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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OF'F IC[AL l iSE ONLY JPRS L/9584 3 March 1981 _ . . . _ : _ : : ~ ~ . . . : ~ =i~s~~ ~ - USSR Re ort - p CYBERNETlCS, ~OM~UTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOIOGY (FOUO 8/81) Excerpts from the Journal 'COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY _ OF THE SOCIALIST COUNTRIES' FBiS FOREIGIV BR~ADCAST INFORMATION SERi/ICE - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and ' other characteristics retained. - Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets - are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] _ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or followirig the last liue of a brief, indicate how the origina.l information was proc:essed. Where no processing indicator is givez, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or namea preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. " Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originaCe with the source. Times within ~.tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- - cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS ~OVERNING OtdNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODtTCED HEREIN REQi1IRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF TfiIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRIC~E~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVYCE P. O. Box 2604 Washington, D. C. 20013 2G Febtvary 1981 ~10'l'I: (~R0~1 '!~(I? ~1TRJ:i:'('UR, FI3IS: forty years ago, the U.S. Government inaugurated a new service to monitor foreign public broadcasts. A few years later . a si?nilai� grou~ was established ~o exploit the foreign pr�ess. Prom the merger of tllese organizations evolveci the present-aay _ F}3IS. Our constant goal througiiout has been to provide our readers with rapicl, accura*e, and compreliensive reporting from the public meciia ~aor.lclwicle. On bchalE of all af us in FBIS I wish to express to our reaclers w?io ha~~e guided our efi'orts tf~roughout the years. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9584 3 March 1981 USSR REPORT CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 8/81) - ~ EXCERPfS FROM THE ~OURNAL 'COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY OF THE SOCIALIST COUNTRIES' Moscow VYCHTSLITEL'NAYA TEKHNIICA SOTSIALTSTICHESKIKH STRAN in Russiari No 7, 1980 C~I~TENTS Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries 1 Complex Servicing--A Guarantee of Effective Use of CompuL-er Facilities....... 4 - , State of the Art and Prospects of Development of Complex Servicing of Computer Fac~lities (YeS Computers)in the USSR 6 Computer Development and Production at the Videoton Plant 13 = Prospective Magnetic Disk Storage Devices for Mini-Computers 18 Some Problems of Program Systems Organization for the Information Base of Computer-Aided Management Systems in an Interactive Mode 21 Centralized and Specialized Servicing of Ye5 Computers in the CSSR........... 22 Functions ~f the 'Kantselyarske Stroye' Enterprise and Its Participation in Establishing Computer Services of the CSSR NOTO 31 - The GDR NOTO: Its Functions and Tasks in International Collaboration........ 33 Organization of Maintenance of rlanagement Control System Software............ 36 Increasing the Effectiveness and Methods of the YeS-1040 Computer 40 - a- [IIT - USSR - 21C S&T FOUO] FOR OFF[CIAL 'USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY Standardization of Computer Installation in the Hungarian People's Republic 46 Operation of SM Computers (SM-3) 47 General YeS Computer and Software Supplies and Servicing in the Polish People's Republic ...................o..........................,......... 51 The YeS-1025 Computer 61 The YeS�9003 Multiconsole System for Data Preparation cn Magnetic Tape...... 74 Abstracts From the Book 'COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY OF THE SOCIALIST COUNTRIES'.... 78 - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COMPUTER TECHI~OLOGY OF THE SOCIALI5T COUNTRIES Moscow VYCHISLITEL�NAYA TII{HNII{A SOTSIALIcTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIlC STATEY, VYPU~K 7(Computer Technology of the S~cialist Countries, Collection of Articles~ Issue - No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Max 80 pp 2-4, 152 [Annotation, foreword and table of contents from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergove~-nmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist _ Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15,OU0 copies~ 160 pages] ~Text~ This international collection discusses questions about the investigation, development, application and use of computer facilities created in accordance with the agreement on collaboration in the area of computer technology between Bulgaria Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Cuba, Rumania, the USSR and the CSSR. Questions of the operation and servicing of computers are examined in the articles in the book~ The collection is addressed to workers engaged in the development an~. use of YeS computer fac~.lities in variaus sectors of the na,tional economy. Foreword The effective use of the possiblities of computer facilities is determined to a great degree by the organization of their operation and The organiza= tion of centralized servicing of technology devPloped in collaboration ha,s always been an object of attention of the Intergovernment Commission. With growth of the computer pool in the coi.mtries and the development of specialization and coopera- tion of the countries, questions regardin~ servicing became an independent direc- tion of work and the Council for Complex Servicing was organized as a new working - organ of the Commission. By complex servicing is understood all the activity involved in the installation, technical servicing and maintena,nce of comp~~ters, the maintenance of programs and also the planning of computer centers, the instruction of personnel in operations _ and servicing, with the development and production of service and auxiliary equip- = ment, etc. In the countries participating in the A~;reement sufficient experience ha.s already been accumulate3 in the organization of complex centralized servicing, and the 1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY excha.nge of tha.t experience is very important for specialists in that area. It is understandable tha,t all questions complex specialized servicing greatly concern the users of computers. Taking this into account, the ~3itorial board considered it possible in the preaent - issue to expa.nd the section in whi~h ma,terials on complex ser.vicing are pub~ishecl and to start the publica,tion of articles discussing collaboration of the countries in tha,t area. - In the remaining sections of the collection axe publishec~, as usual, articles on new computer facilities~ the a;~plica,tion of computers in control systems and ques- tions about software. T he edit.orial board of the collection includess Me. Rakovskiy, editor-in-chief (Intergovernmental Commission Coordination Center)~ N. V. Gorshkov (Council on Complex Servicin of YeS Computers), H. Choppe (GDR~, Ye. N. Mel�nikova~ respon- sible secretary ~Intergovernmental Commission Coordination Center), B. N. Naumov (Council of Chief Designers of SM Computers), L. Nemet (Hun~arian People's Repub- lic), P. Popov (People�s Republic of Bulgaria~, V. V. Przhiyalkevskiy (Gouncil of - Chief Designers of YeS Computers), Yu. P. Selivanov, responsible editor (USSR)~ - A. Ye. Fateyev (USSR), N. I. Cheshenko (Council on Applica.tion of Computer Facil- ities)~ B. Sova (CSSR) and K. Stuka (Hungaria.n People's ReTublic). Contents Page Foreworc~ 3 I. International Collaboration of the Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology _ G ogunov, R. I., and Kuba, M. Complex Servicing--a Guarantee of Effective Use of Computer Facilities............~ ..........................o.......... Z I1'in, L. N., and Bakhmurov, G. V. The State of the Art and Prospects of Development of Complex Servicing of Computer Facilities (YeS Computers~ in the USSR 9 Kazs~mer, J. Computer Development and Production at the VIDEClPON Plant....... 16 . II. Computer Hardware Botev, N., Tsonev, B., and Yordanov, L. Prospective Ma.gnetic Disk Stora,ge - Devices for Mini Computers 21 III. Computer Software Vinogradov, V. M.~ and Zolotukhin, V, A. Some Froblems of Program Systems Organization for the Informa,tion Base of Computer-Aided Management Systems in an Interactive Mode .................................a.................o.. 29 Debretseny, I. Structure of User Subsystems Working During Real-time Multitask Monitoring 36 K ovacs, I., Ma,gyar~ J.~ and Nemet, I. Training System Based on the Ye5-1010 Time Sha,ring Monitor ..................................a............o........ 4~5 Tsenilov, G. A. Functional Structure of the '7CAMA" Package of Applied Programs .............~................................o.o................... 50 2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 ~OR OFFI(.IAL USE ONLY Page IV. Applica.tion of Computer Facilities - Shishkov, I., Boyadshiyev, Ya., Boyadzhiyeva, L., and Lak ov, Ts. Waxehouse Control by Means of a Mini-computer~.a....~ 57 Palfi, M, Remote Data Processing System Ba~ed on the XeS-1022 Computer...... 67 - Lepetov, S., and Shtayer, Ya. Some Exa,mples of the Application of the YeS-1032 Computer....~ 73 V. Operation and Ma,intenance of Computer Systems - Pliznder, 0., Svozil, J., and Vokac, Z. Centralized and Specialized oi YPS Computers in the CSSR 82 Traibold, Y. Func:tions of the "Kantselyarske stroye" Enterprise and its Participation in Establishing Computer Services of the National Organi- zation for Technical Maintenance (NGi~~) in Czechoslovakia.���.��.�����...�� 91 _ Boerner, N. The GDR N(7P0--Its Functions in View ot' Internationa,l Cooperation 96 Kuznetsov, V. S., and Tikhomirov, V. P. Organiza,tion of Main~;enance of Management Control System Software.......o 99 Jaepel, P. Increasing the Effectiveness and Methods of Complexing the - YeS-10~0 Computer.~......~...........o .........................o........... lOj Pilz, R. Intensification of Data Processing in a Computer Center Using the Ye5-10~0 Computer 109 Pignitsky, I., Rekh, Ya., and Zoltan, A. Standardiza.tion of Computer Installation in the Hunga rlan People's Republic 115 Mroczek, B. General Deliveries and Technical Servicing of YeS Computers in the Polish People�s Republic....o 121 - Yankelevich, P. Sh., and Shapinskaya, L. A. Operation of SM Computers _ (the SM-3~.....~ 131 VI. New Facilities of the YeS and SM Computers Klouda, I. The XeS-1025 Computer 136 - Mikhaylov, A. D., and Buyukliyev~ B. K. Multiconsole System for Data Preparation on Magne~tic Tape YeS-9003 148 . - COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika"~ 1980 66-2174~~ - z17~ cso: 1863 ~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COMPLEK SERVICING--A GUARANTEE OF EFFECTIVE USE OF COMPUTER FACILITIES - Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TF5{HNIICA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 5-9 [Article by R. 2. G oron~v, engineer (USSR) and M. Kuba,~ engineer (CSSR) from book , edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy~ Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of So- cialist Countries in the Area of Computer T~chnology, Sta,tisti.ka~ 15,000 copies~ - 160 pages] ' [Excarpts] Computer facilities require unique services, different from the tra- ditional services adopted for the product of general machine building. . ~ From the very star-t of its activity the Intergovernmenta.l Commission~ understanding that the creation and use of cemputer technology is a unified process, has devoted special attention to the complex servicing of ~hose facilities. For this purpose~ in 1969 provisions were made wi~hin the framework of the Council of Chief Designers _ of YeS Computers for the forma.tion of the Council of Specialists No 10 of the Council of Chief Designers of YeS Computers (SS-10) on questi ons of collaboration in the area of complex servicing (in spite of the fact that the computer facilities were still just starting to be developed at that time~. The dynamics of change of indicators of the working reliability of YeS computer facilities in operation in countries pa.rticipa,ting in the agreement have shown in the past 2 that the operating time of the computer equipment ha,s con- siderably incr~aseds since 1978, by 50 percent for the YeS-2000 processor and by more tha,n 50-100 percent for the YeS-2021, YeS-2030 and Ye5-26G-0 processors. Tha.t indicator ha.s also been considerably improved for such devices as the YeS-5052 and YeS-5063. ma,gnetic disk stores, the YeS-5017 (GDR) and YeS-5012 (BPF,2~~ magnetic tape stores~ the YeS-b012 (USSR) and Ye5-6016 (CSSR punched tape input deviceso the Ye5-7031 ~GDR), YeS-7031 (USSR), Ye5-7033 (PRR alphanume~ic printers, etc. At the "Robotron" combine in the GDR there is a center for training instructors and specialists in the operation and ser~�icing of YeS and SM computer facilities. There is a hotel at the center. The trainin~ center xeceives technical facilities in - time from the first industrial series for the advance preparation of specialists and instructors. There are 200 instructors on the staff of the training center who systema,tically develop the necessary training aids, for which purpose they are sent for 6-10 months to ~;he organizations which develop new Yea and SM computer ha.rdware and software. Similar training centers have also been created in other ~oiantries participating in the agreement. The construction of a training center and a hotel for students ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONI.Y has been completed in Minsk (USSR) . Construction of a methodical training center in Moscow is continuing. A Bulgasian center is in operation; the erection of a training and hotel complex for it has been started in Sofia. In Hungary, with UNE9C0 participation the SAMOK training center ha,s been created; at it specialists are being trained in the area of computer technology both for countries partid3.pat- ing in the agreement and fo.r developing countries. At the present time prepar~tions are being ma,d~ for the organiza.tion of complex servicing of new YeS computer facilities--the Ryad-2 and mini-computer systems of the first line, in particular, the training of instructors and specialists in the operation and servicing of those facilities has been started. COPYRIGHTs I zdatel�stvo "Statistika"~ 1980 [ 66-zi74~] 2174~ Cso: 1863 ' S FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL`~' STATE OF THE ART AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX SERVICING OF COMPUTER FACILITIES (YeS COMPUTERS) IN THE USSR Mo~cow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TII{HNIICA S OTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. VYPUSK (Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collecti~n of Articles. Issue No 7 in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Max 80 pp 9-15 [Article by L. N. I1'in, candidate of technica,l sciences, and G. V, Bakhmurov, engineer (USSR),from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Sta.- tistika~ .15,000 copies, 160 pages~ [Text] The complex servicing of computer hardware and software includes an~exten- - sive list of services: from installation and introduction into operation to the centralized servicing of computer technology and shared multicomputer centers. We will present a consolidated list of the services being performed in the Soviet Union for the computer centers of users by specialized complex servicing enter- prisess - --the in'stallation, introduction into operation and warranty repair of equipment, computers and computer complexes; --centralized servicing of computer facilities (regulatory worit, scheduled and preventive maintenance, repairs upon ca,ll, emergency repairs, centralized repair of units and devices, modifica.tions of devices to documentation of the - chief designers, etc; --deliveries, introduction into operation~ generation and accompaniment of new versions of operating systems (operating systems and disk operating systems~; --deliveries, intr.oduction into operation~ generation and accompaniment of packages of applied programs; --planning of computer technology and attachment of standard modules of arrangement of computer hardware; --creatior. of a national fund of algorithms and programs and networks of regional funds of algorithms and programs and their accompaniment; --creation of a network of consultation points at regional servicing centers in cities of the country; --trai.ning and retraining of specialists for wcrk with computer hardware and soft- ware in specialized training centers; --interaction with na,tio_~al organizations on the technical servicing of the social- ist countries. - 6 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - To render those services an all-union association ha.s been formed which includes the following ma,in subsections: --a special scientific-prod.uction association which consists of scientific-produc- tion and training centers; --prod.uction associations which include specialized territorial admi.nistrations; --specialized territor~ial administrations which include regional servicing centers and repair and restoration production facilities; --regional servicing centers which consist of production service laboratories and technical servicing points; --a specialized administration for the delivery and making up complete sets of spare parts; --a plant for the ma,nufacture of computer c~nter auxiliary equipment; --a ~roduction publishing combine. The development of the scientific principlc;s of a complex servicing system, tY,e = training and retraining of specialists of u~ers and the manufacture of experimental � mod.els of service equipment for complex servicing ha~re been entrusted to the scien- tific-production association. - Let us dwell in greater detail on each complex of services enumerated above from the point of ~iie~a of their effectiveness for users in the given state of develop- ment of complex servicing. Production associations are successflzlly coping with the installation, introd.uction into operation and warranty repairs of computers of the Ye5 system. Pr~,ctically all YeS computers are being introduced into operation by regional servicing centers, and this has permitted manufacturing plants to release skilled specialists and use them in the stand debugging of hardware. The main problems in the introduction of YeS computers into operation are: --the equipping of regional servicing centers with dia.gnostie and speaial ha.rdware and software to curtail the periods required for the intraduction of computers into opera~tion; --the creatiun of stock s of spare parts~ tools and accessories; --the wide in~~.roduction of specialized tools. During the centralized servicing of computer facilities t:lree ca,tegories of servic- ing are envisa.ged: - Ca~cegory 1, complete servicing, is provided for computers within the city limits; - it envisages the performance of schedules preventive maintenance in complete volume and the performance of repairs on call; Category 2, partial serv~cin~, is provided for computers up to 100 km distant fram the servicing center; it envisages the performance of scheduled preventive ma.inten- , ance in a volume of monthly work and the performance of repairs on ca,ll and emer- gency repairs; Category 3, servicing on call~ is provided for computers more than 100 km from the - servicing center; it envisa.gss the performance of emergency repairs in volumes and periods agreed upon w~th the user. 7 FOR OFFiC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFE'iC1AL USE ONLY Emergency repairs during complete se~rvicing start after work on call has been done that is, after 3.5 hours, and are done by a tea.m or specialists with higher quali- f'ica,tions tha,n specialists on scheduled pr.eventive ma.intenance. TYie introduction of three servicing categories is explained by the fact that at each regional servicing center there is a large zone of activity, Since YeS computers are preferentially concentrated in cities~ the computer centers of users are mainly covered by complete servicing (about 85 percent~. - About half the computers of the YeS system been transferr~~d to centralized ser- vicing. The main positive re~ults of that -transition are; - --increase of the daily w~rking time of computers; --decrease of the numbers of compui;er center operating personnel; _ --centralized suppying of spare pa.rts; ---centralized repair of standa.r~3 replacement units, power units, fans~ typewriters~ etc. A very important ~type of service of complex servicinb is supplying users with new - versions of operating systems. At the presezt time the delivery, introduction into operation~ generation an~i accompa,niment of Ye5 disk operating systems (DOS~ and operating systems (OS) have been. completely entrusted to service enterprises. Those enterprises deliver new versians of (~S and DOS for all newly produced YeS computers and, in addition, the versions DOS 2.2 and OS 4.1 for YeS computers installed ear- lier. It is planned to sha.rply increase the output of YeS computer complexes to completely satisfy the needs of the user for basic software. _ Service organiza.tions accomplish the introduction of Ye~ DOS and OS into operation and the generat~on of a specific variant of the Ye5 DOS and OS for a specific con- figuration of the user� s computer ha,rdware. The YeS DOS ~ nd OS are accompanied according to agreenent with the user for 1-5 years during the functioning of a given OS and DOS version. During that period the following work is done: --consultations are held with users on the use of OS and DOS, including new ver- sions; --changes are introduced into the documentation and ma.chine OS and DOS ca.rriers. The following services complex of service organizations is the delivery, introduc- tion into operation, generation and accompaniment of packages of applied programs (PPP's). Their centralized delivery is accomplished aeeording to agreements with users. Starting in 1980 a set of P'PP's will accompany each newly produced computer. Each user has the .right to select any PPP's from the set and obtain them with the computer. According to the standards the PPP's are to be introduced during a period of 7-15 days, depending on the complexity of introduction of the PPP�s. The generation of PPP�s is still not being accomplished for all packages. FPP's are accompanied for ~ 1-5 years in accordance with separate agreements with the users. 8 , FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL L1SE ONLY Also an important services complex are the delivery and attachment of standard documentation on the disposition of YeS computer ha.rdware of a specific configura- tion on the grounds of the purchaser and the selection ~f the computer center interior and equipment. The documentatior. is delivered to users in the form of sta.ndard modules (the disposition of computer hardware in the ma,chine room, the data preparation room~ in the operators� and programmers' rooms~ etc~ . It is planned in 1979-1g80 to create on the basis of the sector f~znd of algori~thms and programs a, n~.tional ~nd of algorithms and programs for the YeS computers. Its f~anctions are: --interaction with national ~znds of the socialist countries; --leadership and coordination of the activity of regional flznds in this country; --in~ter�action with sector ~nds of ministries; --transmission of stand.~;,rd algorithms and programs to the USSR s~~ate fund. At the present time a network of regional flznds is being developed, the duties of ~ which will include: --supplying users of a region (a republic, several oblasts or an oblast) with oper- ating systems and packages of applied programs available in the sector f~.:nd; --consulting with users on questions of YeS computer software; --bringing to industrial production ;~ew versions of operating systems~ documenta- - tion and machine carriers of packa~;es of applied programs. Gro~:ps f.or coordinati~n fo work with users have been formed at each regional cen- ter. '~he group is headed by the chief engineer of the center. There is consulta- tion monthly on qu~stions of: - --computer center planning; --the introduction of computer hardware into operatian; --centralized servicing of hardware; --the introduction, generation and accompaniment of YeS computer software. Monthly or quarterly conferences are held with users on problems of the quality of servicing of ha,rdware and the accompaniment of software. One urgent question of complex servicing and the effective use of computer techno- logy is the instruction and improvement of the qualifications of users and specia~- ists of regional servicing centers. The main directions of instruction and the improvement of qualification of specialists are: --the operation of hardware (for engineers, technological engineers and operatorsj; --the operation of basic software (for system programmers); --the development and debugging of applied programs (for applied programmers~. The principal merits of th~ centra.lized training of specialist users of the YeS computer system are: 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 FOR OFI~IC'IAL USE ONLY --a ramified network of training centers (planned in 15-18 cities of the country); --introduction of interactive systems of instruction and of the latest technical - devices of the type of trainers, ma.gnetic video recorders~ etc; ~ _ --a "stepwise" sys~tem for raising the qua,lification of specialists of users. - The demandU of users for training still are not being completely sa.tisfied. It is - planned in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, with the introd.uction of new training cen- ~ ters, to sharply increase the number of persons trained. Side by side with the class system of instruction a system of correspondence and extramural instruction is being introduced, one intended for specialists of remote computer centers. Students pursue theoretical studies independently (teaching aids are being developed for that~ and practical courses are held in the training cen- ters. Teachers and instructors o.f complex servicing are taught in the training centers. Those from the socialist countries are taught under contracts. - Special attention is given to the preparation of specialists in canplex servicing _ with the following specializations: --the introd.uction and servicing of computer facilities; --the introduction, generation and accompaniment of operating systems; --the introduction, generation and accompa,niment of packages of applied programs; _ --standard disposition of computer. hardware (since 1980~; --economic principles of complex servicing; --organization of funds of algorithms and programs (since 1980~; , --orga,nization of complex servicing. - To improve the centralized servicing of Soviet computer technology it is necessary to d.evelop interaction with national organizations for complex servicing, as that will permit introducing everything progressive tha.t is available in each country as regards complex servicing. The interaction is accomplished through the Coordination Center of the Intergovernmental Commission for Computer Technology on practically all aspects of servicing: --the introduction of computer hardware into operation; - --the warranty repair of computer h~,rdware; --reciprocal deliveries of spare parts; --exchange of technical documentation; --deliveries of sets of operating systems and packages of applied programs; --participation in international exhibitions, symposium5 and seminars; =-interaction of national funds of algorithms and programs (since 1980~; --instruction of instructors and students under co~tracts; --exchange of complex servicing technology. 10 FOR OFFICIAL i1SE ONL~' ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONI.Y The system of complex servicin; of computer facilities is being developed and the participating ~.n the agreement are obtaining mutual advantage from the interaction of national organizations of technica,l servicing of computer facilities. = Let us dwell on tY~. guarantees presented to users by the system of technical ser~ vicing of computer faci~ities. 1, The introduction of computer facilities into operation. The per~od of 20-4~5 days is required for the introduction of inedium-capacity computers into operat�ion~ and ~5-80 days for tha,t of high-ca,pa,city computers. - 2. Repairs under warranty. Repairs:of com~uter facilities under warranty are done for~l year from the moment the faci~:ities~.are put in operation. 3. Providing useflxl machine time of computers. The technica,l servicing of YeS computers assures: 5 hours of useflzl ma,chine time during single-shift computer ope ration, 10=12 hours during two-shift computer operation and 15-20 hours during three-shift computer ~peration. Failures are eliminated in 3.5-24~ hours. 4~. Centralized repair of standard replacement elements and typewriter units is done in t:.~ course of 5-20 days. 5. Centralized supply of spare parts. The maximum time for spare parts delivery ' is 48 hours within the zone of activity of the regional servicing center. 6. Guarantees of complex servicing of YeS computer software. Al1 YeS computers are provided with operating systems in a centralized manner. YeS DOS and OS are put in operation in the course of 5-7 days~ and -~heir generation under the configur- ation of users� computers is accomplished in the course of 30-4~5 days. Packages of applied programs are delivered at the rec~~~~est of users. Depending on their complexity, packages are put in operation in 7-15 days. Under the configur- ation of users' computers packages of applied programs axe generated in the course of 30-4~5 days . - Regiona.l flznds of algorithms and programs permit obtaining consultation on questions regarding the state of the art and prospects of development of YeS computer software. 7� Guarantees of centralized tra,ining. An extensive network of training centers assures the preparation of specialist-users on 150 training programs: --operation of YeS computer hardware--in the course of 2-4 months; --operation of operating systems--in the course of 2-4~ months; --operation of packages of applied programs--in the caurse of 2-4~ months; --development and application of applied programs--in the course of 2-4 months. Prospects of development of services of complex services of computer facilities. Development of the system of complex servicing of computer facilities will permit: --assuring the planning and the intra3uction into operation of computer centers on the basis of YeS computers in the course of 6-12 months (without taking into . account construction of the computer center building); 11 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY --presenting usPful ma.chine time to users in a ~,entralized manner in accordance with their neec~s; --accomplishing centralized repair of YeS cor.puter hardware at specialized repa,ir plants; - _ --delivering in a centralized manner Ye5 computer hardware needed::by users of the configuratian and with the required number of sets oF computer center auxiliary equipment; --introducing systems for remote servicing of YeS computer ha,rdware. Analysis of work done on the complex servicing of computer technology has shown - that the following efficiency indicators ca.n be achieved: --a reduction of the cost of an hour of useful ma.chine time by 10-15 percent; --a reduction of the cost of putting in operat ion, generating and accompanying pack- ages of applied programs of up to 50 percent. The number of engineering and technical workers released as a result of the intro- _ duction of complex servicing is: 7 for the YeS-1020, YeS-1022 and YeS-1030, 12 for the YeS-1033, 11 for the Ye5-1035~ 1~ for the YeS-104~0, 10 for the YeS-104~5, 13 for the YeS-10,52, 9 for the YeS-1060, 10 for the VK-1010, 17 for the vxzx33, 15 for the _ vx2x35, 11 ~or the VK2R60 and 2 for the ARM. As a result of the introducti~n of complex servicing, on the average two system and four applied programmers are released per YeS computer. ~ T he introduction of centralized technica,l servicing will permit alrea.dy in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan considerably increasing the efficiency of applica,tion of computer technology in the national economy and saving manpower and ma.terial re- sources. COPYRIGI-Ir: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika"~ 1980 [66-z17~] 2174 cso: 1863 12 FOd2 OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FQR OF'FICIAI. USF ONI.Y COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION AT THE VIDEOTON PI,ANT Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TIICHNIKA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIl{ STATEY, VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology in the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue . No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 16-20 ~Article by J. Kazsmer, chief designer, SM computers (Hungarian People's Republic)~ from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy~ Intergovernmental Commission for Collabora- tion of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pa,ges~ [Text~ In spite of a number of successes achieved by Hunga,rian scientists in the area of the creation of cybernetic devices, computer production was not set up in Hungary until 19'70. To solve problems requirin.g large capital investments, Hungar- _ ian resources alone were insufficient. The development of computer technology on an industrial sca,le could be started only on the ba,sis of use of the possibilities offered by the multilateral intergovernmental agreement concluded in 1969. As a - result of dynamic development, starting in 1969 the VIDEOI'ON Computer Plant the production center of Hungarian computer technology; in 1978 tha,t enterprise produced 10 percent of all product made by the Hunga,rian electronic industry. The activi+y of VIDEOI'ON in the ar~. of computer technology, in accordance with the scales, cl-,a,racteristics and traditions of our country, has been aimed at mini com- - puters and peripherals used with them (prima,rily displays and printers~ . We will supplement witfi that equipment a number of articles of the YeS computer system. In the first years of industrial praluction of computer technology (1970-1973) we developed and debugged the production of the 1010-B and Ye5-1010 mini computers, which are widely used in the economic and scientific areas of the socialist coun- tries. Those devices are characterized by advanced ~esign and technological s~lu- tions, modularity of construction and wide possibilities of application. Distinctive features of the YeS-1010 computer a 64~Kbyte memory, a 1 micro- _ second cycle, microprogrammed control and a software system make it possible to use them effectively in real-time systems. On the basis of the YeS-1010 co~nputer even in the first years of production we were able to create data servicing systems working in a complex remote data pro- cessing regime, and also computers controlling technological processes requiring high reliability of the technolo~y. In the last 8 years~ together with computer users, highly reliable systems have been created in many areas. There is no need to enumerate them here, but the volume of work done can be illustrated by two - 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR ~JFFICIAL USE ONLY figures: according to informa,tion available to us Ye5-1010 computers are used in 70 areas of application, and in the socialist countries 5000 specialists are en- gaged in the creation of user systems based on tha,t computer. By the end of 1979 more tha,n 1000 YeS-1010 computers will have been prod.uced~ a considerable portion of which will be used in the socialist countries. However~ a large number of those machines will also be delivered to countries of asia and Europe. On the basis of experience accumulated by us we are continuing to improve the YeS-1010 computer in order to increase both its capacity and the areas of its application. With these requirements taken into account we developed and in 1975 conducted international tests of the new Ye5-1.012 computer. Its ca.pacity is almost one order of magnitude larger than tha.t of the YeS-1010 beca,use of built-in decima.l processors and processors with a floating point. The external stflrage volume increased: together with rapid fixed storages~ replaceable disk stor- ages with a capacity of 7.25 ~Ytes are used. The set and quantity of data trans- mission lines ha,ve been increased~ the YeS-1012 presents the possibility of using as many as 60 terminals, and they can be arbitrarily selected from a set consisting of various terminals~ starting from a simple teletype and ending with synchrrn ous terminals requiring a complex algorithm. The expanded set of instructions is also suitable for commercial purposes. It is known that for complete use of the possibilities offered by modern hardware modern software also is needed. Our ma.thematician-developers were the first to apply to the YeS-1012, as well as to a mini computer~ a multi-task operating sys- tem and effective data base servicing a.nd remote processing systems. For the YeS- 1012, along with the high-level FORTRAN and BASIC langua,ges, which recommended themselves well in the Ye5-1010, use is made of the languages COBOL and 1'ROCOL (it has the character of a real-time FORTRAN)~ and translators ha,ve been developed for them. - In ~the course of development of computer production we ~ever set ourselves the goa,l of organizing large-series production of mini computers, as tha,t is beyond our pos- sibilities. We consider our task to be the sa.tisfaction on a high level of special - requests not performed by enterprises of the country which produce large series of computers, tha,t is~ our task is activity in overcoming a shortage. We also sub- ordinate to that goal the development of new articles and expansion of the possi- bilities of production. One of the principal characteristics of the production ca.pacities~ technology and system of prod.uc~tion of the Hungaxian People's Republic is great flexibility, which can assure the satisfaction of specific requests. Flexibility is assured, firstl;~, by highly qualified personnel and~ secondly, by processes and technological instal- lations controlled by computers. In our production shops and sections over 50 percent of the workers are qualified specialists~ and 7 percent of the technological processes are serviced by specialists with higher education. Most of the most im- portant types of equipment have numerical control or are controlled by a computer. - Such equipment is used for sheet stamping and punching of parts, the processing of castings and also for complex measurement and monitoring processes. Another cha,racteristic feature of the Hungarian production technology is the assur- ance of quality and reliability on a very high level. It is impossible to provide 1L~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY an acquaa.ntance with the complev system of assuring reliability with3.n the frame- - work of the present article~ but to illus~rate the efforbs applied to incrEase reliability one can describe a system of technological pre-running which is accom- plished on four levels. On the first level~ purcha.sed elements a,nd peripherals ~,re subjected to prolonged tests. How substantiatedly those tests are condudted is shown by two figures: during the prolonged tests 2 percent of the in~egrated ` circuitis fail, and peripherals reach ir~~ca,tors of reliability co:~sidered stable ~ only after 150 hours of technologica.l pre-running. On the second level, 24~-hour tests are~ conducted at 50�C of printed circuit plates and power units, arid then on the third level follows a 2~-hour technologica.l pre-run of complete central pro- cessors at 50�C. On the Fourth level a 100-hour check is made of the functioning of systems with se~ts made up and a configuration in accordance with user requests. That test is carr~ed out by means of a special system of programs developed for tha,t purpose. After the above-described system of technological pre-running has been introduced, the readiness coefficient of the complete systems (that is, to- - gether with peripherals) delivered to the user exceeds 90 percent. Upon sale of the first computers it became clear that without ~the organization of technical servicing it is impossible to solve the question of eff'ective use of com- puters. In 1971-1975, together with organizations of NOrPO (Natsional'naya organi- zatsiya tekhnicheskogo sluzhivaniya--National Technical Servicing Organization~ ~ formed at tha.t time by a~reement with them we organized our tecY~nical servicing _ centers in all the socialist countries. At first they enga,ged in servicing com- puters and putting them in operation, and at the present time Hungar ian special- ists are systema,tically participating in the development of system plans of users and the compilation of user program systems and systematic consultations with users. Qne must acknowledge as true the tendency toward considerable increase of expendi- tures on rendering services (including on software~ within the range of expendi- tures on computer introduction into operation. Some statistical data show that ~ e�-penditures are distributed in a 1:1 ratio and in the near flzture a shift of ~:1 in favor of expenditures on services for mini compu~ters is proposed. Many consider tha.t those correlations cha.racterize only expenditures on the production and devel- opment of the basic software and hardware. However~ due to tha,t error the planning of commodity turnover, commercial activity, technical servicing, etc~ are slowed down. It is advisable to solve the given pr~blem in the near ~zture; that will assure more effective use of computer facilities. In spite of the existing difficulties, our goal is the ~rther development and ex- pansion of technical servicing centers so that they can render services to the users in the c~evelopment o.f computer facilities, systems planning and the compil- ation of users� programs, can render help during the introduction of a system and represent machine -time before delivery of the computer. Such intensive support of users can ourtail the time required for attaining effective operation of complex systems by 10-12 months. The acceleration of the introduction of systems into _ oper~tion is rapidly reflected in our national economies, as the period of repay- ment of capital investments also can be reduced by 10-12 months. In the caurse of development and production of a very sma.'ll YeS computer model sufficient experience was accumulated to take an active part in realization of the SM computer program~ as a result of which a new family of computers will be created 15 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAI. USE: ONLY with use of the "ZM" pr~nciple of the Ye5 computer program. The new family consists of a mini computer (a mod.ernized version of the Ye5-1010~, the medium-sized YeS-1011 computer and the largest computer of the family, the SM-42, of the SM computer p~o- - gram. Moderizized versions of the YeS-1010 arid YeS-1011 underwent tests in 1978 and production of them was star.ted in the sa,me year. Tests and production of the SM-52 are planned for 1980. The family has a modular structure, the memory bus is a main line and computer modules are connected to it; the control is microprogrammed. The ma,in memory capa- city of the sm.a.llest model is 6~ Kbytes (with the possibility of expansi on to 128 - Kbytes~. The YeS-1011 memory can be increased io 512 Kbytes, and in the SM-52 the maximum memory capacity is 102~ Kbytes. In each computer a ma,in memory ba.sed on ferrite cores or semiconductor circuits can be used arbitrarily. A very. cha.racter- istic feature of the hardware is the use of ZSI and microprocessors and, as a result of that, decentralization of "intellectuality" in the high-capacity unit s for coup- ling with peripherals. The use and servicing are greatly improved by the possibili- ties of microprogrammed self-diagnosis, remote loading and remote control. Each model of the family is top-down program-compatible with models of t he YeS-1010 _ family, that is, programs developed for the YeS-1010 can be run on them without limitations. In that case models with large capacity also have more effective soft- ware systems. Thus, for example, a high-capacity multi-task operating system has - been developed for the YeS-1011, one which assures remote data processing, data ba,se servicing a.nd ~the processing of operative requests. Thus the YeS-1011 hardware and so2tware system for the first time within the framework of the YeS comput er program makes it possible to solve problems in effective distributed processing. The S M-52 central processor is constructed of microprocessors. A high-speed micro- - processor with suitable effectiveness assures the solution of emulation problems. - Thanks to that property the SM-52 actually represents a computer working in three modes. The first mode is the computer's proper mode, the second--emulation of the YeS-1011, and the third--emulation of SM computer programming. We hope that thanks - to that property and its high capacity the SM-52 will permit satisfying the needs for such computers and will contribute to the construction of high-capacity real- time interactive control sys~tems. In 1977-1980 another imp~rtant program development is the creation of the YeS-1015 family. Experience accumulated in the implementation of tha,t program will permit, on the basis of the YeS Ryad-3 computer, creating on the ba,sis of unified ha,rdware a set of mini-compu~ter modules which will satisiy the requirements of a number of YeS and SM computer models. Investigations have shown tha.t that possibility ca.n be economically accomplished on the basis of a single computer category--the YeS-1015 and the SM-52. We consider this new family of computers to be the basic article of thE L980-1985 period, one - which will gradually replace the series Ye5-lOlOM~ YeS-1011 and SM-52. It is _ planned to conduct tests of ~:he YeS-1015 in 1979, the development of YeS-1016 and YeS-1017 models has already been started and those computers will be the principal ones in our. production. The computer technology sector in Hungary, which has arisen as a result of social- ist integration, can exist and develop only on the basis of collaboration of the 16 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY socialist countries. In the years of collaboration ~,11 have been convinced tha,t on the basis of collaboration~ a common program and division of labor it is possible to achieve outstanding results. The experience accumulated in our countries, the ca,pacities which ha,ve been created and the thousa.nds of highly qualified specialists wilY serve the common interests of socialist collaboration. COPYRIGHTs Izdatel'stvo "Statistika"~ 1980 [66-217w~ 2174~ - cso, 1863 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PROSPECTIVE NIAGNETIC DISK STORAGE DEVICES 'r'OR MIrTI-COMPUTERS Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TII{HI~IKA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNII{ STATEY. VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Max 80 pp 21-28 [Article by N. Botev~ complex program mana.ger, and B. Tsonev, scientific associate, _ Institute of Computer Technology, and L. YoL~danov, engineer (People's Republic of Bulga,ria) from book edited by M. Ye. Rako~~skiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology~ Statis- tika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~ - [Excerpts~ Presented below are the characteristics of cassette-type plug-in ma,g- netic disk stores (Table 1) and floppy ma,gnetic disk stores (Table 2) which have successflzlly undergone joint ~ests i.n the producex-countries and have received num- bers in the YeS and SM computer systems. However~ those stores did not satisfy the steadily growing requirements of computer complexes based on mini-computers as regard.s capacity, reliability and operating conditions. In the present article the authors ha,ve tried to describe their contribution to magnetic disk stores with good prospects for SM computers. Table 1. Cassette-type ~lug-in magnetic disk storages - SM-5400 SM-54~01 Parameters Bulgaria Poland Maximum capacity, Mbits 5~ 5~ Transfer ratc, Kbytes/s 180, 312 312 Mean access time, ms 50 ~0 Rotation rate; rpm 1500, 24~00 24~G0 - Number of t,racks on surface 20~ 204~ Number of heads Informa,tion ca,rrier: plug-In cassette Ye5-5z69-o1 MERA 84~7 perma.nent disk Yes Yes Mean time between failures, hrs 2000 2000 Productivity between failures, bits lpl~ 1010 Interface MM SM 007-76 computer each In spite of indisputable successea achieved in the area of development of new means of inform~,tion storage, investigations show that in the next 10 years mobile mag- _ netic storage devices will preserve their leading position in computer technology. This is due to the possibility of multiple use of a magnetic carrier, the absence 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FQR OFFICI~L USE ONLY Table 2. Floppy ma,gnetic disk storages Yes-5o7~ r~-3zoo ~ x ~r5o Bulgaria Hungary Poland Maximum capacity, Mbits 3~2 3�2 ~ X 3�2 Excha,nge ra-te, Kbits~s 250 250 25~ T ransit time to adjacent track, ms 10 10 - Head press time, ms ~0 25 30 Head dampir~g time ~ ms ~I-0 40 90 ~ Rotation rate, rpm 360 360 360 Number of inechanisms per casing 1 1 2 Number of heads per mechaxiism 1 1 1 Number of tracks on a surface 77 77 77 Information carrier: floppy disk IBM "Diskette " on all three used ca.rrier surf~.ces 1 1 2(the carrier must - be turned to use the second surface) Interface A'Il~'I SM 010-?7 computer on each - Rsliability, hrs 2000 1000 2000 Productivity between failures, bits 109 109 109 of a need to regenerate information for its preservation, the not-yet exhausted pos- sibilities of increasing the recording density and the rate of da.ta exchange, and also the low cost of storing a bit of information. It is evident from Table 3[1.2] _ that ma.gnetic disk stores with mobile heads provide storage of informa,tion in a system more cheaply by an order of magnitude than cha,rged coupling storages and by two orders of ma.gnitude than bubble domain storage devices. Observers of the mag- netic disk storage device ma.rket think that, in spite of the steady reduction of prices for external storages, the now-existing correlation between the cost of storage per bit for magnetic disk storages, charged coupling storages and bubble domain storages will be preserved at least to 1985� The documents in forbe establish for hardware, depending on the specific conditions, under which computer complexes flznction, the following requirements: --the possibility of operating in qua.rters without air conditioning; --a modular cha,racter of the design~ the possibility of its being built into cabin- ets meeting requirements of the Int~rnational Electrical Engineering Commission _ (publication 297)� Conclusion. Having in mind the above considerations, it is advisa,ble to satisfy the increasing requixements for external stores for mini computers with three groups of ~ magnetic disk stores (Table 6). For large informa,tion systems it is advisable, if necessary~ to bor~row ma.gnetio. disk stores from the YeS computer system. _ 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 6. Prospective groups of stores for mini computers Exchange Mean = Magnetic disk Capacity~ rate, access store group ~ytes Kbytes~s time, ms - Cassette type 12, 2~, 48 180/806 5~ Disk modules: plug-in 25~ 50~ 80 806~1200 ~ _ permanent 25~ 5~~ 75 80~1200 35 Fl oppy di sk 0. 4; 0. 8; 1~ 6 16 37./6z - COPYRIGI-~: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1980 [66-z17~] - 217~ cso: i863 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y SOME PROBLEMS OF PROGRAM SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION FOR THE INFORMATION BASE OF COMPUTER- AIDED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN AN INTERACTIVE MODE Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TIICHI~'IKA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. VYPUSK ~ 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7~ in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Ma.r 80 pp 29-36 [Article by V. M. Vinogradov and B. A. Zolotukhin, engineers (USSR) from book edited by M. Ye. Ra.kovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Qollaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statist�~ka~ 15,000 copies~ 160 pages~ [Excerpts~ A number of program systems intended for the formation and ma,nagement of G da.ta bases are fl.~nctioning in the USSR and abroad. Thus, in our country the follow- - ing ha,ve been developed and are being useds the NSI-DOS (a development of the GDR~, SINBAD-2, SIOD-2, BANK, BANK-OS, OKA, BASIS~ NABOV, etc. Comparative analysis of data banks in our country has shown that in its sphere of - application the BANK system is one of the most universal. It also is the most uni- versal and flexible in the structuring of data, as it permits establishino various connections between recordings of various types and their arxangement, which also ha.s determined their wide use in ASU developments. Important shortcomings of the system for the control of data bases (SUBD) BANK are: an inadequately developPd ~znction of data preparation and centralized updating of data bases, which is entrusted to applied programs of users, work in only a package mode~ and the absence of remote processing facilities. However~ the tendencies of ASU development require'improvement of data transmission and processing. Under the - conditions of expansion of the scales of automa.tion and areas of application of ASU's, and also increase of the computing capacity of data processing facilities~ sources and users of inform~tion ca,n be considerable distances apart, in connection - with which new forms and method.s of joint use of computer facilities and communica,- ti ons are needed. The remote data processing systems combine the transmission and processing of informa.tion, starting from the input of starting data into the auto- ma.ted system and ending with the obtaining of the end product by the user. Compara- tive analysis of ASU software systems developed in our country has shown that they _ do not completely sa.tisfy all the requirements presented for them. An acute need for software systems meeting the above requirements have served as the ba.sis for the development of the "software system-base-terminal" system. , T he "software syste~r~-base-terminal" system is a means of receiving and accumulating data for updating the ASU intra-ma,chine da.ta and issuing data upon request, and also a means of connecting the inflow of user requests from terminals with the pro- cessing program library. The given system is oriented toward use in automa,ted ma.n- agement systems for enterprises with various profiles. C~PYRIGHT: Izdatel�stvo "Statistika", 1980 ~ [ 66-2174~] - 2174 21 cso: 1863 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CENTRALIZED AND SPECIALIZID SERVICING OF YeS COMPUTERS IN THE CSSR - - Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TEKHNIKA S~SIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY, VYPt1SK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles, Issue - No 7~ in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp $2-91 - [Article by 0. Plunder and J. Svozil, engineers, and Z. Vokac, technologica,l engin- _ eer, (CSSR) from book edited by M. Ye, Rakovskiy~ Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology~ Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~ [Text~ Centralized Technica.l Servicing ' The idea of creating centralized technical servicing of computer technology began to be implemented at "Kantselyarske stroye" National Enterprise (KSNP) after the 16th C1'CZ Congress, the resolutions of which dealt on a broa.d scale with integration of the Czechoslovak economy within the framework of the CEMA member-countries. The KSNP, performing f~nctions of the national organization of technical servicing~ makes a consider~ble contribution to the fulfilment of that important task~ one of the main aspects of which is the creation and assurance of centralized technical = servicin~ of Czechoslovak computers of the Ye5 system. In 1972 the ma,in pre~requi- sites for the formation of such a servicing system were created at the KSNP~, _ _ --the basic conception of centralized technica,l servicing of Ye5 computers was determined; --an organizational structure was created; - --finances were allocated for the acquisition of ineasuring equipment; --the production capacities of the snterprise were alloca,ted for the preparation of - specialized equipment. In 1973 the KSNP started specific activity in tha,t area: - --technical personnel were instructed; --deliveries of inewsuring equi~.anent and automa,tic ma.chines for technical servicing - were; --the enterprise � s own production ~ capa.cities were allocated (the concluding stage~ ; - --selection of new workers; --conclusion of economic agreements with purcha.sers; --first installations of Ye5 computers. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 FOR OCFICIAL USE ONLY The subsequent year.s ca,n be cha.racterized as years of regular development of cen- tralized technical servicing. The overcomi:~g of various diff~c~~~ties was invalved~ - including unpreparedness of 1:he purcha,ser (non-observance of the periods of transfer of computer centers into operations by the builders~ and the gradual gro?~rth of the prestige of centralized technical servicing among users. The following sta~e of development of centralized technica.l servicing~ 1978-1979~ was cha.racterized by increase in the complexity and integration of the presented services. As a result of the distribution of new computer systems, especially their peripherals, on the basis of socialist division of labor among the CEMA member-coun- _ tries, and also as a result of the adoption of internatirnal documents which unify the orga.nization of technica,l servicing, a need has arisen to modify the organiza- tional structure of those sections of the KSNP wihch assure the centralized technical servicing of computer technology. In connection with that and on the basis of recom- mendations of the Council for Complex Servicing of YeS Computers the following organ- izational subdivisions are being created; --control and emergency services; --laboratories and narrowly specialized work places; --a service responsible for change of technical ~.ocumentation; _ --warehousing. The paramount task of the technical services is the centralized technical sarvicing of YeS-1021 (YeS-1025) computers produced in Czechoslovakia, and so the material presented below deals with those computer systems. Transfer of a computer into operation at~ the user's includes several preparatory stages. In the first stage the purchaser prepares a preliminary plan for construc- ti on of the computer center~ i~zcluding a schedule of work on construction and on the organization of contractual technical servicing, and assures deliveries connected with construction a.nd.the starting of the computer. In the second step the computer eenter is constructed. At the end of that stage the purchaser must finish the training of personnel and at his disposal the necess- ary number of workers for the computer center (operators, input and output monitor- ing workers, data prepa,ration workers, etc~. The organization of technical servic- _ ing in that stage consists in the introduction of prod.uction caFa,~cities for the in- - stallation of a computer and the theoretical training of personnel in technical ser- vicing for a proposed computer. The computer ma,nufacturer by this time ha.s completed his production and prepares for the testing and transfer of the machine to technical servicing organizations. In the third stage the purcha.ser together with technica.l servicing organizations accepts the computer, arranges it in a room of the computer center according to pla.n, accomplishes the necessary debugging and checks the-~functioning of the air con- ditioner. In the fourth stage, during execution of all points of the protocol on the prepara- tion and completion of construction, the technical servicing organization ca.n install a computer and transfer it to the purchaser for operation afte.r transfer tests of the hardware and software. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - In the last stage of organization of technical servicing it becomes possible to use - ma.chine time in the volume indica-ted in the contract for the warranty period and after its expiration. ' If the purcha,ser does not need the technical servicing service~ he does certain pre- = paratory and operating work independently, without the intervention or help of the technical servicing organization. ~ Assuring centralized servicing. The goa,l of technical servicing is to assure very high productivit of the computer. This can be achieved by increasing the op- erating efficiency [1~, which for a single-program computer intended for package pro- cessing is calculated with the formulase E = V ~ K; ~1~ T s ~2~ . K =TS+TO~ where E is the real computer productivity, operations~s; V is the computer productLVity without consideration of failures and repairs, - operations~s; T is the mean failure-free work time; s T~ is the mean restoration -time after elimina.tion of a failure. - Let us consider how it is possible to influence the values of the second formula in crder to increase the real computer productivity, The mean time between failures is defined as the length or volume of work between failures, the value of which is an indicator on the basis of which the design and production of hardware are evaluated. - The design and level of prod.uction can also be influenced in the process of opera- tion partially and only on subsequent articles of the given series9 but not on ar- ticles already ma,de in which only very slight changes are possible. Often, to achieve the required mean failure-free work time of computer hardware, redundancy is used, that is, a computer configuration with a larger number of devices of a certain kind than is necessa,ry. In the case of failure of operated equipment the servicing person puts reserve equipmer.t into operation and ca]~ls a technical service specialist to make the repair~ Such a failure does not mean, how- ever failure of the entire computer system, but only recurrence of the corresponding problem or a portion of it, starting with the last check point in the program. In connection with tha.t it can be considered tha.t the mean time between failures will depend not only on the design and technology of production but also on the operating conditions. The latter are precisely reflected in the contract concluded between the organization of centralized technica.l servicinf; and the purcha,ser. ~ In the contract, questions directly influencing operation of the computer are deter- mined firsts - --tecYli~ica.l conditions, an important portion of which are the computer operating conditions; --a minimum configuration of computers with necessa,ry redundancy, thanks to which the computer as a system is considered suitable for operation; - 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY --it is the responsibility of the purcha.ser to divide the solution of tasks by check points into working intervals of 15-30 minutes; the possibility of performing the procedure is built into the ba ~ic software, which is a component part of the de- livery. In accordance with formula (2~ the ratio between the mean failure-free time and the mean res~boration time, which affects the real computer productivity, is determined indirectly by the mean restoration time. The latter designates the mean time of forced unplanned downtime c~,used by searching for and eliminating a single failure and de~ends on the following factors: --on the design of the computer, th~ division of its modules to simplify location of the failure and ease its elimi;~a.tion; --on the qualifications and specificati.~ns of the technica,l service workers; --on the distance of the worker.s of the computer technical service and on the gen- eral organization of labor; --on the presence of and the pos~ibility of obtaining spare parts. Let us analyze the specific .realization of the ahove-enumerated factors affecting the mean restoration time a~ the KSNP. On the ba,sis of operating experience accumu- ~ lated by the organization of technical servicing starting in 1973, that is, the year the first computer was started, and in the course of subsequent years, the design of the YeS-1021 computer and peripherals is constantly being improved to increase the working efficiency of the computer. In 1975 a Perma.nent International Complex Rationalizer T eam was ~'ormed within the framework of the general direction of the Trust of the Industrial Automation Plants Association. It processes systema,tically collected data on faults during the operation of YeS-1021 computers and feeds sug- gestions to the ma.kers of separate parts of the computer regarding improvement of their design and technology of manufacture. This in turn exerts an influence on the continuous improvement of the entire article, and also on improvement of the indicator of the mean timP hetween failures of the entire system and separate de- _ vices~ reduction of the laboriousness of repairs and improvement of system diagno- sis, which acceler.ates the finding of the fault. The complex rationalizer team working at the enterprises disc~asses proposals of a technical and operational char- acter arriving from users, who through the Association of YeS Computer Users, organ- ized within the framework of the KSNP, and collaborate with the organization of technical servicinp; in solving all urgent operating problems. A clear example of collaboration of all parts of the Trust of the Industrial Auto- mation Plants Association is improvement of the computer, which was begun with 121 ~ items. Preliminary operation of the improved article ha.s shown that the reliability and working rate of the computer were increased and the labor-intensiveness of its production, start o.f the processor and repair was reduced. The technical servicing of computers entering the sphere of centralized servicing is done by KSNP workers,whose work places are directly a,t the computer centers of users. Instantaneous communication with the technological engineer is thus assured in case of computer failure. This method of technical servicing permits reducing to a minimum the number of technical personnel at various working places and contributes to the resolution of any situation arising at any user's facilities. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIt'IAL USE ONLY If the servicing person at a given service point ca.nnot cope with the failure by himself, he can appeal for help to the nearest point in tha.t area. If that proves inadequate, the dispatcher organizes repa,irs d.irectly at the place of a group of hj.ghly qualified specialists. The technica.l personnel of points and the group o~ - highly qualified specialists specially equipped automa.tic machines at thAir disposal which permit reducing the waiting for necessary spare parts and the con- _ ducting of repairs by specialists. During repair of a neripheral in the workshop the user is offered the possibility of obtaining tha,t equipment at the Rental Service of the KSNP plant in Prague. Spare par~ts availability--the next factar with a direct influence on the indicator of the mean restoration time--is assured by the appropriate warehouse organization. The warehcuse organization. Warehousing is organized on the principle of a multi- stage hierarchic s~tructure with consideration of the territorial distribution of - . computers in the sphere of technica.l servicing: --a central warehouse which supplies all the territory of the CSSR is situated in Prague at the main KSNP enterprise; _ --regional warehouses are present at each regional enterprise (at Plzen, Hradec Kralove, Brno and Ostrava) ; --warehouses of computer centers. The central warehouse organizes the of the entire assortment of spare parts _ at manufacturers and suppliers. That warehouse equips regional warehouses and com- puter center warehouses with necessary spare parts. T he assortment of the central - warehouse is very broad and the total volume of spare parts is determined by the standards. ~ T he assortment and quantity of spare parts in warehouses situated directly at the users' are also determined by the standards, the basis of which is the principle of obligatory obtaining of spare parts. Indi.vidual warehouses are fille.d with spare parts by means of an automated system based on the Ye5-1021 computer. A spare part is delivered t o the computer user at the moment of repair; later the user is sent a bill for payment, A computer is installed and electronic modules suitable for repair are replaced by the corresponding warehouses: --the warehouse of the installation group; --the warehouse of plug-in mod.ules; --the warehouse of the technical servicing laborat ory; --the warehouse of the group of highly qualified specialists. The functions of all warehouses except the plug-in modules warehouse are similar to those of 1oca1 warehouses. Plug-in module warehouses are formed at the center and at all oblast enterpris~s and contain mainly TEZ's [unidentified~ and power units~ that is, spare electronic parts of a computer that can be repaired in the technical sexvicing laboratory. At a 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY technician�s request a defective computer is replaced by an operating mod.ule from the plug-in module warehouse. The defective modules are shipped to the technical servicing laboratory for repair. If the technical servicing laborator3~ is unable to perform the repairs, however, a plug-in module is shipped from the manufacturer. The user of the computer pays for that service in accordance with the type of plug-in mod.ule . - Spare parts standards ha,ve been developed for the warehouses of each level; in ac- cordance with them determinations are made of the quantity and assortment~ products list and the number of spare parts needed to fill the s~tores. Data on the exchange - of spare parts betcaeen warehouses can be obtained by starting from the initial data obtained as a result of automai:ed processing. The number of spare pa:rts issued to and consumed by individual users is registered, a.nd also the volume of spare parts present in the warehouse by groups. The warehouse system of Ye5-1021 computer spare parts permits rationally raising warehouse capacities, efficiently supplying work places and laboratories and also ~btaining objective informa,tion about the expenditure of spare parts and about re- _ quests to supply various spare parts. Conclusion. Centralized technical servicing in Czechoslovakia is a necessary pre- requisite for achievement of the followix~ goals: --unified control of technical servicing intended for a very broad circl.e of users of computer hardware; - --accomplishment of technical servicing on an industrial ba.sis which elimina tes qualitative and quantitative scattering of resources and manpower in providing those services by the users themselves; _ --reduction of material and equipment supply to a minimum; --a saving of manpower on the scales of the national economy; - --COIl}i.111UNUJ ..::1j~lU':t;~IlCt1L C~' ~~',:^.~~fiC::.l.1011~~ :;}~vci~.l~za` tii:; L^"~'T~.1. 1CJC1 uf tr~.ining of technical servicing workers; - --assurance of international collaboration, cooperation and integration in the use ~ of technical servicing of the computer hardware of CEMA member-countries, includ- ing the provision for all the import~,tion and exportation of peripherals and com- puter systems as a whole. T he realization of this short list of goals will depend on the creation of favorable conditions. The principal document on which further activity will be constructed with respect to the development and improvement of services of the National Organi- zation of Technical Ser~ricing and~ consequently, of centralized technical servicing, is G overnment Resolution No 61/1977 on the concept of the development, production, introd.uction and use of computer hardware. However, in the process of creating a centralized technical servicing a number of questions of a technical, organizational and legal character~ etc, have not yet been _ successfully solveds --the creation of conditions favorable for continuous assembly of workers engaged in ' direct technical servicing at the user�s premises; 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY --optimization and fl~rther improvement of ma.terial and technical supply above all of spare parts~ measuring equipment and equipment for specialized work places; im- provement of relations between suppliers and purchasers; --expansion of ca,pacities for making repairs in large workshops, increase of the riumber of workers and means of technical servicing at specialized work placeS and in workshops; --improvement of tne quality of consulting activity of commercial and technical ser- vices in the process of introduction and use of computer ha.rdware; --organization of the service for changes of computer ha,rdware; --organization of centralized emergency service. For the further development of centralized technical servicing~ with the volume and complexity of the work done taken into account, it is necessary to use all forms of . increase of labor productivity, improvement of management, rationalization and or- ganization of socialist competition, and also appropriate methods of increasing the material incentive of workers. The KSNP NOTO has long used methods directed toward improving the quality indicators widely used in centralized technicaa. servicing. Criteria have been developed in ac- cordance ;~ith which workers receive bonuses for the completion ahead of schedule of tasks in computer installation and for the attainment of a high coefficient of its technical utilization. A perma.nent socialist competition has been arranged both between specific production sections which provide centralized technical servicing and between specific computers. The ma,in indicator for summing up the results of socialist competition also is the coefficient of technica.l utilization, which is an indica.tor of the working efficiency of the computer. A rationalizer and innovator movement ha.s been organized, to the development of which both the economic ma.nagement and the social organiza,tions contribute. The rationali- za~ion ~s done systematically by means of thema,tic tasks, the execution of which is ma.terially stimulated. These and other methods, for example, the movement to save manpower, to increase interchangeability, to overfulfill the production plan, etc, are guaxantees of im- provement of the indicators of effectiveness of centralized technical servicing. Special Technical Servicing (Special Service~ With the requirements for c~mplex technical servicing taken into account, it seems advantageous at first to introduce in time a"Special Sezvice," in which the per- formance of specific work is distributed between the user and the service organiza- tion. The user performs the following works --systematic preventive ma.intenance (daily and weekly~; --elimina.tion of ordinary computer faults; --registration in a log of the performance of preventive maintenance and elimination of faults and preparation of prima.ry statistical reports on reliability; 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY --acquires measuring equipment and also special equipment and instruments needed for inspection and regulatory work; - --makin~ up a set of spare parts with a short service life (lamps, filters, belts, f~.ises, knobs, switches, etc) and also a set of definite electronic circuits (TEZ's and power units) an~. the principal readily replaceable spare parts; --reports to the service organization dispatcher about complex faults and emergen- cies in accordancw with the agreed-upon situation. - The service organization performs the following work: --monthly and quarterly preventive maintenance; --inspection and complete preventive ma,intenance once a year; - --elimination of complex faults and emergencies by means of special and measuring equipment, instruments and spare parts within the times indicated in the agreements _ --carries out the service in shifts; --carries out centralized repair of the main electronic circuits (TEZ~~ power units and memory units in laboratories; --provides dispatcher service. The service organization has its own central spare parts warehouse. Needed to service YeS computers are highly qualified specialists, expensive univer- sal measuring apparatus for the equipping of laboratories and a considerable quantity of spare parts. T herefore during technical servicing the YeS computer user must have available the necessary number of specialists, measuring equipment and spare parts. In Slovakia 62 YeS ha.d~been introduced into.operation by the end of 1977~ If one starts from the fact tha,t in 1978 those machines were provided with special service two-shift operation, one can ca.lculate the necessary number of workers and the necessary expenditures on tha,t kind of service (see table~. Cos~t o~ Cost of Model Quantity Technical measuring spare - of YeS workers equipment, parts computer 1000 1000~ - crowns crowns _ YeS-101o 13 65 1,066 1,950 - YeS-1021 18 14~ 2,250 2D070 Ye5-1030/33 21 210 14~,700 10,500 YeS-104~9 lo ~ 120 10,200 17,650 Total 62 539 28,216 32,170 In complex technical servicing~ curtailment of the number of technica.l workers by about 70 percent and a saving on expenditures (measurement equipment and spare parts~ of about 60 percent are proposed. During special technica.l servicing it is proposed to reduce the number of technica.l worke rs by 20 percent, and the saving on expendi- tures ought to amount to 4-0 percent. 29 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Pak, J. Assuring the reliability of third-generation computers. PRIBORY I SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA, 1975r No 9~ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel�stvo "Statistika", 1980 [66-2174~] 2174~ Cso: 1863 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FUNCTIONS OF THE 'KAN'T'SELYARSKE STROYE' ENTERPRISE AND ITS PARTICIPATION IN ESTABLISHING COMPUTER SERVICES OF THE ~SSR NOTO Moscow VYCHISLITEL�NAYA TE~{HNIKA SdI'SIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY~ VYPUSK - 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection nf Articles, Is~ue No 7~ in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 91-95 ~Article by Y. Traibold, engineer (CSSR~ from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialislt Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statis~ika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages_ ~Excerpts] Commercial and technical services of computer systems arose practically simultaneously with the first deliveries of slectronic computers in 1959-1961. The commercial and technical services section started its work on 1 Janua.ry 197z� The commercial and technica,l services assure and coordinate the deliveries abo~re all of YeS computers and also of some special auxiliary equipment or technolo~y not yet being manufactured. In the Fifth Five-year Plan the KSNP delivered 115 YeS computers to users in the CSSR, including 11 Ye5-1010 from the Hungarian People's Republic, 50 YeS-1021 of CSSR production, 36 YeS-1030 from the USSR and 10 Y e5-10~1-0 from the GDR. Such a quantity corresponds in the ma,in to the needs of our national economy. - In the Sixth Five-year Plan the enterprise will enter upon still more important task s. The plan envisages delivering about 300 Ye5 computers during tha,~t period.. Service comguter centers. The developing technology requires tha.t the KSNP not only ~ sell and service computer hardware but also operate it. For YeS computers complex service requires much more intenstive training and more voluminaus services. For those purposes computers been installed as follows: - a YeS-1021 and a Ye5-1030 in Prague, a YeS-1010 at Plzen, a Ye5-1021 at Hradec Kralove, a YeS-1040 at Brno, a YeS-1021 at Ostrave and a YeS-1021 at Gottwaldov. All this serves to accomplish the following of the NOTO organizations --the development of Ye5 computer applied software; --presentation of ma,chine time to future users of t he YeS computer; 31 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY --inspection of ha.rdware for computers; _ --training of its own technical personnel and programmers; --training of qualified groups of Ye5 computer users. During the Sixth Five-Year Plan YeS second-line computers will be installed in a similar manner and used. _ COPYRIGHT:'stvo "Sta.tistika", 1980 _ [66-217~] z174 cso: 1863 32 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY THE GDR NOiI'0: ITS FUNCTIONS AND TASKS IN INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION Moscow VYCHISLITEL�NAYA TE~tHNIKA SOTSIALISrICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIIC SI'ATEY, VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology ~cE the Socialist Countries. Collectior,, of Articles, Issue No 7~ in Russian 1980 si~ned to press 6 Ma,r 80 pp 96-98 - ~Article by H. Boerner, N(7I'0 ma,nager (GDR) f`rom book edited bj~ M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~ ~Text~ The Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology directly after its formation in 1969 adopted decis- ions directed toward the creation in countries pa.rticipating in the Agreement of National Complex Servicing Organiza,tions (N~0) for YeS computer facilities In accordance with that decision, performance of the flanctions and tasks of the GDR NOTO was entrusted to a national enterprise, the "Robotron" combine. The bases for determinatiun of the flanctions and tasks of the GDR NOTO were and are the assumptions in effect on the Ye5 computer. general complex servicing system and also assumptions and recommendations of the Intergovernmenta,l Commission for Col- laboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technology relating to complex servicing of Ye5 and SM system facilities. In accordance with those assumptions, decisior~s and recommendations the GDR NOT~ performs all kinds of complex servicing which assure the effective application of YeS and SM computer facilities, for examples --the collection of suggestions and the consideration and refinement of the require- ments for YeS and SM computer facilities within the limits of competence of the _ GDR N(7I'Os --services in the planning, construction and equipping of computer centers; --sales of YeS and SM computer facilities; --installation and introduction into operation of YeS a.nd SM computer ha,rdware; --organiza.tion and accomplshment of technical servicing of Ye5 and SM computer hardware; --assurance of permanent,,l emergency and dispatcher services; --delivery and servicing of the software system; 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY --supplying users of YeS and SM computer facilities with spare parts and accessor- ies, special tools and instrumentation; --instruction of specialists in the technica.l servicing and operation of Ye5 and SM computer facilities; --providing the information service with data on changes in the hardware and soft- ware systems in the wa.rranty per3.od; --~nelp in the preparati on and conclusion of contracts for the complex servicing of YeS and Sm computer facilities delivered in tra,ding between countries participat- ing in the Agreement; --gathering and analysi s of data on the work of YeS and SM computer hardware. These kinds of servicing are performed by GDR NOI'0 enterprises belonging to the - "Robotron" combine nati onal enterprise. During collaboration of the "Robotron Export-Import" foreign trade enterprise those multilateral services of complex servicing are also performed by GDR NOrO special- ists for YeS and SM computer ha.rdwa,re which the GDR NOTO ha,s delivered and is deliv- ering to other countriES. Ir. performing tasks of complex servicing of YeS computer facilities and especially in the prepa.ration of new YeS and SM computer facilities for use the GDR attributes much importance to the multilateral collaboration of the YeS computer NUI'0 of coun- tries participa,ting the Agreement in the Council on Complex Servicing of Ye5 Com- . puters (Sovet po komplek snomy pbsluzhivaniyu YeS EVM--SKO YeS EVM). Representatives of the GDR NOrO wo.rk in th~ SK~ YeS EVM sections "Instruction ~f personnel in the technical servicing and opera�tion of computer facilities" and "Program funds and servi.ces of program system accompaniment" and participa,te in the development of inethod.ica,l ma.terials, in the prepa,ration of which experience of the GDR is used to a great extent. With consideration of the experience of the GDR in the leadership of the Council of Specialists No 10 of the Ye5 EVM SGK ("Servicing Ye5 EVM facilities"~, the GDR NOTO in the SKO YeS E'VM ha,s been entrusted with leadership of the Council of Specialists for "Technica,l Servicing, Spare Parts and Reliability." In the accomplishment of tasks of multilateral collaboration the GDR NOTO, jointly with representatives of all national parts of the SKO YeS EVM, turns special atten- tion to: --organization of regular and timely supply of spare parts; --improvement of the emergency and dispatcher systems; --improvement of the informa.tion service on changes for YeS and SM computer facili- ties; --conclusion and implementation of contracts for the delivery and servicing of com- puter facilities with strict monitoring of the observance of documents of the CEMA and the Intergovernmental Commission for Computer Technology. T he proposa,ls and methodical guideline materials developed within the framework of tha.t multilateral collaboration contains the ba sic principles by which the GDR 3L~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ye5 E~M NUPO is guided during f~rther improvement of the complex servicing of com- puter hardware in the GDR and the ~rther develapment of bilateral collaboration with the Ye5 EVM NOTO�s of particular countries. ' In that case the GDR NOTO starts f~om the fact tha.ts --tl~e YeS EVM N(7P0 of the supplier-countries (or the manufacturer-countries) and the - countries purcha.sing Ye5 and 5~~: Computer facilities are jointly responsible for the qualitative training and performance of tasks of complex servicing, thanks to which - the prerequisites are created for the effective use of YeS and SM computer facili- ties; - --the goal of collaboration of the NCTPO's of countries consists in ha,ving the NOTO's of purcha,ser-countries take on themselves the servicing of imported facilities (com- plete d.a,ta processing systems, control systems, processors~ peripherals, remote data processing systems, basic systems, etc); --bilateral collabora~ion of the Ye5 EVM NOTO's of partner-countries and foreign- trade enterprises is ba,sed in practical work on normative documents of the CEMA and the Intergovernmental Commistiion for Computer Technology and decisions and recom- _ mendations of the Council for Complex Servicing of Ye5 Computers. The bilateral collaboration of the GDR i~UI'0�s and those of partner-countries is ac- - complished on the basis of agreements and annua.l work plans containing specific - tasks connected with the preparation and use of contemplated deliveries of YeS and SM computer facilities. These tasks include, for exampl~, the instruction of per- sonnel in the operation, application and servicing of YeS computer facilities~ ser- vices in the planning of computer centers, the installation, introduction into op- - eration, generation and servicing uf YeS computer facilities~ equipping with spare _ - parts, delivery and accompa,niment of sof'tware, the use of applied programs (for example, for the organization of the supply of spare parts according to unified principles~ etc. As a result of such bilateral collaboration the YeS EVM NC7I'0's of the purchaser- countries were able to obtain a great saving (of manpower and resources~. More - rational use of specialists for servicing permitted improving the complex (or parti- ally complex) servicing of installed computers, reducing time spent on emergency calls and assuring a large reserve for training for the reception of new articles. T he practice of many of experience of the GDR YeS EVM NOTO's with "SoyuzEVM- kompleks" and "Elektronorgtekhnika" in the USSR, OSTsV in the Hungarian People's Republic, the KSNP and DSNP in the CSSR and other partners is a bright example of _ socialist integration. T he rate and effectiveness of economic growth and~ consequently, the solution of the socio-political tasks, and also progress in all areas of social development depend substantially on how all the possibilities of the collaboration of CEMA member-cot~n- tries are used. `1'he GDR NCIPO's, like the NC1~0's of all countries participating in - the Agreement, w3.1 ~~:aice its contribution to tha.t process. CUPYRIG HTs I zdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1980 - [66-2174] 2174 cso: 1863 35 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 6 - Oh~ANIZATION OF MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM SOFTWARE ~ Moscow VYCHISLITII,'NAYA TEKHNIl{A SaTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY, VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology ~ the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles, Issue No 7) in Russian 1g80 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 99-103 ~Article by V. S. Kuznetsov, deputy chief, All-Union Association Soyuzsistemprom, and V. P. Tikhomirov, candida,te of economic sciences (USSR) from book edited by - M. Ye. Rakovskiy~ Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Coun- tries in �he Area of Computer Technology, Sta.tistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~ _ [Text~ The volume of work on ASU designing is steadily increasing, the range of _ problems solved by ASU�s is expanding and the economic effectiveness of the flanction- ing of ASU�s is being ra,ised. At the same time a tendency is noted of increase of expend.itures on the development of ASU ~ and at the present time they amount to 50 percent of the total expenditures on ASU design. They can be lowered by a transi~;ion to idustrial methods of designing ASU softwaxe. The essence of those methods consists in the organization of large-scale computer software development in the form of standard ASU software and their centralized maintenance and introduction into ASU's being developed. Computer software must be standardized, universa,l, automa,tically adjusted to specific conditions of application, Included in software are packages of applied programs (PPP's), automated design systems, standard design solutions, etc. Software acquires the character of industrial prod.uction, and then their distribution according to orders determined the number of copies, and centxalized ma.intenance and the rendering of a number of services on their intr~duction, the character of the industrial ser.- - vices. In the distribution of ASU software by orders the following work is done: --verification of the efficiency of software, elimination of errors discovered in the course of the software at the user � s; --mod.ification of software to expand the sphere of its applica.tion; --adjustment of software to specific conditions of application in ASU's; --instruction of specialists in ~iser-organization work with A~SU software. Plans of ASU software without change of control algorithms are tested, corrected on the ba,sis of the test results and copies are m~,de and sent to the purchaser, that is~ 36 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE O1~1LY all tize ~ypes of work are done which are needed for giving i;he ASU software a c~m- mercial form and for the wide introduction of those facilities into ASU's for organ- izations and enterprises of various sectors of the national economy. In case of necessity s~ftware is modified according to users' orders. ~ Centrali.zed ma.intenance of software becomes a necessa.ry element of the software pro- duction industry, as it assures the possibility of deliveries of ASU software of - guaranteed quality upon the ord.ers of enterprises and organizations. T he first step in the organization of centralized deliveries of computer software by orders was the formation in 19'~4~ of the NPO (Scientific-Production Association~ - "T sentriroprogrammsistem." Its main task is providing enterprises and organizations of the country with ASU prog.rams. The association includes the Scientific Research - Institute of ASU, the ASU Planning and Design Office, a printing pZa,nt and the training methods consultation cen_ter. T he NPO "Tsentriroprogrammsistem" does the following work: --compiles a specialized fund ~~f algorithms and programs intended for automa,ted - - control systems for sectors of the national economy, enterprises, organizations and objects of the non-industrial sphere; - --provides users (according to contracts) with ASU software and the documentation necessary for its operation; --renders help in the introduction of software in ASU�s (attachment to specific con- diti ons and consultations~; - --eff'iciently intrc~duces cha.nges in transferred software and documentation for it, star-ting from the results of analysis of its f~znctioning; --teaches specialists of or~anizations and enterprises which have concluded con- - - tracts with the NPO on the delivery of ASU algorithms and programs, and also on work with transferred software accordirig to the course system; --disseminates advanced experience in the developmez~t and application of ASU pro- grams and issues infor.mational, training, instructional and methodical ma.terials. The ASU Specialized F~,tnd of Algorithms and Programs (Spetsializirovannyy forid algo- ritmov i programm--SFAP) includes standard ASU software which can be used in the development of ASU�s of various types and levels of ma.nagement. ASU SFAP software is in�.ended for the following goals: - --the organization and ma,nagement of the ASU information ba,se; --automa,tion of ASU pro~ramming a,nd planning; _ --solution of the tasks of f~.inctional subsystems of the A5U for industrial associ- ations and enterprises (ASUP~; - --solution of tasks of functional subsystems of sector ASU�s (OASU); --solution of ta.sks of ~znctional sybsystems of ASU's for non-industrial objects - (ASU NO), and also method-oriented applied pa,ckages of programs (PPP's). In the formation of an ASU SPAF special attention is given to the complexity of the soi'tware. This means tha,t the ASU SFAF includes~ not uncoordinated, random 37 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFLCIAL USE ONLY software, but PPP's of definite families, and each successive package of a family expa.nds the flznctional possibilities of those available. The following PPP families have been formed for the organiza,tion and management of the ASU information base in ASU SPAF"s: of types 5IOD, UNIBAD and OKA. Around the PPP's of those families are grouped functiona.l software which accomplishes the tasks of ASUP subsystems. The ISUF PPP family, oriented toward the application of ISOD da,ta banks, is an example of that. Together with families of fla.nctional PPP's oriented toward. definite data bases, in the ASU SPAF there also are autonomous fl~nctional PP'P�s which accomplish separate _ functions of control if the information base wa,s by its own resources (PPP- Sbyt, PPP-UMPS and PPP-UTPP)� The class of functianal PPP-OASU�s contains 11 FPP's - - whi ch r.ealize the subsystems of ASU-Pribor-2: the planning and record.s of managers and workers, production quality control, control of planning and capita~ construc- _ - tion~ control of financial activity, etc. The class of flznctional PPP-ASU NO's is formed of software which accomplishes functions of control of objects of various sectors of the non-industrial sphere. Packages of programs present in the ASU fox organizations of wholesale and retail trade, transport~ material and equipment sup- pl~, social insurance, scientific and technical informa.tion services, etc. The class of inethod-oriented PPP's contains software for the solution of tasks of line- ar, nonlinear, inte~er separable, partial-i.nteger programming, network planning and management . On 1 January 1979 the ASU SFAP included more tha.n 150 standard software devices which permit orienting programs for ASU's for enterprises and organizations of vari- ou s levels of management and sectors of the nat~ona,l economy. Organizations of dif- fe-rent ministries and departments of the USSR participate in compiling the SPAF. Al so received in a SPAF is software developed by organizations of the CEMA countries within the framework of the Unified Coordination Plan of the Intergovernmental Com- mi ssion on Collaboration of the Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Techno- _ logy. - In 1978 the NPO "Tsentriroprogrammsistem" delivered on the orders of 600 organiza- " ti ons of the country over 2000 items of software and more than 1000 specialists of ' user organizations received training at the association. The realization of progressive control methods and algorithms in PPP's raises the - scientific and technica.l level of th~ ASU's and correspondingly the effectiveness of their f~.inctioning. T he total ~nd volume ought to reach 8 million instructions in 1980, and 22 million in 1985~ For the f~.irther development of the ASU software production industry zn the USSR a large group of ineasures is being accomplished on the forma,tion of the State Algorithm and Program Fund (G osuda.rstvennyy for~d algoritmov i programm-~ osFAP) . Materials from the central, specialized (intersector), sector (departmental) and territorial (republic) funds and their branches and departments are directed into it. T he GosFAP system includes a large number of organizations which form the sector and ~ specialized funds of algorithms and programs for ASU's of enterprises, associations 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 _ FOR OFFICIAL USF.. ONLY and organiza,tions of all sectors of the na,tional economy, and also for the ASU�s of technological processes and scientific research and developments. In the central ~znd a General Catalog of GosFAP Ma,terials and a State Program Regis- ter are compiled, a central information and reference service is orga,nized on mater- ials relating to the activity of organiza.tions hllding GosFAP flznds, and informa.tion about software is published and distributed. - Specialized (intersector~ flznds and their branches and depa,rtments contain and dis- tribute materials on suftware with a definite pro�ile~ intended primarily for use at - = enterprises and in orga.nizations and institutions of corresponding sectors of the _ national economy. Sector (departmental) flinds and their branches and departments (oblast and urban funds) contain and distri.bute ma.terials on software intended prima.rily for use at - enterprises and in organizations and institutions of the corresponding sector of the _ - national economy. - Territorial (republic~ funds and their branches a,nd depa.rtments contain and distri- - - bute ma,terials on software intended prima,rily for use at enterprises and in organi- zations and institutions of republic subordination situated on territory assigned - the given fund. The G osFAP is formed and functions on the ba,sis of a unified procedure fox the for.- ulation, reception in-to the f`und, making up a complete set, transmission to users and use of flznd materials. That procedure is established by the "Cha.rter of the USSR GosPAF" and instructions issued on the basis of i.t; "Instructions on the pro- ced.ure for preparation and formulatibn of materials presented to the USSR GosFAP," "Instructions on expe-rtise and rece~tion of ma,terials in the USSR G osFAP" and "In- structions on maintaining the State Program Register." - Organizations maintaining the specialized, sector and territorial f~ands of algorithms and programs ha,ve started wor.king on software maintenance and supplying it to users. _ To satisfy the requirements of organizations and enterprises of the country for soft- ware more completely in the Tenth Five-Year Plan by organizations of various minis- tries and depa,rtment,s of the country, under the leadership of the USSR State ~ommit- tee for Science and T echnology a complex program on the creation of over 100 it~~ms of ASU software for rr~ ss use is being implemented. The work will also be continued in the next Five-Year Plan. _ Much attention is being given to the study and dissemination through the ASU SFAP of advanced foreign experience in the creation of ASU on the ba.sis of software. The - results of work of the Un~_fied Plan of Collaboration of CEMA Countries in the Area of the Applica,tion of Computer Hardware are being used to create ASU PPP's. Several hundred ASU's are being developed with use of PPP's included in the Soviet part of the joint fund of applied programs. In the country, therefore, the founda.tions have been laid f~r an industry for ASU software production, one manufacturing and delivering software as ordered by users. - The organiza.tion of centralized ASU software maintena,nce will permit in a short time raising the scientific and technical level of ASU's, reducing expenditures on their design and increasing the effectiveness of their functioning. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel�stvo "Statistika", 1980 [ 66-2174~] z~7~ 39 - cso: 1863 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFE'ICIA1, USE ONLY INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND METHODS OF COMPLEXING THE YeS-104~0 COMPUTER Moscow VYCHISZITEL�NAYA TEKHNII{A SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Max 80 pp 103-109 _ [Article by P. Jaepel, candidate of technical sciences (GDR) from book edited by M. Ye.Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Goun- tries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15~000 copies, 160 pages] [Text~ Starting in the 1q70's the coupling of several computers acquired increasing importance on an international scale. The principal reasons for this are the fol- lowing. On the one hand, unification of several computers in a multima,chine complex of ma.jor users facilitates the servicing of equipment, improves the organiza.tion of labor and _ increases the loading of ma.chines. During irrteraction of the corresponding compon- ents of an operating sys~:em and the programs of the user of that complex the main ~ tasks of the user can be solved more rapidly, reliably and with better results. On the other hand~ a multimachine complex provides the possibility of increasing the reliability of solution of the task~ for example, during failure of one processor the solution of tasks is automa.tically continued by another processor. In addition, the possibility arises of creating complex systems constructed of com- puters of several levels of the hierarchy (including control eomputers), and also uniting computers for purposes of remote processing (for example, uniting a computer processing data with a computer controlling channels~. At the "Robotron" Scientific Production Combine the coupling of com~uters has been _ studied for several years. A number of computer couplings have been accomplished, in pa.rticular the coupling of YeS-1040 models with one another, and also with small ~ computers. The necessa.ry prerequisites have been created far coupling the YeS-l0~1-0 _ with the Ye5-1o55~ A survey of the principles of the coupling of YeS computers, starting from their apparatus possibilities (Figure 1), is given below. _ Direct signal control. Direct :control is (starting with ma,chine No 4~6~ a f~nction of the central processor of the model YeS-104-0 computer. It serves for the exchange . - of control information between coupled central processors. One bit can be trans- _ mitted through direct control on a single instruction. Data exchange between cen- tral processors through direct control is impossible. Direct control is used in 1~0 - _ FOR OFFICIA~. USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ~poueccop ~ ~1~ ~pAMOe cu2HanbHOe ~2~ npoueccap ~1 EC 3BM fC 3BM _ (or EC-2020 ynpc.BneHUe (Or EC-2020 8o EC- 2655) 8o EC-2655J h'pHOn Kaxon ABonrep ~4~ �KOHan- NoNan " QByxrraHanbNO 5 _ ynpoBneHUe yMq ,QByx~rpHO~bHD~S~ _ ynpp6neHUe HMA Mynaru{(~ _ ycrpoucrBo Mynaru- - nnerccop renenepeaavu nneKCOp (~ONNb/X Figure 1. Methods of coupling computer~ with one another. 1-- YeS computer processor (from Ye5-2020 5-- Two-channel control of magnetic to YeS-2655) disk stores 2-- Direct signal control 6-- Multiplexor 3-- Channel 7-- Long-range da.ta transmitter 4 Channel-channel ad.apter ~ Interaction with other method.s af control, for exa~ple, jointly with a two-channel - storage control unit or a d.irect-access storage for coupling the model YeS-10~0 with - sma.ll computers. - Direct signa,l control is accomplished by the comp~nent "Warranty of several com- - puters" of operating system version 6.0. Coupling through a channel-channel adapter. A channel-chanr?el adapter represents ~ one of the ma,in possibilities of coupling one computer with another. By means of that adapter, and also by direct control and jointly used means of direct access - (disks), multima,chine systens are realized. A channel-channel adapte.r represents an information line between the cha.nnel of a mode~ Ye5-104-0 and the cha,nnel of a 41 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FUR OFFICIAL USC ONLY model YeS-1055 (the connection of another YeS computer of the first or second line also is possib~e~. In that case the central processor is considered a control de- vice. The distance between computers caxi reach 60 meters. Data are transmitted in a regime of maximum loading through a multiplex unit or a selector channel wi~th the velocity of a slower channel. A channel-channel adapter functions in one of two regimes: a regime of compatibility _ or an expanded regime. In the regime of compat.ibility the ada,pter performs the orders of a mod.el Ye5-104-0 (that i.s, alI YeS computer mofels of the first line~ and in the expanded regime, new flznctions of YeS computers of the second line. Switch- ing from regime to is accomplished by special instructions during the working _ time of the adapter. The contents of some registers and the indications of state of the cha.nnel-channel - adapter were shown on the YeS-7o69 operator's panel. From tha.t panel the channel- channel adapter is transferred to the autonomous regime or the regime of work with a computer. - The channel-channel adapter is used in two variants: --data excha.nge between two computers through the channel-channel adapter; --optimization of the distribution of developed user programs among several coupled - ~mputers by transmitting information thrrnxgh the channel-channel adapter. In accordance with those variants in the YeS OS operating system there are two kinds of program canporients of different levels, the 5-26 and 5-15. In component 5-26 of the Ye5 OS operating system~ version 6.0~ provision was made for means of transmitting informa~tion between Ye5 computers of the first and second lines through a channel-channel adapter. The infarma.tion is transmitted in the form of data units. Component 5-15 of the Ye5 OS oper.ating system version 6.2 serves for the control of complexes of several coupled computers, that is, for exa.mple, for the cou;~ling of the model Ye5-104~0 with a computer of the second line through a channel-channel adapter and jointly used peripherals. Component 5-15 of the modified. Ye5 OS opera~ting system assures centra.lized monitor- ing of the entire system through the leading computer and -the working computer (Fig- ure 2). _ The comput er also distributes tasks over the working computers, and the peripherals over user programs and controls the system input and output. - Th~lks to the combination of several computers in a complex the large user has at _ his disposal a highly Prod.uctive ar_d rea.dily serviced system which assures relia- bility in the presence of computer or operating system errors. A combinecl cha,in of tasks is recorded on an external store, and so when there is a failure of the work- ing or leading computer restart is possible, restart which is to a considerable degree automated by means of component 5-15. It simplifies the preparation and or- ganization of the total running of a program and tha.nks to that facilitates servic- ing. This is especially advantageous to users who have a need every day for a high caxrying capacity of articles dur3ng work with various data ca,rriers. 42 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY BeByucaA 3eM ~1~ POFI04dA 3BM ~ Cenek~opr+e~u/ , ~'l/fpbTUn/7ENCNb~U KONQ/7 C2/J2MTO~ONb~IJ kQHp/1 ~ h'OHO/7 ~ 2 ~ ~ ea~8oa ycrpou rBa - ~BoBa u ~e~Boaa (7~ ~5 OveoeB ~6~ saBaHUt] u ux pa~Heu{eHUri Figure 2. Coupling of severa,l computers. 1-- Leadin~ computer 5-- t?utput ~ , 2-- Working computer 6-- Line of ta,sks and their 3 Multiplex channel arrangement _ 4-- Selector channel 7-- Input-output devices Harronurenu ~1~~ ~ qByxKaHona- ~1~ yeccop K1 _ Hoe _ ycrpoucrBo - ~ x ) ueccop M2 - - - ' ynpoBneHU 2 Nvkonurenul~~ l ~1,~ l7AO- yc~pout rBo ueccop K1 ynpaBneHUA ~1) ueCp op K2 ~3J (C aByxKoNOnbs~o~n+ . ~epeKnroaareneM) Figure 3. Cir.cuits for connection of a two-channel control device ' and a control device with a two-channel switch. - 1-- Processor 3-- Control (with two-channel switch~ _ 2-- Two-channel control 4-- Stores ~J _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 _ FOR OFF[CIAL [JSE ONLY - Single-cha.nnel operation. According to this principle several computers can be coupled in two variants, with two channels and with a two-channel switch (Figure 3). Control de~ices with two channels. At the present time in YeS computers there is a Ye5-S521 r.ontrol device with two channels for control of magnetic disk stores. By - means oi that device simultaneous transmission of data between the immediate-aceess momory and to magnetic d.isk stores is possible. The device consists of two control units, and only some central functions are performed together. Control devices with a two-cha.nnel switch. Tn a Ye5 computer there are the follow- - ing control devices with a two-channel switch (for magnetic disk stores): the YeS- - 5555 for 7�25-~Yte disks, the YeS-5561 and Ye5-5568 for 29-Mbyte disks and the Ye5-5566 for 100-Mbyte disks. The development of control devices with a four-chan- nel switch for 100- or_ 200-Mbyte plug-in magnetic disk store is planned. .A control _ device with a single swi~Lch assures data transmission only between the main memory - and one peripheral, but in tha.i: case parallel data transmissirn to two or more devices simultaneously is impossible. In the use of those two variants the differ- - ences consist only only in the effectiveness and ca.rrying ca,pacity of the tasks. For the c~nnection of several channels to a single coz~trol device there are two - methods of co;nplexing: connection to the central processo-r and connection of two central processors to a sin~le device. The two methods are used in the coupling of _ control devices to the Ye5-104~0 and couplings of several YeS-104~0 computers with one another and s~rith sma,ll computers. Ki - uecco B ~ _ K2 C K2 Figure 4. Circuit for connection of several control - devices to one processor. 1 Processor In the first method (Figure 4~) contral devices A and C are connected to a single cha,nnel and device B to two cha,nnels. Connection with device B through channel K1 is impossible~ if at tha,t moment the device is serviced on control device A, the connection ca.n be ma,de through channel K2. In the second method (Figur_e 5) both the central processors have access to the same stores, that is, to the sa,me files. If a connected device controls a store with _ direct access, then a separate file can be reserved for work with a single central processor. The control device can alternately establish a connection between the _ central processors and various stores. FO~t OFFIC~L i.J~~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' _ k~ crap cr o K2 c~ec~o 1 n crOneHUA epco 2, _ (x z~ . Figure 5. Circuit for connection of two processors to a single control device. _ 1-- Processor 2-- Control device The store is reserved by the operating system during the time of a si.ngle input- output operation and can be envisaged for a longer time through a ma.crostructure in the user's program (maximally to the end of completion of the task). By means of those control devices a number of couplings of the YeS-1040 computer model with itself and with sma.l.l computers been accomplished according to the multichannel work principle. - Qoupling through a long-range data transmitter. Neede3 to realize this method. of coupling is the so-ca.lled duplex regime~ in which a communications channel can transmit informa.tion simultaneously in both directions. In tha,t the multi- plexors are connected to the computer multiplex or connector channel and works with a standard input-output interface of a Ye5 computer, just as any other control devive. - Information is transmitted. through the long-range transmitter at a relatively low rate. ]?uring the simultaneous control of channels, the processor and multiplexers - the data from k computers ca.n be transmitted at a hi.gher rate in a time-sha.ring regime. Evalua,ting the above-described possibilities, we can conclude tha.t the followin~ variants of coupling will be realized by the mid-1980's: l~ an input-output adapter with and without direct signal control; 2 two- or multichannel devices for the control of stores with direct access (with and without direct control); 3) combina,tions of variants 1 and 2. Complete aasurance of coupling through a channel-channel adapter in a YeS ~S operat- - ing system, version 6.0, is envisa,ged, starting in 19'!9. COPYRIGFirs Yzdatel'stvo "Sta,tistika", 1980 [ 66-2174~] 2174~ csos 1863 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI~ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFF'IC1AL USE ONLY S'PANDARDIZATION OF COMPUTER INSTALLATION IN THE HUNGARIAN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TII{HNIKA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. ~ VYPUSK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Ma.r 80 pp 115-121 [Article by I. Pignitskiy, economist, Ya. Rakh and A. Zoltan, engineers (Hungarian People's Republic) from book edited by M~ Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Com- mission'for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Technolo- - gy, Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~ [Excerpts] Hungary actively crntributes to the i.mplementation of plans of social- ist integration being expanded on the basis of the Complex Program for the Develop- ment of Computer Technology, adopted by the CEMA countries, and from the very start paxticigated in the development, production and comp'lex servicing of'YeS eomputer - equipment. Our nationa,l economy is concentrating more efforts in the present Five-Year Plan - period. than earlier to implement the plans for the development and applica.tion of computer technology. Thanks to tha,t by the end of 1980, with a doubling of the number of used facilities, the percentage of imported YeS computers will amount to about 80 percent of all installed machines. Such a change in the homogeneity of the computer pool ca,uses a need for an identical to questions in the plan- ning and allocation of corr.puter centers within the framework of complex ma.inten- ance. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika", 1980 [66-z174~] 217~ Cso: i863 , 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY OPERATION OF SM COMPUTERS (SM-3) _ Moscow VYCHISLITEL�NAYA TII{HNIl{A SOTSIALISTICHESKIlCH STRAN. SBORNIK STATEY. VYFIJSK 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Ar-ticles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 131-136 _ [Article by P. Sh. Yankelevich, candidate of technical sciences, and Shepinskiy, L. A.~ engineer (USSR) from book edited by M, Yeo Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Com- mission for Collaboration of Sociali;t Countries in the Area. of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages~~ [Text] At the present time the SM (sma,ll computer) system, jointly developed and produced by the socialist countries, is becoming more and more widely distributed. Those ma,chines are being constxucted on a modern design-element base with the use of integrated microcircuits with medium and high degrees of integration. During the introduction of new computer facilities a number of questions connected with thEir generation usually arise. In this article information is presented about - the organization of the computing process and the technica.l operation of the SM-3. - The ma,chine ha,s been in operation at the computer center of the Institute of Elec- - tronic Control Ma,chines for one year and includes: - --an SM-3P processor with a timer; --an SM-3100 main storage (OZU-P-32K -18~1); --an alphanumeric terminal based on an SM-7206 (VTDEOTON 340); --a punched tape input-output device based on an SPTP-3 mechanism; --a serial alpha,numeric printer ba.sed on an SM-6302 mecha.nism (DZM-180); --an zzo~r 137o ma,gnetic disk store (SM-~00~ . Work on the SM-3 computer was organized in an interactive mode~ tha,t is, in a mode . of direct communication of the user with the machine. Such an operating mode is stipulated by the cha,racter of the tasks to be solved--the debugging of the SM com- _ - puter software and the development of automated control systems. Users' tasks are not run by computer center operators. The ma,chine works around the clock. - Used as the main operating system is the general-purpose DOS SM disk operating sys- tem. For the development of a complex of programs connected with. the automa,tion of research experiments and the creation of a hierarchic distributed information s tem, a real-time disk operating system and a ba,ckground in-line operating system - FOBOS respectively ha,ve been introduced. 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 F'OR OFF'iC1AL USE O1VLY Experience in the operation of disk operating systems has shown that in organizing a computing process on a.n SM-3 computer it is advisa.ble to have working, system and personal disks and collective-use disks. A working disk is a disk with which each programmer working on a computer can work. The preservation of informa,tion in it is not assured. A fixed disk is used as a working disk. By a personal disk is understood. a disk assigned to a certain user.. On that disk is stored all the necessary information relating to the task being solved or being debugged and, if it is needed, the operating system under the control of which it is run. While a program is being run on a computer, to avoid losses of informa,tion stored on the personal disk, which can occur due to equipment fai lures or user errors ~ the contents of tha,t disk are re-recorded on a working disk and further work is done with a fixed disk. When the work on the machine is concluded the information is returned from the working disk to the personal disk. _ The collective-use disk can be presented for work by several users solving or de- bugging various problems in the general Tha.t disk is used for work with programs containing a limited volume of information. io avoid overfilling the collective-use disk the engineer-programmer engaged in ma,intenance of the computer software, after suii;able weekly verification, reports to �the users about possible - overfilling of the disk ~ and in ca,se of necessity helps to compact it with removal ~ of programs obsolete and not used now. _ System disks are disks containing various generated operating systems under the control of which the users� tasks must be run. System disks are used to re-record the necessary operating system on a working disk, in the solution or debugging of tasks of users n ot requiring storage of the results on a plug-in disk, - Plug-in disks are used as system, personal or collective-use disks. To protect very valuable information stored on plug-in disks (debugged programs, developed pro~rams ~ etc) , those disks are duplicated. Every month catalogs of all the plug-in disks are printed and the information on - them is checked. Such monitoring of the carriers permits revealing faulty disks for subsequent restoration and verification of the effectiveness of the use of ~ carriers in the course of a month. Magnetic disks are stored in the general file of ma.gnetic carriers on specially equipped racks. The clima.tic conditions in the file room are kept close to those of the ma.chine room. The preparation of data--of large information files--is accomplished in the per- forator room of the computer on tape perforators. In the absence of such devices the data can be prepared on punched cards and subsequently transferred to a machine with card input. In the computer center of the institute this is done on an M-4~030 com~uter in parallel with solution of the tasks. During debugging of programs on an SM-3 the informa.tion is corrected directly at the operator's panel (on a video terminal~. 48 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY The technical operation is accomplished by three associate workers. The servicing - of the processor~ the main memory and the input-output controls is done by a single engineer~ a computer specialist. He is the computer chief. An engineer who is a computer specialist is also alloca,ted for servicing the ma,gnetic disk stores. A tha,ohinist maintains and regulates the peripherals. An engineer programmer services the software (generates operatin systemsfl intro- duces new versions, monitors the condition of disk ca.rriers, etc~ and consults with users. - During expansion of the sma.ll machines poo~ the service group must be increased by about 30 percent for each additional SM-3 computer. Since the computer works fairly reliably, en~ineers are no~t needed for the SM-3 on all shifts. The servicing personnnel work s only the first shift. After appr opri- ate instruction all users work on the machine independently. In case of equipment failure the user must disconnect the ma,chine and make the necessary entry in the ma.chine-time log. When the niachine is working around the clock, ma.intenance takes 1-1. S hours a day, weekly maintenance 3 hours~ and there is n o monthly or quarterly maintenance. An- nual preventive maintenance is planned. Notes regarding computer failures and defects are recorded in a special machine-time lag. During daily maintenance ~ work is done in accorci~.nce with the requirements for the - operation of peripherals, in particular the peripherals are cleaned, devices about the functioning of which comments ha,ve been made in the evening and night shift logs are tested and reinstalled and the working efficiency of the machine is veri- _ fied on a program for testing a disk nperating system. During weekly preventive maintenance the o~eration of the ma.chine is monitored. The ma,in memory, disk stores and input-output devices are testea. The installation of the magnetic heads is inspected on a test cassette and the correctness of the - reading of information from individual ma,gnetic disks is monit'ored. When there are several machines it is necessary to verify the compatibility of all the available - ma.gnetic disk stores. Weekly preventive maintena.nce also is conducted to perform necessary monthly and quarterly preventive maintenance on individual peripherals in accordance with the preventive maintenance schedule previously established on the basis of instiu ctions on the technical operation of the machine. Operation of the SM-3 for a year has shown that the largest number of failures and _ defects occurs on the magnetic disk store. This began to be manifested especially when the number of employed packages increased (over 50 units). The fault is tha.t durin~ the recurrPnt insertion of a plug-in disk the informa.tion previously recorded on it is not read off. To achieve norma.l functioning the disk has to be _ re-inserted, changing the position of the sectors in relation to the synchronous pulse sensor. The collector motors work insufficiently reliably in IZOT 1370 magnetic disk _ stores. T o avoid noise resulting from sparking of the ~nc;or, it is necessary t o clean it at least once a month. At the present time in the institute an IZOT - 1370-V magnetic disk store with a collector-free motor has been installed on an SM-3 ma,chine; it is much more reliable in operation and produces no noise. - 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR ~~FICIAL USE ONL~f Failures of other devices been observ~d relatively rarely. In the coursz of - a year the plates controlling the main stores and two integrated circuits K5591~~ ~ and K5591P~' in the interface units of elements of the DZM-180 alphanumeric print- _ er were replaced, The power source of the ma,gnetic disk store control ha,s failed twice and the DZM-180 printing head once, _ - Experience in the operation of the SM-3 in the course of a year has shown tha.t dur- ~ ing qualified technical servicing, including regular preventive maintenance and repairs, +he machine f~nctions sufficiently reliably. The number of failures and defects encountered is not large. The total working time of the machine is ~ 3310 hours, of preventive ma.intenance is ~26 hours and of downtime due to equipment _ = repairs is 112 hours per year. A group consisting of three specialists can com- pletely assure the working efficiency of an SM-3 computer. To achieve most effec- _ - tive use of the machine it is necessary to correctly organize the computer process~ giving special attention to the work of programmers with magnetic carriers and to - the assurance of protection of the information recorded on them. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Statistika'�, 1980 - [66-2174~] z17~ cso: 1863 ~ . 50 FnR ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY GENERAL YeS COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE SUPPLIES AND SERVTCING IN THE POLISH PEUPLE'S REPUBLIC _ Moscow VYCHISLI'1'EL�NAYA 7EKHIVIltA SOTSSALISTICHESK]XH STRt~~V. SBORNII{ STATEY. VYPUSK 7(Comguter Technology of the Socialist Countrie~. Collection of Articles. I~sue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Mar 80 pp 121-131 ~Article by B. Mroczek, ma.ster engineer (Polish People's Republic~ from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Count.ries in the Area of Computer Technology, Statistika, 15~000 copies, 160 pages~ [Text~ The system of general deliveries requires of an enterprise a constant rise in the volume of computer ha.rdware and software deliveries and also an expansion of efforts connected with the preparation, debugging and transfer of computer systems into operation. The expanded volume of servicing of users flows from the growth of needs, often singular and irrlividual, from their complex realization by a general - contractcr. Within the framework of general delivery the Wroclaw Center of Computer Systams for Automation and i~[easurements ("Mera-Elwro"~ provides users with the following; = ~ --comprehensive information about hardware or software; --a plan o~ the computer system; --the delivery of and software (basic and applied) and puttir~g it into operation; --the delivery of selected modules of applied software; ~ --instruction of personnel; --warranty and post-warranty servicing; --delivery of spar.e parts and service equipment; --ma.intenance of softh~are. - - The computer sys'cem plan takes into consideration the development of the technology and organization of the center�s works selection of the necessary technological and - auxiliary development of an ideogram for the realization of investments, technica,l aiid economic substantiations and a technical plan for the realization of invest- - ment s . The establishment of contaots and the initial collaboration of the general con- tractor with future users of computer systems are accomplished by means of: . ~ ~l _ FOR OFF[I~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OEFICIAL USE OIVLY . --the orga.nization of exhibitions of hardware; --participation in fairs; --advertising activity; --presentations of information and advertising ma,terials; --the organiza~ion of seminars, conferences, symposiums, meetings, etc; ~ --conducting special consultations on specific applica.tions of computer ha,rdware, technological pos;~ibilities and the designation of proposed facilities, the tech- nology and organiza.tion of the work of the computer center~ documentation on con- - struction, procedure in the realiza.tion of capital investments and training of personnel of the center. ' The selection, making up complete sets and delivery of computer hardware in accor- dance with the needs of user constitute the main tasks of the general contractor. The difficulty of this problem increases especially in the delivery of Ye5 system _ - ha,rdware to a broad range of suppliers. - The YeS-1032 layouts delivered by the "Mera-Elwro" center are ma,de into sets pro- - duced by the center its~.lf and other enterprises in Poland such as "Mera~art," "Mera-Blonie" (Blonie Plants of the Mera Association)~and "Mera-Elzab," and devices arriving from foreign proclucers of YeS computer ha,rdware. - Delivered Ye5 facilities. Table 1 presents a list of YeS devi~es delivered by the "Mera-Elwro" G eneral Deliveries Office to local processing sy:~~ens, interactive and ~ other systems with use of long-range -tra.nsmiss~ on equipment and aeliv. Led to for- eign and domestic users. The next step in increasing the volume of general deliveries is deliveries o~ auxiliary equipment of cbmputer hardware centers~ in particular of facilities for storage and transpor-tation of information ca,rriers. F Organization of and procedure in complexing systems. All equipment obtained from suppliers in this country and abroad undergo at "Mera-Elwro" cycle of monitoring in the stage of delivery, being subjected to functional inspection and inspection for application on the basis of technical specifications agreed upon with the manu- facturers. - A system with a definite layout ordered by the user is made up from tested and manufactured components. Each system made complete under~oes a test operation - lasting several hundred hours~ with the application of monitoring tasks and applied programs. That procedure greatly reduces the debugging time of the user�s system - and facilitates its organization. The volume of delivered software. An inseparable pa.rt of the general delivery of the YeS-1032 system is the basic software, including operating systems and pro- grammed technical servicing procedures (diagnostic programs~. For the YeS-1032 _ a YeS DOS disk operating system version 2.0 and a YeS OS operating system version 4.1 are delivered in the main. Those systems assure effective functioning o~ the _ YeS-1032 regardless of the tasks performed by them and their layout. 52 , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 1 Manufacturer, Devices Mod.el country Ce2ltral processor with 256-1024-Ybyte main memory YeS-2032 "Mera-Elwro," PPR Ma,in memory unit with 256 Kbyte ca.pacity - " Input-output devices - Operator pa,nel YeS-7076 "Mera-Blonie," PPR Alphanumeric printer YeS-7033 Punched ca,rd. reader YeS-6o16 CSSR Card punch YeS-7014 " - Punched tape reader YeS-6022 USSR Tape punch YeS-7022 " Screen monitor control (loca,l) M-79o~ "Mera-Elza.b," PPR " " YeS-7916 � " � punch M-798o "Mera-Blonie," PPR Auxiliary stores Magnetic tape store control YeS-5517 USSR " YeS-5019 "Ma.ramat,'� PPR _ 29-Mbyte magnetic disk store control YeS-5561 Bulga,rian PR � " " � YeS-5061 � Data transfer units Data transfer processor YeS-8371 "Mera-Elwro;" PPR Keyboard character punch YeS-8575 "Mera-Blonie~" PPR Screen monitor remote control unit YeS-7905 "Mera-Elzab," PPR Dependent screen mor_itor YeS-7910 " Independent screen monitor YeS-7950 " 600-24-00-b~s modems YeS-8006 "Telkom-Teletr," YeS-8013 FPR In the operating systems delivered for the YeS-1032 computers the requirements been ~aken into conside.ration for such new methods of application as: --access to the computer through means of remote transfer (BTAM and TCAM access methods); --work in an interactive regime (CRJE~; --remote job entry and simultaneous access of several user s(RJE, TSO~. The following are delivered for technical servicing: autonomous KNTR tests, a DTEC test monitor, tests loca,ting failu're of the processor and DTLU cha.nnels, OI,TER system tests and the OLTSER independent test system. The second part of the delivered software for YeS-1032 computer systems is a group of programs from various areas of applica,tion. Applied software is programs and systems for scientific a.nd technical applications, - and also packages of programs for the planning and management of an enterprise, starting with the technical preparation. The following programs and packages are now being delivered: 53 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 ~'O1R OftF7CtAL [JSE OI~il.Y - - 1~ for. scientific and technica,l calculations--a library of mathema,tical modules, a transport program, a linear programming system, a system of modelling and simu- _ lation of discrete processes MASPE/103~ the SYSWI system for retrieval�of library information, the GPSS system for general application simulation, the SOWA engineer- ing calculations conversion system, the ECAP of programs for electriCal circuit designing, the WINT interactive system for scientific and technica.l infor- ma.tion retrieval, the MATLAN matrix calculation system, the CSMP system for simu- lating continuous processes and a solutions table translator; 2) packages of programs for data and arrays handling--the 5IGNAL generator of pro- _ grams for data and arrays ha.ndling, the POD data handling package and the SOIZZ arrays creation system; 3) packages for control--a system for monitoring plan realiLation; the SPSR man- power planning system~ the TPP ca,rd organization system, programs for retrieval of - the structure of an article, a nPeds planning system and a stocks control system; 4~) programs for "Orda-130~" conversi~n to Ye5--conversion of "Orda-1300" tape files to the YeS computer, translation of COBOI;'from the "Orda-1300" computer tu the YeS computer and translation of FORTRAN from the "Orda,-1300" computer to the YeS computer. T he applied software delivered by the YeS-1022 computer general supplier, thanks to its universality, can be applied in various areas of the national economy. In the "Mera" Associa-tion a second enterprise engaged in the d.issemination and maintenance of applied software and automatic planning is "Mera-sistem." T echnical servicing of YeS hardware. In 1979 eight mod.els of YeS computers were in operation in Poland: the YeS-1010, Ye5-1012, YeJ-1020, YeS-1021, YeS-~1022, YeS-1032, Ye5-104~0 and YeS-1050--a total of about 100 systems. - T he role of "Elwro-servis" in the area of complex servicing of YeS hardwars starts with an a~reement with the Foreign Trade Office on making up sets of imported equip- ment, the cor~ditions of their delivery and a service con-tract. "Elwro-servis" accomplishes complete and direct technical servicing only for YeS- - 1032 systems. The YeS-1020 and YeS-1022 systems are provided technical servicing i:~ collaboration with the Electronic Computer Plant {Poznan)~ and the YeS-1010 and _ YeS-1012 in collaboration with the "Telkom-Teletr" enterprise (Poznan). The single = systems Yes-L04~0, YeS-1050 and Ye5-1021 are serviced by the NOTO (Natinnal Organi- zation for Technical Servicing) of the supplier country, just as "Elwro-servis" - accomplishes technical servicing of YeS-1032 systems in the CSSR and Hungarian People's Republic. External connections of "Elwro-servis." T he needs of users of Ye5 hardware are simultaneously assured tha,nks to the external cor,nections of "Elwro-servis," estab- _ lished in two ways: 1) by service contracts (in Poland and abroad) with the manufacturers of compon- ents of the Ye5-1032 system. T hose contracts are the basis for the technical ser- vio~ng of operated facilities and guara,ntees: the instruction of specialists in . servicing at the :~,rdware manufacturer's plant, the provision of documentation for 54 , ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 P'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY service purposes, systema,tic and emergency deliveries of spare parts and subassem- - blies~ help equipment manufacturers to elimina,te difficult ca,ses of hardware fail- ures at the user�s, and the transfer by the manufacturer of documentati.on on chan- ges in the ha.rdwar~. Service contracts been concluded w~th a number of Polish computer ha,rdware manufacturer~--with "Mera-Blonie" (printers), "Maramat" (magnetic tage stores~, - "Mera-Elza.b" (system monitors~, and contracts with foreign-country manufacturers-- the Bulgarian People's Republic (magnetic disk stores~, the USSR (controls for ma.g- netic tape and magnetic disk stores) and the CSSR (punched card devices~. 2~ bilateral agreements on organizational and technica,l collaboration between the NOTO's of manufacturing countrieso T he most important benefit flowing from the agreements is the possibilities of exchange of experience for the purpose of improv- _ ing the servicing methods, and also help during the servicing of mutua,lly delivered - YeS facilities. "Elwro-servis" carries out this collaboration on the basis of agreements concluded with the N(7I'0's of the USSR, Hungarian People's Republic, GDR and CSSR. The organizational and technical aspects in the activity of "Elwro-servis" are: --effective adjustment and expansion of systems; - --efficient and effective intervention of the service in emergency situations of - hardware; --help in the introduction of both technica,l servicing and in the area of software; _ --provision with spare parts and subassemblies. These problems are being solved on the basis of the above-described facilities. - The technical servicing network in Poland. The ba,sis of effective functioning of - te~hnical servicing of YeS-1032 systems is a technical servicing networI: with a base in Wroclaw and departments (service stations) in other cities. Such an allo- cation of the organizations, which takes into account the location of service sta- tions near the largest number of systems in a given territory, guarantees rapid contact of the user with the sphere of servicing. The work done by the network is coordinated and monitored by a central dispatcher at Wroclaw. The network depart- ments have an identical structures --a departmental dispatcher service, --a group of service coworkers~ --a warerouse of spare parts and subassemblies, --a repairs workshop, and --means of transport and communica,tion. The technological base. Due to the variety of sources for deliveries of YeS-1032 system components, "Elwro-servis" is investing considerable efforts in the stage of - preparation and introduction of new types of equipment into the system. T he first of that stage is instruction at the manufacturer of a leading ~roup of ser- vice workers in ~the area of the development, operation and servicing of equipment. That greup conducts a preliminary operation of equipment before delivery to the _ user and installs the first equipment at the user's facility. The experience ac- _ cumulated in the process of preliminaxy operation of equipment and operation in the course of its use is used to improye method.s of technical servicing of facilities and increase their reliability. 55 FOR OFFICUL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 ~R 0~7CiAD. l1~ (DN6.Y Principles of spare parts and suba,ssembly supply. The sphere of servicing includes a central spaxe parts warehouse in Wroclaw and also warehouses at service points. Spare parts for warehouses at service stations are delivered in two conditions: --in norma,l conditions--periodic replenishment of stocks (every 3 weeks on the aver- age); --in emergency conditions in the course of a number of hours (up to 2~) (this time - depends on the means of transport--aircraft or truck~. In an emergency situation the user has access to the service point warehouse; the central warehouse is the source of replenishment of stocks of the principal spare parts according to plan. Directions in the development of YeS technica,l serviEing. T he steadily growing needs and requirements of users for elevation of the level and increase of the vol- ume of hardware use are stimulating the development of "Elwro-servis" activity: --the efficiency of technica,l servicing is growing (the time required for the start of repairs and the time required for the completion of repairs are being cur- tailed), and this is achieved mainly through wide replacement of subassemblies and functiona.l units in defective equipment; --the assortment and number of spare parts in the technical servicing network are being increased; --repair efficiency is increasing and the level of reliability of ha,rdware is being ~greatly raised as a result of expansion and intensifica,tion of collaboration of Elwro-servis with the equipment manufacturers and the NOPO's of countries parti- - cipating in the agreement. The software service. The software archiues and maintenance service, which ha.s been a part of the PPR NC7Tfl since the day it was founded, in 1978 adopted the name of the Program Fund and Ma,intenance Service (Fonda programm i sluzhba soprovozh- deniya--FPSS). It performs all the tasks in the area of YeS system software. The FPSS tasks are: --the formation of program ftiinds, the ma.king up of sets of and the maintenance of softwa,re; --help in technical servicing during debugging of the system; --generation and testing of operating systems for various configura,tions and appli- cations; ~ --the introduction of cha.nges and supplements in the so~tware; --the introduction and operational testing of software at the user's; --inspection of the delivered software (consultationso claims for possible errors~; --informa.tional activity. - To perform these tasks the FPSS has at its disposal well-prepared specialists and a polygraphic base. The software received from users and included in the FPSS is inspected regardless of which inspections it underwent earlier. The purpose of the inspection is to eliminate errors detected during previous tests. The received samples are counted and transferred for preparation of accompanying standards (tapes and program 56 F(Dk OlF'~ECQAL US~ OriB.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFiiCIAL USL ON1,Y documentation~. Simultaneously the information service prepares ca.talag card.s to bring the user's ca,talogs up to date and prepares more extensive informa.tion for the information bulletin of the "MEra-El.wro" center. Additional information is - compiled for the a~~toma.ted information system flxnctioning within the framework of the International Scientific and Technical Information Center. In addition, users obtain information quarterly on cha.nges and new versions in the form ~f printouts _ from the computer-aided control system introd.uced in the NOTO. Using the c~,talogs and all the available information, users order software from the I'PSS. For foreign users the delivery is accomplished on the ba,sis of a concluded contract. The basic software (tests, operating systems, control tasks) are deliv- ered within the framework of the contract for the delivery of ha,rdware and is transmitted to users during the hardware debugging time. The transmission and _ introduction of the basic software are an integral part of the debu~ging which is set in the protocol for transfer of the sy'stem into operation. Special software as a prod.uction product ha,s a o aran'tee~ and all the information - about errors which have arisen is assembled and analyzed by a designated group of - specialists. They study the problem in detail and if its ij,~r~rtance is canfirmed - transfer a given program to the user in orc~er to introduce changes and eliminate errors. - Changes and. supplements are transmitted by the FPSS to all users of the given pro- gram. Effective control of complex servicing of users~ '1'~ automa,te the ma,intenance of special softkTare and effective management of spare parts, in "Elwro-servis" an information system has been developed for which the data, base consists of the fund of information about the spacial so~tware, the flznd of ~nformation about the user and the d.ata f'und. Direct access to prima,ry and processed informa.tion is accomplished by means of dis- plays. - The information system is used by the servicing o.rganizations for effective control of the presentation of services. Rapid ac~ess to the basic information about the - user permitss --monitoring the delivery dates of computer systems; --monitoring the dates of receipt of premises, debugging and the warranty expira- tion dates; --observing the list of equipment in the warranty period~ the list of overdue de- buggings, the list of equipment in the stage and the list of overdue deliveries; --monitoring deliveries of basic software and programs delivered to users by means of: --information about delivery da~es; --information about types of carriers of separate special software modules; --information about file numbers of users; --preparation of daily lists of special software not delivered to users; 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 O~FiCiAL U~ ON~.Y --current preparation of lists of users who have non-current special software carriers; --receipt of claims and monitoring the period.s of their forma,tion; --analysis of special software deliveries from the point of' view of compensating expenditures; - --compilation of specifications of ca.rriers and program documentation. The information system facilitates decision making and monitoring the work of in- dividual servicing organi~a,tions. Collaboration between the FPSS within the frar~ework of the YeS computer system. The collaboration with the FPSS of other countries and organizations acting within the framework of the Ye5 computer system applies to: --coordination of plans in the development of basic software; --active participation of specialists in the development of software standa,rds; _ --participation of PFSS representatives in national and ?.nternational tests; --currencyfree exchange of special software between FPSS; . --organization of translation of program dociimentation. - Collaboration in that area ha,s permittEds --steadily supplementing deliveries of hardware with all necessary software; --developing special software standards effective in CEMA countries, thanks to - which a n~odified form of special software do~cumentatibn and unified principles of storage of originals and standards of ma.chine carriers of informa.tion and documPntation have arisen. T his ha.s eliminated the need to modify the documen- tation and ha.s greatly facilitated its maintenance; --eliminating duplication of work connected with the development of basic software _ by introducing a principle according to which each device included in a YeS com- - puter must be provided with special software by the maker of thaz device~ The system for instruction of YeS computer~:users. T he "Elwro-servis" as an NOTO organization is engaged in instructing YeS users in the area of hardware and soft- ware servicing. In performing the duties of a general contractor the instruction center trains qualified personnel of users of the Ye5-1032 cystem. It also coordinates instruc- tion in the area of the Ye5-1020-1022 systems~ conducted by the electronic computer plant in Po~nan. Quantitative indicators of the instruction process for the YeS-1032 aomputer are - present~d in Table 2. . The instruction of programmers applies to such areas as operating systems DOS YeS and OS YeS~ the Assembler DOS YeS and OS YeS~ the PL~l DOS YeS and OS YeS~ FORTRAN DOS `le"~ and OS Ye5 and COBCL DOS Ye5 and OS YeS. Technical servicin~ personnel are instructed in two groups. Specialists of the first group study the system and become acquainted in detail with the central pro- cessor and in.terface circuits. Specialists of the second group study peripherals with consideration of the mechanica,l~ electrical and electronic circuits of the equipment. 58 F~I~ O~ICIAL U5~ ANLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 2 197~ . 1975 ~975 7-97? 1978 1979 Total Area v~ ~n ~n m v~ ~n v~ u~ ~n ~n m ~n ~n v~ o f a~ ~ a~ ~ a~ ~ a~ ~ a~ ~ a~ r a~ ~ _ _ ~n o m o v~ o v~ o ~n o u~ o ~n o _ instruction ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o a~ o a~ o ~ o a~ o ~ o ~ o ~ - o a o a o a ~ a ~ a o a ~ a Software 2~ 353 15 263 18 165 16 239 17 352 27 5~0 117 1913 ~ servicing Ha.rdware - - 15 213 15 35~ ~3 533 67 863 58 1160 198 3119 servicing = - Total 2~ 3S3 3~ ~76 53 516 59 772 84 1215 85 1700 315 5o3z flne system sRecialist and two or three pei�ipherals specialist ~uarantee complete working efficiency of the Ye5-1032 system in a work shift. ~ To improve the effectiveness of instruction, starting in 1977 the principle of the mod.ular system of instruction was adopted.. A definite theme~ repeated in different ` courses and in different alternatives, r~or example~ logical architecture~ power circuits, basic technology, ete, is considered a module. This instruction system is _ being introduced in states through the distribution of modules common to most peri- _ pherials, in the form of an introductory course, the production of modules relating " to mecha,nisms of devices, etc. To assure the required level of instruc-tion those attending courses in the future must Y,a,ve higher specialized education and corresponding prafessional practice. For specialists in technical ma,i.ntenance of ha,rdware for data preparation and operators, secondary eduoation is sufficient. - The condition for the acceptance of students in courses in the technical ser- vicing of ha,rdware is satisfactorily passing an introductory examination in binary _ arithmetic and the principles of computer technology. Ttie lectures are presented _ by staff instructors on leave from their work. The instruction time is stipulated by the type of equipment and the character of the course and fluctuates from 2 to 14~ weeks. Theoretica,l classes are usually conducted in groups of 20-25 (4~-6 hours per da,y~ and practical courses in groups of W-6, the number of lectures and practic~i sessions being practica,lly identica,l. The training cycle consists in the gradua,l mastering of separate modules, and a test is given after the completion of each theme. The taking of all the tests is the ma,in condition for admission to the final practical test on the loca,tion of defects and the elimination o.f simulated errors. Practica,l courses ar.e conducted in specially equipped shops, and also in computer laboratories~ Much attention is given to practical courses and programming courses. T he program- mer becomes acqua,inted with the principles of operator servicing, and later receives one or two hours of ma,chine ~ime for the compil~tion and testing of independently ~ developed programs. Practice of this type permits the programmer to become acquain- ted with the ha,rdware; this is of great importa.nce in his flzture work. The "~;lwro-servis" instruction center attributes great importance to the anulica- - tion of a broad gamut of modern audio-visua'1 equipment (motion-pic+,ure and slide 59 F~R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFEdC1AL USE ONLY prujectors, epidiascopes, magnetoscapes and synchronoscopes). That equipment per- mits students to better master the training ma,terial, reduces the instructi on time - and reinforces knowledge better. The learning process is enriched by chart s~ ' phatographs~ diapositives and films; the closed circuit television system being - introduced will serve the same purposes. Training ma.terials prepared especia115~ for ~ course instruction are playing a large role in the process; they supplement the operatin~ documentation. Those materials are being prepared by designers and instructors in accordance with the methodica,l requirements. The instruction center pe-riodically organizes seminars~ ~ymposiums and lectures = - during which designers and leading specialists acquaint students with achi evements of modern engineering and technology. T he program of training courses in t he area of Ye5 equipment is realized on the basis of documents developed within the frame- work of the Intergovernmental Commission for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Computer Tecr,nology. Instruction is done mainly according to standard- ized programs and is based on general qua.lification criteria. Within the framework of NCJrO agreements the instruction center participates in con- ferences of the managements of centers, and also in direct meetings of instructors - for the exchange of experience and the improvement and standardization of instruc- - tion methods. This is one of the elements of integration in the area of computer technology in countries participating in the agreement. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel�stvo "Statis~tika", 1980 [66-217~] ~ z17~ cso: 1863. 60 FOR OFFi~AY. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY THE YeS-102,5 COMPUTER ~ Moscow VYCHISLITEL'NAYA TIICHNIKA SOTSIALISTICHESKIKH STRAN. SBORrIIK STATEY. VYPUSK - 7(Computer Technology of the Socialist Countries. Collection of Articles. Issue No 7) in Russian 1980 signed to press 6 Ma.r 80 pp 136-147 CArticle by I. Klouda, engineer (CSSR~ from book edited by M. Ye. Rakovskiy, Inter- governmental Commissi.on for Collaboration of Socialist Countries in the Area of Comput~r TecYinology, Statistika, 15,000 copies, 160 pages] CText~ The YeS-1025 represents a small digital universal second-line YeS computer system (Figure 1~. The computer is intended for the solution of various scientific, technologica,l, economic and special problems in both autonomous conditions and in data processing systems, including systems working in real time and sha,red multi- computer systems. In relatian to remaining second-line computers of the YeS system, _ bottom-up compatibility ha,s been observed. 4. ~;Y' , sy3` . _~'�4,. y ~�C'. ~ . x: 9,,, ~ i,-.' ..'~s~ h; ~ Z" ri~, - i' '4;a p .a:;,f ~n~�~ ~4 ~ V sk�~. . *0 4 A~x . y~', ~t~~ t'~~ ~'~f eM'~ ux ' e ~ ~ n~, � ~ ~ _ - . ~ r ~ Y',.~Ys,i~f~.`....t~.~.. . �A,4.3.; ~.?`r~..r.,',~":!+~. ......r . ....._..~n J Figure 1. The YeS-1025 computer. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OF F1C1AL USE ONLY The YeS-~025 system includes a processor and a set of peripherals. The processor has an aggregate structure and can include from six to nine indepen- dent modules (according to the user's order) and a power system. The processors of the mod.ule are: --the service module (SRM~, intended for the initial recording of micrograms (two floppy ma.gnetic disk stores), for control of the operator's panel (display and keyboard) and for processing information about failures; --the operational module (OPM), serving for conducting operations determined by c ommands; --the or~anizational module ~ORG), controlling the connection between mod.ules and connection of modules with the ma,in memory; --the main memory (HP) , with one or two 128 Kb,yte modules; - --the disk module (DSK), intended for direct connection to four 100-Mbyte disk stores; --the multiplex transfer module (MPX), serving for the connection of peripherals by means of a standa,rd channel. On the basis of the pur.chaser's requirements the following equipment ca,n be in- stalled; --a tape module (PSK~ for d~.r~ct . carinee~tzom -to- six magnetic tape stores without a control dzvice; --a communication module (KOM~ for connection of external lines. Such a modular structure permits simultaneous performance of instructions, having a connection with peripherals and performing diagnostic and operator actions. The enumerated modules assure the following flanctio~~s: --implementation of an instruction set; - --functioning of the system in ba,sic or expanded control conditions; --dynamic conversion of addresses for a virtual 16-Mbyte store; --detection and correction of errors in the ma,in memory; --work of the control registers; --identification of channels and indirect addressing of data in channels; --recording of erroneous states; --dlrect connection of Ye5-5066 disk stores with a total capacity of about ~00 Mbytes on the YeS-5067 store with the YeS-5667 control; --work of the multiplex channel (not more than 10 controls for peripherals~; --connection of displays, the keyboard and the service floppy disk store on the ' - operator's panel; --central and autonomous connection and disconnection of the system in separate devices. 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The equipment additionally permits directly connecting about six YeS magnetic tape stores and al so connecting remote data processing terminals by means ~f 16 synchrcn- ous communication lines. Technical characteristics Clock frequency, MHz 8 Basic d.a.ta flow wid~h 2 bytes x 2 bits of control Basic microins-L�ruction cycle, ns 3''j5 Control sys~tem micr.oprogram Computer, operations~s 33,000 (Gibson I) _ Number of instructions 175 including: standard set 102 - operation s with decim~,ls 9 operations with wi-th floa,ting point 4~ work with expanded precision wi~th floating point 7 work with clocks 4~ conversion .5 provisional exchange 2 servicirig of protection key 2 ControJ memory Possibility of recording in separate modules Multiplex cha,nnel Fcr 10 control units Carrying capacity, Kbytes~s in selector mode 33 in multiplex mode 2~ Internal main memory Semiconductor capacity, bytes 128f{ expandability, bytes up to z56x Magnetic disk store Possibility of direct connection Capacity, Mbytes Up to 4~00 (four devices with 100-Mbyte capacity or two with 2x100-Mbyte capacity) M~,gnetic tape store Possibility of direct connect,ion Number of devices up to 6 _ Terminals Possibility of connection through communition module of 16 synchron.ous communication = lines Power system 380~220 V+ 10-15f 50Hz+1Hz P.rocessor power consumption 5-8 kW, depending on confi~ur~.- - tion Dimensions, mm cabinet 800x1600x1600 operator panel (without display) ~r5oX15ooX72S Processor, kg cabinat 950-1150 _ operator panel 280 - 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFGICIAL USE OtdLY ~ _ - - . _ . , a~ . ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,~,~V ~ ~ ~ _ ~ . , , Y ~ , ' ::r.~,~ts ~ .Y. t a;^"4+' ,t ~ xp ~ ~ ~ ~ ii ~J~~ i'Y ~ i l ~ t~:~~ '"x 4 , ~ W i! ' ~x'" ~ ~dy c,g'~ ~ A ~ , ~~4"~{'. ~ ~t~'"~ ~;,tA* ~ ~`i.~r �x. ~ E~I ':lY ~ ti~ . ~ . . a Y . , . ~ . Figure 2. The YeS-5004~ ma,gnetic tape store. - - The YeS-5004 ma.gnetic tape store (Figure 2~ is a device with phase-caled recording ~ - of information and automatic loading of taAe with a detailed diagnosis, intended for YeS first and second line computers. ~ - In -che Ye5-5004~ two recording methods are possible: phase-coded with a density of 63 bits~mm a.r.d NVNl with a density of 32 bits~mm. The ~'e~-5Q ~4~ store is connected t~ the control unit by means of a standard interface for YeS computer tape devices. Detailed information about the state and failures - is transferred to the device by means of 10 bytes of the basic state. Tha.t infor- - mation is used by th~ monitoring and diagnosis programs which permit checking the parameters of the apparatus in detail and making a rapid search for defects. Technical characteristics Method of recording ~ phase coded and NVNl Density of recording, bits~mm phase-coded 63 NVN1 32 64 ' FOR OFFI('IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Data tr.ansmission rate 126 Nvr11 6~ Number of t~acks ~ 9 Tap2 width, mm 12.7 Ma,ximum tape length, m 732 Reliability during readoff 109 errorless bits per erroneous bit - Gap between units, mm during recording 15 during readout 12.7 maximum Tape speed~ m~s 2 _ Fluctuation of velocity~ f + 1 _ starting time, ms 3 _ Tape stopping time, ms 2 _ Rewir,d r~.t:.~, m~s 18 Tota~ re~l rewinding time, s 50 Network power 3x380~220 V+ 10-15J - 50 Hz � 1 Hz Maximum power consumption, kW 2 Method of protection reset or grounding as desired - by purcha.ser Dimensions: height 1E~0 - width 800 - dep~~h 800 Ma,ss, kg ~00 Operating conditioiis Temperature +10 - +~i5 �C; - relative air humidity 40-80% ~ s f.n,� 4~'.~A t~~i~"A`~Y"(}'y~i'PT~~j ~ '.ikiA~'x d~~ "ry fA fi~rP~ ~'Sf,y~~i~~ ~l 1 ~i~~ ~ ~~l s ` r� - _ ~ i ~ . , , - i - ' ~ a~_. , ~ ~ - _ , Figure 3. The YeS-5069 plug-in ca.ssette disk store. ` 65 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE G~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Ye5-5069 plug-in cassette disk store (Figure 3~ is a universal device for - recording and rep-roducing digital in~ormation on a magnetic carrier. It is used as an external store for sma,ll computers because it greatly expands their operating capacities and possibilities of applicati on. By means of the Ye5-5069 store a disk operating system can be created for which an irremovable disk has been proposed. The store is used above all in computer systems in which a large internal store capacity and a short access time are requi~ed. The YeS-5069 plug-in cassette disk store is used mainly as the external store of sma.ll compu-ters. The ma,in external store includes two YeS-5069 stores~ a YeS-5569 control and a power source, to which one YeS-5569 control a:=1 two YeS-5069 stores can be connected. Technical cha.racteristics Total store capacity, Mbits 2~ ~~8~ Track capacity, Kbuts 30 60 Number of disks 2 - Number of surfaces for recording ~ Number of sectors 8, 12, 16 or 24~ - Number of tracks 200 + 3 Number of disk rotations, rpm 2~~~ � 2~5~ Minimum access time, ms 10 Maximum access time. ms 60 Mean ~~raiting time, ms 12.5 ms - Data transmission rate, Mbits~s 1�25 ~2~5~ Recording carrier YeS-5269 ca.ssette disk (front loa,ding~ Dimensions, mms height 305 ~5 ~19") depth 660 Mass, kg 6~ Power by network, V 22~ Power con~umed, w 600 Ext_ernal operating conditions o ambient temperature +5 to + ~0 C relative humidity up to 951 at 30 �C , The YeS-5074 floppy ma.gnetic disk store is intended to serve as the external store for small computers or microcomputers~ It also is used for the gathering and pre- liminary processing of da,ta, the loading of the microprograms of large computers and a number of special applications (rapid access~ large capacity and a large transmission rate). The YeS-50''f4~ is a rotary disk store in which a floppy magnetic disk placed in a protective package is used as the recording carrier. The replaceable floppy disk - is loaded into the store in the protective casing. The store includes a clamping and drive disk mecha.nism, a mechanism for positioning the head during recording and reproduction, recording and reproduction electronics and control electronics. 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY The selection of the required track is systema.tica.lly controlled for that store - by an electric step-type motor. - The store performs the follow~ng ~nctions: --receives control signals and generates signals of state; --moves the magnetic recording and reproduction head to the required track; --reproduces and records data. - Performance of these functions is-assured by electronic devices of the store by means of interface signals. Technica.l cha,racteristics Disk capacity (unformatted), bits 3200K Track capacity, bits 4~1K Data tr~,nsmission rate, Kbits~s 250 Ma,gnetic head for recording and reproduction (with tunnel erasure~ Recording density on internal track~ bits~mm 128 Rotation rate, rpm 360 Time of access to adjacent track, ms 10 Damping time of ma.gnetic heads after last step, ms 25 - Magnetic head pressing time, ms 4~0 - Number of tracks 77 Number of recording surfaces 1 Recording orientation Synchronous pulse Recording carrier 7~BM Diskette or equivalent Voltage 220 V+i~ 50 Hz � 0.5 Hz +27 V +1~ 1.5 A +5v+1.5a -5v+o.~a The YeS-5503 control for ma.gnetic tape stores (Figure 4~~ permits connecting mag- netic tape stores YeS-5002, Ye5-5003 and YeS-5004~ (with NVNl and pha,se-coded re- cording~ to first and second line Ye5 co:nputexs by a. radiai method. The attach- ment of eight ma.gnetic tape stores is possible, or of 16 ma.gnetic tape stores when two or four control devices are connected. The YeS-~503 has microprogram control with built-in dia.gnostic tests for its own circuits and ma,gnetic tape store circuits. With the ma.gnetic tape stores the ~ - device forms a subsystem which is connected to the computer processor by means of an input-output interface. Technical cha.racteristics Operation with computer and autonomous operation Number of controlled magnetic tape sotres 3 - with switches up to 16 Data transmission rate, Kbytes~s 6~-315 _ 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J~-~~~ ' it'r "..E~.~ . . ~ ~ ' ~Y+~~.~r_ '.a:r, � R ~bY . - . ~i . ~ ' � ".:'m5rN'~ a`v ~+a"x; S~ F g t t; i, j t': S V . ~ ~r ~ 4 { - ' Y,' ~ ' I . 4 : I i ~y . / Y ~~x ~K^l f ~ N~ ~ `.i J'' : l - p ~ C~ , i4~~~~j ' . - j y~ ; iQ ! . * ~?fii"....i1.y,".'''i: , r 'IiY' ' . ~~..ti.- i'i.,. . ..t�. ~ Figure 4~. The YeS-55o3 control for ma,gnetic tape stores. Tape velocity of magnetic tape store, m~z 2,3~5 Number of tracks 9 Monitoring of recorded informa,tion Cross checking of parity sign; Checking of sign of longitudin- al parity; determination of track with error by means of CPC sign. Monitoring of state In autonomous conditions by means of operator's panel; program checks by means of diagnostic programs Power from network 220~380 V, 50 Hz - 2 kW Operating conditions temperature 5 to relative humidity 40-80J at 25 �C _ purity of environment 0.2 mg dust~m3 pressure 957-1055 mb 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090006-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094406-3 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY The Ye5-5569 control for plug-in ca,ssette disks with attached YeS-5069 disk stores forms a computer external store with a 10-Mbyte ca,pacity. The control for plug-in disk st ores control and organizes operations connected with the search for a defin- ite place on the disk, the transmission of data from the computer and reco-rding them in the store or the reproduction of data f`rom the store and their tra.nsmisgion - to the computer. The device permits the parallel work of several cassette sto.res during search of a required sector in a time sha,ring mode. Data are rec~~rded and reprod.uced in 256 bytes, and one command permits transmitting up to 614~ bytes of da,ta. The control forms and transmits informa.tion about the execution of an order ' and refinement of the state of the external store. - Technical cha,racteristics - Number of connected cassette disk stores 1- 4~ Connected to computer Through 2 interface TEZ Mean data transmission rate 781K 18-bit word.s~s Number of instructions 8 - Dimensions, mm 48ox486x14~5 _ _ r . . I - ~ Y ' _,r�r;____ ~ t? ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ . . , + I ` . ' i" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ y ; ~ :'r r ~ F t i , ~ ~ rs ~ i ~ r i I ;"~.r ' , i , - ; a:."" ~'~