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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9539~ - 10 February 1981 ~ USSR Re ort p LIFE SCIENCES - BIOMEVlCAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES - (FOUO 3/81) ~ FBI$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and o~her characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infcr- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- . tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. ~ Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes ~f tlie U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LA61S AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OYLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 I i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ i ; JPRS L/9539 j ~ 10 February 19~1 i ~ i ; ~ USSR REPORT i LIFE $CI~NCES BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAYIORAL SCIENCES (FOUO 3/81) ~ CONTENTS . ~ _ f HUMAN FACTORS ~ Engineering Psychology or Ergonomics 1 Psychological Problems of Mutual Adaptation of Man and _ - Machine in ContYOl Systems 16 The Morale Factor in Modern Wars 21 ' Anticipation in the Structure of Performance 24 ' PHYSIOLOGY Mechanisms of Adaptive Activity of the Brain 28 - i I Mechanisms of Nervous Activity 33 ~ Neurophysiologic Mechanisms of Memory 43~ ~ Artificial Sense Organs 46 Adaptive Biocontrol in Neurology 50 ~ PSYCHOLOGY f ~ ~ Classificaticn of Unconscious Phenomena, and the Category of Activity 55 ~ Dynamic Characteristics of the Nervous System, and the ' Question of Inborn Aptitudes 65 i ~ - a- [~II - USSR - 21.a S&T FOUO] ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 k'OR OFFICIAL USE 013LY - Device for the Study of Human Behavior in ' Stochastic Media 74 E~t~erimental Automated System for Medicopsychological . ~xaminations ',7:$ - Systems Aspects of Behavioral Neurophysiology ~84 Emotional Memory, Its Mechanisms 87 Symposium on Psychological Aspects of Speech Summarized........... 91 Psychology of the Personality and Higher Nervous - Activity (Psychophysiological Essays)F . 95, The Biological Basis of the Psychological Di�ferences of Individuals 104 Psychophysiological Aspects of Labor Performed by Workers . Dealing With Services 109 ~ Collection Explorers Mathematical M~odeling in Psychology.......... 113 " ~ - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I ' \ i ~ i / HUMAN FACTORS ~ - . ENGINEERING PSYCIiOLOGY ~JR ERGONOMICS Moscow VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII in Russian No 3, 1980 pp 88-100 [Article by A. A. Piskoppel' and L. P. Shchedrovitskiy, Facu~ty of Psychology, Moscow State University] ; [Text] The history of inception of engineering psychology in our countrq dates ; back 'LO years already; however, even now, it cannot be maintained with every ' justification that this discipline has been conclusively defined w~th regard to - both its ob~ect and the basic conc~pts, conceptions and methods. It is still in ' the fo~ative process, broad~ning the range of its ob~ect and revising its sub3ect- ' related content. The existence of significaat changes within a relatively short period generates numerous difficulties, both scientific-theoretical and administra- tive [organizational]. As a result, the concepts and conceptions constituting the sub3ect of engineering psychology at different stages of its formation are often viewed as being equi- i valent. Within the framework of one discipline, directions are beginning to co- exist that are based not only on different, but diametrically opposite conceptions of the eame object. For this reason, the concern of a number of researchers in the field of engineering psychology becomes understandable; we refer to the "vague- ness~'_or "unwarranted expansion" of its range. At the same time, this shows once ~ more that the question of the status of engineering psychology, o.f its specific , subject, has not been removed from the agenda.l An answer to the question of the subject of any discipline cannot be accepted with- out coneideration of its correlation with the sub~ects of allied disciplines, both in the sense of joint functioning in the "organism" of modern science, and genesis prop~r, since ~cientific endeavor, like any other form of human endeavor, is based ! on continuity and tradition. The most complex and, at the same time, the most de- batable issues in Lais regard are questions of correlation between engineering ; psychology, ergonomics and industrial psychology. Evidently, an entire cycle of studies, both historical-critical and theoretical-~methodological, will be required ' for a more or less extensive discussio:l of correlations between the three concepts, ; engineering psychology, industrial psychology and ergonomics. In this article, we have a much more modest objective, that of discussing some aspects of the correla- , tion between the concepts of "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics." ! In the last few years, there has emerged a distinct tendency toward distinguishing ' between and formulaCing "engineering psychology" and ~'ergonomics" as different ! concepta, The view is even held that this difference enaues directly from the ; ; - 1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - difference in the corresponding terms 3n establishing their linguistic meaning. This tendency appeara to be so obvious to some authors, tha~: the d3scuss3on of other points of view is declared unjustified and useless.2 Perhap~ ~he solution to this problem is indeed sc obvious that it doe~ ncSti requile any special discussion. However, even a superficial glance at the actual history ~ oP inCroduction and use of these concepts is sufficient to realize the illusory nature of this obviousness. To demonstrate this, let us refer to comparative interpretation of the main elements o~ the concepts of "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics," namely, their objects, sub3ects, main tasks and directions of practical work (in works published at the same time, at that). It is easy to see that in both the case of "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics," modern man-machine systems are considered as their objects. Sometimes they are called "man-work tool-work object-~ndustrial environment" systems (for example, . in [24, 9]), or "man-mar.hine-environment" systems (for example, [10]) and occa- sionally,simply "man-machine systems" (for example, [7, 16, 19], but this does not alter the substance.3 In both cases, man's activity in modern automated systems is the specific sub~ecti. For example, it is maintained that "man's work is the subject of ergonom3.cs"(for example, [9, p 12]), and in the case of engineering psychology it is "the activity of man controlling modern equipment" j18, p 20]. A coincidence is also demonstrable when one refers to the specifications for the main problems that are solved (or should be solved) by these disciplines. The task of planning human work in modern man-machine systems emerge~ as such a prob- lem at this time (recent works on this topic include, for example, [18, 9]. _ Finally, we can also point to some similarity of directions of practical work 3n engineering psychology [12, 13, 17] and ergonomics [6]. Thus, we are faced with all of the circumstances to question the obviousness of difference between the concepts of engineering psychology and ergonomics in our country, and ~o discuss this matter sgecially. Apparently, we should start with an analysis of the actual history of introduction and use of these concepts into the area of Sr,~viet science. If we refer to the history of the matter, we can easily distinguish two periods in the literature of our country of interpretation of the conCent of the concepts ' of engineering psychology and ergonomics and, accordingly, the correlations be- tween them. The first period is referable to works published between the late 1950's and late 1960's, and the second to those of the late 1960's and 1970's. - Let us consider the first of these periods. Already in the first Sov3et monograph on engineering psychology, B. F. Lomov, in describing the new scientific direction and summarizing both foreign and Soviet - use of different terms--"engineering psychology," "human engineerin~,"~'er~onomics," - etc.--observed that they are essentially synonyms, different names for the same . discipline and, consequently, different terms for expressing the same concept.4 There was the same interpretation of correlation between concepts (terms) of engineering psychology and ergonomics in the works o~ other pro~inent specialists in this field (for example [5, 21]).5 - 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus, it can be obviously stated that by the mid 1960's there existed in the mind of prominent Soviet specialists a one-only scientif~tc direction (or discipline, - movement, etc.) and, accordingly, one concept to express it, for which various terms (depending on the author's taste or organizational conaiderations) were used: ' "engineering psychology," "ergonomics," and occasionally "human engineeri'ng:' The term "engineering psychology," enjoyed the greatest popularity. To become convinced of this one need only to refer to the titles of the pertinent conf erences and scien- tific works on this topic published in the 19b0's. Moreover, all of the basic translated works in this direction were called "engineering psychological," in com- plete accordance with the conception that "human factors," "engineering psychology," "human engix~eering," etc., are essentially synonyms.6 Our description of the situation would be incomplete if we failed to discuss the interpretatton of correlations between these concepts (and, accordingly, areas of endeavor) which was formed abroad, especially since forma.tion thereof in our country, in the late 1950's and early 1960's, occurred under the influence of foreign experience. First ~f all, it should be noted that there were several different terms that were ver_y popular abroad (chiefly in the United States) to d2signate disciplines in the area und~r discussion and, first of all, engineering psychology (from which the Russian terrq "inzhenernaya. psikhologij?a" is tdken), human engineering ~ ("chelovekotekhni'ca" or "chelovecheskaya inzheneriya") and human �actors. Most American specialists believed (and still believe) that these terms are synonymous, designating the same discipline (for example, [33, 37, 30, 31, 47, 41, 42, 34]). For example, in the first chapter of the basic work entitled "Systems Psycholog~�," summarizing the work of American specialists dealing with human factors in the area of systems, K. deGreene writes: "The choice of ~he term, 'human factors,' or 'engineering psychology,' is a matter of individual preference" [34, p S]. Nevertheless, efforts to view engineering psychology and human engineering as different concepts and, consequently, as different areas of endeavor, were made in the past and are being made at the present time. In particular, A. Chapanis _ proposed that engineering psychology be considered a part of human enginee~ing, its psychological,part. But even A. Chapanis himself practically failed to follow this suggestion, considering the engineering psychologist and specialist in human factors as occupationally identical figures [31]. It should be immediately noted here that no effort to interpret engineering psy- chology as a d irection related solely to the psychological aspects of devel oping - and operating systems could succeed, since it contradicts systems ideology; a system cannot b e effectively developed and operated if individual aspects, even ~.f - they are psycho logical, are singled out as an independent sub~ect. This sta~ement - of ours is not in contradiction, however, with emphasis on the leading role of psychological r esources for such systems projects [45, 20]. The effort ~ad e by the American specialists, D. Hunt, W. Howell and S. Roscoe at differentiating between engineering psychology, on the one hand, and human engineering, human factors, etc., on the other, may be consideied the most con- sistent. Their radical point of view is that engineering psychology should not differ in any way from the areas of psychology, in which emphasis 3s laid on scientific res earch, rather than applications of know~edge. Thus, from their - 3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY point of view, the "educational programs" for tr~ining engineering psycholooist~ "should be o~iented toward graduating primarily psychologists" [35, p 80]. For these authar~.;, en~ineering psychology is an area of psychology (while specialists worlcl_ng in t�his field are research psychologiats).~ However, it is quite obvious ' that s~~ch engineering psychology cannot set as its main task the "design o� man's caork in modern automated systems." Being singled out as a special branch of ~~sychology, it should also occupy a cognitive position in relation to its ab~ect, and it cannot be governed by an engineering (designing) task, since ~.t is a ~o~nitive discipline [3]. Such psychology (if we were to consider this plan accomplished) cou'ld not be eq~a~ed either with Soviet engineering psychology or American engine~ring ~SyL'~O~ODyp without overlooking the real~history of their formation. In vi.ew of the above comments, it can be maintained that, ~y rhe mid 1960's, in the United 5tates, as well as in the USSR, there was actually one discipline and ~ onE c~ncept e:~pressing it, while the corresponding terms, engineering psyclto'logy� h~amen factors, human engineering, etc., emerged as synonyms. The sirua~ion in England was i~neasurably simpler, where such a discipline is kr.own by ~.he r~ame o.~ ergonomics. It is not difficult to become convinced of the simi�~ laxii.y of thi.s discipline with its American ana~og, both in the actual pract~.ce o~ specl.aizsts a.~d their minds [32, 40, 46]. By tl~e mid :L9b0's, engineering psychology and ergonomics were already formed as - ~tLi;~e disciplines, and no basic changes in their status have been recorded since ttiat. t~me. Ii we were to characterize these disciplines as a whole, we could menti.c,n the following main features thereof. ~ath a.~-e chaa-acterized by a deliberate "engineering" orientation (for exampley ~3gv 459 47, 48]). This orientation implie~ the use of knowledge from different sci~~nr..itic fi~lds.e Both disciplines single out the systems approach as their . ' mPthc~d~logical. basis j47, 43, 44, 45, 40]. This, in turn, automatically means i:hat t~,~y a~c~pr th~ "conception of systems development" [43, 44, 45, 40]. Both dis- cipl:Ines advanced the idea of designing "personnel subsystems" in "man-~machineYO systems [3b, 38, 43]. A.ll thi.s inc3ns that foreign engineering psychology (human engineering, human fac-- ~ors} �nd ergonomics were very similar to the engineering psychology of our caun~Ly 1) had a systems orientation (see, for example, [19]), 2) was notable for interdisciplinary complexity (see, for example, [11, 5, 17]), 3) consid~x�ed ma~n as rhe sub~ect of work, and :ools and machines as the organs of his activity (see, ior. example, [14]). The conception of "key operator" abroad [43, 44j was similar t~ this interpretation of the correlations between man and machine (but was expz�Lssed urithin the framework of another system of concepts), 4) strived to ~roceed frozn activity as a whole in solving its problems (see, for example, [S]), 5} assum~d as its main task that of designing the activity of an operator 3n au~:oir.ated sy~tems j17, 19]. ln sumniary of this brief discussion of the first phase of interpretation of cor-- _ ~~elations bet~reen the concepts of "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics," it: can be asDerted that the task assumed by Soviet engineering psychology as i~s - 4 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ FQD OFFICIAL USE ONLY main task, that of designing the performance of an operator in automated systems makes it imposs3ble to qualify engineering psychology as a learning-oriented dis- cipline or an engineering psychologist as a research scientist.9 On the con- [rary, there is every reason to maintain that engineering psychology was formed as an engineering (technical) discipline, based on application of theoretical scl.en- tific knowledge and conceptions of man's activities. Engineering psychology is engineering in subject, as an activity directed not only and not so much toward gaining knowledge about its object, i.e., cognition thereof, as toward creation, development and design of its "ob~ect," and its mode of thinking is to solve prac- tical problems by means of theoretical scientific knowledge, resources and methods [3]. The second period that we have singled out (late 1960's and 1570's) is character- ized expressly by the fact that, in a number of cases, the terms "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics" began to be interpreted as expressing two different concepts. And it 3s maintained that there are two different directiona of work in our country, rather than a one and only direction. Let us discuss the main attempts at presenting ergonomics and engineering psycho~- logy as different areas of endeavor. One of the first such attempts was made by K. K. Platonov. In his opinion, "there ` is no validity to the tendencies to equate ergonomics and engineering psychology, the ob~ect oE whase study are work tools, mach3nes that man controls, while the sub~ect is the conformity of these machines with the requirements of psqchology" [26, p 124J. But, as we know, already in the early 1950's, it was not the work tools and machines, but the "man-machine" system as a whole that emerged as the ob~ect of engineering psychology. Let us also mention that the opinion that machines are the ob~ect o~ engineering psychology is incompatible with the conception o# designing man's work in an automated system as the principal fiask of engineering psychology. As for the interpretation that was advanced of the sub~ect of engineering psy- ' chology, in our opinion it was based on a misunderstanding. "Conformity" cannot . emerge as the subject of independent scientific interest. If we are dealing with confor~ity of a machine that is already developed with the requirements of engineer- ing psychology, then this "coaformity" is the positive result of an engineering psychological evaluation; but if we are dealing with the design of new equ3.pment, then this ~'conformity" is a design specification that must be executed, etc. Tn both cases, this conformity constitutes special aspects of engineering psycho- logical practice (a form of engineering psychological work), but by no means all of it. Thus, K. K. Platonov's distinction of engineering psychology and ergo-- nomics is based on the interpretation of engineering psychology that had meaning in the late 1940's, but it is not consistent with current conceptions. In this respect, the interpretation of correlations between the concepts of en- gineering psychology and ergonomics advanced by S. G. Gellershteyn is also signi- ficant. "In the narrow sense, ergonomics is engineering psychology that limit~ 3.ts tasks to development of constructions that best conform with the psychological capabilities o� man. In the hroader sense; ergonomics is a complex science dealing ~rith comprehensive study of correlations t~etween man and a11 his inherent ab~,lfties, interests, on the one hand, and wurk, mach~nes, environment, on the - 5 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , other.... Thus, the range of erg~anomic problems in the broad interpretation is considerably wider than the range of problems that ensue from ~he desire to design machines rationally, in view of the role of the psqchological factor. In this rpgpe~t, e4?gineering psychology is m~rely one of the sections o� ergo~amics" . [2, Pp 210=211]. Indeed, with this interpretation, ergonomics is broader than engineering psychology, which becomes one of the secCions of ergonomics. However, it is not difficult to become convit~ced of the fact that the interpretation of engineering psychology pro- posed here is virtually the same as the interpretation of R. K. Platonov, and for this reason the above comments apply to it to an equal extent. Interestingly, enough, S. G. Gellershteyn coatradicts himself here, since he was among the first to proclaim that the design of man's endeavors is a"difficult, honorable and positive task" for engineering psychology [1, p 160]. But the task of designing human endeavors by no means conforms with the interpretation of problems of engineer- ing psychology that "ensue from the desire to design a machine rationally," even if one coneiders the role of the psychological factor. A large series of studies published in the collections entitled "Ergonomics. Principles and Recommendations," the course has been set toward viewing ~ngineering psychology as a branch of ergonomics. However, it was not followed systematically, since the resul~ is that a part (engineering psychology) turns out to equal the whole (ergonomics). In order to illustrate this, let us compare several theses. Ergonomics as a special discipline and area of endeavar is singled out by its specific goal, which is to "optimize man's working conditions" [28, p 9]. Further, ~ it ia maintained that the "problem of optimization of work activities must be ' solved in two directions: adaptation of equipment to human factors and adaptation of man to working conditions. Both directions are interrelated, and optimum solu- tions of this problem can be found in the course of complex design of exogenous and endogenous means of human endeavor" [28, p 3]. At the same time, the same series of studies determines that the main task for engineering psychology "is the complex design of exogenous and endogenous meaas of human endeavor" [28, p 10]. Thus, we find that the goal of erganomics is reached by engineering psychology. Of some interest is the attempt made to differentiate between the concegts of en- gineering psycho logy and ergonomics by interpreting the sub~ect of engineering psy- cho logy as the s tudy and coordination of "psychological traits of the operator and technical specif ications of a complicated complex that he controls, in order to ob- ta3.n maximum eff iciency of the entire system" [4, p 5]. This definition of Che sub- ~ect of engineering psychology, as its authors see it, "makes it possible to ex- clude from consideration a la~-ge number of problems that also have a direct bearing on coordination of human and machine characteristics" [4, p 6]. However, this ~ ~interpretation of the subject daes not rule out consideration of a large number of problems, but only adds new ones to them. They can be "excluded" only if we remove from the above definition the words "coordination" and "to obtain maximum eff iciency of the entire system." But since we are dealing expressly with maximum efficiency of the entire system, to "exclude from consideration a large number of problems that also have a direct bearing on coordination of human and machine - characteristics" means in essence that one abandoas~th~ ~ask. How could one seri- ously coordinate, without deliberately considering problems that have a direct bearing on coordination? We find such an approach to be intrinsically contradic- torq. Engineering psychology, haviag realized the need for a systems approach, has long since considered all problems having a direct bearing on man�s performance -6- FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY iri automated systems. Only such an approach can assure a real solution of its main problem, that of designing man's activities in such systems. V. P. Zinchenko, V. M. Munipov and G. L. Smolyan made an attempt at separating the concepts of "ergonomics" and "engineering psychology" by indicating the main "factors" setting the boundaries of the corresponding fields of endeavor.l0 singled out six groups of "ergonomic" factors, they assert: "It is not difficult to single ouk the subject of engineering peychology; the fourth group of factors 'be- long' to this discipline" [10, p 5]. However, it is difficult to share the optimism of these authors, that this would make it easy "to single out the subject of engineering psychology." First of a11, we are impressed by the lack of any grounds to prove that indeed "factors" were single~i aut, rather than something else, and that they are expressly ergonomic and not some others. Why are there exactly six ergonomic factors, no ~ore and no ~ less, and why these and not some others, etc.? In our opinion, these questions are not without grounds. It should be noted that all six theses cannot be con- sidered of the same rank, since they are categorially different. Some have the , categ~rial characteristics of an"object" (i.e., they are referable to the man- ~ machine system as such), and they are the factors of the second, third and fourth , groups; nthers have the categorial characteristics of a"sub~ect" (i.e., they are referable to the discipline, that the authors single out by indicating the "factors"' that it studies), and they are the factors of the first, fifth and sixth groups. - All six groups of factors are so vague, that it is not deemed possible to draw any c].ear line between them. Thus, the modes (algorithms) of man's work in man-machine - systems (third group of factors) are apparently the characteristics of the "human" components of ma.n-machine systems, i.e., they are ref erable to the fourth group of ' factors according to their content. Simila=ly, the factors in.the sixth group (method~ of training, occupational screen~ng of people and monitoring their condi- tion) are the means of assuring maximum efficiency, safety and comfort of work, ' i.e., they belong to the fifth group of factors, etc. In our opinion, the attempt to distinguish between two ergonomics as a means of eliminating the contradictions in interpretation of its subject, ergonomics in the broad and narrow sense, is also a failure. Ergonomics in the broad sense ; is what constitutes the six groups of factors. The "fifth group of factors re- fers to ergonomic parameters of the work process.... The discipline that deals with these erognomic parameters should, in the authors' opin3.on, be called ergo- nomics in the narrow sense." "Consideration of ergonomics in the broad and narrow sense eliminates a number of _ contradictory interpretations of its sub~ect, warns against the often little- founded claims that ergonomics covers universally the problems of scientific organi- _ zation of labor, coordinates new and traditional conceptions and, in the authors opinion, makes it possible to trace more distinctly the correlation between ergo- nomics and other sciences" [10, pp 4-5]. As we see, the authors of the work in question have high hopes for the distinc- tion they have made. To what extent are they justifi ed? The authors referred to the fifth group the "conditiops and means of assuring maxi- mum efficiency, safety and comfort of work." Apparently, if we have knowledge about the conditions and the means of assuring maximum effi~iency, safety and comfort of ~ - 7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY labor, we thereby also have the solution of the problem of "complex optimization',' of man-machine-environment" systems. Since precisely this ie the task for ergono- mics in the broad sense (as the authors interpret it), we find that ergonomics in the narroV~* sense solves the problem for ergonomics in the broad sense, i.e., Cheae ergonomics are actually identical in their problems [tasks]. They are also identi- - cal in aubject matter, since the fifth group of factors--conditions and means--is generic in relation to all the rest. Indeed, both the criteria of optimization (f.irst group) and organization of interaction in maa-machine systems (second group), as well as mode of work (third group) and characteristics of human and - technical components of man-�machine systems (fourth group), methods of training, occupational screening of people and monitoring their condition, are a11 eit~ter the conditions or means of assuring maxim~ efficiency, safety and comfort of labor. - Thus, instead of eliminating contradictory interpretatioas of the subject of ergo- nomics and coordination of new and tra3itiona]. conceptions, distinction of ergonomics in the broad and narrow sense adds new difficulties. ~ The most extensive attempt at separating the conceptions of "engineering psychology" and "ergonomics," and substantiation thereof were made recently by V. M. Munipov. V. M. Munipov writes: "Being a branch of psychology, engineering psychology deals only with specific aspects of interaction between ~an and machine, and in this res- pect it emerges as well as one of the sections of ergonomics, one of whose tasks is the complex study of various aspects of interactioa between man and machine, the man-machine system and the env:i.ronment" [22, p 9]. But Soviet engineering psychology did not, at least net so far, limit ftaelf (as we have indicated above ~ore than once) "only to specific aspects of interaction between man and machines." Moreover, it has "~rown up" to the task of integral design of operator work in automated systems.l Thus we were always dealing with the complex study, design, etc:, rather than aspects.i2 But if V. M. Munipov dis- cusses what engineering psychology should deal with (in contrast t~ what it dealt with before o~~, at least, planned to deal with), then we need special substantiation of why and hoTa ergonomics will perform the task that engineering psychology sort of contracted to perfo~. "It can be stated," V. M. Munipov continues, "that any engineering psychological ~ study is er};onomic; however, not every ergonomic study caz? be defined as an engineering psychological one" [22, p 9]. This thesi.s virtually contradicts the interpretation advanced by V. M. Munipov of the corre:lations b etween engineering psychology and ergonomics. For if "any engin~ eering psychological study is ergonomic," it means that any engineering psychologi~ cal study is a complex study. Herein, as V. M. Munipov sees it, are the specifics of an ergonomic study.13 Then what does "not every ergonomic study can be defined as an engineering psychological one" mean? Ref erring to history, V. M. Munipov observes that "engineering psychology and ergo- nomics originally developed as one direction of research." He also recogaizes14 - the pattern of expansion of the field of engineering psychology and its systems orientation. But then, defining the interdisciplinary nature of research in the field of engineering psycholo~y and identity of the concepts of "human engineering" and "engineering psychology," S V. M. Munipov draws an unexpected conclusion, that - 8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY is the opposite in meaning of the preceding statementa. "Thus," he writes, "on _ the basis of engineering psychology there was formation of ergonomics, or the study of human factors in engineering, as an interdisciplinar,? field with a broader rArige of tasks and problems" [22, p lOJ. The unexpectedneas of this conclu~ion is compounded as well by the fact that it is utterly incomprehensible why ergonomics had of necessity to develop on the basis of engineering psychoJ.ogy, raCher that on its own basis, for, in the words of V. M. Munipov himself, "engineering psychology and ergonomics originally developed as one direction" [22, p 9]. If engineering psychology and ergonomics developed as the samc direction, apparently _ there should have been a qualitative separation and polarization of different theoretical sub~ect systems within the framework of this direction, and it is only after this that two different directions could develop from the originally single one. However, as we have shown above, there are actually no quaZitative differen- - ces between engineering psychology and ergonomics. It is not in vain that no one even tries to indicate when ergonomics and engineering psychology existed as one direction and when or why two were formed from it. At the same time, it is ne- cessary to point to qualitative differences when advancing the view that there are two different directions (disciplines), and this compels V. M. Munipov to construct - engineering psychology as a discipline that is a branch of psychology, and one - that deals only with specific aspects (apparently, "psychological") of interaction between man and machine. Apparently, the interpretation of this is that when engin- ~ eerin~ psychology and ~rgonomics were the same direction both dealt with these "psychological" aspects, but aftEr they were "separated," engineering psychology dealt only with "psychological" aspects, as before, while ergonomics began to deal with the complex development of different aspects. However, it is common knowledge that the "psychological" aspect (if it is set against all others) began to acquire its just place in the system of engineering psychological science only with the passage of time, as engineering psychology (ergonomics) developed, without replacing or e3ecting all others, but merely _ reorganizing the entity. And this process is still far from completion. For this reason, at the earI.y stages of development, alas it was not the "psycholo- gical" aspects that were in first place in engineering psychology (ergonomics). To become convinced of this, it is enough to glance at any of the early works dealing with engineering psychology. Thus, to sum up our discussion of the correlations between the concepts of "en- _ gineering psychology" and "ergonomics," we can maintain that, at the present time, we are actually confronted with one concept and two different tern~s. The efforts that have been made to introduce two different concepts are not sufficiently founded. All them, as a rule, amount to formulation of definitions of what some author considers to be engineering psycho~.ogy and what he considers as ergonomics. We consider it incorrect to differentiate between the concepts of engineering psy- chology and ergonomics without any serious analysis of the actual history of their use and the content that was formed as a result of such use. But if , however, we bear in mind that we are dea?ing with concepts that fix the dPfinite nature of entire areas of endeavor and, for a long time, "were projected" cn the same area, the introduction of such concepts implies the need to separate this ~ previously single area (direction) into two, starting with the methodological con-~ ceptions and ending with the area of relevant empiric~l mat: rial, and this in such a manner as not to contradict their ac~ual history. - 9 - FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Of course, the fact thaC no one who has tried so far has succeeded in significantly separating the concepts of engineering psychology and ergonomics does not mean that this cannot be done. Such a separation is, of course, possible and, perhaps, even necessary by virtue of some circumstances or other, for example, organi.zational. However, since it is inadmissible to rewrite a predated real history af e discl,pline, this separation, which is not a fact of the past, could only become a fact of ttie future. But there are also difficulties along this route. In this regard, the most recent wa-rks of "ergonomists" dealing with the distinction between engineering psychology and ergonomics are interesting. F.~phasis is laid on the fact that the "theoretical boundary between them is beginning to be recog- nized for the reason that engineering psychology is referable to psychology" [23, p 34] and that it is imperative to have a stricter definition and narrowing down of "the area of studies in engineering psychology for it to develop effectively as a branch of psychology in charge of the section of psychology of man's work acti- vities" [8, p 28]. In other words, it is suggested that all complex studies be relegated to ergonomics and only those that are related to purely psychological aspects of performance in automated systems to engineering psychology. At first glance, it could appear that this is a rather good and logical solution to the problem of distinction between engineering psychology and ergonomics. But this is only at first glance. The fact of the matter is that most specialists are unanimous in believing that the te~~ ~'engineering psychology," is extremely unfor[unate. For this reason, in revising the content of the concept and abandoning the traditi~nal use of the te~, there is no reason whatsoever to retain this i11- chosen one; this had some sense only for the sake of tradition. Thus, in this respect, the program was simply not caYrfed through to its logical conclusion. On the other hand, if engineering psychology is viewed solely as a section of indus- trial psychology, there is no need for a special term (after all, the section of industrial psychology that deals with the psychological aspects of work performance in nonautomated systems is managing without a special name). But the main ob,jec- tion co this program is that making a distinction between engineering psychology and ergonomics is replaced in fact bp making a distinction between ergonomics and indsutrial psychology, i.e., instead of one problem, another is discussed. In other words those who wish to ! ~ make a' distinction between engineering psychology and ergonomics (no matter the aspect, past or future) must conduct some special work to separate them. Such a separation cannot be arbitrary; it must have very _ definite grounds, without submittal of which all efforts to make a distinction be- tween engineering psychology and ergonomics are inconsistent. We believe that there are two types of such grounds: the proponents of separation must demonstrate either the necessity therec~f, indicating the devastating (or undesirablej conse- quences of confusing these concepts (in particular, naming the theoretical, organi- zational or practical contradictions arising in this case), or else its expediency, demonstrating the definite benefits (advantages) of such differentiation. For the time being, neither has occurred. Instead, the proponents of separating er.gineering ~ psychology and ergonomics repeat the same thing, over and over again: "ergonomics ia broader, engineering psychology is narrower."ls However, there~~is another possible approach to this problem. This approach is based on the rather transparent set that "specialists in the field of engineering psy- chology," on the one hand, and "ergonomists," on the o~her, who claim to have the - 10 - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ best, most adequate coverage of the relevant prob].ems, advance basically different programs for development of the discipl3ne, and precisely because the differences in the programs they do not want them to be confused. In this case, it would be . more correct to refer to differentiation between different conceptions and prog- rams (one,of which its authors ltke to call "ergonomics"), rather than differenti- ation between the concepts of engineering psychology and ergonomics. For, ~s everyone concedes, it is not a problem of a name. But then, there should also be a change in the formulation of the question: discus- sion of the problems dealt with by "engineering psychology and ergonomics" should be tranalated into the form of "engineering psychology or ergonomics."� The answer to this question must depend on which of the programs is better founded and more consistent with modern scientific theoretical conceptions and social practical demands. - FOOTNOTES 1. In this respect, engineering psychology is no exception. Suffice it to mention here the debate about the subject of psychology proper, which took place in 1975. 2. For example, V. M. Munipov believes that "in those cases where such a.di~tinc- tion is not made, when ergonomics is equated with engineering psychology, there are often fruitless debates, the cause of which is terminological mis- understanding, and not differences in views" [22, p 9]. 3. Let us only mention that a"system" cannot include "environment" in its con- cept. Otherwise, this is no longer a system, but a"universum." 4. "Engineering psychology is one of the newest scientific directions. For the time being this direction does not yet have a universally recognized name. It appears under different names: 'engineering psychology,' 'psychotechnology,' 'ergonomics,' 'human factors engineering,' 'applied psychology,' 'technical psychophysiology,' 'htunan engineering,' etc." [15, p lOJ. 5. For example, at one time V. M. Munipov stated that the term, "ergonomics," "gradually gained wide popularity, although other names were also used, for example, 'human engineering, engineering psychology, studies of 'man~machine' - systems, studies of human factors and, for short, human fact~rs" [21, p 3j. 6. Thus, the work of W. Woodson and D. Conover, the original English title of which is "Human Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers," was translated with the title "Guide on Engineering Psychology for Engineers and Designers." ' The book by D. Meister and D. Rab~deau [actual name is Ronald G. Rabedeau], - "Human Factors Evaluation in System Development," was published in our country under the title of "Engineering Psychological Evaluation in Develop- ment of Control Systems." The remarkable work of C. Morgan, A. Chapanis, D. Cook and M. Land, the literal title of which is "Guide on Human Engin~ering for Equipment Design," has the translated title of "Engineering Psychology as Applied to Equipment Design." ' - 11 - FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7. " psychology can conCinue to ~ustify its exiatence only if speci- alista are trained and used as scientific psychologiets" [35, p 84]. 8. S~e, for example, the following statements of A. Chapanis: 1) "Engiaeering psychology combines different branches of science: psychology, physiology, anthropometry, toxicology, medicine, biology and industrial psychology" [27, p 38]; 2) "Ergonomics :s a multidisciplinary br3nch of science. It is on the borderline of many scientific and occupational disciplines, and it gleans data, information and principles from all these disciplines. Ergonomics is a~,blend of psychology, physiology, medicine, anatomy, toxicology, research on problems of control and engineering" [22, p 7]. 9. Of course, this does not mean that there is place for research as a type of - endeavor within the framework of engineering psychology, but only that ft is subordinated to designing problems. 10. "Ergonomic factors include the following: 1) general system (including social) criteria for optimization of man-machine systems; 2) organization (structures and processes) of information and energy interaction in man~machine systems; 3) modes (algoriChms) of man's perfo~ance in man~machine systems; 4) charac- teristics of 'human' and 'engineering' components of man-�machine systems; S) conditions and means of assuring maximum efficiency, safety and comfort _ of work; 6) means of training, occupational screening of people and monitor- ing their condition" [10, p 4]. 11. This is what V. M. Munipov also believed at one time: "At present, engineer- ing psychology has moved to the second phase, i.e., synthesis, design of human work in ma~or data processing man-~machine systems, in control systems of the organizational type. It considers the design of such systems as the _ design of new forms of human�activities: [9, p 69]. 12. "Engineering psychology is a branch of ergonomics adjacent to systems analysis, whose task is the complex design of exogenous and endogenous means of operator work" [25, p 10]. 13. "The distinetine teature of ergonomics is that the results of ergonomic re- search cann~~t be obtained within the framework of any of tfie existing discip- lines alor.e" [22, p 4]. 14. "In the course of studying the complex performance of man in control and = monitoring systems, it became increasingly obvious that man's performance as ~ a whole was important, rather than individual functional abilities referable to perception, thinking and action; one must take into consideration all of the circumstances upon which the success of the work depends. The study of _ hu~an factors, on which the efficiency and reliability of operation of control and monitoring systems depends to a significant extent, determined the gradual enrichment and expansion of the area of research in engineering psychology" [22, p 10J. - - 12 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ i ` i I i ~.5. "Psychologists started to work," ~tates F. Taylor, "and with the help of ana- tomists, physiologists and, of course, engineers, they founded a new area of interdisciplinary research directed toward improvement of machine design,. Nli~~h .had different names: human engineering, psychotechnology or engi~eer- ing psychology" [22, p 10]. 16. Interestingly enough, when changing their work place (moving to another or- ; ganization), "ergonomista" readily change into "engineering psychologists" and vice versa, without changing in any way the nature of their work. ~ BIBLIOGRAPflY I 1. Gellershteyn, S. G. "Psychological Analysis of Work Activities in the Light of the Tasks of Engineering Psychology," in "Problemy inzhenernoy psikhologii" _ , [Problems of Engineering Psychology], No 1, 1968, pp 156-161 [no year]. j ~ 2. Idem, "Engineering Psychology," in "Nauchnyye osnovy obucheniya shkol'nikov trudu" [Scientific Bases for Vocational Training~of School Children], Moscow, 1970, pp 198-213. i 3. Gushchin, Yu. F.; Piskoppel', A. A.: and Shchedrovitskiy, L. P. "A New I Phase of Development of Engineering Psychology," VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII [Problems i of Psychology], No 5, 1979, pp 97-105. I ~ 4. Dobrolenskiy, Yu. P.; Zavalova, N. D.; Ponomarenko, V. A.; and Tuvayev, V. A. ~ "Methods o� Engineering Psychological Studies in Aviation," Moscow, 1975, ; 280 pp. 5. Zinchenko, V. P.; Leont'yev, A. N.; and Panov, D. Yu. "Problems of Engineering ' Psychology," in "Inzhenernaya psikhologiya" [Engineering Psychology], Moscow, ; 1964, pp 5-23. ~ o. Zinchenko, V. P., and Munipov. V. M. "Methodological Problems of Ergonomics,'~ ' Moscow, 1974, 64 pp. ~ i 7. Idem, "On Theory of Ergonomics," TEKHNICHESR~?YA ESTETIKA [Esthetic Styling ~ in Engineering], No 6, 1977, pp 1-4. 8. Idem, "Fundamentals of Ergonomics," Moscow, 1979, 343 pp. ' 9. Zinchenko, V. P.; Munipov, V. M.; and Smolyan, G. L. "Ergonomic Bases of ' Organization of Labor," Moscow, 1974, 240 pp. 10. Idem, "Some Theoretical and Practical Questions of Ergonomics," in "Inzhenerno-psikhologicheskiye problemy ASU" [Engineering Psychology Problems of Automated Control Systems], Riev, 1975, pp 3-6. 11. Zinchenko, V. P., and Smol.yan, G. L. "Man and MaFhines. Control Systems and ~ Engineering Psychology," Moscow, 1965, 48 pp. ~ ~ i i 12. Idem, "Engineering Psychology," FILOSOFSKAYA ENT�IKZ,OPEDIYA [Philosophical En~.yclopedia), Vol 3, 1967, p 428. ; ' - 13 - ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 13. Zinchenko, V. P., and Smolyan, C. L. "Engtneering Psychol.ogy,~' BSE IGreat Soviet Encyclopedia], Vol 10, 1972, pp 274-275. 14. Leot~t!yev, A. N., and Lomov, B. F. "Man and Machines," VOPROSx PSTKHOLOGII, Na 5, 1963, pp 29-37. 15. Lomov, B. F. "Man and Machines (Essays on Engineering Psychology)," - Leningrad, 1y63, 266 pp. 16. Idem, "Man and Machines," Moscow, 1966, 464 pp. 17. Idem, "Man in Control Systems," Moscow, 1967, 48 pp. 18. Idem, "Psychology and Social Practice," Moscow, 1974, 48 pp. 19. Idem, "On Construction of Theory of Engineering Psychology Based on the Systems Approach," in "Inzhenernaya psikhologiya," Moscow, 1977, pp 31-55. 20. Lomov, B. F., and Petrov, F. I. "Preface to Russian Edition," in "Inzhenernaya psikhologiya v primenenii k proyektirovaniyu oborudovaniya" [Engineering Psy- chology as Applied to Equipment Design], Moscow, 1971, pp 5-7. 21. Munipov, V. M. "Ergonomica and Artistic Design," Moscow, 1966, 30 pp. 22. Idem, "Ergonomics and Psychology," VOPROSY PSIRHOLOGII, No 5, 1976, pp 3-17. 23. Munipov, V. M.; Alekseyea, N. G.; and Semenov, I. N. "Inception of Ergonomics as a Scientific Discipline," in "Ergonomika. Trudy VNIITE" jErgonomics. Works of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Aesthetic Styling in Engineering], Moscow, No 17, 1979, pp 28-67. 24. Munipov, V. M., and Zinchenko, V. P. "The Human Factor in Modern Engineering," VOPROSY FILOSOFII, No 11, 1972, pp 43-55. 25. Munipov, V. M.; Zinchenko, V. P.; Lomov, B. F.; and 5hlayen, P. Ya. "Ergonomic Prerequisits for Aesthetic Design," "Ergonomika. Printsipy i - rekomendatsii" [Ergonomics. Principles and Recommendations], Moscow, No 1, ~ 1970, pp 5-32. 26. Platonov, K. K. "Industrial Psychology in the System of Disciplines Dealing with. Labor Activities," SOTSIALISTICHESKIY TRUD [Socialist Labor], No 8, 1969, pp 120-125. 27. Chapanis, A. "Engineering Psychology," in "Inzhenernaya psikhologiya," Moscow, 1964, pp 35-85. ~ 28. "Ergonornika. Printsipy i rekomendatsii," Moscow, No 1, 1970, 246 pp. 29. Ibid, No 2, 1971, 224 pp. 30. Chapanis, A. "Research Techniques in Human Enginegring," Baltimore, the Johns Hopkins Press, 1959, 316 pp. - 14 - ' FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ; , ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 31. Chapanis, A. "Human Factors in Systems Engineez~iag," in "Systems Psychology," ed. by K. B. deGreene, New York, 1970, pp 51-78. 32. Ifl~rti, "The Search for Relevance in Applied Research," in "Measurem2nt of M~n ' at Wbrk," ed. by W. T. Singleton, J. G. Fox and D. Whitfield, 1971, pp 1-14. 33. Chapanie, A.; Garner, W. R.; and Morgan, C. T. "Applied Experimental Psychology: ~ Human Factors in Engineering Design," H. Y. Wi1ey, 1949, 434 pp. 34. DeGreene, K. B. "Sqstems and Psychology," in "Systems Psychology," ed. by ~ K. B. deGreene, New York, 1970, pp 3-50. 35. Hunt, D. P.; Howell, W. C.; and Roscoe, S. N. "Educational Programs for En- gineering Psychologist: That Depends a Good Deal on Where You Want to Get to," HUMAN FACTORS, Vol 14, No 1, 1972, pp 77-81. 36. Kennedy, J. L. "Psychology and Systems Development," in "Psychological Prin- ~ ciples in System Development," ed. by R. M. Gagne, New York, 1962,.pp 13-32. ; 37. I~cCormick, E. J. "Human Engineering," New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977, 467 pp. , - 38. Idem, "Human Factors Engineering," New York, San Francisco, Toronto and , London, McGraw-Hill, 1964, 653 pp. 39. Mead, L. C. "A Program of Human Engineering," ANNALS N.Y. ACAD. SCI., Vol 51, - 1951, pp 1125-1134. 40. Meister, D. "The Future of Ergonomics as a System Discipline," ERGONOMICS, _ Vol 16, No 3, 1973, pp 267-280. 41. Me1Con, A. W. "Foreword," in "Psychological Principles iri System Development," i ed. by R. M. Gagne, New York, 1962, pp v-viii. I 42. Poulton, E. C. "Engineering Psychology," ANN. REVIEW PSYCHOL., Vol 17, 1966, ~ pp 177-200. I .t. Singleton, W. T. "Current Trends Toward System Design," ERGONOMICS FOR , INDUSTRY, No 12, 1966, 20 pp. 44. Idem, "The Systems Prototype and His Design Problems," ERGONOMICS, Vol 10, No 2, 1967, pp 120-124. 45. Idem, "Ergonomi~s in System Design," Ibid, Vol 10, No 5, 1967, pp 541-548. 46. Idem, "Ergonomics: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going," Ibid, Vo1 19, No 3, 1976, pp 307-313. ; 47. Taylor, F. V. "Psychology and Design of Machines," AMERICAN PSYCAOLOGIST, Vol 12, 1957, pp 249-258. ~ ~ 48. Idem, "Human Engineering and Psychology," in "Psychology: a Study of Science," ; ed. by S. Koch, New York, Vol S, 1963, pp 831-907. ~ COPYRIGHT: "Voprosy psikhologii", "Pedagogika", 1980 ~ [26--10,657~ ' 10 657 CSb: 1840 - 15 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � � . . PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF MUTUAL ADAPTATION OF MAN AND MACHINE IN CONTROL SYBTEI~iS Moscoa PSIKH~LOGICHESKIYE PROBLEMY VZAIMNOY ADAPTATSII CHELOVEKA I MASHINY . V SISTEMAKH UPRA~ZENIYA in Russian 1980 signed to press 11 Mar 80 pp 2-6, ' 319-320 [Annotation, Foreward and table of contents from book by B. F. Lomov et al., "Nauka", :3,600 copies, 319 pages] [Text] The book, prepared by specialists from the USSR, Bulgaria and Czechos'lovakia, examines the theoretical and practical questions of raising the efficiency of control through optimization of information interaction - of ma~ and machine. ~ ~ Foreword Progress in the field of automated control systems, power engineering, in- dustrial technology and astronaut~.cs has given rise to a multitude of new - functions for man as the operator and new types of "man--machine" systems. Traditional approaches to the optimization of such systems, based on a separate and independent solution of tasks of engineering psychology in selecting machine parameters corresponding to the psychological features ~ of operators and tasks of labor psychology in the selection and training of people for the growing demands of operation of equipment, are increas- ing:.y untenable. An attempt is made in this collective monograph to construct a systems theory and methodology of mutual, counter adaptation of man and machine for the purpose of optimizing informational interaction between them. Many-sided theoretical and experimental research on this new problem and the pr~~ctical verification of a methodology developed over the course of severa.l years have become possible due to the active participation in the work of representatives of many Soviet as well as Bulgarian and Czechoslovak scientific organizations, closely cooperating with� the Institute of Psy- cho'logy of the USSR Academy of Sciences in accordance with plans of ~oint ret3earches by CEMA member-countries in the field of psychology and ergonomics. - 16 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chaptex 1(authors--B.F. Lomav, V.F. Venda, Yu.M. Zabrodin) provides a sur- ' vey of pertinent psychological probl~ms in the field of "man--machine" sys- ~ tema and ia based on the use of a new approach fouaded aa reciproc~ adapt~ tion of man Aad machine for the optimization of such ayetems. Chapter 2 is concerned with the developmeat of principlas of coastructitng and model~ng systems of adaptive informational interaction of ma~n end machine. Important slgnificaace ie to be attached azi all-around validation--social, ~ economic, psychological and technical--of choice in the precisiaa of recip- rocal adaptation of man and machine in a system of operatiar~. The work shaws that five levels of preciaion in auch cooperatiaa are possible--total, contingent, group, individual aad individual-operative. Ia ~ 2.1 V.F. Venda and B.V. Pul'kin present s number of mathematical m~dela of processes of ' adaptation in "msn--machine" syetems at differe.nt levela of pzecision and with different meeas and methods of adaptation. ~ In 9 2.2. V.M. Akhutin examines aa extzemelq broad class of adaptive bia- systems. Ya.Z. Tsypkin in ~ 2.3 diacueses the relation af can- cepts and problems of control, adaptation and training ia engineering. A number of new results in the modeling of adsptive aspecta of hum+~ behavior are published by V.Yu. Krylov and Yu.I. Morozov in ~ 2.4. In Chapter 3, psychological methode of adaptation of caacrete "man--~nchine" systems are examined. . - In ~ 3.1, which is written by the well-known Czechoslovak psychologist Y. Daniel, considerable space ie given to methode of psychological aaalqsis of the labor of operators of automated productian operatione. The author presents copicus factual materialon the level of inental load of operatora under different regimes aud conditions of theiz operation. Questiona of reduction of the mental load of operators through the precise cuordination of ineans and structure of informational intemation in the eystem with peychological features of operators are examined by the Bulgarian scientists Yu.P. Mexinov and P.Ts. Spasov ia t 3.2. V.A. Vavilov in $ 3.3 offers a eut>- s C~ntiation of the b asic principles of adequate reproduction in a laboratory ` psychological experiment involving the fundamental traits of adaptive inform- ational intaraction of man snd machine. In ~ 3.4, G.Ye. Zhuravlev and V.F. Rubakhin diacuss the relation of proceases of heuristic and adaptation in the adoptiun of operative decisions. V.F. Venda aad S.S. Zorin present in ~ 3.5 data an adaptation of information to individuals with complea anom- alies of view. Chapter 4 examines methods of modeling and optimization of structures o� adaptive "man-�-machine" systems, including autoaomous-type aqsteme 4.1-- . - . authora V.F. Venda and V.V. Pavlov), systems operating under critical condi- - tions 4,2=-author G.I. Ryl'akiy). A.I. Galaktionov in ~ 4.3 examines a method of engineering-psychulogical plaaning of information systems on the - ?7 - FOR OFFICII+L USE .ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY basis of analyeis of idealized strategiea of solving operational probleme. An~individual example of the use of the atructural-psychological approach to the plaaning of infor+~ation systems based o~ca the com~arison of theoret- ically optimal (idealized) and real strategies of operators is prasented by V.F. Venda and A.N. Zheleznikov in ~ 4.4. In Qtapter 5, different aspects of the use of the idea of reciprocal adap~ tation of man and machine to the training of operators ar~ examined. Models of adaptation of "man--machine" systeme in the course of training ope~ators in tracking o~ sre dealt with in ~ 5.1 (suthora--Yu.M. Zab rodin and A.P. Chernyshev). Algorithms of adaptive training are proposed by I.I. Ma- lashinin in ~ 5.2. The realization of such algorithms on an adaptive eim-~ _ ulator [trenazher~ for the training of operators of power facilities is discuased by V.F. Venda, I.I. Malashinin, Ye.A. Chertorizhskiy and O.P. Luk- sha in ~ 5.3. In the concluding $ 5.4 V.E. Venda,_F.L. Kakuzin and Yu.D. Belousov preaent data on adaptive properties of certain types of teaching aids of representation of eign and graphic information, making iC possible to equalize the learning rates of different operatora through the synchron- ization of their work in a single functional group. The collective of authors of this manogragh hop~s that it hae succeeded in not only outlining a new direction in applied psychological research and formulating theoretical-methodological problems connected with it but also in pzoviding examplea of the practical solution of problems of optfmization of "man--machine" systema on the basis of reciprocal adaptation of the chief interacting components of these systems. Such an approach expands the methodological bsaes of engineering psychology and the actual ob~ect of their researches. In addition to the studq of the informational int~raction of man aud machine in the traditional ntatic variaait Khe accent is placed an the dynamic, adaptive aspects. Interrelated investigation of the dynamics c~ characteri~tics of man (in the process of selectioa and especially training) and machine (for example, in the regula- tion of intensivenese of the f low of signals and reorganizatioa of the struc- ture of ineaons of representation of information) opens up essentially new possibilities in the concrete realization of the systems approach in applied paych ological reaearches. ~ Taking into account these new and important theoretical and applied aspecte, the collection of authora directed its further efforte to the development of a general systems methodology of engineering paqchology aad the psqchol- ogy of labor and control. At the preaent time, work is being concluded oa - a collc ctive monograph on the methodology of these braaches of psychologic- al science which can be examined as a direct continuatian of the book prn- poeed to the reader. - 18 - FOR OFFICItiI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ - i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY t ' The cooperat~an of psychologista of socialiat couatries, which f inds its ~ reflection in thie book, ie expected to b~e further ezpaaded during 1981- ~ 1985, directing the main efforte taward the practical uae of theoretical a~nkl~mathodological developments aAd raising of tbe eocial and ecanomic ef- featiiV~ese of applied psychologq. ~ . Contente . . Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ; Chapter l. Syetems Analyeis and Organization of Adaptive ~ Informational Interaction of Men and Machine ' (B.V. Lomov, V.F. Venda, Yu.M. Zabrodin) . . . . . . 7 - ' 1.1. Syatems Approach aad Prospective Prob lems of Engineering ' Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2. Engineering-Paychological Probleme of Orgaaization of M~'s Interaction with Electronic Computers 10 - ' 1.3. Canstruction of Methoda of Analysis and Adaptation of ; of Processes of aa Operator~a Interaction with an Electronic Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 l.k. Engineering-Psychological Methods of l~alyais and Synthesie ~ of Systema of Representatioa of Information 22 ; 1.5. Methodological Prob lems of Orgaaization of Engineering- Psychological Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.6. Principlea of Canstruction of Sqatems of Adaptive ~ Inf ormational Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . 30 (~apter 2. Problems of Orgaaization and Modeling of Processes ~ of Multilevel Reciprocal Adaptation of Maa aad Machine. ..35 2.1. Methods of Multilevel Adaptation of Informational Interaction of Maa aad Machine (V.F. Venda, B.V. Pul~kin) . 35 2.2. Adaptive Biotechnical Systems (V.M. Akhundn) 77 2.3. Control, Adaptation aad Training in Technology (tekhnikaJ (Ya. Z. Tsypkin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 2.4. Modeling of Adaptive Aspects of Humaa Behavior (V.Yu. Krylov~ Yu.I. Morozov) . . . . . . . . . . 132 Chapter 3. Psychological Methods of Analqsis and Adaptation of "Man--Machine" Syatems . . . . . . ~ . . . . 152 3.1.. Psychological Analysis of Man as Operator and Problems of Mental Load (Y. Daaiel, Czechoslovakia) 152 3.2. Research on Informational Load aad Man-Operator - in aa Automated Control Sqatem (Yu.P. Marinav, P.Ts. Spaeov, Bulgaria) . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 � - 19 - FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3.3. Principles of Modeling of the Adaptative Interaction of Man and Machine in Paychological Experiments (V.A. Vavilov) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 3~4. On the Place of Heuriatic Processes in Prob lema of Adaptatioa (G.Ye. Zhuravlev, V.F. Rubakhin). ....,.198 3.5. Eaperimeatal Research on Methods of Individual . ' Adaptation of Meaas of Inf:ormatioa in Complea Anomalies of Vision (V.F. Venda~ S.S. Zoria) 205 Ch apCer 4. Enginearing-Psychological Methods of Optimization of the Structure of Informatianal Interaction in "Ma~-- Machine" Syetems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 4.1. Selection and Optimization of Structures of Adaptive SC1iM ["Men--Machine" Systems~ Operating in aa Autonomous Regime (V.F. Venda, V.V. Pavlov) . . . . . . . . . 218 - 4.2. Selectio~ of Structures of Adaptive SQ1M OperaCing in Critical Situations (G.I. Ryl'akiy) . . . . . . . . 236 4.3. Plenning of Means of Informational Interaction an the Besis of Idealized St~cuctures of Activity (A.I. Galaktionov) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 - 4.4. Optimization of Means of Informatioaal Interaction on the Basis of Aaalysis of Psychological Factors of Comple~dty . of Real Operation (V.F. Venda, A.I. Zheleznikov) 264 , Chapter 5. Adaptive Informatianal Interaction in Training of Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 5.1. Research on Adaptive Procesees in the Training of Operators (Yu.M. Zabrodin, A.P. Chernyahev) . . . . . . . . . 273 5.2. Principles of Construction of the Algorithm of Adaptive Training (I.I. "rialashinin) . . . . . . . . . . . 289 5.3. Coastruction of aa Adaptive Simulator aa the Basie of Autonomous Submodels of Controlled Facility (I.I. Mala- shinin, V.F. Venda, Ye.A. Chertorizhskiy~ O.P. Luksha) 298 5.4. Adaptation of Meaas of Inf ormation Used in Group Training of Operators (V.F. Venda, F.L. Rakuzin, Yu.D. Belousov) . 308 COPYRIGHT; Izdatelf atvo "Nauka" ~ 1980 [ 614-7697 J 7697 CSO: 1840 -20- FOR OFFICIl~I. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ! ; ~ ~ � THE MORALE FACTOR IN MODERN WARS Moscow MORAL'NYY FAKTOR V SOVREMENNYKH VOYNAI~i in Russian 1979 signed to press 28 Feb 78 pp 2-4, 223 � [Annotation, introduction, and table of contents from book by S. K. Il'in, Voyennoye izdatel'stvo ministerstva oborony SSSR, Moscow, 30,000 copies, 223 pages] [Text] The book examines popular and army morale as a ma3or factor inf luencing the course and outcome of a modern war. The author demonstrates that the morale of the SovieC Union and other socialist countriea is i superior to that of the imperialist countries. He also analyzes ways and ~ meana of instilling high morale and political, psychological, and combat i. qualities in Soviet soliders. The book is intend~d for officers and party actives. Introduction The Communist Party does whatever it must to keep the Armed Forces of the USSR at th e level of modern demands. This was emphasized with renewed ~ vigor at the 25th CPSU Congress. As comrade L. I. Brezhnev put it, "The Soviet people can rest assured that the fruits of their constructive work ~ ~ will be safeguarded."* I ~ The Party shows its constant concern for building morale among the Armed Forces as it takes steps to equip the army and navy with the latest war *Materialy XXV s"yezda KP5S (Proceedings of the 25th CPSU Congress) . Moscow, 1976, p 83. ; - 21 - . ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY machines and weapons and improves the training of personnel. In the course ~ of the enormous transformation taking place in our country and realization of our social, economic, ~olitical, and ideological goals, the morale and , poli~ical unity of Soviet society grows stronger and the worke~s' aaerenese increases. This means the spiritual foundation of our miliCary organiza- tion is becoming even more solid. ~ Today as never before, it is important that we make fuller use of the favorable opportunities now available for strengthening morale in view of the steadily increasing demands placed on the training of the armed . protectors of tne motherland. What are these�demands and how can they best be realized? Success in solving the problem largely aemands on our thoroughly understanding the issues involved. Relying on the experience gained in past wars and taking into account the nature and qualities of present-day soldiers, the author analyzes the significance of the morale factor and presents sound ways and means of strengthening it. Tne problem is examined in the~light of both the hosCility currently existing between ~he two social systems and the changes that have taken place in warfare as a result of the scientific and tech- nological revolution. ~ ~ This edition of the book discusses the theoretical aspects of the problem more thoroughly than did the two earlier editions. It also generalizes the experience gained with morale building and political and psychological - preparation in the army and navy. Contents Page I ntroduc tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 1. Marxist-Leninist Conception of the Morale Factor and Its Significance iri .War. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 2. The Hos.tility Now Existing Between the Two Social Systems and Its Effect on Morale. 37 Chapeer 3. New Means of Armed Struggl~ and the Morale Fac tor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Chapter 4. Relationship Between the Morale Factor and _ the New Means of Armed Struggle. . . . . . . . . . 96 -22- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ _ _ Chapter 5. The Concern of the CPSU for Strengthening - Popular and Army Morale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 � Chapter 6a Some Aspects of Morale and Political and ~ ~ Psychological Training in Peacetime. . . . . . . . 143 Chapter 7. High Ideological Content, Communiat Awareness - the Basis of Strong Army Morale. . . . . . . . . . 192 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 COPYR.IGHT: Voyenizdat, 1979 [167-5214] 5214 CSO: I840 -23- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 _ , ` FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ANTICIPATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF PERFORMANCE Moscow ANTITSIPATSIYA V STRUKTURE DEYATEL'NOSTI in Russian 1980 signed to press 18 Jan 80 pp 2-4, 276-277 [Annotation, foreword and table of contents from book by Boris Fedorovich Lomov and Yevgeniy Nikolayevich Surkov, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 3200 copies, 280 pages] [Text] This monograph deals with the main theoretical and applied aspects of the problem of anticipation. The hypothesis is expounded of levels of anticipation grocesses and, on the whole, the authors demonstrate the methodological significance of studying anticipation for psychology. This book is intended for psychologists, philosophers and pedagogues. Foreword At the presen~ stage of development of psychological science, researchers referable to different schools and directions are very interested in the - problem of anticipation, which has been little-studied, both theor~tically and experimentally. A1thQUgh the total number of theoretical and experi- mental works completed to date is small, many researchers are quite aware of the importance of this problem and its practical significance. Studies of sensory organization of man, which were conducted by B� G. Anan'yev and his coworkers [11, 12], revealed that anticipation emerges as a sort of "connecting link" b:.tween sensatian and perception, from perception to conception and from conception to thinking. V. M. Teplov demonstrated with particular clarity the role of anticipation in thinking processes in his brilliant work, entitled "The Mind af a General" [192]. It has been stressed in general theoretical conceptions of per- formance (A. N. Leont'yev [107J, S. L. Rubinshteyn [155]), as we7.1 as studies of specific types of performance (S. G. Gellerahteyn [58, 59] and others) that anticipation is a mandatory element thereof. - 24 - FOR OFFIGIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ . ; , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , ~ I ; Physiologists concerned with the neurophysiological bases of behavior ' address themselves to the problem of anticipation. In functional system ~ theory, expounded by P. K. Anukhin [14, 16, 17], a role of paramount im- portanc~ is attributed to those elements that are related to antic~ipatory reflection (acceptor of action results). Equally large importance is', ; atCributed to anticipation processes in the conception of physiology of activity of N. A. Bernshteyn [31]. The problem of anticipation has been clearly demonstrated in studies of development of the intellect (J. Bruner [37], J. Piaget [133]). Thus, the problem of anticipation permeates, so to speak, all problems of psychological science. It appears in some form or other in studies of both ~ ~ mental processes and mental states, as well as mental properties of man. ; ~ork on this problem is important tn the solution not only of theoretical, but ~ractical problems that arise in the area of production, education, ~ public health, sports, art, etc. I i One of thE main objectives of this publication was to systematize and , summarize the experimental data that have been accumulated in psychology . , and, in part, in adjacent disciplines. Another, equally important task was to discuss the hypothesis of levels in the structure of anticipation processes on the basis of analysis and ~ generalization of empirical data. This hypothesis ensues from t~e general ; principles of systems analysis of inental phenomena. The data accumulated ! in psychology warrant the statement that the system of inental phenomena , consists of many levels and, apparently, it is constructed hierarchically. In this regard, it is very important to single out the main levels of the ~ system of phenomena under study, to disclose their correlations and condi- tions, under which some 1 evel becomes the leading one. In systematizing ' data referable to the problem of anticipation, we have singled out several interrelated and, at the same time, relatively independent levels: sensori- ~ motor, perceptual, conceptual, verbal-thinking and subsensory. .The authors ' are far from believing that the hypothesis of levels of anticipation covers all aspects of this complex and multifaceted problem. But, it appears to us, that an effort to consider the problem of anticipation from the standpoint of the systems approach could be useful to development of general theory of psychology. oniy a general theoretical scheme of the approach to the study and analysis of anticipation processes as integral-systemic elements is outlined and ; illustrated in this hook. In future studies and, first of all, with the accumulation of new empirical data, the proposed scheme of analysis could, of course, be submitted to some changes and clarifications. . - 25 - ! i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ FOR OFEICIAL USE ONLY ; ~ ~ ~ ! _ , ; ~ Contents Page ; ~ ; i Annotation 2 ~ i Foreword 3 ~ Chapter 1. The Problem of Anticipation 5 , - 1.1. Introduction to the Problem 5 ' _ I.2. Role of Anticipation in Human Performance 23 ' 1.3. Levels of Anticipation 31 Chapter 2. Anticipation and Distinctions of Its Manifestations on the Level of Sensorimotor Processes 43 - 2.1. Introductory Remarks 43 j 2.2. Some Effects of Temporary Anticipation 1n the Structure of Simple Sensorimotor Reactions and Reactions of Choice 43 ! 2.3. Distinctions of Manifestation of Effects of Time and Space ~ Anticipation in Reactions to Moving Objects (RMA) 48 i 2.4. Studies of Some Factors Determining the Accuracy Characteris- ~ tics of Anticipation in RMO Type Actions 5~ ~ 2.5. Distinctions of Manifestation of Effects of Time and Space Anticipation in Visual-Motor Tracking I'roblems 71 2.b. Some Effects of Anticipation in the Process of Visual ~ and Motor Coordination and in Tasks of Controlling _ Motor Actions 78 . Chapter 3. Anticipation and Distinctions of Its Manifestations on the Perceptual Level 89 ~ = 3.1. Introductory Remarks 89 3.2. Some Distinctions of the Effects of Spatial Anticipation 89 3.3. Effects of Spatial Anticipation in Problems of Choice and Search for Trajectory of Movements 99 ~ 3.4. Distinctions of Time and Space Anticipation in Problems of Localization of Moving Objects and Problems of Visual- Motor Coordination 111 Chapter 4. Anticipation and Distinctions of Its Manifestations on the Conceptual Level 131 4.1. Introductory Remarks 131 4.2. Distinctions of Conceptions in Anticipation Acts When Solving Decoding Problems 137 4.3. Time and Space Anticipation in the Process of Formation of ' Conceptions of Motor Acts 144 4.4. Visualization as a Form of Integration of Various Components of Time and Space Anticipation 156 4.5. Formation of Panoramic Anticipation Schemes 163 , - Chapter 5. Anticipation on the Level of Verbal-Thinking Processes 172 5.1. Introductory Remarks 1~2 -26- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ; ~ f Page ~ 5.2. Manifestation of Effects of Anticipation in the Process of Problem-Solving Tasks 175 , 5..3~ Aypothesis as a Specific Form of Anticipation 195 5.4. Elements of Antictpation in the Structure of Intentions 8nd~ ' ' Plans in Solving Cognitive Proolems ~ 205 i . . . _i Chapter 6. Ant~cipation on the Subsensory (Unconscious) I,zvel 213 ~ 6.1. Introductory Remarks 213 ~ 6.2. Effects of Anticipation and Their Role in Regulation of j Postural [Tonic~ Reactions � 217 ' 6.3. Effects of Anticipation During Onset and Occurrence of ~ Ideomotor Act ~ 222 ! 6.4. Distinctions of Anticipatory Effects During Ideomotor ~ Conditioning ~ 229 i 6.5. Ob,jectives, Organization and Methods of Study 231 : 6.6. Results of Studies 232 Chapter 7. Description of Anticipation Processes as Systemic ~ Phenomena 244 ! Bibliography 263 i ~ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1980 i [611-10,657] 10,657 CSO: 1840 ~ ; ; ~ - -27- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PHYSIOLOGY ' � unc 6i2. 82. oi4. ~+9 MECHANISMS OF ADAPTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN Moscow II{OIAGICHESKAYA FIZIOLOGIYA MOZGA (Ecological Pbysiology of the Brain) in Russian 1979 signed to press 27 Avg 79 pP 1-6 - ,LAnnotation, table of contents and introduction frc~a book by Ni.kolay Ni- koleyevich Va.silevskiy, Izdatel'atvo Meditsina, 3,250 copies, 200 page~ LTextJ The book containa the latest data on the neurophysiological mech- e.niams of the adaptive activity of the brain. It examines the mechaniams of adaptive plasticity and self-regulation of neuro~?namic proceases at cel.lular and systemic levels in low- and high-frequency ranges of rY~Vthmic . activ3.ty. An evaluatiori af the cha2�ac~erj~stics of the plasticfty af ner- vous processes made it possible to develap praaniaing approaches to the _ elaboration of the problem of individual di~ferences in the adaptive ac- . tivity of the brain. Phase and tone and specific and nonspecific regimes of adaptive response are singled out, the characteristics of the efPect of some factors on the developing brain are shawn, tracking processes under the effect of rY~ythmic afferent signals axe examined in deta3l and prob- lems of selective response of the brain to simple attd complex signals are analyzed. The mechenisms of adaptive evolution of the brain axe connected _ ~ with the progressive development and ecological specialiZS~Lion of i�e an- al,yzer and associative systems by wqy of an adequate reflection and com- binatorial association of nervous processes at every level of integration. The book is intended for pl~ysiciana, physiologists, biologists and spe- cialists interested in the problmis of pYL}rsiological adaptation. It contains 58 illustre.tions, 3 diagrams a~d a bibliographic index with 294 titles. Contents Page Introductian 3 G'hapter 1. Adaptive 1?ynamism of ~nctional S~atems of the Brain 7 Self-regulation of Adaptive Pracesses 7 Temporary and Ste,tistical Orgaaization of Adaptive Processes 10 ' -28- FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Analysis of the Adaptive Plasticity~of Functions 18 ; Chapter 2. Adaptive Self-regulation and Plaeticity of Neuro- ; ' c~ynamic Processes 25 ' Plasticity of the ~etivity of Cortical Neurons 28 ~ : Stable Shifts in the Impulse Activity of Corticel i Neuron Popule,tions 33 ~ Some Data on the Plasticity of Electroencephalographic ~ Processes , Plasticity of Neuroc~ynamic ProceBSes of the Hume,n Brain 56 Chapter 3. Plasticity of the Developing Brain and Some Extreme Environmental Factors 69 Analysis of Mechanisms of the Adaptive Plasticity of the Brain in Ontogenesis 70 Effect of Sensory Deprivations on Nervous Processes 76 ! Chapter 4. Tracking Effects of APferent Flows on the Brain 8~+ Posttetanic Potentietion and Depreasion 85 Phenomena of Rl~ythm Assimilation 88 Tracking Activity After R~rthmic Stimulation 92 _ Effects _ of Repeated Action of Sti.muli 10~+ Chapter 5. Elementary Neuropt~yeiological Correlates of Selective RESponse 110 General Characteristics of Cellular S~rsteme of Selective Response (Detectors) 112 Characteristic Detectora of Some Ana],yzers 115 Some Mechanisms of Realization oP the Principle of Combination (Composition) Integration of Nervous ~ Processes 125 ~ ~ Chapter 6. Some Mechanisms of Conditioaed Reflexes as a Form of Selective Response ~ 140 Cellule.r Mechanisms of Regulation of Central Nervous Processes 141 Temporary Connection to Stimuli of Varying Ecological ! Importance 161 . Neuron Mechanisms of Conditioned Response 162 Conclusion 166 ' Bibliography 185 ; Introduction I ~ Ecology is defined as the science of interactiona of human and animal or- ganism with the environment. Whereas previously, as indicated by A. P. , Avtsyn (1972), ecology ma,in~ly studied problems of animal heat and trophic -29- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , chains in biocenoses, at present its tasks have expanded considerably. Several trends besed on biological, medical and socioeconomic approaches ' have now been formed clear~y. The pl~ysiological approach in ecology pur- gti;~s .a funflamente.l ob~ectiv~e-to unrav~el the mechanisms of physiological ~ adaptation. The solution of this task requires en overall inclusion~~of , - physiological proceases with due regaxd for their evolution, diversity and ; close interaction. ; ; Among the various physiological mechanisms of adaptation of the hiunan and animal organism nervous mechanisms of adaptive response are put in the ' forefront. An investigation of the nervous mechanisms of adaptation pre- supposes not onJy the disclosure of connections bet~reen the state of the brain and existing environmental fe,ctors, but the determi.nation of the mecha,nisms of control of the adaptive process at systemic and cellular levels as well. Sev~erel closely interrelated problems ca.n be noted in this direction. The first problem pertains to the methodological aspect and envisages _ general approaches to the investigation of adaptive mechanisms of brain response. At present considerable attention is given to the subatantia- tion of the idea of regulatory brain systems as c~bined systems with "disturbance" and "deflection" control reflecting the relationship between rigidl,y determined and probabilistic (flexible ~ links (Bekhtereva, N. P. , 1974), which m8kes it possible to interpxet the individuel characteristics - of the brain in a new way and to forecest the stability of its functional state. It is promising to develop the investigations of individual differences in the adaptive proceas in the direction of evaluations of automatically controlled parameters of f~uictional systems. Work on this program made it possible to accurately evaluate not on~y the paxameters of plasticity, but also of stability, lability and reserve oP functional systems. It is important to stresa that the determination of these parameters is con- nected with rhythmic processes. At the same time, the dissimilar phys- iological value of low- and high-frequency cc~tponents of the rhythm ac- tivity of the brain is detected clearly. The second problem lies in the study oP the apecific mechanisms of plas- ticity of nervous processes and, first of all, a.n experimental trend is envieaged in its developraent. ~his research trend, being connected with an analysis of fLuictions by means of classical conditioned reflex methods, is pramising in maz~y aspects; for example, for a directed cor- rection of intrabrain homeostasis by wey of modification of the paremeters of rhythmic neurodynamic processes, for the clarification of the degree of specialization of individuel cambinations oP neurons in the control of apecific f~nctions of the crganism and for the Punctional typification of central neurons according to the parameter oP plasticity. -30- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ' i ~ ~ . ~ ; To timderstand the automatically controlled proceasee of ada.ptation, we ! made an attempt to utilize aev~eral principles. The tranaformation of the ~ atruature of biorY~rthms by means of eynchronization of sa~e of their com- pdS~ti'~8 with afferent information flowa is one of them, feedback~ a~ririg. � the system acquires a greater stability in the regulation of iri- ternal homeostasis, another pr3nciple and, fine].ly, the principle of con- nectedneBa of discrete microstates of the syate~m; for example, in tfie ~ form of repeated patterns oP activity. , ~ Adaptation of the organism lies not onl,y in the maintenance of the ener- _ getic and structural equilibri~, but also the equilibrium of inforn~ation . processes. Such factors in the habitat as ~ypoc~?n~nia and sensory insuf- ficiency affect the activity of the bra3n. The individua.l chaxacteristics of activity of the h~an brain axe most vividly maaifested in adaptation. The finel form of human adaptation is the product of biological., psycho- : logical and social fac~ors operating in a combined way. - An all-eround description of the adaptiv~e reaponse of the brain requires not..on~y the determination af the types of adaptive responses, but also . ~ the clarification of the phylo- and ontogenetic patterns in the develop- ment of these reactions. Extreme environmental factors af'fect the devel- oping brain in a special way. At the same time, ecological factors--ade- Quate~ sensor3r stimuli (Bogdanov, 0. V., 1978)--wi~Ia ~,ich ths f3rst con- ~ tact ie especial].y optimal during the critical period of brain develop- ment, are of key importance. ~ ' E`xemining the senaory factors affecting brain development, we have anal- ' yzed the models of sensory motor and visuel deprivation, because they have been studied most f'ully a.nd give clearer results in the cellular mecha- nisme of in~ury to brain processes during deprivation. The fixability of tracking phenamena in the brain has been debated for a long time. Two views are contrasted. Accarding to one of them, the brain fixes the entire flow of sensory information. According to the oth- er, on the contrary, only information significant in a motivational way is ~ fixed. In this connection it is necessary to dwell on the phenomena of ; inPormation flows devoid of aqy motivational signif5.cance and representing ~ ordinary r2~ytbmic messages. An ana7ysis of the cellular mechanisms of ' tracking processee has disclosed a n~ber of important data on the inPor- mational capacity of the nervous system. At every stage in the evolution the brain posaesses the potential for the ; reception of significa.nt vol~es oP information greatly exceeding the ; needs for providing vital activity under the speci Pic conditions of the habitat. At the seme time, its high specislization for the processing of information obtained by meaus of so-called ecologically adequa.te atimuli is disclosed. This specialization is manifested in the structwral organi- zation of rece~ptor systems and in the structural and funetional organiza- ' t3on of the brain as a whole. - 31 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Ideae of the discrete organizatiott of selective-classif~ring memory mech- ~ anisms, according to which the accumulation of inPormation is ensured by the associative mobilize,tion of a certain nwnber of neurons, formed the th~or~tical basis for the approach in the inveatigations at the ~eiiuisr ~ - level. : The functional organization of the centrel nervous system was adapted by ' evolution for the distinction of the patteru (.composition) of excitation at the receptor fields of analyzers, which is transmitted to the brain ; through the bundles of para11e1 afferent fibers. It is precisel.y this fact that determined our aspirations for the camposition approach, which ' makes it possible to examine the mechanisms oP activity of analyzer, as- sociat3ve and effector brain structures from a single point of view. We utilized the same approach during a.n analysis of the connections of cel- lular systems selectively responding to complex natural signa].s designated by D. A. Biryukov (1960) as ecologic al~y adequate stimuli. Of gre at interest is the further development of the camposition approach in en ana]ysis of the controlling systems o~' the brain regulating the gradations in its state. We hope that the composition approach, leaning on the idea of discreteness of biological processes not only at the molec- ular, but also at the cellular and systemic level, will fill the concepts - of organization of physiological processes and the mechanisms a~' their plasticity and stability with a specific content. The camiposition ap- proach is especially promising in decoding the cellulax mecha.nisms of _ memory and cond3tioned reflex response. Not so much a shortage of factua.l data as of new ideas giving impetus to more complete and more accurate investigations is now Pelt in many sec- tions of ecological physiolo~Y� What is "on this side of the facts" is the mest attractiv~e side of scientific research. To find a satisfactory explen ation at times is more valuable than hundreds of other experiments, - because it directs res~arch to more promising areas. In this connection we e,re aware of the inevitably fra.gnentary nature of the review data of _ the book. However, this shortcoming is made up for by the recent7y pub- lished monographs on some problems of the ecological pY~ysiology of man and - the theory of ada.ptation (Kaznacheyev, V. P. and Subbotin, M. Ya., 1971; Kaznacheyev, V. P., 1973; Vasilevskiy, N. N. et al., 1978 a.nd others), in which the reader will find mar~y facts and propositions of interest to him. The modern tendency to combine theoretical (experimental) s.nd applied as- pects was taken into consideration during the preparation of this book. As it will be evident from the subsequent acco~ant, these two aspects merge in the understanding of the mechenism~ of intrasystemic interac- tions and memory, with the activity of which the adaptation of both man and a.nimal is connected. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, 1979 L8144/0018-11,439] 11,439 _ 32 - CSO: 81/~4/0018 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 j � ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ f , ~ ~ - ; MECIiANISMS OF NERVOUS ACTIVITY ' Leningrad MEKHANIZMY NERVNOY DEYATEL'NOSTI in Russian 1977 signed to press 19 May 77 pp 2-4, 214-222 [Annotation and abstracts of papers from the All-Union Scientific Conference, December 1975, Leningrad University, 1095 copies, 224 pages] [Text] Proceedings of the All-Union Conference commemorating the 100th anniversary of A. A. Ukhtomskiy's birth are published in this collection. ~ The conference was organized by the Leningrad University Physiology _ Institute and the USSR Academy of Sciences Scientific Council on Complex Ptoblems of Human and Animal Physiology. _ ~ The ma~ority of the articles are devoted to the dominance principle, the basic mechanicsm of the interaction of nervous centers in normal and patholugical states considered from the standpoint of evolutionary neuro- chemistry. In a number of articles new data is presented on the re- sponsiveness and lability of nerve cells, on the functioning of synaptic transmission during optimal and pessimal rhythmic activity and on the - regulatory mechanicsms of certain biological processes including the bio- , synthesis of brain lipids. ~ This collection is intended for clinical physicians and for scientific worli.ers interested in human and animal physiology and the physiology of higher nervous activity. ~ . -33- ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 i ' ~ . i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ i ; ~ ABSTRACTS i unc 6i2,0+591,181 ; i THE CREATIVE GENIUS OF A. A. UI~ITOMSKIY AND Z'HE PROGRESS OF PHYSIOLOGY AT ! LENINGRAD UNIVERSITY. Grachev, I. I., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, ! Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 3-19. ; ~ In a paper dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the great ' Russian physiologist A. A. Ukhtomskiy, the life.course of A. A. Ukhtomskiy ~ and his creative genius are described from the youthful years to his ' becoming a prominent scientist. His important discoveries--the theory of dominance, the principle of rhythm aquisition, the problem of physiologi- ~ cal lability and others--are briefly stated. Particular note is given ' to the service of A. A. Ukhtomskiy in continuing the legacy of his , teacher N. Ye. Vvedenskiy and his role in the growth of many divisions of Soviet physiological science. A talented teacher and scientific organizer, A. A. Ukhtomskiy created in Leningrad University the Physiologi- , cal Scientific Research Institute which now bears his name. The progress of research in the institute and his achievements in problems studied are brie~ly presented in the article. It is stressed that the laboratories ~f ihe institute provide an experimental base for training highly quali- ; fied specialis ts: physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists and science - teaching personnel--candidates and doctors of science. ~ UDC 612.82/83 ' 'fHE STUDIES OF A. A. UKHTOMSKIY ON MECHANISMS OF NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND PROSPECTS FOR FURTHER PROGRESS. Golikov, N. V., Mekhanizmy nervnoy , deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 19-29. The most important discoveries and generalizations of the Leningrad University School of Physiology underlying A. A. Ukhtomskiy's principle of dominance and his teachings on mechanisms of nervous activity are - preaented. The role of local processes in nervous activity and the importance of rhythm aquisition processes (the synchronization of neural activity) and si~ple and specific stimulation traces (the memory of neurons) in fo rming and reproducing the responses of nervous centers are stressed. There is a strict difference between responsiveness (referring to a local reponse) and excitability) the ability of a response to be conducted without deciement). The principle of dominance, which appears in any reflex acts, should be distinguished from the state of dominance determining the behavior of a man or an animal in its environment for a rather long period of time. , -34- I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY The role of associative zones of the cerebral cortex in information storage and regulation processes is underlined. Courses for further research are outlined, and the significance of studies at the Leningrad University School of Physiology is pointed out not only for physiology and medicine but also for psychology, education, cybernetics and computer design. Bibliography--39 references. UDC 001.47/612 A. A. UKHTOMSKIY--TEACHER. Redashevskiy, S. Ye., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 29-33. The author shares his recollections of the teaching activity o~f Aleksey Alekseyevich and conversations with him. Bibliography--5 references. UDC 612:825.1 DOMINANCE AND PROBI;EMS OF INTERCENTRAL CONNECTIONS. Kryzhanovskiy, G. N., _ Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 34-49. Two basic principles in the determination of neural activity and intercentral connections are discussed: the principle of dominance and the principle of decisive transmission stages (DTS). Dominance is the principle under- lying intersystem connections and reflects mainly the stochastic type of determination of nervous activity, whereas the DTS principle undQrlies , intrasystem connections and primarily reflects the type of nervous activity determined by a rigid program. These principles are not mutually exclusive. They comp liment one another and represent a co~on mechanism - for the integrative activity of the nervous system. The importance of the ~ DTS principle in the pathology of the central nervous system is specifically ~ discussed. Figures 4, bibliography--25 references. UDC 612.8.012 ON THE INTERCONNECTION OF EXTEROCEPTIVE SYSTEM CENTERS AND THE SKELETAL MCISCULATURE. Uflyand, Yu. M. , Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, I.enin- grad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 50-58. Bo th the decrease and strengthening of visual stimulatian entails a shift ; in the bioelectric ac tivity of muscles. The direction and character of electromyogram changes are extremely varied and depend both on the state of the visual system and on the functioning of motor centers. ~ - 35 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Noise stimulation as a rule increases muscle bioelectric activity. Excita- � tion of the vestibular apparatus affects the electromyograms of antagon- istic muscles in different ways and depends on the stimulus strength. Mechanical stimulation of cutaneous receptors has a reflex stimulati~ig effect on the ~eneration of electrical muscle potentials. Bibligraphy-- 7 references. UDC 612.82 CUNVERGENCE MECHANICSMS IN THE ACTIVITY OF CORTICAL NEURONS. Bateyyev, A. S., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 58-67. In development of the convergence principle for cortical neurons the intracellular and extracellular postsynaptic responses of cells to multi- modal stimulation was studied. Habituation of a neuron response to a one _ _ second input was observed during simultaneous facilitation of the response _ by stimulation of another modality. Long IPSIs (on the order of 600-700 msec),.,intracortical in nature, were recorded. Their length was caused _ by dispersed thalamic activation. It is proposed that inhibitory. mechanisms are an important factor in the coordination of afferent currents converging to one cortical neuron. Figures 5, bibliography--23 references. UDC 612.76 ON DOMINANT INFORMATION IN THE CONTROL OF HUMAN MOVEMENTS. Farf el', V. S., Mekha~li2my nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 67-70. Different types of information about motion on which the conscious control of movement is based are discussed. The idea is advance3 that "dominant information",is preferentially used by the motor control system for the solution of a given motor task. Experimental data is presented which indicates that information about the spatial accuracy of movement is dominant with respect to information about muscle force, visual informa- tion about spatial accuracy is dominant with respect to motor information, information about movement rhythm is dominant with respect to information about movement amplitude, auditory information about rhythm is dominant with respect to motor info rmation, and objective inforoation abaut move- - ment parameters is dominant with respect to sub~ective information. - 36 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 612.821 OPERATIVE REST AND HUMAN WORK ACTIVITY. Tochilov, K. S. and Shabano~, A. I., Mekhatli2my nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad Universit~?, 1977, , PP 71-75 . The concept of operative rest is discussed in connection with a study.o.f . new (automatedj types of work. Three basic features of operative rest are distinguished: 2) spatial orientation, b) prediction, and c) formation of a particular program of movement based on tracking. Data from the Ziterature are presented which attest to the interrelation and pretiominance of one of these features of operative rest in a specific work situation. Bibliography--7 references. UDC 616.8-009 DOMINANCE MECIiA13ISMS AND CERTAIN PROBLEMS IN THE PSYC~:IATRY OF ALCOHOLISM. Timof eyev, N. N., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp i5-76. . Alcoholism is considered as a pathological dominance, being very inert and stable. Successful treatment of alcoholism is possible only by ` breaking down the alcoholic dominance and replacing it with another, socially useful one. Bibliography--1 reference. UDC 612.82 TI{E COMMON PATHWAY PRINCIPLE OF C. S. SHERRINGTON AND THE DOMINANCE PRINCIPLE OF A. A. UIatTOMSKIY. Merkulov, V. L., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad; Leningrad University, 1977, pp 77-86. _ The scientific path of C. S. Sherrington, the role of his principle of a _ c~mmon pathway in coordination and convergence processes, and his in- fluence on the theoretical ideas of A: A. Ukhtomskiy are discussed from a historical standpoint. Bibliography--5 references. -37- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 - FOR OFFICIAI~ USE ONLY UDC 612.814 PARABIOSIS, PESS:[MUM AND CERTAIN PROBLEMS OF CONTEMPORARY NERVE AND MUSCLE PHYS1()'~OGY. Matyushkin, D. P., Mekhanizmy nerv'noy deyatel'noati, i,enin~rad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 87-99. Literature data on the increased K~' concentrations in intercellular spaces of muscles and the brain when they are active are discussed. It is 1 experimentally established that the [K'~'] increase in these regions causes a two phase change of the resting potential and the action potential ~ amplitude in deinnervated frog nerve. Data is presented on the shif t E of the reversal potential to the lef t _ when the neuromuscular synapse is active. This attests ta the accumulation of muscle K+ (up to 10 mM) in the synaptic cleft. It is shown that the increase o~ [K+] in the medium causes a two phase change in the quantal composition of synaptic transmission. A hypothesis is f~rmulated about a potassium functional inverse relation (FIR) at the synapse. Data is presented which supports the participation of the potassium FIR in the phenomena of postactivational potentials and presynaptic pessimum 3t the neuromuscular synapse. Hypotheses are proposed about participation of a potassium FTR at neuro-neuronal synapses in the phenomena of conditioning and dominance. Figures 5, bibliography-- 18 references. UDC 612.824.1+612.822 THE FUNCTIONAL STATE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LABILITY OF THE NEURON. Sologub, M. I., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 99-111. 'fhe ~unctional state of a living unit is the qualitatively and quantita- tively determined metabolic level, the structural organization, and the excitability at a given moment of time. The physiological lability of a unit, like the rates of elementary reactions which underlie life activity, is a general indicator of the functional state. The physiological lability of a neuron is determined by the rates of sS~stem activity which permits the movement of ions during the excitation process, and it can be measured - by the first derivative of the intracullular neuron spike. Figures 4, bibliograpt-~y--27 references. - 38 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ' ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i . . ' UDC 612.821.6 ON TI~E MECHANISM OF THE CLOSING OF TEI~ORARY CONNECTIONS IN LIGHT OF THE � W~D,LNgKIY-UKHTOMSKIY THEORY. Mnukhina, R. S., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyetel'- nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 112-126. ~ ' In this paper a two phase change of the basic cortical rhythm, evoked potentials and the constant potential of the cortex during the development of'a conditioned reflex is shown. When potentials from the deep cortical ' layers are eliminated a successive migration of local excitation in the ~ spreading clasure of temporary connections is shown. i � ~ A negative shift of the constant cortical potential appears at the moment a temporary connection is cl~sed and indicatea a atate of stationary ~ excitation (depolarizar_ion). On Che cellular level this corresponds to ~ the establishment of polysensory neuron activity which accompanies the increased action potential duration. When the conditioned reflex is strengthened, a slow positive potential ; develops in the auditory cortex in response to a conditioned sound stimulus. At the cellular level this corresponds to a transition of the neuron .from a bursting mode in the intersignal periods to a mode of single rhythmic discharges during the action of the conditioned stimulus. This ; indicates a reduction of excitability at the cortical level of the signal ~ analyzer. Figures 6, bibliography--23 references. . ; UDC 612.743/813 - THE AURAL FIELD IN LIGHT Or THE DEVELOPMENT OF A. A. UKHTOMSKIY'S IDEAS ON THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. Gulyayev, P. I., - Zabotin, V. I., Shlippenbakh, N. Ya., Yegorov, V. N. and Molchanova, 0. V., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyat~l'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 127-137. It is experimentally demonstrated that the bioelectric activity of living ; tissues is accompanied by constant and varying electric fields in the ' space around them. These fields are termed aural fields by the authors. They are sources of new physiological information, including information , which is lar el inaccessible through other methods. Thus the idea of g Y ~ A. A. Ukhtomskiy about the presence of active fields of an electromagnetic ~ nature in the CNS is con[irmed. The results of studies on the fine structure of the field of an isolated nerve are presented. The first aurascopic studies of the parabiotic - field of a muscle demarcation potential are published. The task of studying the interaction of biological units by means of the aural field is posed. The theoretical scientific significance of auratronics is discussed. Figures 3, bibliography--21 references. - - 39 - i , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ I , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 , , ~ . ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ i ' UDC 591.481.12:591.81.086 ` i MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNEURONAL SYNAPSES. Babmindra, ~ V..P., Mekhr~nizr.?y nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrade, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 137-1G5. ; J Ultrastructural studies of synapses make it possible to ~udge their ~ functional characteristics. For synapses with chemical transmis5ion the ~ presence of a 25-30 nm synaptic cleft is characteristics, while electrical ~ synapses are characterized by a reduction of the synaptic clef t to 10 nm or even complete fusion of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. i Synapses with spherical vesicles are excitatory, and synapses with flattened vesicles are inhibitory. Synaptic complexes serve as morpholog- ical substrates for the convergence or divergence of nerve impulses. Figures 2, bibliography--45 references. UDC 612.603 THE PRINCIPLE OF DOMINANCE AS A MECHANT.CSM FOR REALIZATION OF THE NEGEN- TROPIC INFORMATION VALUE AND TRANSFORM FACTORS IN ONTOGENESIS AND PHYLOGENESIS. Arshavskiy, I. A., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 146-161. The role of the dominance principle as a physiological mechanism for the integrity of an organism, beginning from the moment of its origin as a zygote is covered. Its role as a mechanism for selecting required infor- mation varies in different age periods. The negentropic value of the information results from the fact that in causing adaptive motor activity it becomes a factor in inducing anabolism and increasing the nonequilibrium state of r~e developing organism. It is substantiated that the dominance principle in connection with infor- mation obtained from the environment is a factor in the decoding of genetic information, i.e. a program of individual development encoded in the genome. Figures 5, bibliography--45 references. , UDC 612.822.3:612.019 INTF.RCENTR.AL AND SYNAPTIC CONNECTI~NS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF INSECTS. Vereshchagin, S. M. and Lapitskiy, V. P., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 162-168. The nonspecific effects of suprapharyngeal and subpharyngeal ganglia on the excitability of segmental centers were studied in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. It was established that e~.ectrical stimulation of , - 40 - _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ; ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the head ganglia changes the frequency of the background bioelectric activity and the threshold of evoked neural responses in the metathoracic ganglion. The application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (0.1 M) to the suprapharyngeal and subpharyngeal ganglia was shown to reduce the frequency ~ of th~ background activity of segmental neurone, probably through Ctte ~ activation o� inhibitory structures. Figures 5, bibliography-- 6 references. ! UDC 534.88:597.6/599,7:576.12 i STAGES OF THE EVOLUTION OF ACOUSTIC LOCALIZATION IN TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES. Konstantinov, A. I., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, pp 168-184. Based on comparison of certain examples of birds and bats possessing - : sound ranging systems it is proposed that the development of echolocation , in te~restrial vertebrates is possible only when they adapt to totally dark caves and undergo a transition to flight in open three dimensional space. The stages of the development and improvement of echolocation for ; distance orientation are presented. ' Based on phylogenetic comparison of echolocation systems in 13 families ~ of bats and the development of this function in ontogenesis it is con- ~ ~ cluded that the processing of location signals proceeded in the direction of removing secondary harmonic components from the spectrum, increasing the carrier frequency and expanding frequency modulation. Data is presented on the morphological and functional reorganization of the suditory system of echolocating animals in comparison with others not ~ possessing the ability of distance orientation. In contrast to an opinion stated previously, the hypertrophic development of subcortical auditory centers in echolocating animals is explained not by ultrasound reception . as much as by complex system control by an echolocation apparatus. ! Figures 4, tables 2, bibliography--33 references. UDC 612.8.015 ~ BASIC REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS~S. Prokhorova, M. I., Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatPl'nosti, Leningrad, I,enin~rad University, 1977, pp 185-198. " Recently aelf regul.ating systems on the molecular and supramolecular levels have begun to attract attention in neurochemistry. Regulatory enzymes, which as a rule are elaborate multienzyme complexes, have a i ~ - 41 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY special role in these systems. In the presence of regulatory enzymes bio- logical systems acquire the capacity for self assembly and self regulation; thus they sutomatically maintain a specific rate of the biochemical ; pr.dCegtles which underlie physiological functions including dominanC~~ , ; In our work four important regulatory enzymes--pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydro-- genase--and their participation in oxidative and biosynthetic processes ~ , occurring in the brain are considered. The role of regulatory enzymes is particularly great in the activity of the nervous system. Consequently, ~ - close examination of them in the brain is one of the pressing problems of contemporary neurochemistry. Figures 4, bibliography--32 references. UDC 15/591.150 REGULATION OF CREATINE KINASE IN ANIMAL CELLS. Dyzlova, S. N., , Mekhanizmy nervnoy deyatel'nosti, Leningrad, Leningrad University, 1977, Pp 199-211. ~ By example of the enzymy creatine kinase (ATP:creatine-phosphotransferase; 2.73.2) different mechanisms for the regulation of enzymatic activity are traced both at the genome level and at the level of synthesized enzyme molecules. Data are presented on the qualitative and quantitative changes of enzyme content, the relation between the functional state of ; the cells and the activity of creatine kinase, and the participation of ' creatine and hormones (insulin, ttiyroxin, adrenaline) in the regulation of enzyme activity. The importance of compartmentalization of the enzyme and its substrates for the regulation of activity is shown. The possi- bility is discussed of enzyme regulation through the interaction of creatine kinase with myosin and participation of the creatline phosphate- _ creatirie kinase system in the regulation of respiration, glycolysis and ' glycogen synthesis. Figures 7, bibliography--31 references. COPYRI(=}iT: Izdatel'stvo Leningradekogo universiteta, 1977 [434-9342] 9342 CSO: 1840 - 42 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 . ~ ~ ; . ' ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ' i , . ; , . , ~ , , . . ~ ' ~ ~ ~ NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS OF MEMORY _ Moscow NEYROFIZIOLOGICHESKIYE MEKHANIZMY PAMYATI in Russian 1979 ~ signed to press 13 November p 2-4, 165. ~ [Annotatian, introduction and table of contents from book by i Tat'yana Nikolayavna Grechenko, Moscow Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 330Q copies, ~ 165 pages] - [TextJ This monograph examines the mechanisms of retrograde ~ amnesia and its relationship to the b asic premises of the . theory on consolidation of inemory tracts. Phenomena, observed in experiments on disturbances in the tracks of short�term memory, are analyzed in the book. These experiments focus on the relationship of changes which vccur both on the behavioral and neuronal levels. j The book is intended for psychologists and neurophysiologists. ; . ; Introduction Methods of electrophysiologic investigation can be applied _ ~ successfully to the study of certain questions related to the ' mechanisms of inemory. Current experiments examine how tracks _ . of inemory are formed using the positive method. At the onset - of training of the experimental animal or individual neuron ~ electrical phenomena are examined to determine how they are related to the formation of inemory tracks on the level of changes in the summary activity of the brain, in cohesive dis- ~ charges and synaptic processes. This analysis is accomplished by means of recording the summary activity of individual brain structures, the electrical activity of one or several ; neurons using intracellular microelectrodes and the electrical ' activity of individual neurons using microelectrodes introduced ~ inside the cells. This approach enables scientists to under- stand how neuronal reaction changes not only in cohesive acti- ' vity but also in synaptic activity. Utilization of recording the intracellular electrical processes adds to our understanding ~ - 43 - ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ i i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ! i of the exact mechanisms for such forms of nervous system plas- ~ ticity as habituation, facilitation and formation of conditioned ~ responses . ~ In addition to the positive experimental approach, a negativ~ ! method was also used to study the mechanisms of inemory given ; disturbances in the tracks--experimental retrograde amnesia: This approach helps to elucidate the conditions necessary for ; the normal~state of inemory as well as to understand the causes ; which lead to its deterioration. Use of experimental retrograde ; amnesia to analyze the electrophysiological phenomena of inemory ! is applied very cautiously and is virtually limited to recording ; of experiences which develop on the macrolevel. Although the ; accumulated experimental data awaits thorough analysis of the ~ - phenomena which occur on the level of intracellular processes in individual neurons, we have obtained a clearer representa- - tion of the mechanisms involved at the macrolevel. Thus, exper- iments on the behavioral level showed the erroneous naxure of the consolidation hypothesis: the memory tracks, after altera- tion by the amnesic agent, are retained. The electrophysiologic nature of this phenomenon can be studied at the neuronal level, but data on the functional localization of engrams suggest the - existence of neurons which possess a high sensitivity to the. , effect of the amnesic agents. Study of the electrophysiologic phenomena which develop on the synaptic level elucidates the causes of inemory disturbances. In our study, we proceeded from the following assumption: if the experiments on the behavioral level show reduction of memory tracks after application of the amnesic agent, then one can expect that the cause of retrograde amnesia is a prolonged and stable disturba~ce of the electrical activity of the nerve elements leading,to functional disorganization of the neuronal system. The amnesic agent can cause changes in cohesive gener- ation and synaptic transmissions. Normalization of these pro` cesses must lead to reduction in the plasticity of the neurons. The results of these experiments using the method of experi- mental retrograde~amnesia to study its effect on the behavioral level, on summary electrical brain activity and on the elec- trical activity of individual neurons will be presented in the f ollowing chapters. ~ Contents Page Introduction .............................................3 Chapter I. Study of the processes of inemory on the behavioral level by the method of experi- mental retrograde amnesia ..............�.���~�5 - 44 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , i ~ ; . . i 1.1 The hypothesis of consolidati~n~of ~ ; memory tracks ................................5 9, , , . 1.2 The amnesic effect of electr~-shock........... ~ " 1. 3 Definition of the amnesic gradient. . . . . . . . . ?,6 ~ - Chapter II. Reduction of inemory tracks ...................35~ ~ ~ Chapter III..Electrophysiolog ic methods in the study ~ of inechanisms of rei~rograde.amnesia.........55 3.1 Electrophysiologic indices in retrograde amnesia......o ............:..................55 ! 3.2 The role of brain structu~re in the ' ~ ~ processes of inemory ..:..................:....58 ; Chaptex IV. Neuronal mechanisms of retrograde amnesia....74 , 4.1 Retragrade amnesia in intact mollusks........76 4.2 The influence of global electric.shock on the electric activity~and plasticity of neurons ......................................87 4.3 Neuronal mechanisms in the effect of ~ electro-shock .................................108 ; ~ Conclusions................... ...........................139 Bibliography .................................~.............I41 , Index of Terms ............................................162 GOPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1979 [389-9139] ; 9139 i CSO: 1840 ; , -45- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY j I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 , . FO1Z OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ~ I , 1. ~I i , I ARTIFICIAL SENSE ORGANS ~ Moscow I5KUSSTVENNYE ORGANY CHUVSTV in Russian signed to press 15 June 79 , PP 2-4, 180 ' [Annotation, foreword, and table of contenta from book by S. V. Fomin, � Ye. N. Sokolov, and G. G. Vaytkyavichyus, Izda~el'stvo "Nauka", 1979] ; [Text] The book describes the construction of artificial human and , animal aense organs. The analyzer sys tems containing a mechanism for in- creasing differential sensitivity code stimuli by the number of the maximally excited channel. Intensity, light, orientation, tilted 1ine, and velocity and spatial position of ob~ects analyzers are discuesed. The book is intended for neurophysiolo giste, biophyaicists, and special- . ~ iete designing senaora for robots. There are 74 illustrations an~ a bibliography containing 111 referencea. , Foreword The book suma up 15 years' work with psychophysical, neurophysiological, and cybernetic methods. The man-neuron-model scheme was used in the reaearch. Study of specif ic seneory functions at the psychophysical level in experiments with hwnans was paralleLed by animal experiments _ deaigned to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of these functions. The final stage of the research was a model on which rigorous demands were made. The model as a whole reproduced the psychophysical characteristics of the functions under study while each neuron-like element reproduced the characteristics of the corresponding real neuron. The models were constructed according to the neurophyeiologically sub- ' stantiated principle of coding signals by the number of the channel- detector. This principle assured the coordinated transmission and processing of information in a large number of parallel chant~els. Study of specific light, intensity, mo tion, orientation, and depth analyzers made it posaible to formulate general principles for con- � structing artificial senee organs from neuron-like elements. It is -46- FOR OFFICIAi, USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300084422-6 ; ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY these general principles for constructing artificial sense organe with ~ charactexistica of n~tural neuronal analyzera which are the main sub~ect of the book. , , In realizing the principle of coding by channel number in artifi~cial ~ sensory syatems it is necessary to consider the use of the information~ thus made available for purposes of control. It was concluded from ~ electrophysiological studies in master neurons which coordinate movements , by means of their systems of co~nunication with motor neurons that con- i~ trol can be achieved by switching on or off.detectors from the master neurons. The reaults of this analysie were formulated im the description , of the conceptual reflex arc. An aggregate of receptors,,primary detectors, and selective secondary detectoro forma a neuronal analyzer. This analyzer is a realization of the biQlogical analyzer discovered by I. P. Pavlov. An exte3cnal signal , - produces an excitation vector by stimulating independent primary detectors. By acting on the fan of communication vectors that connect the primary detectors to the secondary ones, the excitation vector creates a single peak of excitation on one element of the poptil.ation of secondary de- tectors, with the signal coded by the site of the peak of excitation. It follows from the principle of coding by channel number that many , atimuli are reflected on a n-dinensional sphere formed of neurons/ ' detectors. When a signal charges, the peak of excitation reflecting this change shifts over a quasireceptive surface consisting of numerous secondary detectors. Reflection of a signal an the sphere has led to a new approach in human ' . psychophysics and metrics of perceptive space of a robot. The subjective - difference b~tween stimuli in a human being and a robot equipped with - neuronal analyzers is measured by a small arc on the circumference of i the n-dimensional sphere. This arc connects the points at which the aecondary detectors representing the corresponding stimuli are located. ~ The preciaion of the work of a human or animal analyzer is it~creased by ! the functioning of inechanisms for the adaptation of primary detectors ~ ! and by lateral inhibition of the analogous primary detectora belonging to different local analyzers. Emphasis on the differenc2s between eigna].s is expressed in successive and simultaneous contrasts. The iztroduction of adaptation and lateral inhibition in artificial sense organs increasea , their differential sensitivity and groduces in them illusions similar to , the illusions of human perception. Thus, artificial sense organs from neuron-like ele~enta completelq dup- licate the structure and functione of human sense organs. The general ~ principlea followed in constructing artif icial sense organs from neuxon- r like elements may find practical application in two different fields: - ~ - 47 - . i I ! FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . (1) the creation of aensory prostheses directly linked to the neuronal structures of the human brain and (2) the de~ign of sense organs for . robota possesaing elements of an artificial intellect. 5ergey Vasil'yevich Fomin whose ideae underlie c`~is book will unfortu- nately not aee its publication because he died in the final stage of preparation of the manuscript. Contents Page - Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~ Chapter 1. Construction of Artificial Sense Or.gaas. 5 Chapter 2. A Model of Coding by Channel Number. 12 Chapter 3. Intensity Analqzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Chapter 4. Color Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Chapter 5. Tilter Line Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Chapter 6. Visual Analy2er of Direction and Velocity 92 of Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7. Stereoanalyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Chapter 8. Gravity Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter 9. Construction of an Analyzer on Request. e... 124 ~ Appendixes General Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Intensity Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Col.or Analyaer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Tilted Line Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Analyzer of Direction and Velocity of Movement. 166 -48- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ti . Page . ; Stereoanalyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 , ~ Polarized Light Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 ~ ~ ; ~ ! Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ' ~ r. ' COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1979 ' [169-5214] 5214 ~ CSO: 1840 , ; i ~ ; ; . ; . ~ I ~ i ~ - 49 - FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340080022-6 FOR OFFICIAY. IISE ONLY ~ ' i , - ~ i i . - i . ~ � i , ~ ; ' . I , , . ; = ADAPTIVE BIOCONTROL IN NEUROLOGY ~ , i i Leningrad ADAPTIVNOYE BIOUPRAVLENIYE V NEVROLOGII in Russian 1978 signed to press 21 June 78 pp 2-8, 134 ~ [Annotation, foreword, introduction, and table of contents from book by N, V. Chernigovskaya, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Leningradskoye otdeleniye 2,300 copies, 134 pages] . [Text~ The monograph demonstrates the urgency of finding new methods of stimulating the natural reserves of the body, specifically those of the brain. Based on recent published Soviet and foreign data and on her own research, the author examines a new approach in theoretical and practical ; medicine - adaptive biocontrol or active training of certain physiological - systems and functions in diseases of the nervous syatem. Bibliography-- . 219 references, illustrations--36, tables--2. ; ; Foreword ' One of the most important tasks of inedicine is undoubtedly to find ; effective therapies that do not produce side effects and, therefore, to uae therapy as close to the physiological as poasib].e. This is the sub- ` ject of N. V. Chernigovskaya's monograph. As shown by the results of the author's research, it is possible deliberately ~ to stimulate the structural and functional reserves of the brain in neurological diseases in whose pathogenesis a persistent pathological condition is a ma~or factor. The need for special methods of doing so is largely due to the minimization of the cerebra~. components of several functional support systems that arises in onto$eny and is followed by ~ the fixation of such minimization in the correaponding matrix of long- : term memory. N. V. Chernivogskaya shows that an effective way of utilizing the brain's potential is to restore or develop a learning capacity, that is, Co create conditions for overcoming the limitationa imposed by the memory matrix and thereby control bodily functions. - 50 - ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The outlook for this approach, as the author rightly emphasizes, is wide and at the same time limited. The limitatione are mostly due to the in- completeness of our knowledge of the most effective ways of "intervening in 'the brain's mechanisms that control the var~.ous bodily functions and expecially those which consolidate changes therein, and create and fix ~ a new stable condition. The author, a highly professional neurologist who works closely with neurophysiologists and engineers, attempts to �determine the clinical value of training patients in adaptive biocontrol. It seems to me that . she succeeded in her attempt. Based on her own and published data and on studies of healthy and sick persons, N. V. Chernivogskaya advances ' some ideas on the possible brain mechanisms responsible for the effpcta - of biocontrol. The publication of her monograph will lead to furt~ner = a tudy of these mechanisms and provide interniets with an additional noninvasive therapeutic modality. Basic science is practical. Development of the theory of bioconetrol will undoubtedly usher in new advances in medicine, pedagogy, and various f ields of the physiology and pathology of work. N. P. Bekhtereva Introduction Advances in modern clinical medicine are largely dependent on progress - in allied fields of science. For example, virological, i~mmunological, and genetic research has shed new light on the etiology and pathogenesis of certain diseases of the central nervous syatem. Yet clinical medicine - is of ten helpless in treating many of them and it is in need of new ' approaches to the therapy and study of the pathogenesis of diseases. Nor are the possibilities of allied disciplines limited. This is particu2arly rrue of neurophysiology, a science that is extremely close to clinical neurology. On the other hand, neurolog3sts are becoming increasingly interested in such complex processes as memory, learning, behavior, and adaptation. Mndern technological progress (introduction of new machines and high- _ speed production) keeps placing new demands on man because of his in-� creasingly stressful way of life. The accelerated pace of life is com- bined with overstrain - sensory, informational, and mental. Emotions . always served as stimulants of muscular activity in the course of evolution. Besides increasing mental stress, our times are also cha~acter- _ ized by diminishing motor activity. The result of all this is a ris~ng incidence of neurolog~cal and mental diseases and an impetus to determine and study man's adaptive capacity as well as to find ways of al tering it. The control of man's adaptibility is a major aspect of the adaptation problem, one closest to the goals of _ medic~l science. - 51 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR ~FFICIAL USE ONLY ~Present-day living conditions (urbanization, isolation from natural influences) place increased demands on man's adaptive mechanisms at the same time that they greatly reduce his adaptive capacity. C1iniCal+medicine al~o faces new and urgent Casks with regard to manfa' adaptation. They arise from the increasing frequency of chronic diseases in general and of neurological diseases in particular. As a result, pharmacoth~rapy is increasingly resorted to and, what is most i~portant, drugs are used for longer periods of time and frequenCly in an uncontrolled fashion. Such overuse of drug~ clearly requires reasonable correction, especially since the abundance of pharmacological agents l~ads to attempts at potentially harnful self-treatment. These considerations make it clear why fundamentally new therapeutic and corrective approaches are needed. They should be based mostly on the vast natural reserves of the body, especially the potential functionat capacity of the brain. Adaptive biocontrol is one such approach. It involvea the control of individual physiological systems of functions, i.e., it is an unusual form of training. , ~ An important distinctive feature of the training of various F~matic and autonomic systems is that it permits the regulation and contr~l of in- voluntary functions. Hocvever, many difficult and thorny questians re- lating to adaptive control have to be answered. For example, is it a promising approach? The answer will come only after long and persistent study. It should be borne in mind that the methodological significance of scientific ideas and research methods is determined not only by their nature but also by their timeliness. One thing is clear. Adaptive bio- control of physiological functions or retraining of pathologically altered functions is a problem that applies equally to human adaptation and to restoration of functions if they are pathologically impaired. Questions of inedical and social rehabilitation naturally cannot be regarded apart from the theoretical aspects of adaptation. It is therefore important to note that all these matters are concerns of both theoretical and practical medicine. Our aim was to draw attention to the research that has been conducted in the field, Co show some of the results of using adaptive biocontrol on the basis of our own observations, and to assess its prospects. ~ Research has been intensively conducted abroad in recent years on what is called "biofeedback-training". There are widely differing appraisals of - the approach in physiology and medicine from hailing it as universal and indispensable to totally denying its value. This is partly due to the publicity that surrounded the early research. The method, like any other, = clearly has limited possibilities and prospects. - 52 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Adaptive biocontrol of physiological functions has different, although interrelated, aspects - clinical, neuro~hysiological, and psychological. The clinical uae of the method is a medical problem that assumes a study of~ ~he indications and contraindications for its application to specific nosological entities or syndromes both neuropathological and general~ ' , somatic in nature. The neurophysiological approach makes it possible to study the regulatory characteriatics of the central nervous system and its pacemaker mechanisms. ; It a lso creates the preconditions for research on previously unknown ways - of r egulating physiological functions. The psychological aspect is related to q uestiona concerning the "conscious" and "unconscious" and it also has ~ imp 1 ications for deontology. All this ca11s for steady special and tho rough examination, and not only in this monograph. Our monograph contains information from the literature as well as some data obCained by a group studying the mechanisms of rehabilitation in neurclogical diseases. The group, a unit of the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, works in an oblast clinical hospital. The monograph presents, in addition, some results of . research done by a clinir_al group of the Laboratory of General Physiology of the Z. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology working in the 7th Hospital ~ for Mental and Neurological Diseases. Data were also provided by N. L. Artemchuk, I. L. Knorozova, S. A. M~ovsisyants, A. N. Timofeyeva, and A. S. Tsukern~an. V. G. Markman, B: P. Rumyantsev, and A. S. Tsukerman ' assisted in constructing the experimental and therapeutic equipment . emp loyed in the work. A. A. Vereshchagina and I. P. Koptelova did the psychological research. Some of the studies on regulating of the bioelectric activiCy of the brain (alpha rhythm) in healthy persons were carried out jointly with Dr. S. , Potoli~cchio, a colleague of ours from the United States. The data were processed by evaluating the means according to the Student- Fisher criterion using regression, correlation, and factorial analyses assisted by Minsk-32 and Dnieper computers. � The computer programs were prepared by staff inembers of the Laboratory ' for Processing Biomedical Information, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the USSR Academy af Medical Sciences (director, N. I. Mois eyeva). Some of the work was done in the Interinstitute Biology Comp uter Center administered by the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences (chief, Zh. A. Pershin). In conclusion, I should like to thank N. P. Bekhtereva, academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, for recommending to me the sub~ect of thia research and for her continuing interest in it. - - 53 - FOR OFFICIAL IISE ONLY ~ i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . Contents Page ' For~word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 , Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . Chapter 1. Adaptive Biocontrol. Nature and Prerequisites 9 ~ of the Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2. Control of Bioelectric Activity of the Brain 31 . Regulation of alpha activity of the brain . . . . . . . . . . 33 Control of bioelectrical activity of the brain in diseases of the central nervous system . . . . . . . � � 50 Adaptive regulation in epilepsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Adaptive regulation in neuroses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Chapter 3. Adaptive Biocontrol of Motor Activity. 80 Chapter 4. "Training" Autonomic Functions of the Body 100 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1978 ~ [161-5214] 5214 - CSO: 1840 -54- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ~ , ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; PSYCHOLOGY . ~ ~ _j i I ~ ; CLASSIFICATION OF UNCONSCIOUS PHENO~I~1A, AND THE CATEGORY OF ACTIVITY Moscow VOPROSY PSII~iOLOGII in Russian No 3, 1980 pp 43-53 [Article by A. G. Asmolov, Faculty of Psychology, Moecow State University] ' [Text] Can analysis of the unconscious on the basis of such an important category of Soviet psychology as the category of activity deepen our knowledge about the i nature of unconscious phenomena? And is there, in general, a need to in+volve this ~ category in analysis of the unconscious? ~ To answer this question let us try to coaduct a mental experiment and take a look, ; through the eyes of the participants at the first aqmposium on the problem,of ' the unconcious, at the recent symposium dealing with the same problem which con- vened in Tbilisi. Evidently, H. Munsterberg, T. R~bot, P. Janet and B. Harte would have felt at home at thia sqmpoaium. As he did in Boston E19~0)"; �Mi~ster- ' berg would have divided all of the participants into three groups: the public at large, physicians a ni psychophysiologists. The representatives of the first group refer to the cosmic unconsciousness and ext~asensory commnunication of conscious- nesses. Physicians discuss the problem of the role of the uaconscious in patho- - logy of the personality, resorting to different variants of conceptions of dissoci- ation and splitting of the "ego." Physiologists, however, very clearly declare ! that the unconscious is nothing other than the product of brain activity. The ~ theses of or~ly two theories would have been utterly unexpected for H. Munsterberg. We refer to the set theory of D. N. Uznadze and activity theory of L. S. Vygotakiy, ~ A. N. Leont'yev and A. R. Luriya. The basic novelty consists primarily of the initial premise of these conceptions: in order to study the world of paychic phenomena one must go beyond the3r confines and find a unit of analysis of the psychic that itself would not belong to the realm of the psychic. ~ Tf this condition is not met, we return to the situation at the Boston symposium. ~ The fact of the matter is that to try to comprehend the nature of unconscious phe- nomena solely on the basis of these phenomena themselves,or on the basis of analysis - ' o~ physiological mechanisms or sub3ective conscioua phenomena is tantamount to ' trying to comprehend the nature of cost from analqsis of monetary symbols [1]. ~ Of course, one can detect some dynamic forces and impulses that prompt behavior in the nature of an individual. However, as shown by the entire development of ; general psychological theory of activity, it is only through analysis of the system , of activities of a~ individual that express his life in society tha~ one can dis~ cove~ the meaning of multilevel psychic pheaomena. N. Leont'yev has expressed ~ this idea with utomost clariCy. He writes: "Involv~m~ent of living organisms, the syetem of processes of their organs and their bra~in in the objective, - 55 - ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ob~ective-diecrete world results in the fact that the syste~ of these processes is given a content other than their intrinsic content, a coatent that belongs to the objective world itself." "It 3a the question of this 'gift'~ that generates the sub~ect of psychologica~. science!" [22, p 13]. By analyzing the unconscious within the context of general psychological theory of activity, it becomes possible to introduce the characteristic of substance of qualitatively different classes of unconscious phenomena, to disclose the func= tion of these phenomena in regulation of activity and to trace their genesis. In order to single out the bases for classification of unconscious phenomena, let us discuss two principles of theory of activity, the principle of objectivity [related to subject or subjects] and principle of dependence of inental reflec- tion on the place o� the reflected object in the structure of activity. In the precise expxess~ion of V. V. Davydov [14], the principle of ob3ectivity ia the core of activity theory. Expressly this principle,aud the phenomenon of - objectivity that is closely linked with it that make it possible to draw a clearcut line between the so-called activity approach and various behavioral approaches that , are based on the "stimulus-reaction" scheme or its~numerous modifications. The substance of the ob~ectivity principle consists of the fact that "the sub~ect's activity, which is regulated by an image, itself changes into a'dormant property' of its objective product. Through this objectivization it changes into the ideal extrasensory [supersensory] aspect of the things it does" [14, p 3~]� - A series of facts was obtained in experimental psychology, mainly in the research of K. Levin and K. Dunker, that graphically illustrate the existence of what we ~ - are calling here the phenomenon of bbjectivity ["predmetnost']. We refer to the - "nature of demands" and "functional fixation" of ob3ects phenomena described by K. Levin and K. Dunker. The "nature of demands," like "functional fixation," is~ referable to the properties of an object given to an ob~ect only when it penetrates into an integral system, some phenomenal field. A team of psychologists headed by A. N. Leont�yev, who worked in Khar'kov in the early 1930's (L. I. Bozhovich, P. Ya. Gal'perinr A. V. Zaporozhets, P. I. Zinchenko and others) encountered analogous facts in their study of the practical intellect. In these studies, among which the work of P. Ya. Gal'perin can be singled out with regard to the aspect we are discussing, which is entitled "Psycholo~ical Study of the Too1s of Man and Aids of Animals, and Significance Thereof" (1935), it was shown convincingly that it is only by deobjecti~yin~ the meaning fixed in a social object into a tool that a child advances from the logic of "manual operations" to the logic of "instrumental [tool] operations." A. N. Leont'yev and his coworkers, who had an experimental study of the meaning fixed in tools dealt with the same reality as K. Levin and K. Dunker. But, unlike them, the former were able to disclose the actual origin of this reality, of these "systemic traits" of an object [20J, and to view it as activity that "settled" on ob~ects in the human world. And this discovery, which subsequently led to the distinction of ob~ectivity as a constitutional feature of act~vity, is of first and foremost sig:~ificance to comprehension of one of the classes of uncouscious pheno- mena, the class of supraindividal, supraconscious phe~nomena. -56- ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As for the principle of dependence of psychic reflect3on on the place of the re- flected ob~ect in the structure of activity, to disclose its content we must indi- , cate the unite that form the struature of activity. The activity of an tad~v~dual hae d 1~ve~-related hierarchic structure. In this structure, there eme~ge such units as special activity prompted by a motive (ob,ject of a aeed), actiori'that is controlled by a conscious anticipated goal, operation (mode of performing action) related to conditions of an existing situation and psychophyaiological mechanisms, the effectors of actions and operations (A. N. Leont'yev). In regulation of activity, the function and nature of reflection of some ob~ect de- pend on the place it holds in the structure of activity. For example, it was shown that the nature of remembering depends on the elements of activity (motives, goals or condiCions of activity) that are related to the object to be remembered [16,p 28]. I� we were to try to classify various unconscious phenomenon on the basis of the psychological structure of activity, they would fall into two classes, the class of uncons dous motives and meaningful sets that prompt and stabilize activity as a whole (see [3]) and the class of unconscious forms of reflection, which emerge in the form of goal-oriented and operational sets that regulate the performance of auch low-level units of activity as operations. Thus, it is deemed possible to single out three different classes�of unconacious phenomena on the basis of the principles of objectivity and dependence of reflec- tion on the place of the reflected object in the structure of activity: the class of supraindividual supraconscious phenomena; the class of unconscious activity-sti- mulating elements (unconscious motives and meaning-related sets); the class of ~ unconscious regulators of actions and operations. We shall try to describe the directions, in which research proceeded on these classes of unconscious phenomena, as well as the main distinctions of each class. 1. Supraindividual Supraconsci~us Phenomena* Let us begin with a description of aupraindividual supraconscious phenomena since, in the first place, these phenomena have always been covered with the cloud of mystery and served as the grounds for the most curious mythological conjectures; in the second place, it is expressly on the example of these phenomena that the ~ social genesis of the unconscious realm as a whole emerges in relief. From our point of view, the actual fact of existence of the class of supraindividual - supraconscious phenomena emerges in various hypostases in all directiona dealing with the problem of transmitting the experience of mankind from generation to gene- ration or the problem of discreteness that intersects it, i.e., the continuity of consciousness (see [26]). Such concepts as "inborn ideas" (R. Descarte), "archetypes of the collective un- conscious" (C. Jung), "the cosmic unconscious" (Sudzuki), "cosmic conscious'�~ (E. Fromm), "the unconscious as the speech of another" (J. Lacan), "collective conceptions" (E. Durheim, L. Levi-Brulle) and "unconcscious structures" (K. Levi-Stross, M. Fuko). *The conceptions of supraconscious and its role in thg creative activity of a scientist are developed in the extensive series of zaoxks by M. G. Yaroshevskiy (see, for example, [37]). - 57 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY But how is one to delve into all these supraindividual, supraconscious structures? What is their origin? In most cases, the answer to these questions is very similar to the s~ory book anawer in the "Blue Bird" by Maurice Maeterlinck. In this fairy ta].e, the goodfairy gives children a miraculous dismond. One need only turu this diamond and people begin to see the concealed spirits of things. As in any real story, there is much truth in this one. The ob~ects of human cul- ture that surround people do indeed have a"spirit" [soul]. And this "spirit" - is nothing other than the field of ineanings that exist in the form of schemes of action, objectified in the course of activity into ~ork tools, in the form of - roles, concepts, rituals, ceremonies, various social symbols and norms. It is only if the child, with the help of an adult, becomes involved in the streara of activities (and not the stream of consciousness!) and assimilates, through the system of activities, the object~fied meanings in the hwaan world that it will become a personality. Activity is the diamond which,th~~ child, usually without realizing it at all, turns together with other people in order to see the "spirit" of objects and to acquire his own "spirit." In other words, there exists objectively a special dimension in the world around man, which is created by the aggregate of human activity, the field of ineanings ~18~� This field of ineanin~s is found, as noted by A. N. Leont'yev "by the individual as something 'existing outside of him,' som~thing that he perceives and assimilates therefore as that which is contained in his image of the world" [22,p 6]~ As they organize their accordance with the field of ineanings, people thereby continuously confirm the reality of its existence. In order to comprehend the process of assimilating meanings, in Soviet psychology one usually draws upon the conceptions of L. S. Vygotskiy on interiorization (12], on the transition from ' the interpsychic to the intrapsychic. These conceptions require further develop- ment and definition of inechanisms of interiorization and transformationa that the learned forms of ineanings undergo. But the main idea contained in them, already voiced in 1925, is the idea that the genesis of the individual is re�erable to the social, it is derived from it and remai.ns as the guide in analysis of develop- ment of peraonality and conscious [13]. Thus, the ideas of stream of consciousness, archetypes of collective unconscious, etc., have a very real ["earthly"] basis. Underlying all these conceptions is the real fact of existence of the supraindividual supraconscious, which has a clearly traceable social genesis and which consists of the field of ineanings that is generated by the entire aggregate of mankind's activity. 2� Unconscious Stimuli of Activity (Unconscious Motives and Meaning-Related Sets of the Personality) The unconscious triggers of personality activity have always been the central sub~ect of investigation in traditional psychoanalysis. They participate in regu- lation of activity, emerging in the form of ineaning-related sets. Without repeat- ing here the conceptions we are developing of the hierarchic level-related nature of sets as mechanisms of stabilization, "cementing" the activity of the personality, let us merely recall that, according to the main structural units of activity, a distinction is nade of levels of ineaningful, goal-oriented and operational sets, _ as Well as the level of psychophysiological mechanism8 of set [3]. - 58 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY According to their function and place fn the structure of activitp, unconac3ous stimuli that are etudied in paychoanalysts are definitely referable to motives of the personality's activity. For this reason, unlike other unconscioua ph~namena, one of the main characteristics of theae is their dynamism.. But dynamism is a purely functional (formal) characteristic of activity stimuli, while actual psychological analysis of th~se phenamena begir?e when their eseenCial feature ia d~eclosed, ~..e., when they are represented in man~s conaciousness. As A. N. Leont~yev w'rites: - "their function (the function of motives--~A. A.) coneidered from the aspect of ccnsciousnesa is that they, so to speak 'assess' the vital aignificance to the subject of objective circumstances and his actions, they impart a personal mean3ng to them, which does not directly coincide with their ob~ectively interpreted mean- - ing" [21; 150]. These ob~ective circumstances include the products of socio- hiatoric practice that have been idealized in meanings~modes of action inherent in a given culture, objective values, various roles, etc. They also include the acting subject himself, and primarily the level thereof that I. S. Kon calls the existential "ego." In the opinion of I. S. Kon, the existential "ego" is a typical example of a deep meaning-related element, which can be examined only by going beyond its boundaries. The "ego" may appear to be something internal to the subject. In reality, it always appears in opposition, "self"--"nonself," it is a~alue and meaning related, and it contains a tendencq toward self-realization, a~desire for suprasituational activity [19]. The existential "self" [ego] has all the typical features of ineaning-related elements. Like other semantic elements, it is embodied in such units of dynamica of activity as persistent diapositions of the personality~ semantic sets, which are an expression of the personal meaning in the form of readiness for some activity or other. Just like a thought is effected in a word (L. S. Vygotskiy), so the personal meaning is effected in a semantic [meaning-related] set, which determines the stability of activity, and then, through this activity is ob~ectified in various cultural phenomena [3, 4]. We have devoted here special attention to such a semantic element as the existential "ego," since espressly it is being discussed more and more vigorously in various directions of modern p$ychoanalysis ~see [8]). Thus, the personal meanings, "the meanings to me" of any event in the world, including one's "ego," is the basic characteristic that constitutes the core of _ the described cl.ass of unconscious phenomena, the class of unconscious motives and semantic [meaning-related] sets (see [3, 8, 36]. The phenomena of this class cannot be transformed under the influence of any uni- lateral verbal factors. This thesis, which is based on a number of facts obtained = in experimental research ~23, 29, 30], in turn leads us right up to the distinction of semantic elemsnts that determines the methodological routes for studying them. This distinction is that a change in semantic elements is always mediated by a change in the sub~ect's activity itself [3, 5]. Expreasly consideration of this extremely important distinction of aemantic elements (systems..of personal meanings and aemantic sets that expr.ess them in activity) enables us to shed some light on some metamorphoses in the development of psychoanalysis, the explanation of which emerges ae a sort of verification of the classification that we propose. In the firat place, the ineffectiveness of psychother~py limited to purely verbal, unilateral elements, i.e., the therapy that S. Freud had so caustically derided - 59 - FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in his work, "On 'Wild' Ps,ychoanalysis" [34],explains the fact that semantic elements are inr~ensitive to verbal influences that are purely informati~e. We repEat, meanings change only in the course of reorganizing activity, including communica- tivn, in which "verbal work" occurs (J. Lacan). It is nat by chance, therefore, that Jacques Lacan who coined the slogan "Back to Freud," has something 3n coimmon in this respect witk~ the founder of psychoanalysis, observing that: "The function of language does not consist of informing, but stimulating. It is ex- pressly the answer of someone else that I seek in speech. It is expressly my question that constitutes me as a subject" (J. Lacan quoted from [2, p 420].* In other words, only activity, including the activity of communication, which ex- presses some meaning-formiug motives and serves as the basis for emotional identifi- - cation with another [alter] [9] can alter the semantic meanings of the patient. In the second place, in our opinion, the ineffectiveness of the influence of this type of verbal influences on meanings--effects, which often replace a dialog be- tween the psychoanalyst and patient, should be considered one of the causes of the obviously existing shift from individual methods to group psychotherapy methods, for example, such methods as psychodrama, T groups, etc., in which there is recon- struction, in some way or other, of the activity that uttimately leads to a change in personal meanings and semantic sets that express them in activity. To sum up the conceptions on the nature of unconscious stimuli of activity and their essence, let us list the main distinctions of semantic elements of the personality: 1) de~ivation from the system of the subject's activities, his social position; 2) intentionality (orientation on the object of activity; the meaning ia alwaye addressed to someone or sou~ething, the meaning is always the meaning of something); 3) independence of consciousness (the personal meaning may be recog- nized by the sub~ect, but awareness per se is not enough to alter the personal meaning); 4) impossibility of embodiment in meanings (L. S. Vygotbkiy, M. M. Bakhtin) and of formalization (F. V. Bassin); 5) phenomenologically, the semantic elements are manifested in the form of seemingly chance, urmnotivated "deviations" " of behavior from the norm for a given situation (for example, slips of the tongue, exceasive movements, etc.; see [5]). 3. Unconscious Regulators of Actions and Operations Many psychologists of Che pre-Freudian period concentrated on this class of pheno- mena. The representatives of psychology of consciousnese devoted quite a few pages to colorful descriptions of the transitioa of states of consciousness from the focus of the con~cious to its periphery (W. Wundt, W. James, P. Janet and others). S. Freud, who did not specially delve into analysis of the essence of these phe- nomena, characterized them as the preconscious [33]. *Cf. "The very being of man (both external and internal) is the deepest communica- tion. To be is to communicate. To be means to be for another and through him fu~: oneself. Man does not have an internal sovereign territory, he is entirely and always on the boundary, looking within himslef he looks into tt~e eyes of another and with the eyes of another," writes M. I. Bakhtin,[10, p 212]. - - 60 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Perhaps one of the first atte~pts to formulate a genexal law to which unconscious phenomena of this class applies can be attributed to Claparede. He formulated the law of awareneas, which consists of the following: the more we use some action or other, the less aware of it we are. But as soon as an obstacle appears on the way of a customary action and a need for awareness arises, it then becomas the cause of~haviag the action again controlled by consciousaess. Hawever, the ].aw of Claparede only describes the phenomenological dynamics of this class o� pheno- mena. To explain the appearance of awareness by the appearance of a need for awareness is tantamount to explaining the origin of bird wings by the appearance of the need to fly [12]. ' A cardinal step in development of conceptions of the essence of unconscious regu- latora of activity was made in Soviet psychologq. Without presenting here all of the experimental and theoretical research on this layer of the unconscious, let us merely indicate the two directions in which this ~esearch proceeded. In the genetic aspect, the study of the "preconscious" was inseparably linked with , analysis of the problem of development of voluntary regulation of higher forms of human behavior.* "The voluntary aspect of any function is always the obverse of its awareness," wrote one of the ideological inspirations and founders of this direction, L. S. Vygotskiy [12]. The question of voluntariness--awareness of behavior--was submitted to in-depth analysis in the well-known works dealing with voluntary and involuntary regulation of activitq [16, p 28; 15, p 24; 24]. In the functional aspect, the study of unconscious regulators of activity is di- rectly included in the problem of automation of various forms of external and ~ - internal activity. Thus, A. N. Leont'yev analyzed the process of transformation, in the course of learning, of an action directed toward a conscious, foreseeable goal into an operation, the conditions of performance of which are only "pre- sented" to the subject. Thus, awareness is based on a change in the place of the objective content in the etructure of activity, which is the consequence of the process of automation~ _ deautomation of activity. The solution to this problem proposed by A. N. Leont'yev was developed in some original research of unconscious regulation of thinking activity, in which the ' cycles of studies by Ya. A. Panomarev and 0. K. Tikhomirov stand out. In the atudies of Ya. A. Ponomarev, there is developm~ent of the concep tion of co-rela~- tion between the direct (conscious) and indirect (unconscious) prod'uct of action, shedding light on the mechanisms of creative problems, on the nature of intuitive solutions [27]. The work of 0. K. Tikhomirov and colleagues was directed, in par ticular, toward analysis of the meaning and func tions of verbal- ized (unconscious) elements in the st~ucture of the thinking process [31]. One of the immed iaCe followers of D. N. Uznac?ze, Z. I. Khodzhava demonstrated ~n his study of skills [35] that automated forms of behavior are based on the mechanism o~ unconscious sets, i.e., precisely the sets that stabilize and regu- late the dsploym,enC of operations [3]. _ *V. P. Zinchenko makes special mention of the link between voluntary and involun- tary forms of behavior with unconscious sets [17]. - 61 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As for the deacription of ps~chophys~.ological mechanisms that implement actions and operations, the classical studies in this area of automation of movements, conducted by the oustanding Soviet scientist, N. A. Bernshteyn, and first of all his idea that conscious afferentation always occupies the leading level in control of move~ents, ~ while afferentation of the background, rough levels of movement control'ia bot re- ~ preaenCed in conaciouaness [11], have still not been improved upon. All these studies advanced substantially the conceptions of the na.ture of unconscious forma of reflection that regulate deploycnent of actions and operations. * * * In conclusion, let us note that our objective was primarily to outline the range of questions Chat arise when~one studies the unconscious within the context of - general psychological theory of activity (A. N. Leont~qev) and to demonstrate the explanatory potential of this theory on the basis of the data obtained from analysis of a wide stratum of unconscious phenomena. The basic principles of activity theory, namely the principle of objectivity and principle of dependence of inental reflection on the place of the reflected ob~ect in the structure of activity, which served as our basis for classif ication of un- conscic+us .phenomena, enabled us, in the first place, to single out of the varie- gated stream of such phenomena three qualitatively different classes (supra- individual supraconscious phenomena, uncanscious motives and semantic sets of the personality, unconscious mechanisms of regulation of actions and operations), to designate the genesis and function of phenomena in dif �erent classea in a sub- ~ect~s activity; in the second place, they enabled us to outline the problems and directions, in the mainstream of which studies were made of the phenomena of our classes (problem of transmission and assimilation of experience; problem of deter- mination of activity; problems of voluntary regulation of higher forms of behavior and automation of various forms of external and internal activity). It is necessary to have such a classification because the reduction of all these heterogeneous phenomena to one common denominator, which is encountered in some cases, leads to the loss of their specifics and makes it substantially more diffi- cult to advance along the difficult road of studies thereof. Yet it is only the demonstration of the specifics of these "hidden" plans of consciousness (L. S. Vygotskiy) that will permit discovery of adequate methods of studying them, dis- closure of their function in regulation of activity and thereby not only to en- - large upon, but to alter the existing conceptions of activity, consciousness and _ personality. BIBLIOGRAPHY - ~:arx, K., and Engele, F. "Works," Vol 23, p 93. 2. Avtonomcva, N. S, "Some of the Philosophical and Methodological Problems of the Psy~t~ological Conception of Jacques Lacan;" in "Bes~oznatel~noye~' [The Unconscious], ed. by A. S. Prangishvili, A. Xe. Sheroziya and F. V. . Bassin, Tbiliai,Vol 1, 1978, pp 418-425. -62- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 ' ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3. Aamolov, A. G. ~~Activity and Set,~' MoscoW, 1979, 151 pp. ' 4. Aamolov, A. G., and Petrovskiy, V. A. "The Dpnamic Approach to Psychological ~giysi8 of Activity,~' VOPROSY PSTR~OLOGII [Problems of Psychology], No 1, 1915, pP 70-80. . . 5. Asmolov, A. G.; Bratus', B. S.; Zeygarnik, B. V.; Petrovskiy, V. A.; Subbotskiy, Ye. V.; Kharash, A. U.; and Tsvetkova, L. S. "Some Proapects of _ Reaearch on Semantic Eleanents of the Personality," Ibid, No 4, 1979, pp 35-46. 6. Bassin, F, V. "The Problem of the ~Unconscious'," Moscaw, 1968, 469 pp. ; 7. Idem, "On Development of the Problem of Significance a.nd Meaning," VOPROSY ~ PSIKAOLOGII, No 6, 1973, pp 13-2.4:. 8. Idem, "On the Frontiers of the Recognized: the Problem of Preverbal Form of - Thinking," in "Bessoznatel'noye," ed. by A. S. Prangishvili et al., Tbilisi, ' Vol 3, 1979, pp 735-750. �-w 9. Basina, Ye. Z., and Nasinovskaya, Ye. Ye. "The Role of Identification in Formation of Altruistic Personality Sets," VESTNIK MOSKOVSKOGO UNIVIItSITETA, SERIYA 14. PSIKHOLOGIYA [Vestnik of Moscow University. Series 14: Paychology], . No 4, 1977, pp 33-41. 10. Bakhtin, M. M. "Esthetics of Verbal Creativity," Moscow, 1979, 424 pp. 11. Bzrnshteyn, N. A. "Essays on Physiology of Movements and Physiology of ~ Activity," Moscow, 1966, 352 pp. _ 12. Vygotskiy, L. S. "Selected Works on Psychology," Moscow, 1956, 520 pp. 13. Idem, "Consciousness as a Problem of Behavi.oral Psychology," in "Psikhologiya i Marksizm" [Psychology and Marxism], Moscaw, 1925, pp 175-198. 14. Davydov, V. V. "The Category of Activity and Mental Reflection in the Theory of A. N. Leont~yev," VESTNIK MOSKOVSKOGO UNIVERSITETA. SERTYA 14. PSIKHOLOGIYA, No 4, 1979, pp 25-41. ' 15. Zaporozhets, A. V. "Development of Voluntary Movements," Moscow, 1960, 200 pp. - 16. Zinchenko, P. I. "Involuntary Memory," Moscow, 1961, 564 pp. ' 11. Idem, "Activity and Set: Is a Paradigm Necessary?" in "Bessoznatel'noye,~' 1 ed. by A. S. Prangishvili et al., Tbilis~,Vol 1, 1978, pp 133-146. 18. Zinchenko, V. P., and Mamardashvili, M. K. "The Problem of Objective Methods in Psychology," VOPROSY FILOSOFII [Problems of Philosophy], No 7, 1977, pp 109-125. ~ 19. Kon, I. S. "The 'Ego~ Category in Psycholo~y," (~n press). -63- ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340080022-6 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 20. Kuz'min, V. P. "The Systems Priaciple in Theory and Methadology of K. Marx," Moscow, 1976, 231 pp. 21. Leont'yev, A. N. "Activity. Consciousness. Personality," Moscow, 1975, 3d4 pp. . 22. Idem, "Psychology of Image," VESTNIK MOSKOVSKOGO UNIVERSITETA. SERIYA 14. PSIKHOLOGIYA, No 2, 1979, pp 3-13. 23. Leont~yev, A. N., and Zaporozhets, A. V. "Restoration of Movements," Moscow, 1945, 232 pp. 21+. Luriya, A. R. "Ge.nesis of Voluntary Movements," VOPROSY PSIRAOLOGII, No 6, 1957 . 25. Losskiy, P. 0., and Radlov, E. L. (editors) "The Unconscious," NOVYYE IDET V FILOSOFII [New Ideas in PhilosophyJ, No 5, 1914, 144 pp. 26. Nalimov, V. V. "Continuity Versus Discreteness in Language and Thought," in "Bessoznatel'n~oye," ed. by A. S. Prangishvili et al., Tbilisi, VoI 3, 1919, pp 286-292. ' 27. Ponomarev, Ya. A. "Psychology of Creativitq," Moscaw, 1976, 304 pp. 28. Smirnov, A. A. "Problems of Psychology of Memory," Moscow, 1965, 350 pp. 29. Spivakovskaya, A. S. "Role of Conscious and Unconscious Experiences in Formation of Autistic Sets," in "Bessozna.tal'noye," ed. by A. S. Prangishvili et al., Tbilisi, Vol 2, 1978, pp 425-430. 30. Subbotskiy, Ye. V. "Studies of Semantic Eleffients in Children," VESTNIK - MOSKOVSKOGO UNIVERSITETA. SERIYA 14. PSII~iOLOGIYA, No 1, 1977, pp 62-72. 31. Tikhomirov, 0. K. "Structure of Man's Thinking Activity," Moscow, 1969, 304 pp. , 32. Uznadze, D. N. "Psychological Studies," Moscow, 1966, 452 pp. 33. Freud, S. "The Ego and the Id," Moscow, 1924. 34. Idem, "On 'Wild' Psychoanalysis," in "S. Freud: Psychoanalytical Methods and Techniques," Moscow, 1923, pp 46-51. 35. Khodzhava, Z. I. '~he Problem of Skill in Psychology," 'Ibilisi, 1960, 250 pp. ~ 36. Sheroziya, A. Ye. "The Conscious, Unconscious and the System of Basic Per- sonality Relations; Premises of General Theory," tn "Bessoznatel~noye," ed. by A. S. Prangishvili et al., Tbilisi, Vol 3, 1979, pp 351-389. _ 37. Yaroshevskiy, M. G. "The Supraconscious in Seientific Creativity and Genesis of Freudian Psychoanalysis," Ibid, Vol 1979, pp 414-421. CQPYRIGHT: '"Voprosy psikhologii", "Pedagogika", 198(~ [26-10,657] ' CSO: 1840 -64- ~ FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NERVOIIS SYSTEM, AND THE QUESTION OF INBORN ~ APTITUDES ~ Moscow VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII in Russian No 3, 1980 pp 101-108 [Article by M. K. Akimova, Scientific Research Institute of General and Pedagogic . Psychology, USSR Academy of Pedagogic S~iences, Moscow] [Text ] The result or range of possible achievements in any form of ~ctivity , cannot be absolutely independent of the processual aspect, i.e., the methods, procedures and operations, with whir_h it is achieved. In studies of manifestations of typological traits, it is usually stressed that people with different nervous system properties can obtain equally high results in most forms of endeavor [6] . The mechanism of this equal achievement 3s the individual style of performance, i. e. , the aggregate' of individual procedures developed by man on the basts of his inherent combination of properties of the J nervous system in accordance with the ob~ective requirements for the types of acrivity he performs the most often. We cannot fail to mention that there is ~ some scability to the individual style, in view of the fact that it undergoes formation, and this formation is based on stable properties of the nervous system, as well as cenformity with the requirements of the types of activity that a g~.ven sub,ject usually performs. Individual style is a phenotypic formation. Bur a re~atively stable -!~Zdividual style of performance could also lead to dissi- milar achievement by people with different combinations of properties of the ne~-~ , vous sys tem in some forms of activity: we cannot rule out the fact that the ob- ~ective requirements for a specific activity performed at the present time - demand a change and, occasionally, radical reorganization of the formed individual work style. Of course, in such cases, some additional effort and much time are needed to master a new form of work. For a certain period (sometimes quite long), work achievement af individuals who are compelled to alter the3r individuaZ style will be poor~~r *_haz of those whose typological distinctions ar.d style formed on their basis confirm with the requirements of the new activity. - This is wh~t happened in our experiments (see below) deal~ng with teaching the tab;~lar method of solving logic problem3 to individuals with different paxameters of strength of the nervous system. This method makes it possible to solve a,_rather large class of logic problems ~without making any mistakes by applying simple rules ~nd procedures [4]. _ -65�- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300080022-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300084422-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Use of the table method is taught with an aid th~t provides the algorithm for solving the class of problems put to the aub3ects [3]. The main stipulations in using the tabular method were as follows: 1) strict adherence to the sequence of solving steps; 2) precise classification of problem condit~ons; 3) consiatent use of each of the problem conditiona; 4) successive performance of each stage.,bf Che solution. _ If we consider that the tabular method implies the mandatory use of a pencil and paper, as well as reducing to a minimum mental operations, it becomes obvious why it is similar to the repeatedly described individual style of inental activity of people with a relatively weak nervous system [9). Let us recall, that they are characterized by thoroughness of information gathering, tendency to systematize it and consistency in reaching the goal. , For this reason, the process of teaching "weak" sub~ects was faster and involved _ fewer difficulties thar~ the instruction of the "strong" ones. The latter had to alter the style of iner.tal work, which they foraued mostly in an elemental manner, in which we often observe3 incons3stency of actions, scattering, uneconom~cal ef- forts, ina3equate systematization of information and planning of activity. The "strong" ones differed in that they did not have the habit to systematically . perform the satne operation with regard to all of the prob~em conditions. They sel- dom checked their progressive solution, they were more confident in applying rules, which was not always ,justified. The table method, however, implies the systematic performance of instructions, in strictly the same order of steps, of the "educa- tional aid." The "strong" ones did not do s~ immediately. The experimenter had to refer them repeatedly to the "educational aid," and insistently ask that they follow it exactly. These distinctive features in their work were the cause of ~ numerous mistakes, dead ends and repeated trials to solve the problems. Moreover, - instruction by the tabular method was so difficult for the "strong" sub~ects that � some of them tried to re~ect ~t entirely, trying to solve the problems by means of logical reasoning in their head [3]. The other elements of individual style of inental performance of "strong" sub~ects that we noted were quite stable, causing the process of learning the tabular method to be slow and difficult, as well as inade�qyate achievement in solving logic problems at the end of the teaching course. Thus, according to the data of our last experiments, 38.3 nin was the mean problem-solving time for practice _ probleme in the "weak" group (10 people), versus 124.3 min in a group of the same - size of "strong" subjects. This difference is sCatistically significant at the level of p