more productive use of labor and material and financial resources expended on this task, the methods and standards f or the activity have been presented~far official approval. This will guarantee an efficient - service in the national sphere and provide greater dissemination of our translations, both in the national and international spheres. In this way, IDICT, as the national organ designated by Cuba on the International Scientific Translation Service (INTERINFORMPEREVOD) of CEMA, will be able to participate actively and obtain for the country the benefits which the service provides to all me~ber countries. With the aid of all the units making up the National Scientific and Technical Informa- tion System, this acti~rity will be able to guarantee maximum use of the resources available and play its fundamental role within the field of scientific and technical information, thereby contributing to.the country's development. _ COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1980 11,464 CSO: 3010 � 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CUUNTRY SECTION CUBA IMPORTANCE OF MANAGERIAL I13DEPFNDENCE DISCUSSID Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 28 Nov 80 p 19 [Article by Raul Lazo: "Notes on Managerial Zadependence"] [TextJ At the closing of the Secand National Checkup on the implementation of the Economic Management and Planning System (SDPE), some enterprise managers expounded their points of view on the need to increase the degree of managerial autonomy so as to release the potential of initiatives contained in this basic cell of tlie socialist economy and in this manner give fihe proper response to certain problems of economic management, which ia their understanding, are today - _ imprisoned in a cycle of administrative-bureaucratic restrictions which are being impoaed on them from above. Undoubtedly this is a healthy concern because it tends to reinstate the princi- - ples of management in the economic sense, even though it was completely explained in those discussions that the SDPE establishes and protects the legislative and economic foundations which guarantee management autonomy. Those negative - manifestations are the specific result of the violation of those principles due to false interpretations and bad work habits of the management teams of central agencies which have enterprises subordinated to them, and to certain forms of accommodation and laxity by the management of some enterprises in exercising the rights deriving from that autonomy granted to them by the system, regardless of the fact that some practical measures for materializing that right still have to be perfecte~. We are now going to analyze why it is necessary to materialize, guarantee and protect that principal of management autonomy contained in the Social Enterprise Regulation, As an integral and indivisible part of collective ownership of the means of production and the planned process of reproduction, the enterprise represents the basic economic, technical and organizational cell of socialist economy, which en3oys its own economic autonomy and legal status. The enterprises organize production, give solutions to basic problems of technical nature, must put into practice the udost suitable measures for work organization, insure that the means of production glaced at their disposal are used intensively and develop the personnel capable of exercising management along the path of - economic efficiencq. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 Economic-operational autonomy o~ enterprises implies or requires of management and the collective 6ody of ~rorkers ttiat tfiey use their initiatives to the maximum to increase tfie effectiveness of work and to Tielp ~o discover all the productive resexves wfiicfi.may remain fiidden in Che pTiase of preparation and execution af production tecfini~al-economic plans. All these aspects would be enougb bp tfiemselves to empfiasize the role of manage- , ment autonomy, moreover, wlzea it takes the fo�rm of an/independent, autonomous/ . [in boldface] co~ercial producer, tfie socialist enterprise creates the conditions for strengthening even more tfie linlc between the collective and private interests, because the system of material incentive derived from t~e Award Fund helps to develop an econamic awareness, is a material base for the organization of social- ist emulation and makes the harmony between enterprise and collective interests to be shown more clearlq. Those agencies which limit themselves to imposing various obstacles to manageme~t autonomy, and the managers of enterpr~tses who fail ta enercise that right must understand that in doing so they not only violate an economic principle of management, thus fiarming or curbing the development of productive forcea, but th~ey also violate a principle of politicoideological nature: the principle of . democratic centralism, since this principle links the principle of state j central management and planning to tfiat of economic-operational autonomy of ~ enterprises. ~ The I,eninist principle of democratic ceatralism is the starting point, the key- stone for understanding the close and unbreskable union of relationsTiipa which must exist between the overall socialist economy and the economic-operati.onal autonomy of the enterprises. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA, 1980 8908 CSO: 301~ 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CLBA DEVELOPMENTS IN FOOD INDUSTRY DESCRIBED Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 14 Nov 80 pp 16-23 [Article by Alberto Pozo: "Food Industry: Four kiissions") [TextJ "The one who eats apples always wi~.s!" This was the slogan of an attractive, but in no way innocent, advertising campaign that caught on among viewers of the televisi~n program with the highest rating in 1958. In order to survive, all fruit stands in the capital exhibited, in its hygienic wrapping, the exuberant product, polished, radiant, harvested in California (United ` States of America). Lured by the enticement of the advertising, even the puorer people bought apples. The fad imposed by publicity tempted taste buds and the pocket, spurred on by the thirst for distinction and the hope of attracting luck. The one who eats apples always wins! In thase days, a handful of psychnlogists, forced by the need to eat, sold their souls to the devil and devoted themselves to recording the uneven terrain of con- sumers in order to arrive at their subconscious and cleverly manipulate them on behalf of Yankee commercial interests. They knew the economic situation was pre- carious and they stimulated the possibility of cnange, even if limited to that ingenuous illusion: The one who eats apples always wins! - Backed by the magic of television tricks and with a Lucifer-type message, the apple, which is foreign to our climate and palate, penetrated the market and struck at the precarious possibilities of expansion of our unadorned tropical fruits: the pineapple, guayaba, coconut, mango, papaya, soursop, chirimoya, sapodilla plum, canistel, mammee, marmalade plum, and others. How sad, how diminished, how help- less the barker for the "Mango, mangue, from the little farm in the country!", - his cry swallowed up by the electronic voice helped along by a myriad of colorful images that communicated a host of illusions: The one who eats apples always wins! This anecdote reveals the extent of the exhaustive control which the Yankees sought over all the economic possibilities of their first neocolony. At the same time, it is a reflection of how they have squeezed us since they first set their boots - on our soil. The extorsion even became more all-encompassing in the 1950's when, in addition to sugar, they advanced on all our economic sectors: mining nickel plus cobalt; the most absolute control over banking; industry, even in the light 18 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 branch, with Crusella~ and Sabates, among other examples; and in retail marketing, with Sears, Ten Cents, Ekloh and Minimax. To confront the traditional cigarette - industry, they had already unloaded their Pall Malls, Marlboros, Chesterfields and Camels, and through an ad hoc enterprise, Roberts Tobacco, and its advertising agency, they gradually shaped tastes until they could make a final attack on the local bastions. Beer companies had to fight Miller High Life and Schlitz. Not only did they en~ure a monopoly with everything bearing the mark "Made in the USA," but in the food industry, they had launched the well-known brands Del Monte and Libby, which began to produce directly in Cuba. In ahort, wherever there might be any opportunity fo�r profit, the native investor would be dislodged, able to maintain a certain operating margin as a minor partner or through the administrations. Key to Development The revolutionary triumph transformed the neocolony. In some years in the 1950's, imp orts of food products amounted to 150 million pesos, 150 million pesos in imports most of which could be replaced by our national production! In order to provide an idea of what those 150 million pesos in imports represented, one has but to look at the following table: Imports During the Period From 1946 to 1956 I I Item Percent Food and beverages 30 Machinery and vehicles 16 Textile products 13.3 Minerals 10 Metals and manufactured products of metal g � ~ Chemical and pharmaceutical products 9 Paper and applications 4 Wood and wood products 1�~ Animals and by-products ~�8 Tobacco ~ � 2 _ Other imports 3.3 Source: Civic Training Manual, Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, 1960 This means that nearly one-third of all imports during that period corresponded to the agricultural sector and mainly to the food industry. And yet, the possibility existed that by a sustained effort, many of the im- ports could be replaced and in addition, export sectors could be created. Another table completes the picture: Imports of Food Products 1946 to 1956 Onions and garlic 80 Lard 60 Other animal fats 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (Cont.) Rice 70 Potatoes 50 Beans and peas 40 _ Pork 12 Condensed milk 10 Vegetable oils 9.1 Wheat 100 Source: Civic Training Manual, Ministry of the Revolutioanry Armed Forces, 1960 - This picture is one of the factors that would be decisive in picking, as the corner- _ stone of economic development in the earlq years of the revolution, the agricultural sector, which would lead to the establi,shment of industries for agriculture (ferti- _ lizers, agricultural machinery, weed-killers, cement, ~nd so o~:) and others relating to agriculture (the food industry, plants to process sugar cane by-products, tanner- ies, and others). This preference for the agricultural sector, based on the possibility of replacing imports, improving the people's diet and creating export funds, resulted from this series of factors: 1) the availability of natural resources, ~o.ainly the land, in addition to the possibility of improving human productivitq aad the output of productive forces as a whole; 2) the sugar industry, with its production capacity and its technological tradi- tions, making it possible to sustain the economy and provide resources for agricul- tural diversification; 3) the fact that the agricultural sector was less demanding in its need for highly skilled labor and permitted the massive employment of labor with less technical equipment; 4) the fact that the agricultural sector had fewer needs for imported consumable expenditures compared with other ecanomic sectors; and 5) the fact that despite these impacting 150 million pesos sp ent on imports, the Cuban people had a poor diet. The bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the intellectuals satisfied this basic need but the broad masses did not. This was shown by the poll made in 1957 by the Catholic University Associatioa using farm workers. The basic food staples.of these families were rice, beans and tubers. Only 11 percent of them drank, 4 percent ate meat, 2 percent had eggs and only 1 percent ate fish. Their diet on the whole showed a deficit of 1,000 calories a day and was lacking in basic vitamins and minerals. The industrial worker was not far from these averages. The revolution faced the need to replace imports at the same time it had to meet the growing demand for work at a decent wage for everyone. 20 - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 1'Vl\ Vi11Vl~ai.1 ~J~JY V~~Ji 6) A door was being opened in order to begin e~cporting. 7) As we have already stated, industry, the real cornerstone of development, could concentrate on industries for agriculture and ir~dustries related to agriculture ~ _ (the food industry, for example) . ~ Solution Is Industry As a result of all the advantages we have described, agriculture was chosen as the - key to our economic development. ' And yet, production of the agricultural ~ector face5 serious disadvantages on world markets. Ec~nomic power in the capitalist field is held by industrialized nations. As a count~rpart, the undeveloped countrie$, without industry, only have raw mater- ials for commercial trade on international markets. Since the industrialized na- ~ tions are the ones that have suff icient funds to withstand any situation and the undeveloped countries have to survive from day to day, one has the ~xtorsion of unequal trade which, in sum, means that raw materials tend to go down in grice and ' industrialized products up. All of this is a result of the imposition of prices by industrialized nations. i As a result of this situation, what happens? Agricultural products have tc: be sold ~ under their real production cost and losses are then~suffered. These losses lead to the growing indebtedness of undeveloped countries to industrialized nations. ~ We must state that this is not so with the soc ialist camp, although the situation of the world market is always inf luential. One example is the.price of our sugar. The Soviet Union pays us $.30 a pound although the world market price is $.05. This enables us to sell it at a price that is higher than our production cost. What is more, if their industrial products which they supply to us go up in price, they ~ raise the price of sugar proportionately. This mechanism is referred to as "sliding prices." Now t~ien, the socialist countries also have to put their exports on the world market. This is the case of Bulgaria, many of whose products are from agriculture. How is one to resolve the contradiction? The agroindustrial complexes have been set up ; and in Bulgaria, for example, the second final phase of the plan is underway: the industrial-agricultural complexes, which linlc industry and agriculture in a ; single unit, with industry predominating. With the triumph of the revolution, Cuba had only a few plants of a high industrial level and the rest were an inf inite number of small operations scattered throughout the national territory. Naturally, Havana had moat of the industry. It was the market for one-third of the entire urban population and had the highest standard of : living, since most of the bourgeoisie, landawnera, pettq bourgeoisie, industrial classes and the working class lived in Havana. The first task was the integration and rationalization of these industrial manifes- tations. Let us example: In 1960, production of canned goods was scattered throughout 150 factories, most of them wretched, except for Selecta (Sancti Spiri-_- tus), Conchita (Pinar del Rio} and Ma~agua (Ciego de Avila), and a few others. Already by 1964, production had been concentrated into 85 units which had increased 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY their production by 68 percent. This occurred in every subsector of the food in- dustry. The importance which the revolution granted to the f ood industry can be seen in the _ following figures: In the period from 1954 to 1958, only .8 percent of all new in- dustrial investments w~re devoted to the industrial food br.anch. In contrast, in 1964, ths amount of investments devoted to this sector of the economy represented 10.6 percent of the entire industrial sector. (Source: "Current and Future Prob- lems of the Food Industry in Cuba," CUBA SOCIALISTA, August 1966, No 60) _ In order to guarantee the growing efficiency of the branch, the Ministry of the Food Industry was established by Law No 1185 of 27 October 1965. At that time, the ministry had 30 percent of all industrial production in the country. (Source: "Industrial Development in Cuba," CUBA SOCIAI,ISTA, No 57, May 1966) At the present time and despite the enormous investments made in other industrial branches: sugar, - electricity, machinery, nickel, and so on, the food industry amounts to approximately 22 percent of all industrial production, over one-fifth! - Development of Food Industry - In this article, we introduce the different types of production covered:by the Min- istry of the Food Industry and the current People's Government enterprises. They _ include the following subsectors: milk industry, flour and flour milling industry, the fruit and vegetable canning industry, the preserves industry, bread making, the _ - beverage and liquor indust'ry, the beer, refreshment and mineral waters industry, the meats and fats industry, the tobacco industry and the Institute of Research for the Food Industry. We are not including the fishing subsector of the industrialization of bird raising. - During the period from 1966 to 1970, production grew at a rate of 4 perc~nt annually and in the 1971-1975 period, growth amounted to 6 percent per annum. During the period from 1966 to 1970, investments in industry amou:zted to 53 million pe~os and . from 1971 to 1975, investments amounted to 181 million. _ How has the food industry behaved from 1976 to 1980? - In the document "Proposed Economic and Social Guidelines for the 1981-1985 Periody" one reads the following: ~ "Production of pasturized milk increased by 30 p~rcent b}~ 1979 compared with 1975, which has made it possible to Rive the people milk in liquid form and of better quality. Likewise, installed capacity for the production of wheat flour went from 172,000 to 485,000 tons. Nevertheless, overall production of the food industry has maintained a s].ow rate of growth." - What factors can have contributed to the decline in the rate of growth? - First of all, there is the allocation oi national raw materials. Industry suffered ' a hard blow from nature with the blue mold that struck tobacco, practically liquidat- ' ing crops for 2 years, a blow fro~m which we have still not recovered. Coffee also endured an upset during the 5-year period, but measures are being taken to rehabil- - itate plantations and there are positive signs. Above all, the as yet unsolved ' 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 1 VL\ VL'i 1V1llY VaJU V~~~~ problem of cattle has affected meat production because we have been partially depen- dent on imported feed, feed that has not alWays been enough to meet our needs. The return of swine fever starting at Guantanamo required drastic measures, with the negative impact on production. While rice has improved during the revolutionary process, there have been partial reversals during the 5 years. The same has been _ true with the production of fruits and vegetables, which affects the canning indus- try, although there has been ma~ ~r growth in 1980. Cac~o h~.s been another crop suffering a decline during the S-year period. As one can see, there is a verq great dependency of the agricultural sector. How- ever, this does not mean that al.l the causes are concentrated in this area. Despite the great effort made to replace imports, as we mentioned, some of these are not produced in Cuba. Qne specific ca~e is wheat. We consume corn, especially fram the new plants for producing flour, tortillas, puffed corn and other varieties, and when we depend on imports, we are influenced by the markets. Oils constitute another area in which we are importers. Another situation must be considered: It has been our policy to purchase factories whose capacities we shall need in the future, even though we do not currently have supplies to cover their potential capacity totally. A typical case since the 1970's is that of the Havana Milk Complex. It was this year that the province , reached 1 million liters of production, which is equiva lent to the complex' milk reception capacity. The same is true of other milk complexes. In other words, our capacity is greater than the amount of raw material we have. What is the reason for this apparent contradiction? The world inflationary phenomenon which makes industrial prices rise daily. If we do not buy today, the same factory wi11 cost double tomorL~w. In addition, startup takes time,.as does the gradual assimilation of capacities. This means that when one compares production with investments, there is no equivalence for the time being. Another negative effect, both financial and with respect to scarcities on the mar- ket, stems fram the difficulty of purchasing certain raw materials and containers. Let us take refresiunents as an example. More could be produced by the installed capacities, even though the supply has improved substantially. What is holding things up? The lack of bottles, due to our li.mited production at the Orlando Cuellar Factory. With the new plant going up in Las Tunas, there wi11 be a correc- tion o� this limitation beginning in 1981. There isalso a lack of bottle caps, which are imported. There is not enough carbonic gas, which problem will be solved when the Santa Cruz investment is concluded next year. Not all the causes are to be found in agri~ulture or the foreign markets. There are some difficulties that are inherent in industry: The failure to take advantage of all possibilities of agricultural productian in some enterprises. There is a shortage of properly trained personnel with respect to efficiency. To date, wages have not been totally pegged to output (although by the end of 1980, over 80 percent of the work force will be so pegged) and there has been a lack of bonuses and other material and moral incentives. In short, as in any human undertaking, there is always some room between what has been obtained and real possibilities. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Undeniable, Sustained Advance Before pointing out the "slow rate of growth during the S-year per_..d," we described the "mote in the eye" of the food industry. But in all fairness, we must point to the achievements which, ob~ectively speaking, outweigh deficiencies. As it would be an endless task to list each and every one of them, we have chosen to present two tables [below] shawing the advances made at a glance. The fir$t is entitled Comparative Production (Selection) and the second is Investments From 1966 to 1980. Here we shall see how the food industry is helping to equalize the regions and make them industrially proportionate, gradually eliminating the gaps still observable, gaps favoring the country's western region due to the traditional inflow of resources to Havana. Not only does it contribute to this aspiration of the country, but it also affects the percentage increase in the female work force and in the supply of products that make homenaking easier and, in keeping with the distribution of responsibilities which the Family Code proposes, helps give the woman more hours of free time. Finally, we shall describe the specific tasks assigned by the First Congres5 of our party to the food industry and we shall show the stage of execution. _ Let us isolate one highly eloquent detail: During the S years between 1976 and 1980, the amouat of investments in the food industry was 363 million pesos. Let us now turn specifically to tasks and compliance. Task 65: In the food industry, to increase production, diversify the range of pr~ducts and improve the quality of products so as to better sati~fy the needs of ~ the population. For the reply, we would refer the reader to the table entitled Comparative Produc- tion. We would emphasize progress with re~pect to milk in liquid form, yogurt, ice cream, refreshments, and so on. Finally, we leave it to the reader to analyze. The range of products has been diversified with sherbets, refreshments, caramels, drinks, milk products, and so on. There have be~n iunprovements in quality through stiffer systematic inspections of production. Hawever, there are still deficiencies. Task 66: In the milk industry, to continue the establishment of pasturizing plants, offering higher quality milk in liquid form, and the setting up of plants to pro- duce ice cream, cheese, yogurt and other milk products. Before the 1976-1980 period, the Ministry of the Food Industrq had set up large - dairy facilities: the Havana Dairy Complex, with a capacity of 1 million Iiters of milk, in yogurt, pasturized milk, cheese, ice cream and butter; the Rio Zaza Dairy Complex in Sancti Spiritus; and the Escambray Comb~ne in Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos. It also set ug pasturizing plants in Matanzas, Colon, Sagua, Moron, Nuevitas, Palma Soriano and Levisa, and combines in Ciego de Avila, Camaguey, Villa Clara, Sancti Spiritus and Santiago de Cuba~. It rebuilt and expanded older facilities: E1 Lucero, - Algibe, Beatriz and Moralitos, among others. In the final stages are the combines (pasturized milk, yogurt and.butter) in Holguin, Pinar del Rio and the pasturizing plant in Bahia Honda. The follow ice cream plants were built during previous periods: Bayamo, Camaguey and the Escambray Dairy Combine. The Coppelia plant - 2~+ FOR pFRICIAL IISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 iri Havana, the Siboney in Santiago and the Guarina plant in Havana were rebuilt. For more details, the reader should refex to the table Investments From 1966 to 1980. Task 67: To coatinue modernization of the meat industry and create new capacities for the slaughter af fowl and industrialization of swine raising; to offer a greater range of products. (The Ministry of the Food Industry does not have the funetion of slaughtering fowl; this is the task of the National Fowl Combine.) At the present time, the � Carnico Combine is being built in Camaguey with the capacity to slaughter 1,000 head of cattle in double shifts. xeconstruction and modernization work is going ahead at the Julio A. Melia Slaughterhouse, the Reynold Garcia and Raul Cepero Bonillo packing plants, the Felipe Fuentes Combine and the David Royo Hydrogenated Fats Plant, New facilities have been built: the Ciro Frias Ham Plant, the Chichi Padron Slaughterhouse in Santa Clara and Inocencio Bl~ckwood in Niquero, the Osvaldo Herrera Packing Plant in Villa Clara, the animal flour plant in Villa Clara and Santiago. Reconstruction and modernization work has been done at the Havana Plant, , the Antonio Maceo Packing Plant and the Ciro Redondo Slaughterhouse. For more details, the reader may refer to the table Investments From 1966 to 1980. I Task 68: In the flour industry, to expand wheat processing capacities, reaching I from 470,000 to 490,000 tons of flour by 1980; to start up new facilities making it , possible to offer the population a wider variety of grains. ~ In order to increase production of wheat flour, the new Regla and Cienfuegos mills were set up. With this capacity, plus the Santiago mill, it is hoped to reach the figure of 280,000 tons of flour by 1980, without counting imports of this product. The per capita consumption of wheat flour was 26 lpilograms in 1958, but that figura rose to 57 kilograms by 1980, more than double. Five new corn mills, five rice mills and 46 driers were also set up, expanding the capacities of our milling industry. For more details, the reader may refer to the table Investments From 1966 to 1980. Task 69: To set up se~zen caramel plants, oat and corn tortilla factories arid bakeries, all with modern equipment and methods. The new caramel plants in Trinidad, Alamar and Santiago de Cuba are already in �ro- duction and those in Pinar del Rio, Caibarien and Manzanillo are being built. In addition, five sherbet plants have been set up in Pinar del Rio, Havana, Caibarien, Camaguey and Banes. Corn curl lines have been set up in Aavana and corn tortillas are being made in Havana, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. Oat tortillas are produced in Havana and Santiago de Cuba. Bakeries have been set up in Guana- , bacoa, Panecitos Boyeros in Havana and in Camaguey, Holguin, Manzanillo, Sandino and Che Isle of Youth, in addition to those already existing. A group of factories making cones, cookies and crackers have been established, along with the Bona Sera _ pasta factory in Santiago, similar to the Vita Nova plant in Havana. For more de- tails, see the table Investments From 1966 to I980. Task 70: To increase fruit and vegetable processing capacities. Modern facilities and new lines have been set up for nectars, juices and catsup at the Batabano cannery and at the Yara nectar and juice plant in Manzanillo. The 25 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 FOR GFFICIAL USE ONLY ].atter will produce for export. In 1978, the Citrus Combine was set up on the Isle of Youth, with magnificent prospects for increasing exports and national consumption. The follawing new plants were built: the Shoyu soy sauce and Camalore canning plants. In adciition, existing f acilities were expanded and modernized, as in the case of the Turquino cannery in Holguin, Reinado in Santa Clara, the Santiago de Cuba cannery and others. Task 71: To increase production of carLonated beverages; to increase production of rums and liquor. New beverage factories were set up in Havana, Nuevitas, Las Tunas, Nolguin, Manzan- illo, Santiago and Guantanamo. It is hoped that by 1980, same 40 million cases of refreshment will be turned out. In addition to the expansion of the Central Rum Distillery (Washington plant) in Santo Domingo, previous to the 5-year p1an, the Eirst phase of the new beverage combine in Santa Cruz was built with a capacity to produce 32 million liters annually of the Havana Club brand. The investment process continues with the setting up of a carbonic gas plant and a cordial plant that will be completed in 1981. In 1978, in addition to meeting national needs, the liquor industry produced over 10 million case~ for export. In sum, it is enough to review this central text and the tables included to see the progress made in the food industry. Based on the people's purchasing power in 1958, these facilities would not have been able to be built because there would be no sol- vent demand f or them. In other words, the people would not have the monetary re- _ sources to buy them. Production would remain in the show windows, as is the case in other underdeveloped countries. Only socialism, the economic boom it has brought to our c:ountry, presents the opposite picture: Despite these great investments, the consumer possibilities of the population are still not fully satisfied. This is an incentive and a challenge that the food industry is facing and will continue to face _ in the coming years as it fulfills four missions: to replace imports, improve production, diversify the range of products and create exportable atocks. Comparative Praduction (Selection) Product 19~3 1975 1979 Pasturized milk MT1 149.7 625.2 663.7 Yogurt MT 0.3 40.1 46.5 Ice cream M Ga12 1,350.5 16,266.7 18,790.6 _ Evaporated milk MT 5.3 15.9 28.1 _ Cream cheese Tons 1,922.1 3,570.8 4,223.6 ~ Fritters Tons 3,273.8 5,075.0 Canned tomatoes MT 20.4 24.8 26.9 Yeast Tons 2,214.1 4,293.8 5,312.8 Sherbet Tons 2,415.1 Canned fruit MT 39.4 42.9 37.2 Compotes MT 2.8 20.1 16.3 Butter MT 2.2 7.8 10.2 Rice MT 83.13 222.8 202.3 crackers MT 26.7 35.7 38.8 Noodles MT 20.1 53.2 52.8 - Caramels and candies MT 9.3 20.3 16.0 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 ~ L'Vi~ V111V11aL UJa+ Vl~ua , (cont.) Canned meats MT 18.7 26.3 29.4 Pork in strips MT 9.43 24.2 32.5 Rum and cordials for export MH14 15.13 105.9 134.0 Alcoholic beverages MH1 153.73 189.4 195.4 Metal containers MU5 531.2 469.6 Beer MM cases6 10.6 25.1 27.5 Refreshments MM cascs 47.7 31.6 26.7 Source: Ministry of the Food Industry 1. Thousands of tons 2 Thousands of gallons . 3 1964 4 Thousands of hectoliters 5 Thousands of units - 6 Millions ~ Investments From 1966 to 1980 ' i Dairy industry: Coppelia ice cream plaats in Havana (expansion and reconstruction); I Coppelia, Camaguey; Havana Ice Creamery; Bayamo Ice Creamery; expansion of Guarina ~ ice cream plant; Escambray ice cream and cheese cambine, Cienfuegos; Managua Cheese ' Factory; Havana Dairy Complex; cold storage plant of the Dairy Complex: Pasturizing plants: Santa Czuz (expansion); Pinar del Rio; Moron; Tunas; Baracoa; Levisa; Sagua la Grande; Sandino; Matanzas; Sancti Spiritus; Holguin; Camaguey; Ciego de ' Avila. ~tio Zaza evaporated milk line. Meat industry: Slaughterhouses: Chichi Padron, Niquero, Ciro Redondo (moderniza- . tion). Packing plants: Isle of Youth, Osvaldo Aerrera (total reconstruction and expansion); Ciro Frias (modernization), Havana Plant (total reconstruction). Animal f lour plants: Holguin (modernization and reconstruction); Santa Clara; E1 Cristo, Luis Pauste Blender (modernization). Cold storage plants: Jose Maceo, David Royo Factory (modernization and expansian). ' Flour and flour mill industry: Wheat mills: Regla and Cienfuegos. Corn mills: Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Havana Cardenas, Antilla (not finished). Oat plants: Santiago and Havana. 37 rice driers. ~ Baking industry: Pasta factories: Vita Nuova, Havana, and Bona Sera, Santiago. Cookie and cracker plants: Pinar del Rio, Artemisa, Isle of Youth, Moron, Nuevitas, Sagua de Tanamo and Guantanamo. Boyeros Bakery. Bakeries: Isle of Youth, Sandino, Guanabacoa, Camaguey, Holguin, Manzanillo. Pancake and tortillas: San Cristobal, Santa Clara, Moron, Camabuey, 5ancti Spiritus, Holguin, Santiago de Cuba. Expansion and modernization of the San Antonio Yeast Plant. Beverage and liquor industry: Santa Cruz Beverage Combine, Phase I; Central Rum Distillery; expansion of the Caney Rum Factory; Harana Vinegar Plant. Beer, refreshment and mineral water industry: Bottlers: Camaguey and Holguin breweries; Hatuey beer bottling plant. Mineral water: ~iego Montero. Refreshment 27 FOR 0$FICIAL USE ONL~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300074430-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY plants: Colon, Sancti Spiritus, Las Tunas, Guantanamo, Manzanillo, Santiago de Cuba, Latinoa~cericana (one line); Nuevitas; Holguin; Metropolitan Refreshment Line, Havana City. Ice plants: Santa Clara, eolon, Santiago de Cuba, Holguin, Las Tunas, Nuevitas, Camaguey, Guane, Cienfuegos, Mayari, Guantanamo, Baracoa, Sagua la Grande, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad, Manzanillo, Palma Soriano, Bahia Honda, Arte- misa, Ciego de Avila, Sagua de Tanamo, Banes, Jovellanos, Isle ot Youth, San Jose de las Lajas, Moron, Fruit and vegetable canning plants: Reconstruction and expansion: E1 Guaso, La Manzanillera, Conchita, Siboney, E1 Gallito, La Florencia, ~tajagua. Moderniza- tion and expansion: Batabano, Yara, Reynado, Turquino. E~ansion: Banes Gannery and La Avispa. New: Shoyu Soy Sauce Plant and Camalote. Citrus Combine on the Isle of Youth. Confectionery industry: Sherbets: Caibarien, Pinar del Rio, Alamar, Camaguey, Banes. Carame 1 factories: Trinidad, Alamar, Santiago de Cuba. Expansion and modernization: La Corona Caramel Factory, Camaguey. Modernization: Gerardo Abreu Factory (Fontan) . Glucose factory, Cienfuegos. Tobacco industry: 1~ais ted tobacco plants: Holguin and Guantanamo. Match factories: Rene Bedias, Cerro and Bauta. - COPYRIGHT : BOHEMIA 1980 11,464 CSO: 3010 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA DEVELOPMENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY NOTED ' Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 14 Nov 80 pp 90-92 [Article by Aida Cardenas: "The Past, Present and Future of the Pharmaceutical Industry"] [Text] It is very important that this generation know how medicines are made in Cuba. ' i The production process was previously practically secret. Every laboratory had its ~ special formulas to which not even professional personnel had access. Production ~ was on a totally small-scale, individual basis. Every laboratory worked out its own ~ formulas in keeping with its own judgment and knowledge and=it was often said that the production of inedicines was an art. At the time of the triimnph of the revolution, there was no developed pharmaceutical industry and the enterprises that existed at the time could be classified in three main groups: subsidiaries of foreign laboratories; representatives of foreign laboratories that imported finished products and distributed them in the country; ; and Cuban production laboratories. Most of the enterprises were in the latter group, which included both ethical labora- tories and "unethical" laboratories, so called because they maintained more direct commercial relations with doctors who prescribed their "products," which were to-~_ _ tally lacking in therapeutic value. ~ The high profits realized in this type of business explain the large number of laboratories that proliferated in the country. This fact, along with the little or ' no government control over quality, in the midst of fierce competition for the mar- ket, led to an increase in the number of new products in circulation. The industry was dominated by foreign interests and made no progress in obtaining national raw materials. Nor did it encourage research. Fram t~e very beginning, our Revoluticm.ary Government worked to eliminate the multi- plicity of brands and products without any scientific basis. Every factory produced a wide range of items numbering in the hundreds and encampassing nearly all pharma- ceutical forms. The need for a restructuration became obvious so that the condi:- tions might be created for larger-scale production. The proper flow would then be established, taking into account the change in the spurce of raw materials, which the revolutionary process made inevitable. : - 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300070030-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Up until 1970, the Cuban pharmaceutical industry worked with equipment existing in the laboratories that were nationalized or purchased. Equipment was heterogeneous, few processes were mechanized or autamated, the flow was not coordinated or geo- graphically unifozm and productivity was low because of the use of antiquated tech- niques and inadequate buildings. Due to these conditions, the industry faced enormous difficulties in camplying with production plans. Despite this fact, by the beginning of the 1970's, the Cuban pharmaceutical industry was producing most of the pharmaceutical formulas used inter- nationally and the first steps were being taken in ttie national production of raw materials. Achievements Throughout all these years, our pharmaceutical industry has manged to supply 80 percent of alI medicines required by the country through national production. The remaining 20 percent has been covered by imports. Quality control in the in- dustry is guaranteed with the work of 89 professionals including 67 chemists, 17 micrabiologists, 5 biologists and I10 intermediate-level technicians, working in _ 3 central chemistry, microbiology and pharmacology laboratories and 10 chemical analysis laboratories of enterprises producing medicines. 'Che techuological development, rationalization and modernization that have taken place in the industry have made it possible to use technologies and equipment with tiigh productivity and low costs. The equipment includes machinea for the mixing and granulating of tablets by fluid- ized layers, machines to inspect vials (previously done manually), machines tu wash and sort vials, semi.-automatic machines to fill containers with oral liquids, serums, and so on. At the same time, new types of containerizing have been introduced, such as the bubble or blister presentation of pharmaceutical tablets. Other types of containers for liquids, suspensions, eyewashes, salves, and so on, will be modernized during the next 5 years in coordination with suppliers of the domestic economy. Wr~rk has been done on replacing imported products by national production such as antibiotics, hormones, sustained action tablets,