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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . JPRS L/9603 13 March 1981 . _ : _ _ _ . . . _ : ~ ~ _ : � � � - . Worldwide Re ort p . TELECOMMUNICATIONS POIICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - - ~FOUO 3/81) i FB~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMAI"ION SERVICE � FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency - transmissions and braadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within ~tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views ~r at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERLALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE P. Bax 2604 Washinqton, D. C. 20013 2G February 1981 NUTE FROA1 THE DIRECTOR, rBIS: Forty years ago, the U.S. Government inaugurated a new service to monitor foreign public broadcasts. A few years later ' a similar group was establis}led to exploit the foreign press. . - rrom the merger of these organizations evolved the present-day FBIS. Our constant goal tl~rougnout llas been to provide our readers wit;i rapid, accurate, and compreliensive reporting from tlie public media world~vide. On belialf of all of us in FBIS I wish to express appreciation to our readers wllo l~ave guided our efforts throughout the years. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/9603 13 March 1981 WORLDW IDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - (FOUO 3/81) CONTENTS ASIA JAPAN Te?ecommunications Ptinistry To Permit 'Teletext' (MAINICHI DAILY NEWS, 6 Feb 81) 1 Overall Evaluation Test Started for Submarine Photofiber Cable (TECHNOCRAT, Dec 80)..... 2 Brief s _ High Speed Data Communication 3 Microwave Camera Information 3 Mutual Communication Service 3 Survey on the Effects of Rain 4 EAST EUROPE CZECHOSLOVAKIA CSSR-Built Transmitters Abroad Described (Jindr~ch Bradach; TELEKOMUNIKACE, Nov 80)...... 5 SUB-SAAARAN AFRICA INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS ~ Worldwide rlonopoly of News Agencies All'egedly Broken _ (Pierre Clary; AFRIQT3E-ASIE, 5 Jan 81)......................... 13 - MADAGASCAR Brief s Microwave Network 18 - a - [III - ~ - 140 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAi, iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JAPAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS MINISTRY TG PERMIT ~TELETEXT' Toky~ 'KAINIC~II IlAILY N~,'WS in English 6 Feb 81 p S ~ ~Text~ The Posls and Telecom- ~e ~~~stry is planning to The Teletext broadcasting munications 1linistry has in- formally decide upon the licenses are to be granted to formaily decided lo permit the~ technical standards for the non-TV stations, primarily to c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e r_haracter 111P7~ telecasting by ne~~~spaper companies. By use Japanese ~~ersion ot the theendof~iarchandamendthe of printers, "hard copies' Teletext or characler multiplex broadcasting law for the ~ printed copies) ot e]ectronic telecastineser~�ices in 1983. , commencement of commercial ne~i�spapers w�ill also become ~ Teletext is the name of a Teletext broadcasting in 1983. a~�ailable at home. And this similar character ,liPX tele- ~e Radio Technical Council Possibilit~~ meets the ministry's ~ casting being operated in the policy of ~decentralizing the recently rec~ommended a po~er of the mass media, the L'nited I~ingdom. ~ Similar technical standard on the . ministrysaid. � broadcasting, including testing, character ~11Pt telecasting to is being conducled in France, ~e ~~~stry after seven ~ears But actual Teletext broad- �est German~~. S~seden and the casting by third parties t~nited States. . oi deliberatiQOS. The ministry is requires the use of some to formalize the decision in late facilities oi eaisting TV The character multiplex ~tarch. skations. If these TV stations ct~IPX) telecasting e~ables pccording to fhe ministry refuse to offer the pertinent broadcasting stations to air lhe p~~ ~ allocat~ 10 airwaves at facilities for third party use. the character intormation con- ~e one is to be dedicated character MPX sen~ice ~cill currently~ with the existing ~o lhe transmission of the become impossible. image by taking advantage of characters for lhe hard of ' To resolve this problem, the unused spaces m the T~' air- hearing, to enable them to enjoy Radio Regulatory Bureau of the _ w�aces. Ttie c-ie~cers, by ~n- television programs. This is at ministry intends to submit to stal;ing an adaplor, can rPad present being done by the fhe Diet next Sear an amend- such information as ne~cs, sto~~k public Broadcasting Sy stem ment to the broadcasting law to market quotations, ��ea!ner ~pgS) intheLtnitedSlaEes. malce it obliaatory for TV reports, and traffic intormation � ' stations to offer their [acilities on the TV screen at home. The The remaining nine airwave for Telete~t broadcasting by character 111P?C telecasting will channels of the initial allotment. third arties. . ~ also make possble -the elec- ~ �~ill be made available for P tronic ne�lspaper - a ne~s� utilization by organiaations The association o[ broad- paper to be read on the TV other than TV stations. The casting stations are, how~ever, screen. public ~r�ill be able to :eceive tirml~~ opposed to such these nine air~cave channels on legislation on the grounds that the present blank channels of the amendment w-ill infringe eaistingTV sets. � upon l;censed TV stations' property rights. COPYRIGHT: Ma.inichi Daily News, 1981 CSO : 5500 1 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 rvn ~~rrlt,ttw uJB v1vLI ~ JAPAN OVERALL EVALUATION TEST STARTED FOR SUBMARINE PHOTOFIBER CABLE Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 13 No 12, Dec 8~ p 63 [Text] A cable with optical fibers used as the transmission medium has the followin~ advantages over the conventional copper cable: it can be made to have a large-capacity and it is expected to be more economical because of low transmission losses and the necessity of fewer repeaters. Also, it is light- weight, flexible and easy to handle. Thus, it is expected to serve for submarine speech transmission lines which require difficult maintenance work to be performed within a limited space in installation ships. Various circles � are promoting studies to put the cable into practical use. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation has already sought cable structures sufficiently strong enough to endure the submarine environment and external pressures during installation and has established the basic technology for making them practical. In order to establish the technology for submarine � photofiber cable and equipment for submarine terminal stations and to conduct overall assessment, the corporation has recently provided coastal test stations at Inatori and Kawazu on Izu Peninsula and has. installed a transmission line . consisting of a submarine photofiber cable, 10.2km long and 240m (max.) deep ~ in the sea L:tween the stations. The cable instal.Led is made from a collection of optical fibers covered with pressure-resistant copper tubing and further covered with PE, and an alternate double stranded sheath. The core system consists of a singlemode and 5 graded ` multimode optical fibers. These core wires were connected in folds to make a ` cable wtiich was available for transmission tests, with a cable length of 50km ~ and the cable was provided on the way with two junctions to obtain data on ~ cable properties at these points, ~ ~ ; rtean optical losses after installation, with an optical wavelength of 1.3um, are 0.79dB/km for the single-mode optical fibers and 0.81dB/km for graded multimode . optical fibers. These values are the smallest in the world for long-wavelength band optical transmission lines installed in the sea in any previous test. COPYRIGHT: 1980 Fuji Marketi~g Research Co., Ltd. CSO: 5500 ~ 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY _ JAPAN BRIEFS HIGH SPF.EB DATA COMMUNICATION--Nissei Electrical Institute has developed an "Opticfll Space Transmission Communication System" which provides high speed data communication of 1 megabit/second by sending infrared rays of 0.9u direct without any cable. The system adopts a GaAs (gallium arsenide) LED (light emitting diode) as the light emitting device of the transmitter, a silicon photodiode (APD) as the liqht receiving device of the receiver, and provides data communication by sending 0.9U infrared rays in space over a maximum - communication distance of 600m. The system has the following features: (1) It is low priced at ~�1,800,000. (2) It is simple and quick to install requiring merely ad~usting sights. (3) It is easily connected to a computer using TTL (transister transister logic). (4) Transmitter-receiver combina- tions can be connected in line with each other up to 4 or 20 combinations, in order. to extend the distance. (S) Since the system is small and light, it is : easily portable. [Text] [Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 13 No 12, Dec 80 - P ~21 . MICROWAVE CAMERA INFORMATION--NEC has succeeded in picturization of informa- tion concerning the earth's surface taken by a microwave camera mounted on Seasat (U.S. SatelZite for Oceanographical observation) using digital process- in~ by a large capacity computer. The image data was obtained by processing 100km x 15km area of information into an image on the basis of 25m x 25m area - information for one image element. It is said that it took them fully 20-30 , s hours to picturize the area information of 30km square. Up to date, NASA (U.S.A.), MDA (Canada) and RAE(U.K.) have succeeded in the digital processing of such data. These are all national organizations specialized in space re- search. NEC developed its own processing method three montl~s after their ~etting the Seasat observation data and succeeded in digital picturization. (Text] [Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 13 No 12, Dec 80 p 62] MU'1.'UA1, COMMiJNICATION SERVICE--NTT will start a public data communication serv- _ ir.e between their DRESS center (which stands for stock management service cen- ter and Dfl~tOS center (which stands for sciencQ technology computation service c.enter) around next fall. Due to this service, users can use not only the tranamission aervice of DRESS's file to DEMOS (or DEMOS's file to DRESS) but both DRESS and DEMOS services by one terminal equipment now in service. The mutual communication between the centers means greatly improved and easier access to the system for users who can only use one service (DRESS or DEMOS) at present. Aiming at the scheduled introduction of mutual communication 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 r~ux ur~r'1c:lAL u5~; uNLY between centers, NTT is planning to expand the intercenter communication ability between each DRESS center in order to attain file transmission ability which is already available at DEMOS service centers. Moreover, NTT will start a kan~i output aervice at three centers (DRESS Tokyo III, Osaka IV and DEMOS of Tokyo V 5cience Technology-E batch center) hy introducing their high speed kan~i printer of 15,000 lines per minute. [Text] [Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in Enqlish Vol 13 No 12, Dec 80 p 62] SURVEY ON THE EFFECTS OF RAIN--KDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co., Ltd.) has announced its experimental plan, and accordin~ to KDD's statement, they will start communications experiments based on the site diversi*_y method, and which will use from late 1981 the Yamaguchi Satellite Coimnunication Station and Hamada International Relay Station. This experiment aims to ensure good trans- mission of the 14/11GHz range (quasimillimeter) electric waves used in communi- cations makinR use of the Intelsat V satellite. The satellite is expected to be launched into space above the Indian Ocean in 1981. The experiments aim to escablish countermeasures for rain, since quasi-millimeter waves are easily affected by rain and this wave characteristic makes communications by one earth etation difficult, especially in an area having a hea~ry rainfall such as Japan. Since a real satellite will be used in the experiment, KDD is expecting to ob- tain fruitful results concerning electric propagation or communication methods in the quasi-millimeter wave ran~e. [Text) [Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 13 No 12, Dec 80 p 62] CSO: 5500 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY CZECHOSLOVAKIA CSSR-BUILT TRANSMITTERS ABROAD DESCRIBED Prague TELEKOMUNIKACE in Czech Nov 80 pp 176-178 [Article by Eng Jindrich Bradach, cand3date of sciences: "Our Transmitters Abroad"] [Text] Transmitters and auxiliary equipment from Tesla Hloubetin are delivered, in= stalled and operated not only in this country, but in other cosntries as well, fre- quently nations quite distant f rom Czechoslovakia, and many of them with damanding climates or with a certain exotic atmosphere, such as Mali, Guinea, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Sudan, Burma, Yemen, Cuba and Colombia. Certian activities associated ~rith radio braadcasting and television, such as plan- ning territorial coverage by the signal, evaluating reception, planning radio and television transmitter ~etworks, procuring and installing equipment, organizing oper- ation and maintenance of equipment, improvement of comonunication workers' skills and the like, are often carried on in these countries in ways which differ from Czechoslovak practice. The transmitters and radio and television studios are not always owned by the state. We may eacounter situations in which radio or television transmitters are privately owned and are used for profit-making purposes. ~ Our personnel are acquiring a variety of experience in negotiating the size ar.d con- ditions for delivery, and in installing and operating e~uipment. Let us cite some examples. In the past Tesla Hloubetin supplied such transmitter equipment as models SRV 30, 2X SRV 30, and SRV 150 (i.e. medium wavelength, powers of 20, 60 and 150 watts) to South and Central America. Experience has been acquired in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Cuba. With.the exception of Cuba, transmitter ownership is generally private. A private individual may request that he be assigned a f requency, provided that one is still available, and given a license to operate a transmitter. If the license is granted, the transmitter owner is given a deadline for completing construction of the station, and provided that the equip- ment meets the radio engineering requirements specified on the license which he has ~ been issued and that the antenna system conforms to the prescribed radiation pattern, operation may be begun. This sounds q~uiCe unbelievably simple, but it is actually the case. Hundreds of~privaCe transmitters with powers ranging from tens of watts to tens of kilowatts or mo~e operate in every South American republic. The greatest permissable power, generally in the lower part of the medium wave band, is 50 kilo- watts (this does not apply to Cuba, where higher powers are used). Rec~ntly, direc- tional antenna systems have been built 3n order to avoid mutual interference by 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY stations operating on the same freq~iency. In most cases the power is between 1 and 5 kilowatta. We encounter such supplters ae RCA, Gates, Collins, Westinghouse, Con- tinental, Harrie, Redifon, Marconi and Philips, but also domestic products, e.g. in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. In Ecuador, tranemitters are produced by the Horvath Compaay, a laboraCory in the city of Quito whose owner is of Czech descent. Some tranam3tterE. particularly in Colombia, are owned by the Catholic Church. Let us cite an arrangement typical in Latin America. The producers of an extremely wide range of equipment, as well ae commercial companies, services and other organ- izatione, reaort to commercial radio and television advertisements provided by ad- vertising agencies, because they cannot survive in the stiff competition without advertiaemei:te. The agenciea are connected with pro~it-making organizations which prepare the advertisements. These advertisemente are recorded in special studios and are supplied to radio and television studios which acquire the transmitters (radio or television) for broadcast purposes. Technical services are performed for both the transmitters and the studio equipment and other facilities by apecialized com- panies which wo�k for a number of owners of tranamitter equipmeiit. The advertising agencies ha~~= off icea whose ~ob is to evaluate the stations' reception and popularity. An evaluation (ranking) of the stations' popularity with the listeners is conducted every month. The entire syatem ia reminiscent of football league standings and their changes during successive rounds of gamea. His station's rank in the standings aff ects the rates which the transmitter owner can charge for broadcasting advertise- mente. The competition is stiff and those who end up at the bottom of the standinge do not last long. Other intereated parties~ scramble for their places by requesting = licenaes s~ that companies disappear and new ones ariae in a short time. The trans- mittere are used for profit-making purposes. Thoee who have more influence or more resources can pay far higher-quality programs and achieve first place in the standings, and can charge higher rates for advertisements as a result. Obviously, transmitters and auitably selected programs are aleo used by political representatives for poli- tical propaganda. . Broadcasting i~~ Cuba ie arranged in a manner quite different.from the South American practices deacribed. The central studios are in Havana, and broadcast centers have been built in all the large cities. Czechoslovakia has also participated in the building of broadcast centers (tranamittera with output powers of 30, 60 and 150 kilowatta). Most of the transmittera operate at powers between 1 and 10 kilowatts. There are more than 100 transmittera in Cuba. Programs are relayed to the individual broadcast facilitiea from the central sutdios in Havana by cable or microwave link. The relay network hae been extended over the entire country. There are several pro- grams, whoee ahowe cater to the widest range of listeners; for example,.one program - broadcasta domestic and foreign newa, another music, and a third current political, and economic featurea and the like. One of the best-known programs is Radio Rebelde, which uses equipment supplied by Czecholsovakia. At night the highest-power trans- mitters (over 50 kilowatts) are connected with the central studio in Havana and broad- caet a single program intended primarily for foreign consumption (United States, Mexico, Venezuela and the like). This program, called Radio Cuba, broadcasts attractive mueic and informatlon on life in Cuba and its achievements in building socialism, and is popular abroad. I had the chance to convince myself of this per- sonally in Venezuela, which receives an extremely high-quality signal from our SRV 150 medium wavelength transmitters in Cuba, operating near Havana and in Oriente Prov- ince. 6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Also worthy of inention is shortwave broadcasting from a facility located not far from Havana which has 250-kilowatt transmitters. This station broadcasts informa- tion on Cuba in 28 languages around the clock. These programs too are popular abroad, particularly in Latin America. Broadcasting in Africa and the Mideast is arranged much differently from that in - South America. We have gained considerable experience in this area. In recent years, ~ superhigh-powered broadcast transmitters operating in the long middle wavelengths have been built in these countries. We find the investing organizations striving to acquire and ins tall only the best equipment and al so to install modern directional antenna systems. Most interest focuses on transmissions beamed abroad. For example, Iraq is interested in beaming its transmissions to Iran and Syria, Syria to Egypt and Jordan, and Egypt to Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arab ia~ Israel and the like. The use of four-element directional antenna systems with transmitters in the 1-2 megawatt range is not uncommon in these countries. Nor is it uncommon to use multielement antenna systems for long wave broadcasting. The broadcast facilities are state-con- ~ trolled. Tesla has installed broadcast transmitters in a number of countries, for example Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Guinea and Mali. The first of many construction projects wa~ carried out in 1958-1960 in Egypt, where 3 X SRV 15G triplexed transmitters (output 450 kilowatts) are operating with two-element direc- tional antenna systems. After good experience with these transmitters, we have in- stalled a 600-kilowatt transmitter in the same location (Tesla 3 X 200 kilowatts, three transmitters in parallel using a triplexer). The antenna system is designed in an int~resting way. It uses four masts, of antifading height, arranged in a , square 100 degrees on a side. In the center of the square is the distributing equip- ment, wh ich distributes to the two antennas the high-frequency energy coming via the feeder from the transmitter. The~other two antennas are grounded by inductive reactance. The two active masts are driven by the same large currents, in phase. As a result of coupling, the currents in the para s itic radiators are about 0.7 times those in the active radiators. The reactances in the parasitic radiators are so chasen that the phase of the current in the parasitic radiators leads that in the active radiator s by 100�. The result is considerable radiation in one direction and less in the opp osite direction, as was required. The antenna system,has switching equipment which makes possible four diff erent connections: . --the two southern masts active, the two northern ones passive, radiation beamed toward the south; --the reverse of the arrangement above, radiation beamed to the north; --the two western masts active, the two easCern ones passive, radiation beamed toward the west; --the reverse of the preceding arrangement, radiation beamed toward the east. This makes it possible to shift the radiat3on maxiinum to any of the four cardinal directions. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - - Ir / 1' � -.--.i . . i . Ir.. I / 1 ~ , r Obr. 1. Pi~iklad vyzai'ovectho diagra- ~ mn v horlsoat6ln! rovin~F ant&nniho ? L'tyi'prvkov6ho syst~mn Fig 1. Horixontal-plane radiation pattern of a four-element antenna system. It is worth mentioning the way in which Egypt and Syria arranged to increase output - from 450 kilowatts to 1000 kilowatts and from 600 kilowatts to 1200 kilowatts with- out strengthening the existing insulation of their antenna systems. In the past, transmitter buildings were made rather large, so that as the current trend to de- creasing size of transmitters and auxiliary equipment de~elops, such things as the - installation of additional transmitters and diplexers can be carried out without much adaptation work in an existing building. The situation is not so good as regards the antenna system, which has a base insulator and cable insulators and is correctly dimensioned only for the existing output power. Thus an increase in output means stronger insulation, a rather lengthy suspension of transmission, disassembly of " the existing antenna system and reassembly after strengthening its insulation. - In Egypt it was arranged to increase the output of a two-element antenna system - dimensioned fr 450 kilowatts to an output of 1,000 kilowatts (carrier wave) by adding a third mast, whose location and supply voltage and phase were so chosen that: --the existing radiation diagram in the horizontal plane would not be disrupted; --the third mast would take on the output difference f rom 450 to 1000 kilowatts. ~ In this arrangement only the ground network is added to. The installation of the third mast results in only an insignificant interruption of broadcasting. Similarly a plan is now being prepared in Syria according to which a trangmitter's _ output will be increased from 600 to 1200 kilowatts, and the existing directional two-element antenna system will be augmented with a third mast which will take up the increase in power. . In planning and constructing stations with large outputs (megawatt range), due atten- tion must be paid to the international recammendations of CCIR, according to which specif ic radiation limitations mustbe observed in certain cases when interference ' might arise between transmitters operating on the same frequency. These include, for example, limitations of power at night, in certain directions or at certain angles of elevation. Designing an antenna system intended to meet the above radiation 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY li,mitation requirements requires synthesis of the system or possibly system modeling. An example of such a radiation pattern, which meets the stringent requirements de- scribed and which we designed for a specif ic station in Egyp~, is shown in Fig 2. I,_ ` ' . M~.. a i ~ ~ ~ Obr. 2. P~Iklad p~edepsanE6o tvaru horizont~lnfho vyza~ovaciho diagre- mu megawattovL stanice v Egypt~ � Fig. 2. Prescribed form of radiation pattern of inegawatt station in Egypt. KEY: a. France b. USSR Fig 3 is a diagram of an interesting antenna system which we installed for a 2 X DRV 750 Tesla long-wave transmitter (1,500 kW output) in the city of Tipaza, Algeria, about 70 km from the capital. The antenna is l~cated close to the sea. It is 351 meters tall and uses trapezoidal modulation. The transmitter covers two- thirds of the territory of Algeria with a high-quality signal and gives very good ~ reception in Western Europe, particularly in France, West Germany and Bngland. According to statements by the RTA radio and television technical management in Algiers, this transmitter is among the Algerian broadcast service's best equipment. Let us also note as a matter of interest that the plans for the network allow for additional megawatt-level transmitters (long and medium wavelength). These include, for example, Bechar, where a 3-element long wave directional antenna system with an output of 1-2 megawatts and an an~enna system gain of 6~B directed towards Spanish Sahara is required. [Flg, 3 on following page] 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY ~sv . /ii/ / i Obr. 3. PFfklad BIII~RY pro DV vy- s[laL Tesla 2 X DRV 750, A13(rsko Fig. 3. Antenna for Tesla 2 X DRV 750 long-wave transmitter, Algeria. - As another interestirig example from the Arab world let us mention the system supplied by Continental USA to Saudi Arabia. The antenna system consists of two Yagi-Uda an- ~ tennas. The lower half of the antenna is mirror-shaped. According to the manufac- turer's data, the system gain within �15 [as published] of the frequency range is _ 8 dB bett~r than that of a single classical-design radiator. The system is suitable - for installation in extremely demanding, climatically difficult locations, particular- ly in the Sahara. The reflector and directors are permanently connected to the ground ne twork. They are designed as self-supporting towers without cable insulators. An advantage of this antenna system is the low construction height (quarter wave), the high directionality and in particular the fact that 3t is not necessary to install - _ cable insulator~- ucid a base insulator, which means reliable operation even in areas with extremely frequent atmospheric disr.urbances. It is worth not3ng that Tesla Hloubetin is now offering a Yagi-Uda antenna system (gain about 10 dB) with a 2 X SRV 750 transmitter (competitive design for sale of medium-frequency transmitter to Iraq) . - Le t us return to Algeria. Like Egypt, and in contrast to other African and Arab countries, Algeria is well supplied with engineering and technical personnel in th e broadcasting services. Current practice in these countries (it is practically th e same in Syria) is to send broadcast and television workers abroad for a long app renticeship or advanced study. For example, in Syria we encountered engineers who had studied in London, Paris, Dresden, Karlsruhe, East and West Berlin, Moscowr and Prague; some had served an apprenticeship in Japan, the United States and West - Germany. In Algeria, a program for measuring the intensity of signals from foreign sta tions in Algeria was campleted about two years ago. Field intensity measurements wer e carried out during several monthly periods over practically the entire terri- - to ry of Algeria. Use of the CCIR program, with a computer, made it possible to evaluate the effective conductivity of the ground surface t.hroughout Algeria. ~ 10 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , Now let us mention Syria. Our transmitters and antenna systems have gained a good _ reputation there. Currently Tesla transmitters have been operating in Syria from more than 20 years (foz example, on SRV 30, 2 X SRV 30, and 2 X SRV 150 with a di-- = rectional antenna system). Recently a medium wavelength Tesla 2 X SRV 750 traa$ffiit- _ ter (1500 kilowatt output) was put out into operation in Dayr al-Zawr. It is coupled - with an antenna system designed and furnished by Czechoslovakia. The antenna system consists of 4 antennas of antifading height located in a square. It has ~wttching equipment for directional or all-directional operation. In directional operatiqn, the main radiation is oriented toward Baghdad in Iraq. The smaller lobe radiates in the reverse direction. The transmitters and the antenna system meet the demanding requirements of the Syrian plan. In addition, construction of a medium-wavelength transmitter with an output of 200 MW is now being completed: the supplier is Siemens. It also has a 4-�element antenna system operating on a principle s~milar to that of the transmitter in Dayr al--Zawr. _ The Syrian broadcasting plan for the next 5 years (in whose development we acted as consultants on radio ~aave propagation and the selection of antenua systems, f requencies and transmitter outputs) calls for construction of transmitters for broadcasting additional programs. The construction will include several dozen high-power trans- mitters (400, 600, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 kilowatts). Thanks to the good performance _ of our transmitter equipment and antenna systems, Czechoslovakia will not be without hope in the international competition to supply this equipment to Syriao It is clear fram the examples cited that Czechoslovakia is achieving good results in its exports of transmitters and auxiliary equipment, pazticularly middle-wavelength - and long-wave transmitters (not to mention the export of TV transmitters to the - Soviet Union, where Czechoslovakia has attained the figure of several hundred trans- mitters exported). However, it is necessary to devote major efforts to innovation in the equipment, for competition is constantly bringing to the market new and improved , equipment and more effectively designed antenna systems. As an example we may cite an extract from information given by AEG-Telefunken in June 1980. AEG-Telefunken has installed a transmitter for programs 1 and 2 at Flevoland near Amsterdam for the Dutch Ministry of Commnunications. ?nstallation of the equipment - took 12 months. The antenna system is directional. It is designed for two programs at frequencies of 747 and 1008 kHz. A map of territorial coverage by the transmitter is given in Fig. 5(not reproduced]. The transmitters have a power of 600 kilowatts and a range of 150 km. According to manufacturer's data, the transmitters save a million kilewatt-hours a year through good transmitter efficiency. The transmitter is the first of the 600 kW PANTEL (Telefunken Pulse Anode Modulation System) series. The equipment has a 10 percent hi~her efficiency than the transmitters currently in use. The transmitter includes only two electironic tubes, both of the same power, while the other stages are completely transistorized. Anode thermal losses are used ~ to heat the transmitter building. Considerable effort was put into the des3gn of ~ the antenna system. It was necessary to design an antenna system suitable for both ~ frequencies, of antifading design, without disruptive effects on the spatial waves. Mathematical modeling was used in the design of the system. Measurements of the = proposed antenna system which had been simulated on a computer, were also made on a 1:100 scale model. The two-component antenna system comprises two masts, each 200 meters tall, which are center fed. The anchor cables are not separated with cable insulators. The antenna (even though center fed) operates on the same princi- ple as was described in TELEKOMUNIKACE, No 6, 1980. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFiC1AL USF ~JNLY In spite of the great scope of space communications, there is still interest in con- structing and expanding or modernizing the networks of so-called "classic~l" (long - and medium wave) media, as we have shown through several foreign examples. Tl:e Arab countries in particular make exacting demands regarding the parameters of _ the equipment they require. If we wish to keep pace with worldwide competition in transmitter F;ports, we not only need to keep abreast of what top fore3gn transmitter producers are bringing out, but in addition must study and analyze how broadcast ~ervices are organized in the countries in question and to what use broadcast facili- ties are put (in South America, for example). so as to adapt ehe destgn of our export equipment to those specific requirements. It is gratifying that the activities of the PZO KOVO import-export company, in coop- eration with the transmitter supplier Tesla Hloubetin, are in accord with these requirements, as attested for example by our participation in the current design competition to furnish medium wave broadcast transmitters to Iraq, as well as by the ' recently signed contract to supply medium-wavelength Tesla SRV 750 transmitters, including a directional antenna system, to South Yemen (Aden), and by a number of expert analyses and consultations by our personnel in Syria, Morocco, Cuba, Mozam- bique and other countries. COPYRIGHT: NADAS, Nakladatelstvi Dopravy a Spoju, Prague, 1980 .7 8480 CSO: 5500 ~ 12 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS WORLDWIDE MONOPOLY OF NEWS AGENCIES ALLEGEDLY BROKEN Paris AFRIQUE-ASIE in French S Jan 81 pp 35-36 [Article by Pierre Clary: "Breaches in the News Agencies Allegedly Broken"] [Text] The tremendous increase in national news agencies since " 1973 is only a step prior to the restoration of balance in news collection and dissemination. Press information is the first field which will make us think about the new world - order in information but, regardless of their orientation, the countries of the Third World very quickly manifestea their desire to establish their own information networks. Starting in 1961, at Bangkok, 14 Asian countries established the Asian Information Agency Organization and thus pointed to the timeliness of having a - regional agency. In 1963, at Tunis, 29 African countries established the African ~ Information Agency Union and draf ted a blueprint for an African press agPncy. The , countries of Latin America studied the same problem at Santiago de Chile in 1961. Needs were manifested at that time but the political determination did not exist; it was as a matter of fact the Algiers conference of nonalined countries in September 1973 which in a coherent fashion presented the priorities regarding th= press agen- cies particularly under the impetus of Yugoslavia, Algeria, Mexico, Tunisia, and India. This date somehow was a turning point because, following a period of limited and scattered efforts, it opened up a period of achievements that were part of an over- all blueprint. In just 10 years, national press agencies throughout the world daubled; some coun- tries still do not have their own agencies, especially in Africa, but the inter- national program for the development of communication sponsored by UNESCO should facilitate the establishment of these new agencies. Since 1975, in parti~ular, many agencies have been created in Af rica and the Middle East. That was true of countries which were getting their independence, such as Angola, with the ANGOP [ANGOLAN PRESS AGENCY], Mo2ambique with the AIM [MOZAMBIQUE INFORMATION AGENCY]; _ but that was also true of countries which did not yet have their national agencies, in spite of several years of political inclependence, such as the agency of Burundi (ABP (BURUNDIAN PRESS AGEI~~'Y]), dating back to 1975, the agencies of Tanzania (SHIHATA [TANZANIA NEWS AG~NCY]), Togo (ATOP [TOGOLESE PRESS AGENCYj), and of Mauri- � tania (AMP (MAURITANIAN PRESS AGENCY]) were alI creatad in 1976. ~ 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FUR UFFICIAI. USE ONLY In the Near East, the increa~e in funds of the petroleum companies promoted the development af news agencies; those of Qatar (QNA [QATAR NEWS AGENCY]), of Kuwait (KUNA), and of the United Arab Emirates (WAM) date back to th~ years 1975-1976~ The tremendous increase in national news agencies is only one step prior to the restoration ~f balance in the collection and dissemination of news; all of these agencies cannot in short-range terms operate in a satisfactory fashion because they necessarily must provide themselves with the technical support facilities, _ they must recruit professional newspapermen at home, they must create collection networks or. the natianal level. As a matter of fact, the creation of an agency makes iG possible to guarantee satisfactory coverage of the country and can pre- ve~nt an imbalance between the regions and between urban and rural areas; an agency must be an integral part of the national communications development prograin. The western international agencies reproach these agencies on account of their officia t status. The Anglo-Saxon agencies (1) as a matter of fact are the result of press groupings. But, in a country of the Third World, even if it does decide to adopt a free-enterprise system, the local media cannat establish an agency; they have neither the money nor, in some cases, the desire. Besides, establishing a national press agency appeared as an act of political independence which was - too long neglected by certain countries. In this same vein, the western agencies are hostile to direct or indirect partici- pation of UNESCO in national or regional proj ects calling for the creation of agencies ar cooperation among agencies; they consider that to be intervention which goes beyond the framework of authority granted to the UNESCO. One might note that the United States did not agree to participate in the special UNESCO program. But, to get through the second stage, the agencies of the Third World countries must progress tow^rd regional and international actions which alone can enable them to guarantee i cormation exchange outside the circuits established by the big wes- tern press agencies (2). Independently of these types of agreement, the bilateral agreements, which can relate to the exchange of information and correspondents, the training and translation services constitute one of the forms of cooperation _ that is most widespread among agencies of the Third World; agreements drawn up on a broader basis are supplementary to these bilateral agreements. One of the ways to guarantee a balanced exchange situation can be found actually on the regional level. The best-known example is represented by the Caribbean News Agency (CANA),~an agency which has been operating since January 1976; this is one of the first results of exchange within a regional f ramework but it is a good idea to spell out here the conditions for its creation and its operating style. In the past, the regional service was provided by Reuter; but, realizing that this service was no longer profitable, the latter decided to stop it and that persuaded the information agencies in the region--totaling 17, including newspapers, private radio stations belonging to foreigners and citizens, one government radio station and one government television station--to support the undertaking for a new agency. Contrary to a certain political desire on the part of the governments in the region, - 14 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - the cooperative form was adopted here; the region's information organs thus became the owners of the agency. Reuter heavily c4ntributed. to launching the operation ~nd links between the regional agency and the international agency remain cloge; CANA is Reuter's agent in the Caribbean and has exclusive rights to the dissemina- tion of news from Reuter, while Reuter has exclusive rights from CANA for England. - Overall, CANA produces about 20,000 words of regiona~ news per day and 25,000 words of international news. It concluded information exchange agreements with numerous national agencies, and in particular it has an exchange agreement with Prensa Latina (Cuba's press agency). - Regional projects exist also in Asia: the Asian Information Exchange Network (ANEN). Latin America on every possible occasion reaffirms its desire to establish a news Y~ agency for Latin America and the Caribbean or at least a regiunal exchange organi- - zation. But the regional project which should turn out to be successful in short-range terms ~ is the Panafrican News Agency (PAFNA). Followi~ng the Lobito meeting last January, the agency's guide~ines were spelled out, since the option of a supranational agency, - with international overtones, appeared unrealistic. The agency, which has the theo- retical support of all African countries and whose headquarters will be in Dakar, will have the mission of collecting information coming from national press organs - and redisseminating it all over the African continent; it will draw on five regional - pools. The agency's central services will be used for the translation of news and it is expected that agency journalists will cover the main events taking place on the African continent. We must also mention here the data bank project which will facilitate information consultation on each African country. The establishment of the agency is often presented as being tied to the establish- _ ment of tfie African satellite telecommunications network, called PANAFTEL. But, even in the absence of such an outfit, one must unfortunately note that the South African Argus Arrica News Service (3) has managed to establish a collection network which, oddly enough, gives t'-e apartheid press outstanding continental coverage. The Pool of the Nonalined The pool of press agencies of the nonalined countries obviously is in the very fore- - front of the Third World undertakings. On the initiative of the Yugoslav press agency Tanjug, following the Algiers summit meeting, the pool was operated on an experimental basis as of January 1975 with 12 agencies; at the beginning of the pool's activity, the Yugoslav agency took care of centraliaed administration, trans- lation, and redistribution under its own signature. This form of collaboration - among agencies, which promotes exchanges between the countries on entirely new foun- dations, was very rapidly accepted and, during the New Delhi and Colombo conferences, in 1976, the nonalined countries gave the pool a charter. Right now, the pool consists of more than 70 press agencies; however, 40 agencies ` participate regularly in exchanges within the pool which takes care of the dissemina- tion of 40,000 words per day in four languages (English, French, Arabic, and Spanish). 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Some agencies in the pool have the job of redistributing information on the regional level, for example, Tanjug, the Indian News Agency ~alled Samachar, the Iraqi News Agency INA, Prensa Latina, NOTIMEX, the Mexican agency. I The pool thus does z~ot appear as an international agency since each member partici- _i pates in its operation with its own resources. On the other hand, it tries to co- ordinate the communications networks between member countries and to reduce the I communications rates. Questions of transmission cost precisely constitute one of ~ the essential prablems with which the new agencies are confronted; they would like ; to generalize the press bulletin service and adapt it to their needs while making ~ optimum use of existing resources---high-frequency radio broadcasts, for example-- ~ and by joining s3tellite communications projects when they do exist. The pool collaborates with the UNESCO ~u coordina~e their respective actions; it is also interested in training progra~s for agency journalists by getting together , with existing institutions. ~ IPS (Inter Press Service), an agency created in 1964, upon the initiative of jour- ~ nalists, which always had the job of redefining the content and flow of information concerning the Third World, has also joined the pool, in particular making avail- able to it its Latin American network and participating in the redistribution of information from the pool on an international scale. Independently of this col- laboration, IPS since 1979 has been participating in a cooperation accord among ~ certain South American agencies, the ASIN, whose initiator is the Venezuelan news agency VENPRESS. The international press agencies often are present on the occasion of this world- ' wide change. This was true of Reuter in the case of CANA or the establishment of the Tanzanian news agency. AFP [French Press Agency] is not indifferent to these new agency esta},l~ahments perhaps because of the regional ambitions of MENA, the - Egyptian agenc.~, in connection with the Islamic informa.tion agency project or in conjunction with the establishment of the agency of the Gulf (4). At the Stockholm international conference in April 1978, one of the participants was able to say: "The more numerous the media are throughout the world, the more effective will the work of the big agencies be since the national agencies will then play the role of first-line gatekeeper." This thought shows the role which the big western news agencies intend to continue to play. The stage following this decisive decade should bring the development of the resources of the national agencies in terms of personnel and technical equipment to strengthen the international redistribution of pr~ss information, involving a reorganization effort which, for the time being, nevertheless remains entirely limited on the quantitative level, since the three first agencies with a Third World orientation, Tanjug, IPS, and MENA, disseminate only a little more than one percent of ~he words transmitted each day by all of the international agencies. - FOOTNOTES 1. AFP, which has public status and which conducts most of its business with clients in the public sector, cannot use the same arguments. 16 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - 2. See AFRIQUE-ASIE, No 227. 3. Agency of the Argus press group of H. Oppenheimer. 4. The regional bureau of the AFP and the Agency of the Gulf have their headquar- - ters in the same c~ty, Handma, Bahrein. COPYRIGHT: 198U Afrique-Asie _ 5058 CSO: 5500 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094425-2 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MADAGASCAR BRIEFS MICROWAVE NETWpRK--The Malagasy Democratic Republic in 1982 will have Africa's most modern hertzian network, partlq operating with the help of solar energy. This net- work will provide telephone and television coverage for the southeastern part of - the island, between Fianarantsoa and Toliara (Tulear), the island's most heavily populated coastal zone. The total order, which was obtained by Thomson-CSF, comes to more than F100 million (or 5 billion Malagasy francs). It involves the turnkey delivery of a network of 45 hertzian stations and the supply of the installations for 19 television transmitters. The 45 stations will be equipped with the new TFH 250 unit, with 960 telephone channels with low power consumption, operating in the 6 GHz frequency band. Ta achieve a maximum reduction in the consumption of fuel to be used in supplying the equipment with energy, 18 stations will be equip- ped with supply systems operating on solar energy. T[ie others--which require a larger installed power because of the need for supplying several units (transmitters, multiplex, service equipment units) will be provided with turbines operating on closed circuit. This particularly reliable solution requires a minimum of mainten- ance. The television transmitters will be supplied by LGT,.an affiliate of Thomson- - CS~, the world leader in television transmitters and retransmitters, whose capacity goes as high as 1 kw. To make it possible to start the network by the required deadlines (f irst half of 1982), Thomson-CSF has already sent a technical team to the area to take care of the civil engineering work. The company will also parti- cipate in the training of operating personnel and maintenance technicians. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 23 23 Jan 81 p 205] 5058 CSO: 5500 END 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090025-2