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APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY JPRS L/9604 13 M'arch 1981 ~ ; . : : ~ ~ _ ~ _ ~ . . : � : : : . . . :s: ~ s ~ ~ - ~ USSR Re ~rt p . PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS _ (FOUO 2/81) : ~ FB~~ FOREIG~J SROADCAST IN~ORMATION SERVI~E ~ - - FOR OFFICIAL USC ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign ~ newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, edit~rial reports, and material enclosed in brackets ~ are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the fir�st line of each item, or fo?lowing the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULA.TIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DiSSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED F~R OFFICIAL USE OYL`l. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE - P. O. Box 2604 Washington, D. C. 20013 26 February 1981 NOT~ FROI~1 THE DIRECTOR, FBIS: Forty years ago, tlie U,S. Goverr_ment inaugurated a new service to monitor foreign public broadcasLS, A few years later a similar group was establislled to exploit the forei~,m press. Prom the merger of these organizations evolved the present-day FBIS. Our constant goal t}irougilout l~as been to provide our readers wit:i rapid, accurate, and compreliensive reporting from tlie public media worldwicle. , On belialf of all of us in FBIS I wish to express appreciation _ to our readers wlzo ]iave guided our efforts throughout the years. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE O1~ILY JPRS L/9604 13 March 1.9 81 USSR REPORT PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS - (FOUO 2/81) ' CONTENTS ' FLUID I~YNNANIICS -i 'j Rheodynamics and Heat and Mass Exchange 1 i Stability of Shock Waves in a Thomas-Fermi Gas Lt GEOPHYSICS ~ Theory and Interpretation Procedures of Gravitational and ' Magnetic Anoma7.ies 9 i LASERS AND MASERS -i ; Efficient Metal-Vapor Gas-I7ischaxge Lasers 11 ; Abstracts of Papers in the Collection ' QUANTUM EI,ECTRONI'"'' 1~ -I NUCLEAR PHYSICS ; Radiation Safety and Shielding of Nuclear Power Plants 25 'j Prediction of Ionizing Radiation Transfer by Photometric Methods....... 30 i Actuating Mechanisms for the Control and Safety Systems of Sodium- Cooled Fast Reactors 33 Dosimetric and R.adiometric Monitoring in Work With Radioactive Substan~es and Ionizing Radiation Sources. (A Procedural Handbook). Vol. 1. Organization and Methods of Monitoring.......... 36 OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPX - Photons and Nonlinear Optics 1~1 - a- [III - USSR - 21.H S&T FODU] nnn /1CT!*!'~T ~ T i TCL~ !~1\TY V ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 - FOR OFFICIAI. US~ ONLY PLASMA PHYSICS _ Principles of Modern Physics of Gas-Discharge Processes..........e. 1~8 THERMODYNAMICS - Spacecraft Thermal Conditions 52 - b - nnL+ l1~TTv APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL1' ' FLUID I7YNAMICS UDC 532.135:532.5:536.242:532.584 ; , RH~ODYNAMICS A:~TD HEAT AND MASS EXCHANGE _ Novosibirak REOBINAMIKA I TEPLOMASSOOBMEN in Russian 1979 signed to press 19 Jul 79 ~ pp 4, 153-155 i - _ _ . . _ _ . . - ~ [Annotation and ,abstracts from ~ollection "Rheodynamics and Heat and Mass Ex- change" edited by Academician Samson Semenovich Kutateladze and Doctor of Tech- , nical Sciencea Yevgeniya Moiseyevna Khabakhpasheva, Siberian Department, Insti- tute of Thermal Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, 400 copies, 155 pages] [Text] The collection gives the results of theoretical and experiment~l research ~ done in recent years at the Laboratory of Heat Exchange and Rheodynamics of th~ ~ Institute of Thermal Physics. An examination is made of some problems of flow of rheological media with consideration of relaxation phenomena and anisotropy of normal stresse~. A description is given of the resulta of an experimental study I of rheological flows by optical methods under different conditions of deformat~on. A general approar_h is outlined for deriving macroscopic equati.ons of transfer in ~ dispersed media. Considerable review material is also given on heat exchange in ~ laminar and turbulent forced convection of non-Newtonian fluids. The materials published in the collection az.e of interest both to specialists in the field of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and thermal physics, and to those who pro- duce and process polymer materials. I UDC 532.135+536.242 - CONVECTIVE HEAT EXCHANGE IN RHEOLOGICAL MEDIA I [Abstract of article by Ye. M. Khabakhpa.sheva] [Text] The article is a presentation of a survey report delivered at the Fourth International Conference on Heat Exchange. Problems of heat exchange in laminar and forced turbulent convection of rheostable non-Newtonian fluids that can be treated as homogeneous media are discussed. Under conditions of laminar flow an estima*e is made of the way that heat exchange is affected by the dependence of viscosity on shear velocity, dissipation of inechani- cal energy and the temperature behavior of viscosit.y. An examination is made of the problem of turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids that do not have appreciable elastic properties. An analysis is made of the causes 1 FlIA IIFFiCiA i I i.CF l1Ni V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFiCIAL l~S~ ONI,Y of reduced heat exchange when smali amounts of certain high-molecular polymers are added to water. The present discrepancies between the results of calculations and experiments are discussed. Figures 26, references 86. tTDC 532.5:532.135 RHEOLOGICAL FLOWS UNDER CONDITIONS OF TFiE INSTANTANEOUS APPLICATION OF CONSTANT AND OSCILLATING SHEAR VII.OCITY TAbstract of article by V. I. Popov and A. N. Kekalov] _ [Text] Based on the example of transitional and oscillating shear flow of a liquid an analysis is made of the properties of a previously proposed rheological equation of state and the results are compared with certain known theories and experimental data. The analysis shows that the given model describes known peculiarities of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic liquids, and moreover reveals some peculiari- ties unpredicted b y o ther theories. Figures 7, references 10. UDC 532.135+532.517.2 SOME RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION OF RHEOLOGICAL FLOWS BY OPTICAL METHODS [Abstract of_ article by Ye. M. Khabakhpasheva, V. I. Popov, I. M. Gruzdeva, - E. L. Ivakina, V. M. Karsten and A. I. Bakhtiyarov] [Text] The paper gives the results of studies of laminar flows of non-Newtonian fluids by an optical-mechanical device, methods of stroboscopic visualization, birefringence and photometry. An investigation is made of the kinematic characteristics of flow in a channel under conditions of onset and development of an unstable flow ~ode. The method of stroboscopi:: visual ization yields the fields of instantaneous and averaged velaci- ties as well as the mean-square pulsations of velocity. A study is done on the way that these quantities depend on sh~ar stress and the shape of the channel inlet. A laser probing method is used to get the spectral and autocorrelation functions of velocity pulsations in the unstable flow mode. An examination is made of the particulars of flow of viscoelastic liquids in chan~ nels with cavities. A study is done on the dynamics and completeness of replace- ment of the liquid in a cavity by the viscoelastic separator used in cementing oil ~,nd gas wells. Figures 28, references 32. UDC 532.584 ON DERIVATION OF MACROSCOPIC EQUATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN DISPERSED MEDIA [Abstract of article by A. G. Grossman] jText] The author proposes a general approach to derivation of macroscopic equa- tions of transport in dispersed media with consideration of the influence of ef"fects associated with surface phenomena on the particles of the dispersed phase. The method that is used is adapted to determination of macroscopic quantities as _ 2 ~ - � : s rnr+ Al?Ti V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY averages over a statistical ensemble of realizations of macroscopically indistin- guishable states of a dispersed medium, and to closure of macroscopic equations by statistical methods. An examination is made of general simplifications of trans- ~ por~ equations that can be made in the case of local homogeneity of the dispereed medium. UDC 532.584 FLOW OF MODERATELY CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS IN THE STOKES APPROXIMATION [Abstract of article by A. G. Grossman] jText] An examination is made of the problem of closure of macroscopic equations for slaw quasi-steady flow of moderately concentrated suspensions. A closed system of macroscopic equations is derived for flow of a suspension of neutrally suspended i solid spherical particles in a Newtonian fluid with consideration of pairwise ~ hydrodynamic interactions. It is shown that under certain conditions the flow of i the suspension in this case is characterized by a localized macroscogic coefficient i of viscosity that coincides in form with the effective coefficient of viscosity found by J. C. Batchelor. References 6. ~ UDC 532.135:532.546 i ~ FLOW OF POLYMER MELTS THROUGH A GRANULAR BID i I I [Abstract of article by Z. Kemblovskiy and M. Dyubinskiy] I i [Text] The paper gives the results of investigations of resistance to the flow of polymer melts thorugh a granular bed. It is shown that flows of inelts with Debora ~ numbers greater than 0.05 are accompanied by "memory" effects that must be taken ~ into consideration. On the basis of research results a correlation equation is proposed for calculating the resistance to flow of polymer melts through a granular bed with shear velocities from 0.6 to 36 s-1. Figures 11, table 1, references 17. I I COPYRIGHT: Institut teplofiziki, 1979 [15-6610] =i i 6610 CSO: 1862 ~ 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL U3E ONLY STABILITY OF SHOCK WAVES IN A THOMAS-FERMI GAS - Novosibirsk CHISLENNYYE METODY MEKHANIKI SPLOSHNOY SREDY in Russian Vol 4, No 5, 1973 pp 1~+3-1~+8 [Article by T. N. Fortova, A. N. Dremin and V. Ye. Fortov, Department of the Insti- tute of Chemical Physics, USSR Acaderqy of Sciences, Moscow] [Text] At the present time, in connection with the elaboration of questions in pulsed initiation of thermonuclear reactions [Ref. 1] considerable interest has arisen in hydrodynamic phenomena at extremely high pressures (P < 10~ Mbar) and tem- peratures T< 109 �K) that may be realized when powerful luminous [Ref. 2] or elec- tron [Ref. 3) fluxes act on a condensed substance. Depending on the rate of energy - input, shock waves of extremely high intensity may be produced in the target that are unstable with respect to spontaneous acoustic emission. The stability of a planar steac~y-state discontinuity with respect to two-dimensional curvatures of the front was first considered in Ref. 4. The system of hydrodynamic equations that describe the motion behind the shock wave front was linearized rela- tive to perturbed motion, and thanks to the steady-state nature of the main flow, _ an exponential time factor was isolated in the solution that defines the nature of development of perturbations in the flux. The soluti~n of Ref. 4 was later enlarged by consideration of "entrainment" of perturbations by the f1u.X, so that the fol- lowing stability criteria were finally formulated[Ref. 5, 6]: dv) ~ V-Vo , ci) ~d P/N p'~�o . ~ P~~ > p P~l 2G c, (2 ) Vo V 1-GY(b~C) ~G (D/C) t ya V~1�2G ~1IlC~, P-Pq 1-6Y.(D/CJa�6-~~11/CJY ~dP)~ P P (3) where VpPp and VP axe states preceding and following ~the shock discontinuity, D is ~velocity in the laboratory coordinate system, Q= Vp/V; C=~-Yr~ y~ i~ p)H is the slope of the shock adiabat. ~t FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Inequalities (1), (2) correspond to absolute instability of the discontinuity an exponential increase in perturbations with elapsed time. Moreover, the incre- ment of this rise is considerable, so that the perturbations rapidly reach the non- linear region for which there is no solution at present. However, case (1) ha~ been experimentally studied and corresponds to decay of the wave into two discontinui- ties that propagate with different velocities [Ref. 71. Inequality (3) corresponds - to a zero real part of the increment, and leads in the linear approximati,on to spon- taneous emission of sound waves by the discontinuity toward the shock-compressed - medium. A solution of higher orders is also needed in this case to clarify the actual flow pattern. Fig. 1 gives a geometric interpretation of stability cri- teria (1)-(3). A break in the shock adiabat H below the B VO - V R ,~~Q Rayleigh line R= P_ P = const leads to insta~ility (1) and 0 P,~ 3 formation of a two-wave structure. A sharp bend in the 6v...~si t 2 shock adiabat ~d~H ~ 0 when (2) is satisfied also corre- H , P~e sponds to absolute instability. Criterion of sonic insta- bility (3) is weaker than (2), and in principle does not v Fi 1 req~:ire a change in the sign o� ~~H, although it is for A--two waves shock adiabats with a bend in the PV plane that sonic in- . B--sonic emission stability is most prob~ble. According to the ideas that have now been developed, the lower boundary of the sta- tistical description of condensed matter is on a pressure levet of a few hundred megabars [Ref. 8], above which the thermodynamic properties are confidently de- _ scribed in the quasi-classical approximation by self-consistent field methods (the Thomas-Fermi theory). The Thomas-Fermi equations at a finite temperature were nu- ` merically solved in Ref. 9, and the following approximations jRef.. 10] have been proposed for the electronic component of pressure Pe and excitation energy Ee: ~ ~ P(V r~ ~ fs2~a'/'T p(VMI -.~.r l+ ;~ds~%zY,y)~~ l-r ~ ' I�S. ~S/o'~z 1~'(YMJ''~T [ /�l.210~OZ ~VMTf~J , (4) ~ -ax~ E(~T jsP V fl.Sr J.d�/0 ~ZYM)/~~l.e~sZ- a,J.~~/G'I ~ d7J!/O~Z~i~l .Z~pTr t c I ~�~l~,r.10 L 1J~~l.IOI/Osl YMf' ~P-z~si a a~ZVM)'~tz ' ~ The describe the data of Ref. 9 within 10~, and have true asymptotes to a degener- ate electron gas and an ideal Boltzmann gas: V--O; T-o; P~TtY'~~~ ~~?T`V1/' - (5) V--~ T-~; ~~T~-i/~ c ~r . (s) _ _ In view of the large mass of nuclei, the nuclear components of the system were de- scribed in the ideal-gas approximation, disregarding correlation effec�~: 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONT~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY P(~TJ= ~ t; �-z A Y c7) The cold components were taken in the following form [Ref. 10]: ?sJ/J P= Z10~~~ a.~ZVM~'`~~'~`; E- ~ Z' ~'~~E a.(ZVM~` . (8) ,z- ~ 1 .r Ve c=a t The shock compression adiabat in the Thomas-Fermi approximation was calculated by numerical solution of the equation of dynamic compatibility: E_2 p~V_~~ap (9) The total pressure P and internal energy E of the system are the sum of the com- ponents (4), (7) and (8). The asymptotic behavior of the electronic components (6) _ leads to limiting compression (P->~) of matter 6~ = 4 in accordance with the ex- pression for a density jump in a strong shock wave (P�PX) [Ref. 7]. - The form of the Hugoniot adiabat in the vicinity of the bend depends on the ratio between the potential energy Q and translational energy Etr and is determined by th e specific law of interaction compression and degeneration of the electronic com- ponent. In the temperature region T~106 �K, in addition to (4), (7) and (8) we must con- sider the contribution of pressure P~ and emission energy E~, which in the case of local thermodynamic equilibrium are written in the form [Ref. 7] p = �6r V~ E _ 4~r'~ (io) _ n ~c ..a - c Equilibrium radiation causes a qualitative change in the pattern ci shock com- ~ pression, leading to a new asymptotic form for density ~~-~7 as P-~~, and elimi- nation of the inflection of the Hugoniot adiabat in the PV plane. ~ Correspondence between these two models of reality is verified by checking the con- dition of blocking of radiation in a shock-compressed medium with characteristic dimension Z~^ 0.1 cm. At T~ 106 �K the main fraction of equilibrium radiation goes to the x-ray spectrum with wavelengths Z< 5�10-~ cm. I~ we take free-free electron transitions as the principal mechanism of absorption of such radiation, the mean free path of radiation of interest to us is much greater than At emission fre- - quencies of the order of the plasma frequency w~ wP =~+~rn~ there is a collec- tive mechanism of absorption due to buildup of the instability in the skin layer and decay of the transverse electromagnetic wave into a plasmon and an a~oustic wave, and at w~ 2wP due to ciecay into two plasmons [Ref. 11]. However, under the conditions of interest to us wm=2~rc/am�wp and these mechanisms likewise do not block an appreciable amount of radiant energy. _ Fig. 2 shows the results of calculation of the shock adiabats for tungsten with various initial porosities, where the wavy line shows the region of instability with respect to cri~~~~rion (3)� 'I'he upper bound of this region lies outside the limits of validity cf the approximation used since spontaneous production of elec- . tron-positron pairs can take place in the system at T~2mec2/K~1010OK [Ref. 12]. - 6 J FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - B -r---r--r-~~ ~ . ~ , S~ I Meu. ~ I xfr~r i ~ 1 ~ ' ~(7 I i ~ , ~ s Ideal; i 9 i ~aS ' "'r ' S ~~...M: S~j.,~,r~y B i . / ~ i i ! ~ i ~ ~ i ~ ~ i J ' 6 I !1 ission ~ J ~ - 2 g i ' i g 1 P d / ,f 6 1 J f J 6 7 Fig. 2 In addition to tungsten, calculations have shown instability of the discontinuity for some other elements: Cu, Ni, Pb and A1. It is known that the Thomas-Fermi equations are self-similar relative to nuclear charge number Z: P=PL"~`;~ Y-~L;1'-TZ ~J. f,FZ'~.'~ ( I I) ~ In addition, transformations (11) enable elimina~tion of Z from stability criteria - (1)-(3), and from the other relations used here, (7)-(9)� The specific nature of ~ the element lies in the density of the substance under normal conditions pp = Vpl, ' which is determined by the shell structure of the atom. However, the considerable ~ margin in satisfying criterion (3) for the investigated metals is a hopeful sign _ that the conclusion of shock wave instability in a Thomas-Fermi gas is universal ! and applies to the other elements. - ~ The authors thank V. M. Gogolev for constructive criticism. ~ REFERENCES ~i l. I. Nuckolls et al., "Superhigh-Densi.ty Laser Fusion for C.T.R. Report at the Sixth Furopean Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics," Moscow, 1973. _ 2. T. A. Askar'yan, V. A. Nampot. M. S. Rabinovich, "Using Supercompression of Matter by P,eactive Pressure to Get Microcritical Fissile Masses, Produce - Ultrastrong Magnetic Fields, and Accelerate Particles," PIS'MA V ZHURNAL EKSPERIMENTAL'NOY I TEORETICHESKOY FIZIKI, No 17, 1973, p 5~7� - 3. 0. V. Bogdankevich, A. A. Rukhadze, "Concerning the Feasibility of Producing _ _ High Pressure in a Solid by Using a Strong Electron Beam," PIS'MA V ZHURNAL EKSPLRIb~~NTAL'NOY I TEORETICHESKOY FIZIKI, Vol 13, 1971, P 517. _ ~ 4. S. P. D'yakov, "Shock Wave Stability," ZHURNAL EY~ PERIMENTAL'NOY I TEORETI- _ _ CHESKOY FIZIKI, Vol 27, 195~+, p 288. - 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. S. V. Iordanskiy, "Concerning Stability of a Plane Steady-State Shock Wave," PRIKLADNAYA MATEMATIKA I MEKHANIKA, Vol 21, 1957, p~+65� 6. V. M. Kantorovich, "On the Problem of Shock Wave Stability," ZHURNAL F~TCSPEAI- MENTAL'NOY I TEORETICHES~:OY FIZIKI, Vnl 33, 1957, p 1525. 7. B. Ya. Zel'dovich, Yu. P. Rayzer, "Fizika udarnykh voln i vysokotempEraturnykh = gidrodinamicheskikh yavleniy" ~Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature _ Hydrodynamic Phenomena], Nauka, Moscow, 1966. ~ 8. L. V. Al'shuller, "Using Shock Waves in High-Pressure Physics," USPEKHI FIZI- CHESKI?4i NAUK, Vol 87, ~965, p 197. 9. R. Latter, "Thoma,s-Fermi Model of Atoms PHYS . REV Vol 99 , 19 55, P i87~+ � .10. S. V. Bobrovskiy, V. M. Gogolev, "Concerning the Problem of Calculating Shock Adiabats for Solids in the Superhigh Pressure Re~ion," FIZIKA GORENIYA I vzRYVA, Vol 3, 1967, p 59~+. . - 11. [ Not gi-ven ] I 12 . [ Not given ] [8i44/o530-6610] ~ i 66io CSO : 81~+~+/0530 ~ ~ 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ CrEOPHYSICS - THEORY AND IN~ERPRETATION PROCEDURES OF GRAVITATIONAL AND MAGNETIC ANOMALIES Moscow TEORIYA I METODIKA INTERPRETATSII GRAVITATSIONNYKH I MAGNITNYKH ANOMALIY in Russian 1y79 signed to press 5 Nov 79 pp 2-4, 270 [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from collection "Theor~; and In- terpretation Procedures of Gravitational and Magnetic Anomalies" edited by Doctor ; of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Profesaor V. A. Kuzivanov, Institute of Physics of the Earth imeni 0. Yu. Shmidt, USSR Academy of Sciences, Izdatel'stvo I "Nauka", 250 copies, 270 pages] _ [Textj This collection deals with the theory, methodology and numerical methods of ~ interpreting gravitational and magnetic anomalies. New results are given on the ' interpretation of local two-dimensional gravitational anomalies by the method of ~ bipolar analysis, on analytical continuation of two-dimensional magnetic anomalies, ~ on the uniqueness of the solution of the three-dimensional potential problem, on ; solution of the direct problem in the method of artificial magnetization, and on I systematizing methods of extracting information from data of geophysical observa- - i tions . ~ The collection is intended for specialists in the field of exploratory gravimetry _i and magnetometry, instructors in colleges and universities, graduate students and i upperclassmen ma~oring in exploratory geophysics. ~ Introduction j The most important stage in any geophysical research has always been, and continues to be that of processing and interpreting the data of field observations. Over the past 20 years there has been a considerable change in the makeup of this ~tag~ and in the essence of the techniques and methods used. This is due to the following circumstances: 1) there has been a sharp increase in the volume of observational data to be pro- - cessed and interpreted, as well as an improvement in quality of these data; 2) there has been a sharp increase in the volume of a priori (supplementary) infor- mation on the structure of the medium that is available to the interpretor; 3) there has been an i~neasurable increase in the demands on the part of geologists ~ for precision and resolution of the geophysical interpretation and for summary ma- terials of geo~hysical research used as a basis for planning geologica7. prospecting. 9 F(1R CIFFff iAT, i ISF, ONi,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFF(C(AL t1Sr ONI..1~' ' In virtue of these circumstances, thE stage of and interpretation must now be done (and indeed is being done) on compuCers, i. e. on the basis of strictly formalized procedures, and the procedures themselves must be optimum. AI1 this in Curn makes it necessary to go into questions of the methodology, theory and develop- ment of inethods of extracting information from observational data afresh on a higher level. Although specialists in the field of :interpretation have been going into these questions inten~ively throughout the seventies, a very great deal re- mains Co be done. - The above-mentioned questions of the theory, methodology and construction of algo- rithms for extracting information are the topics of the papers in this collection. They reflect the main areas of research under development at the Laboratory of the Theory of Interpretatj.on of Geopotential Fields of the Institute of Physics of the Earth. Let us hope that making the geophysical community aware of the results presented in these articles wiZl serve the cause of progress in the difficult area - of reconstructing the sources of physical fields from data of ineasurement of these - fields on the surface of the earth. Doctor of Physical _ and Mathematical Sciences, Professor V. A. Kuzivanov Co:~tents Introduction 3 V. N. Strakhov, M. I. Lapina, "Bipolar Analysis of Local ~ao-Dimensional Gravitational Anomalies " 5 Ye. I. Angelova, "A Nonlinear Method of Analytical Continuation of ~ao- Dimensional Potential Fields 82 M. A. Brodskiy, "On Solving the Inverse Potentia.l Problem of Cylindrical Bodies" 111 A. I. Luchitskiy, "Direct Problems in the Theory of the Method of Arti- ficial Magnetization" 126 V. N. Strakhov, "Main Ideas and Methods of Extracting Information from ' Data of Gravitational and Magnetic Observations" 146 COPYRIGHT: Institut fiziki Zemli AN SSSR, 1979 [18-6610] 6610 CSO: 1862 10 - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 ~ f OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY LASERS AND MASERS UDC 621.37~.33 EFFICIENT MExAL-VAPOR GAS-DISCHARGE LASERS ' Tomsk EFFEKTIVNYYE GAZORAZRYADNYYE LAZERY NA PARAKH METALLOV in Russian 1978 signed j to press 28 Dec 78 pp 2-5, 208-209 ' . - - - [Annotation, preface and table of contents from collection "Efficient Metal-Vapor _ Gas-Discharge Lasers" edited by A. V. Lisevich; Institute of Optics of the Atmos- phere, Siberian Department, USSR Academy ot Sciences, 400 copies, 209 pages] I jText] The collection presents papers by researchers at the Institute of Optics ; of the Atmosphere, the "Optika" Special Design Office of Scientific Instrument Making of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Computing - ~ Center of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, and the Siberian Physicotechnical Institute imeni V. D. Kuznetsov on investigation of physical processes in active media, optimization, modeling and utilization of lasers in pulsed, cw and quasi-continuous operation based on transitions from reso- nant to metastable levels of atoms and ions. I Most of the papers are published here for the first time. The collection may be of interest to specialists working in the field of quantum electronics and its applications. Science editor Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences P. A. Bokhan ~ Preface ~ Improving the power and efficiency of lasers in both the pulsed and cw mode of oper- ation remains one of the most important problems in quantum electronics. This prob- lem is particularly acute for lasers of the visible and near infrared band. One way to improve laser efficiency is to use working media in which the pumning channel for the uppex working states is capable of capturing a large share of the pumping energy. For gas lasers, this occurs particularly in the case where the upper working levels ara resonant states of inetal atoms or ions. The investigation of such working media is covered by th~ materials of this collection, which gives the results of research in development of inetal-vapor lasers done at the Institute ; ll _ ' FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL t1SE OM,Y of Optics of the Atmosphere and the "Optika11 Special Offi.ce of Sr_ienrific - Instrument Making in Tomsk, and also by the Computing Center of the Siberian Depart- � ment of the USSR Academy of Scl.ences in Krasnoyarsk in 1971-1978. The main principles of operation of such ].asers wer~ formulared by Gould, WalCer and others in the sixties. At that time their research did not attract wide atten- tion of scientists. The situation changed considerably in 1971 when the frequency _ self-heating mode of copper laser operation was realized at the Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences under the direction of G. G. Petrash. This enabled an appreciable increase in the average power level of the laser with retention of the efficiency level of about 1%. An analogous working mode has now been realized for most metal atoms that have a similar level structure. Progress in the technology of making tubes and improvement of the supply systems have now led to the develop- ment of high-power sealed devices that have a unique combination of properties. In additi.on, some active media have been converted to continuous or quasi-continuous operation. Such a working mode has been observed in mixtures of vapors of europium with helium, strontium with helium and calcium with hydrogen. However, despite obvious advances, there are still unsolved problems, including: . 1) persistently low efficiency, far from what had previously been expected; 2) slow ~ pace of increase in average lasing powers; 3) small number of working media that - _ have been converted to continuous and quasicontinuous operation, and also com- paratively low parameters. Apparently the principal reason for such a state of affairs is inadequatz study of the physical processes that determine lasing parameters. Therefore in most experi- mental research that deals with such an area as pulsed lasers with resonant upper working levels there is practically no discussion of the factors that limit effi- ciency, energy output, recurrence rate and average lasing power. , In the proposed collection, most of the papers deal with these problems, which has ~y made it possible to explain the origins of the major limitations. On the one hand this has already b een instrumental in the attainment of fairly high lasing param- eters (e. g. copper-vapor laser efficiency has been brought to about 3%); on the other hand, the outlook for further progress in this field of quantum electronics - has been clarif ied . ~ A considerable number of articles in the coiiection deal with lasers that have been . converted to continuous or quasicontinuous emission. Since there has been rather little success in this field as yet, emphasis has been placed on more detailed in- vestigation of the lasing mechanism of known active media rather than on the search for new media. The value of results of any research depends considerably on the feasibility of utilization in the national economy. Therefore some attention has also been given to problems of the development of high-temperature technology, the manufacture of sealed devices and investigation of their characteristics, and also to optimization problems . In addition to the papers that give new results, the collection also includes ma- - terials of research that has been published partially heretofore in periodicals. On the one hand; this relieves research and development people who are new to these 12 nnr i+~�r~.r.r i TCT. /ll~lT V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 _ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' problems of having to look up the required papers; on the other hand, a reading of the material in its entirety undoubtedly facilitates understand~ng. . It ahould be mentioned that the development of inetal-vapor lasers at the Institute of Optics of the Atmosphere and the "Optika" Special Design Office is being done - mainly to produce new s ources for lases probing of the atmosphere. By now a number of experiments have been done in this field that cor~vincingly show the appreciable advantages of inetal-vapor lasers, and especially copper-vapor lasers, over other types. An analogous situa.tion may be the case as well in other areas of practical ~ application such as laser projection microscopes, communications and navigation, ~ hybrid optoelectronic systems for recording, storing and processing data, for pump- - ing dye lasers and F-center lasers and so on, where the unique combinar_ion of parameters in these lasers can be put to use in full measure. Contents Editor's Preface 3 STEADY-STATE AND QUASISTEADY-STATE LASERS BASED ON TRANSITIONS FROM RESONANT LEVELS TO METASTABLE LEVELS OF METAL ATOMS AND IONS V. M. Klimkin, V. Ye. Prokop'yev, S. S. Monastyrev, "Steady-state gas- discharge lasers based on transitions fx~om resonant to metastable levels of inetal atoms and ions" 6 - V. M. Klimkin, P. D. Kolbycheva, "A cw laser working on the transition from resonant level 41P1 to metastable level 31DZ of the calcium atom with tunable frequency" 13 P. A. Bokhan, V. D. Burlakov, "Investigation of gas-discharge lasers with relaxation of excitation within multiplets" 18 V. M. Klimkin, V. Ye. Prokop'yev, V. G. Sokovikov, "Measurement of ~'umping rates and electron concentration in He-Eu and He-Sr pulsed gas lasers" 27 V. M. Klimkin, A. N. Mal'tsev, V. Ye. Prokop'yev, V. G. Sokovikov, "Study of the motion trajectory of a europium ion with respect to the excited states in the He-Eu laser" 35 P. A. Bokhan, A. N. Mal'tsev, "Determining populations of energy Levels in a gas-discharge plasma from measurable characteristics of a set of part].y reabsorbed spectral lines" 46 P. A. Bokhan, G. S. Klyashkina, V. M. Klimkin, V. I. Solomonov, V. B. Shche- glov, "High-temperature equipment,for ~tudying steady and pulsed discharges" 59 INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES AND OPTIMIZATION OF LASERS BASED ON SELF- LIMITED TRANSITIONS OF METAL ATOMS AND IONS N. Ya. Shaparev, I. M. Shkedov, "Model optimization of pulsed lasers" 69 P. A. Bokhan, S. S. Monastyrev, V. I. Solomonov, "Studies of barium vapor lasers" 74 P. A. Bokhan, V. D. Burlakov, V. I. Solomonov, "Energy characteristics of a manganese vapor laser" 93 P. A. Bokhan, V. M. Klimkin, V. Ye. Prokop'yev, V. I. Solomonov, "Investi- gation of a laser based on self-limited transitions of the europium atom and ion" 100 V. N. Kukharev, A. Ye. Kirilov, A. N. Soldatov, "Investigation of a pulsed Pb-Ne laser on a= 722.9 nm with a two-section gas-discharge chamber" 108 V. M. Klimkin, A. N. Mal'tsev, L. V. Fadin, "Study of the stability limit of a pulsed gas discharge with high current pulse recurrence rate" 116 13 FOR OFFICTAI, USE ONI,Y r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY - P. A. Bokhan, V. A. Gerasimov, V. I. Solomonov, V. I. Silant'yev, V. B. Shche- ~ - glov, "On the mechanism of stimulated emission of a copper-vapor laser" 133 A. G. Gridnev, G. S. Yevtushenko, V. F. Y.elayev, I. I. Murav'yev, A. ~1. Sol- datov, "Temporal r~ature of the emission spectrum of the pulsed dis- 160 _ charge in a cupper-vapor laser" T. M. Gorbunova, V. F. Yelayev, N. V. Osipova, A. N. Soldatov, "Study of the 1~2 pulse gas-discharge plasma of a copper-vapor I.aser" - V. F. Yelayev, V. S. Mel'chenko, V. V. Pozdeyev, A. N. Soldatov, "Time behavior of electron concentration in discharge afterglow in a copper-vapor laser" 179 V. F. Yelayev, V. S. Mel'chenko, V. V. Pozdeyev, A. N. Soldatov, "Influence that radial inhomogeneity of a gas-discharge plasma has on the emission parameters of a copper laser" 189 L. V. Masarnovskiy, S. Yu. Mirza, A. N. Soldatov, V. B. Sukhanov, Study of _ the spatial-energy and spectral characteristics of a copper-vapor laser with unstable resonator 197 G. Ya. Vlasov, A. M. Gorokhov, A. Ye. Kirilov, V. N. Kukharev, A. V. Patonov, Yu. P. Yolunin, A. N. Soldatov, V. F. Fedorov, A. G. Filonov, Milan-5 pulsed metal-vapor lasers" 201 A. A. Yedakin, A. V. Masarnovskiy, S. A. Pupyshev, A. N. Soldatov, V. B. Su- khanov, "Investigation of dye lasing with pumping by a copper-vapor 204 laser" COPYRIGHT: Institut optiki atmosfery SO AN SS~R, 1978 [16-6610] 6610 , CSO: 1862 11~ rrnr. n1~TiV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL U5E (~FILY UDC 621 - ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS IN THE COLLECTION 'QUANTUM ELECTRONICS' i , Leningrad KVANTOVAYA ELEKTRONIKA, TRUDY LENINGRADSKOGO POLITEIgiNICHESKOGO INSTITUTA j in Russian No 366, 1979 signed to press 27 Dec 79 pp l, 114-119 I i [Text] This collection contains the results of rese~,rch done by scientists of the radio physics department at [Leningrad] Polytechnical Institute imeni M. I. Kalinin. - Considerable attention is given to questions of using lasers and masers, optical data processing and holography. The materials of the collection cover a wide range of theoretical and experimental work in the field of qua.nttun electronics. Physical phenomena are considered in gas lasers and neoc~ymium-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet solid=state lasers, methods of mode selection in linear and ring lasers, the theory and application of acousto- optical devices in optical data processing systems, the use of holography in ex- perimental techniques. Some articles deal with the development of hybrid optical- digital signal processing systems based on charge-coupled devices and computers of i the "Elektronika-100" type, and also the development of devices based on nuclear ; magnetic resonance and quantum frequency standards. ~ ~ The collection is intended for a wide range of physicists and engineers working in I the field of quantum electronics and related areas, and also for upperclassmen and graduate students. I The collection has been approved by the Leading Council on Radio Physics of the ~ Ministry of Higher and Intermediate Education of the Russian Federation. ` i Recommended for publication by the academic council of the radio physics department - of Leningrad Polytechnical Institute imeni M. I. Kalinin. I ~ UDC 621.373.826 _ A SINGLE-FREQUENCY HIGH-POWER Nd:YAG LASII3 [Abstract of paper by G. F. Zaytsev, S. V. Kruzhalov and L. N. Pakhomov] [Text] The authors give the results of a theoretical and experimental study of a single-frequency Nd:YAG laser optimized with respect to output power. Z'he output power attained in t2~~ stable single-frequency mode was 800 mW. Figures 3, refer- ences 4. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL t1SE ONI.Y trDC 621.373.826 A SOLID-STATE RING LASER WITH LONGITUDINAL MODE LOCKING [Abstract of paper by A. V. Astakhov, S. L. Galkin t~nd V. M. Nikolayev] [Text] The paper gives the results of an experimental st~qy of a.n yttrium-aluminum garnet ring laser with longit~:dinal mode locking. A nonreciprocal phase-shifting element based on the Faraday eff.ect was used to produce beating of opposed waves. Measurement of the lock-in band of opposed waves gave a value of about 200-300 Hz. I'his low figure can be attributed to spatial separation of opposed waves under phase-locked multimode conditions. Figures 3, references 4. ~ UDC 621.373.826 BEAT FREQUENCY OF OPPOSED WAVES OF A MULTIMODE GAS LASER UNDER LONGITUDINAL MODE _ LOCKING CONDITIONS ~ [Abstract of paper by S. L. Galkin, B. V. L'vo'v, V. M. Nikolayev and K. B. Samusev] [Text] A method of successive approximations is proposed for calculating the char- ~ acteristics of gas ring lasers. On the basis of this method, the beat frequency of opposed waves in a helium-neon ring laser is calculated as a function of small ~ changes in the length of the resonator under conditions of self-locking and induced ~ locking of longitudinal modes. It is established that induced locking of longi- tudinal modes reduces the dependence of beat frequency on cavity length as compared with self-l~cking. The theoretical results are experimentally verified. Figures 2, references 4. UDC 621.373.826:535�~+17 - A MATRIX METHOD OF CALCULATING SPHERICAL RESONATORS WITH CROSS SECTIONALLY NONUIVI- FORM POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY [Abstract of paper by V. Yu. Petrun'kin and N. M. Kozhevnikov] [Text] A matrix method is proposed for analyzing optical cavities with cross sec- tionally inhomogeneous polarization anisotropy that generalizes tne Jenes method ' and the matrix method of calculating isotropic spherical resonators. A confocal cavity with weak axisymmetric anisotropy is calculated by using this method. Figures 4, references 6. uDC 621.373.826 MODE INTERACTION IN A WEAKLY ANISOTROPIC GAS LASER [Abstract of a paper by B. V. L'vov and A.L. Mel'tsin] [Text] An analysis is made of mode interaction in a weakly anisotropic two-mode helium-neon laser with wavelength of 0.63 um in a realistic range of pressures, intermode spacings, and differences between cavity Q's for orthogonal polarizations. , An investigation is made of the width of the zone of competition between modes of 16 FOYt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY stimulated emission and the correction to the f'requency of inter~ode beats as a function of the fre quency mismatch of stimulated emission relative to the center of _ the line of an equal-isotope mixture in the working range of' pressures at different intermode intervals. Figures 3, references 12. ~ uDC 621..373.826 FREQUENCY SPLITTING OF STINNLATID r"N.IISSION OF OPPOSID WAVES IN A HELIUM-NEON GAS LASER , [Paper by R. I. Okunev and A. L. Stepanyants] [Text] The paper gives the results of an experimental stuc~y of supplementary splitting of the fre quencies of opposed waves when a bea.m is irised down in the cavity of a ring laser and the active element is mis~,ligned. It is established ; that frequency splitting of opposed wave3 is caused by deviation of the capillary i of the laser tube away from the axis of the cavity. Figures 3, references 6. ~ I tr~C 621.373.826 i PHASE RELATIONS BETWEEN MODES IN LIN'~AR GAS LASERS WITH TYPE II SELF-MODE LOCKING [Paper by 0. I. Kotov and V. M. Nikolayev] [Text] On the basis of a spectral-temporal model an�;~xamination is made of ths dis- tribution of phases in multimode laser operation. A reiw�ion is established between steac~y-state phases of longitudinal modes and the characteristics of the optical spectrum and of the emission pulses. The results of cai.culation agreee with ex- perimental data on a linear helium-neon laser. Figures 4, references 7. trnC 62i.373.826 i ' SOME PARTICULARS OF OPERATION OF A HELIUM-CADMIUM ELECTROPHORETIC LASER [Paper by Ye. Yu. Andreyeva~ Y. V. Yelagin~ D. K~ Terekh~.n, deceased, A. E. Fotiadi and S. A. Fridrikhov] i -j [Text] It is established by simultaneous measurement of the power of stimulated i emission and the parameters of the discharge plasma of an electrophoretic He-Cd laser that the cadmium vapor pressure in the working part of the tube does not re- main constant with changing discharge current even though the temperature of the ' source of cadmium vapor is maintained constant within �5�C. Application of an axial magnetic field to the active medium in the single-frequency lasing mode leads to an increase in lasing power. Figures 3, references 9. trDC 62~ . 373 . 826 INVESTIGATION OF PECULIARITIES OF COMPETITION OF OPPOSID WAVES IN A RING LASER ON THE 3.39 um LINE [Paper by Ye. Yu. Andreyeva, M. Yu. Kirina and D. K. Terekhin, deceased] [Text] An experimental stuc~y is done on the effect that pressure of the gas mix- ture and an external axial magnetic field have on conditions of competition of 17 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL tJSE ONLY opposed waves. It is established that a reduction of pressure when consideration . is taken of coupling through scattering narrows the region of competition o~ op- posed waves. The results enab]_e calculati~n of the coefficient of coupling through - scattPring between opposed waves, and they can be used in selecting modes of oper- ation of laser gyroscopes. Figure l. trDC 621..373.826 - COMBINID LASER DISCHARGE WITH MICROWAVE PREIONIZATION [Paper by A. P. Golovatskiy, V. A. Kruzhalov, T. M. Perchanok, D. K. Ter.ekhin and S. A. Fridrikhov] [Text] It is proposed that a microwave discharge be used to preionize the medium of a C02 laser. The microwave discharge is excited in a slot cut in the narrow - wall of a waveguide. Pulsed voltage is applied across an electrode opposite this slot. An investigation is made of the gain of the active medium on a wavelength of 10.6 um as function of pump parameters. It is established that the microwave di~charge produces inversi~n in the medium only in the iirmiediate vicinity of the slot, but promotes development of discharge in the main volume. High gain that is uniform with respect to volume can be achieved by appropriate selection of the pump parameters. Figures 2, references 5. ; ~ UDC 535�853 AN ACOUSTO-OPTICAL SPECTROGRAPH FOR RADIOASTRONOMICAL STUDIES [Paper by N. A. Yesepkina, B. A. Kotov, A. V. Mikhaylov, Yu. Petrun'kin, S. V. Pruss-Zhukovskiy, N. F. Ryzhkov and A. I. Shishkin] [Text] The authors examine the working principle and give the results of experi- mental studies of the prototype of a radioastronomical spectrograph based on an acousto-optical spectrum analyzer, a line of CCDs (charge-coupled devices) and an Flektronika-100 computer. The para.meters (frequency band, resolution and radio- metric gain) of such a spectrograph are determined during operation in the modu- lation mode. Figures 3, references 13� UDC 621.385�832.5 CONVERTERS BASID ON CHARGE-TRANSFER DEVICFS FOR CHANGING OPTICAL INFORMATION TO ELECTRICAL [ Paper by S. S. Karinskiy, B. A. Kotov and Yu . A. Kotov ] [Text] The paper outlines the principles of operation of new semiconductor charge- transfer devices. It is shown that this class of new photoelectric transducers has a combination of characteristics that enable optimum realization of the capabili- ties of optical computer systems and development of hybrid optical-digital data processing systems *rTith flexible structure and extensive capabilities. Limiting values are given of' the noises, errors and speed of these devices, and the ma~or , characteristics of charge-transfer devices are compared with those of other analo- gous devices (vidicons, dissector tubes and the like). Figures 3, references 7. 18 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 F'OR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.327.8 . A DEVICE FOR COUPLING OPTICAL AND DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS USING LINEAR AND MATRIX CHARGE-TRANSFER DEVICES [Paper by Yu. A. Kotov, A. V. Mikhaylov and A. P. Novitskiy] [Text ] An exa.mination is ma,de of the principles of constructing an interface for programmed control of linear and ma.trix charge-transfer devices with data input to _ an Elektronika-100 computer. Estimates are made of the time of data input with a variety of interface structures using regular peripheral equipment. Figures 2, references 5. UDC 535�241.13:534 MULTICHANNEL HIGH-FREQUENCY ACOUSTO-OPTICAL MODULATORS , [Paper by Ye. T. Aksenov, N. A. Bukharin, S. A. Rogov a.nd I. I. Sayenko] ~ [Text] The authors consider questions of developing multichannel solid-state acousto-optical modulators for frequencies of 100-300 MHz. A description is given ~ of modulator manufacturing technology and the technique for matching channel input - impedances. Results of an experimental stuc~y of multichannel acousto-optical modulators are given. Figures 4, references 13� ~ ; UDC 535.241.13:534 i INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTO-OPTICAL RADIO SIGNAL SPECTRUM ANALY ZERS BASID ON BRAGG ~ MANY-PHONON SCATTERING OF LICHT i [Paper by N. A. Yesepkina, A. A. Lipovskiy, V. V. Chkalova and A. S. Shcherbakov] i -j [Text] An investigation is made of the feasibility of increasing the resolution of ~ an acousto-opticsl radio signal spectrum analyzer by using many-phonon scattering i of light in crystals with a high coefficient of acousto-optical quality. It is ex- ' perimentally shown that the relative forbiddenness of many-phonon processes in the ~ Bragg modP can be removed by selection of scattering geometry, resulting in effec- tive second-order and third-order scattering of light. Models of acousto-optical ~ spectrum analyzers based on a Te02 crystal are described that have 2-3 times the _ f.requency rpsolution of analogous devices based on one-phonon scattering with the ' same dimensions of the acoustic line. Figures 3, references 8. UDC 535.2~+1.13:53~+ CALCULATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF ACOUSTO-OPTICAL INTERACTION IN CRYSTALS BY THE METHOD OF PERTURBATIONS [Paper by A. S. Shcherbakov] [Text] An examination is made of one possible method of det ermining the para.meters of acousto-optical interaction in crystals for arbitrary scattering geometry. Co- variant relations are found for the band of acousto-optical interaction, the index 19 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY of phase modulation and the effective photoelastic constants in the case of an anisotropic medium, and expressions are derived for the effectiveness of Bragg many-phonon scattering of light. The paper uses the perturbation theory method of - infinite series expansion of a one-frequency wave funct ion with calculation of sample sums of the resultant series based on elements of the Feynman diagram method. Figures 2, references 16. ~ cmc 621. 396 . 67: 535 � 241.13: 534-8 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AN OPTICAL SYSTII~I FOR PROCESSING SIGNALS IN ANNULAR ARRAYS _ [Paper by I. A. Vodovatov, M. G. Vysotskiy, N. A. Yesepkina and S. A. Rogov] [Text] An experimental investigation is made of a syst em for optical processing of signals in annular antenna arrays. Operation o~ the processing system is con- sidered both in the static mode (with a static transparency as the input signal), and in real time using an ultrasonic light modulator. Results are given on signal processing with ~.mplitude weighting. A discrete multichannel standard raster is used to record a holographic filter. Figures references 4. - uDC 621.396�67~522�59:535 ON THE PROBLEM OF OPTICAL MODELING OF THE FIELDS OF APERTURE ANTENNAS [Paper by G. K. Vinogradov, I. A. Vodovatov, M. G. Vysotskiy and T. I. Zubkova] [Text] An examination is made of conditions of similarity of fields in optical and radio systems for some specific optical modeling arrangements. On this basis esti- mates are made of the accuracy of alignment of individual elements in optical mo deling systems. Figure 1, references 4. UDC 621.372.82:621.383.8 - DIFFUSION OPTICAL WAVEGUIDFS IN LITHIUM NIOBATE [Paper by Ye. T. Aksenov and A. A. Lipovskiy] [Text] An experimental study is done on the feasibility of making optical wave- guides in lithium niobate plates of Y+ 36� and X cuts by exodiffusion in atmosphere ~ and by diffusion of Na+ ions. It is shown that the characteristics of the resultant optical waveguides are close to those of wavegui3es produced by exodiffusion in vacuum and diffusion of Ag+ ions. The investigated methods of forming optical waveguides are technologically simple and economical. Figure l, references 6. UDC 621.373.826:621.397.22 USING WIDE-BAND ACOUSTO-OPTICAL ELII~IENTS IN LASER VISUALIZATION OF A TELE'VISION IMAGE [Paper by Ye. T. Aksenov, N. A. Bukharin, A. B. Ignatov, N. V. Kiseleva, N. F. Maron, R. P. Seysyan, S. D. Uman, L. L. Shapiro and D. Yu. Shustarev] [Text] Experimental data are given from a study of a system for laser visualiza- tion of television images in which the laser beam is controlled by an acousto-optic 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340090026-1 . : FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY modulator and a deflector with compound sectionalized piezoelectric transducers that enable scanning of the acoustic beam. It is shown that such systems can pro- duce television images with better quality than conventiona.l electronic television systems. Figures 3, references 10. - uDC 535.421 DIFFRACTIO N OF LIGHT ON RELIEF GRATINGS IN THE REGION OF TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION [Paper by S. T. Bobrov, M. M. Butusov, j~. A. Ovchinnikov, Yu. G. Turkevich and Yu. P. Udoyev~ _ [Text] The authors stuc~y the angular dependences of diffraction efficiency of re- lief gratings with spatial frequencies of 900-1700 lines/mm and relief depth of 0.02-0.4 um. Measurements were made on a= 0.6 um with illumination of the gratin~ from the backing side. It is established that close to the critical angle of total internal reflection the angular dependences of efficiency contair, a structure with form depending on the polarization of the incident wave, period and depth of _ grating relief. Possible mechanisms of arisal of this structure are discussed. - . Figures 3, table 1, references 15. UDC 778.38 METHODS OF GETTING HIGH-RESOLUTION HOLOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF MICRO-OBJECTS - jPaper by A. V. Sokolov and V. N. Bykov] ' [Text] An investigation is made of the feasibility of using methods of optical holography for direct registration of micro-ob3ects, their microstructure and spa- - tial configuration are studied, and also the d,ynamics of processes in systems of micro-ob,jects. A classification of micro-ob~ec~ts is given that is based on their - light-scattering properties, an examination is made of the conditions of formation of images in registration by Lippmann holography and by lensless Fraunhofer holog- raphy, and recommendations are made on choosing arrangements of holographic record- ing depending on types of micro-ob~ects and their configuration in the volume to be studied. Figure 1. UDC 533.9 ON THE QUESTION OF REALIZING THE MODE OF 'SLOW BURNING' OF AN OPTICAL DISCHARGE _ [Paper by L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu. Petrun'kin and V. A. Podlevskiy] [Text] Two versions of circuits are proposed for maintaining combustion of a plasma of an extended optical discharge that are based on the peculiarities of the design used for the cavity and the Q-switch. Results of experiments are given. Figures 3, references 2. 2I - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY trDC 681. i21: 539 . i43. ~+3 AN AMPLITUDE-MARKER I~II~IR FLOWMETER [Paper by V. I. Dudkin, V. V. Semenov and L. I. Uspenskiy] [Text] This paper describes an a.mplitude-marker NMR flowmeter utilizing the effect of parametric resonance in the flowing liquid. It is shown that introducing mag- netic field modulation in the sensor of the nutation magnet causes a characteristic . change in the form of the nutation line, which extends the functional capabilities of the device. Figures 2, references 6. UDC 621. 373.823:621 _ 317.4~+~+ A NUCLEAR MAGNETOMETER WITH AUTOTUNING BASID ON A MASER WITH CIRCULATING FLUID [ Paper by V. I. Dudkin, V. V. Semenov and L. I. Uspenskiy ] [Text] The authors consider problems of constructin~ an automatic magnetometer using the NMR effect in a flowing liquid. An experimental study is done on a model of a self-generating magnetometer based on a maser. The prototype instrument was - used to measure variations in the intensity of a magnetic field o~' 600 � 30 oersteds . The relative error of ineasurements is no more than 10-6 for the case of ineasurement - of a magnetic field with frequency w>1 rad/s and amplitude of 30 oersteds. Fig- ures 2, references 8. UDC 539.18~+ : 535 . 21 COMBINID EXCITATION OF SPIN PRECESSION IN A GROUP OF OPTICALLY ORIENTID ATOMS jPaper by V. V. Semenov and I. V. Sergeyeva] , [Text] A theoretical and experimental stuc~y is done on excitation of spin preces- sion in a group of optically oriented atoms of cesium during magnetic resonance under conditions of intensity-modulated detecting resonant radiation. The observed signals are calculated for the case where a system is exposed to the combined ac- tion of optically oriented atoms of a radio-frequency field and an intensity- modulated detecting light beam. An experimental estimate is made of the results. Figures 3, references 3. UDC 621.3'73.8 ON THE PROBLEM OF THE ABSORBID POWER OF OPTICAL RADIATION IN QUANTUM FREQUENCY STANDARDS - [Paper by B. G. Matisov and I. N. Toptygin] - [Text ] The constants of population are calculated in the first nonvanishing ap- proximation with respect to the small paxameter u/v for a three-level system that interacts with resonant r-f and optical pumping fields . This enabled enlargement of the previously developed theory of absorption of eptical power by a system in the presence of an r-f field down to vanishingly small r-f amplitudes. Figure l, references 4. 22 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 539.183.184 CALCULATION OF ADIABATIC AND NONADIABATIC COLLISIONAL BROADENING OF hfs LINF~ OF ALKALI ATOMS IN A BUFFER GAS ATMOSPHERE [Abstract of paper by V1. V. Batygin, M. B. Gornyy, B. M. Gurevich and I. M. 3oko- lov] [Text] The authors calculate adiabatic broadening of hfs lines of atoms of hydro- gen, Rb and Cs due to collisions with He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. Based on the nonad~a- batic spin relaxation mechanism proposed by Hermann, new formulas are derived for the matrix elements of transition with and without spin flip with consideration of angulax dependence. The relation between tb.e calculated cross sections and experi- mentally measured quantities is discussed. ~ables 2, references 15. UDC 539.183.184 ~ COLLISTONAL SHIFTS OF CT TRANSITION LINES, AND COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFUSION OF ALKALI ~ ATOMS IN A BUFFER GAS i I [Abstract of paper by Vit. V. Batygin, Vl. V. Batygin, M. B. Gornyy and B. M. Gure- ' vich] -I ~ [~ext] Results of ineasurements of shifts of the CT transition line of alkali atoms (A) in a buffer gas (B) axe used to plot a curve for frequency shift as a function ~ of the ratio of ionization potentials (Ib/Ia). The shifts do not differ excessive- ~ 1 from the e erimental values. Ba.sed on the correlational theo 1 y xp ry of line shape, ~ an estimate formula is found for calculating frequency shifts of the CT trF~nsition. The curve for shifts as a function of ionization potential ratio determinea.from I this formula agrees well with experimental curves. Calculated values of shifts ~ agree satisfactorily with experimental data. Shifts are predicted for some A-B i pairs. An approximation formula is proposed for the potential of interatomic inter- action of A-B pairs. The coefficients of difflzsion for a wide class of A-B pai:rs ~ as calculated by this potential are approximately half the experimental values. ' Figures 3, references 18, tables 3. 1 ~ vDC 778.38 RECORDING HOLOGRAMS IN LAYERS OF DICHROMATED GELATIN WITH A CHECK ON THE LATENT IMAGE ~ [Abstract of paper by A. I. Yerko and A. N. Malov] - [Text] An investigation is made of the characteristics of formation of the latent image in layers of dichromated gelatin as a function of the energy of exposure and - the intensity of radiation during recording. It is experimentally shown that there is a mechanism of diffusion of charged ions from the exposed region, which causes decay of the latent image. An experimental relation is found for the way that +he diffraction efficiency of the developed layer of dichromated gelatin depends on the diffraction efficiency of the latent image. Figures 2, references 5. 23 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621~373.826 A MINIATURE HELIUM-NEOl~T LASER FOR OPTICAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTF~'IS [Abstract of paper by S. V. Pruss-Zhukovskiy, A. I. Senyukov and A. I, Shishkin] [Text] The paper gives the results of calculations and experimental :.tudies of the characteristics of a miniature helium-neon laser for optical data processing systems. Tests of the laser as ~;axt of an acoustu-optical spectrograph on the _ RATAN-600 radiotelescope showed that this laser satisfies major requirements for output power, stability and reliability. References 6. COPYRIGHT: Leningradskiy politekhnicheskiy institut imeni M. I. Kalinina, 1979 [25-66io] ~ 66io - CSO: 1862 I I 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - NUCLEAR PHYSICS UDC: 621.039.58 - RADIATIQN SAFETY AND SHIELDING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ~ ~ Moscow RADIATSIONNAYA BEZOPASNOST' I ZASHCHITA AES in Russian No 4, 1980 ~ signed to press 15 Feb 80 pp 2-4, 265-267 ~ � ; [Annotation, foreword and table of contents from book "Radiation Safety ~ and Shielding of Nuclear Power Plants" edi,ted by Yu. A. Yegorov, V. P. j Mashkovich, Yu. V. Pankrat'yev, A. P. Suvorov and S. G. Tsypin, Atomizdat, ; 1150 copies, 272 pages] ; [Text] New and original works are submitted that deal with radiation i safety and shielding of AES [nuclear power plants], experimental and theo- ~ retical studies of shielding, which were performed in 1977-1978. ~ There is discussion of the results of studies of sources of radiation and I waste from functional AES, methods of estimating the activity of coolants, ~ accumulation of active nuclides in AES personnel and a number of other i questions related to radiation safety of AES. There are descriptions of the results of theoretical and experimPntal studies of spread of radia- tion in shielding, programs for~the design af.shielding; and informa- ( tion is furnished about multigroup nuclear-physical constants. Several ~ of the articles deal with shielding materials. I This book is intended for specialists concerned with radiation safety of I AES, design and estimation of shieldin~, as well as undergraduate and ~ graduate students in the relevant specialties. ' There are 143 figures and 47 tables. Bibliography lists 313 items. Foreword This collection contains original Wosks.dealing with the~study of radiation safety and shielding of nuclear power plants in the USSR in :.977-1978. v The unwaning interes*_ of specialists in these matters is attributable to the ever increasing ~onstruction of AES and the desire to render them as safe as possible, for both service personnel and the public. The data published in the literature (see, for example, "Atomic Science and Technology in the ~ USSR," Moscow, Atomizdat, 1977) indicate that, even now, the annual 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY dose to which personnel is exposed does not exceed, on the average, the maximum permissible level. The rate of active waste discharge from AES and, consequently, the dose burden on the public, also do not exceed permissible levels. However, the increase in number of AES and consequent involvement of an increasing number of people in servicing AES, and construction of AES in densely populated areas prompt specialists to search for additional means of lowering exposure of personnel and rate of active discharge of waste. The new "Sanitary Rules for Designing and Operating AES" are ~ also oriented in this direction. The works included in this collection ar~e the result of this search. The additional means of protection, which are unquestionably available, can and must be disclosed only through a comprehensive study of the sources of radiation at AES, the causes thereof, comprehensive study of AES as the source of radioactive substances in the environment, and this will help render AES even safer, from the standpoint of radiation. Nor has interest waned in the study of shielding, examination of passage of radiation through different media, refinement of inethods and programs for de- signing shielding, searching for and studying new shielding materials. The results of such studies are needed by practice, since perfect protection : assures safe and convenient working conditions at AES. ~ The collection consists of four sections. Studies of Radiation Safety of AES'r refer to work d~ne at functioning 'AES in the USSR, as well as work dealing with methods of forecasing radi- . ation sources and radiation conditions at AES, investigation of accumula- tion of radiation sources in the body and setting standards for exposure levels. . "Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Shielding" refer to articles on _ basic and applied problems of passage of radiation through various media, - as well as methods of studying shielding. "Methods and Programs for Designing Shielding" refer to new methods, new programs for determining the spatial and energy-related distribution of radiations in shielding. "Studies of Shielding Materials" refer to works containing information about the properties of shielding materials when exposed to radiation. In offering this collection of articles to the reader, the editorial board hopes that the information it contains will find practical application in solvi:ng problems of radiation safety and shielding of AES. - 26 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Contents Page Annotation 2 Foreword 3 1. Studies of Radiation Safety of AES 5 Study o: Effectiveness of Biological Protection of First Circuit of AES with WER-440 [Water-Cooled Power Reactor, 440 MW] . (Ya. A. Bychkov, V. A. Grigor'yev, I. A. Yengovatov, 0. V. Koltun, V. A. Krest'yaninov, P. A. Lavdanskiy, A. M. Luzhnov, A. I. Rymarenko, N. F. Smorchkov and S. G. Tsypin) 5 Measurement of Flux Density and Spectra of Fast Neutrons in Reactor Channels of Second Unit of the Leningrad AES (A. L. Barinov, N. I. Bel'kovskiy, 0. A. Koryakin, Xu. V. Orlov, M. V. Razumovskiy.and V. G. Shevchenko) 14 ~ Experimental Estimation of Specific Activity of Coolant in First ~ Circuit of AES with WER-440 According to 16N Radioactive Nuclide ~ (I. A. Rocl.~var, V. N. Vlasenko, A. N. Kozhevnikov, A. M. ~ Luzhnov, A. I. Rymarenko and S. G. Tsypin) 23 Method for Estimating Localization of Radioactive Iodine in the ' Postaccident Period by Means of Sprinkler Systems j (V. A. Kazakov, A. V. 1'kachenko, V. F. Fedulov and S. G. Tsypin) 30 ' Use of Radiation Monitoring to Determine the Causes of Increased Discharge of Radioactive Gas-Aerosol Waste From AES with WER ~ reactor (V. S. Zhernov and T. S. Mordovskaya) 35 ~ Estimation of Permissible Concentrations of eBRb, 89Rb, 13eCs and i 139C8 Radionuclides in Air . ~ {N, G. Gu~a~, n. Ya. Bl ekher, A.. h. Mciseye;~ and I. L. S~+a~ ayev) 40 i Radiation Heat Emission in Elements of the RBMK Reactor (V. N. Avayev, Yu. V. Garusov, Yu. E. IQ7andamirov, Ye. P. ' Yefimov, S. M. Belov and V. M. Dorofeyev) 50 Use of Technological Monitoring Instruments to Forecast ~ ~ Radiation Conditions at AES with WER-440 ; (V. P. Romanov and S. G. Tsypin) 55 ~ Results of Screening NVAES Personnel Using a Human Radiation Counter (M. P. Gerasimova and A. A. Moiseyev) . 59 Study of Levels of a-Emitters in Some AES Media _ (N. P. Starodonova and A. N. Yefimo~a) 62 Solubility of Radioactive Aerosols at Nuclear Power Plants (A. M. Vorob'yev and A. N. Yefimova) 66 2. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Shielding ~ 7Q Basic Experiment on Distribution of Neutrons in Heterogeneous - Shielding of a Reactor - (V. V. Bolyatko, M. Yu. Vyrskiy, V.. P. Mashkovich, R. Kh. Nagayev, A. P. Prit'mov, V. K. Sakharov, V. S. Troshin and Ye. G. Tikhonov) 70 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page - Color Modeling of the Problem of Transfer of Ioni zing Radiation Into Attenuating Medium With Heterogeneities (A. S. Iz"yurov, Yu. N. Kuz'min, N. Ye. Kurakin, V. N. Mironov . and S. G. Tsypin) Study of Optimum Compositions of Flat Iron and Water Shielding ~ (A. A. Abagyan, A: A: Dorofeyev, A. A. Dubinin, V. I. � Zhuravlev, Yu. A. Kurachenko and Yu. G. Fedorov) 86 - Semiempirical Model for Calculation of Differential and Integral ~ Characteristics of a Quasi-Albedo Type of Neutron--Gamma Quantum (A. A. Abagyan, T. A. Germogenova, A. A. Dubinin, V. I. Zhuravlev, V. A. Klimanov, V. P. Mashkovich and A. A. Stroganov) 94 Albedo Characteristics of Fast Neutrons for Z~o-Layer Deflectors (Yu. N. Borisov and B. V. Sazykin) 101 Albedo of Gamma Radiation for an Isotropic Point Source (Yu. A. Zinov'yev, Yu. V. Orlov and B. V. Sazykin) ~ 107 Experimental Study of Neutron Distribution on the Earth-Air Boundary (Yu. I. Kolevatov, V. P. Semenov and L. A. Trykov) 112 Some Aspects of Development of the Multisphere Method for Neutron Spectrometry (V. P. Semenov and L. A. ~rykov). ~ 120 ~ Eff ect of Geometry of Source and Shielding on Fast Neutron Distribution in Extended Media ~ (D. L. Broder, K. K. Popkov, I. N. Trofimov and S. A. Tsvetkova) 134 Determination of Optimum Form of Shadow Shielding and Parameters ~ of Radiation Field Shielded by the FORMA Program Using the Monte Carlo Method {V. L. Generozov, V. A. Sakovich and A. N. Khmylev) 142 Investigation of the Possibility of Using the Method of Integral Equations to Estimate Spatial and Angular Distribution of Neutrons � (A. N. Barkovskiy and K. K. Popkov) 149 Transf er of Neutrons Into Hollow Part of a Cylindrical, Limited Shield (A. I. Vdovin, V. V. Karyukin, I. I. Loshchakov and ~ V. I. Ostroumov) 162 Albedo Characteristics of Gamma Quanta for Ztao-Layer Deflectors - (Yu. N. Borisov and~B. V. Sazykin) 164 3. Methods and Programs for Designing Reactor Shielding 169 ATIKA, a Multigroup, Ztao-Dimensional Program for Designing Shielding (A. I. Bazykov, V. P. Zharkov and V. G. Kravchuk) 169 Use of Modifications of the Monte Carlo Method to Estimate the Field of Gamma Radiation in Three-Dimensional Geometric Shields (A. M. Zhezlov, V. A. Klimanov, A. S. Makhon'kov, V. P. Mashkovich.and B. N. Meshcherin) � 187 ' 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 ! FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Page Complex RNZ-1 Program for Computer Forecasting of Fields of Neutron and Gamma Radiation in Hollow Channels of Different Types in Shielding (V. A. Klimanov, A. S. Makhon'kov and V. P. Mashkovich) 19 1 Multigroup Constants for the Output Unit of a~o-Dimensional , Program for the Design of Shielding ' (A. I. Bazykov and V. P. Zharkov). 19 9 Development of Subgroup Method to Estimate Nonscattered Neutrons � and Correct Differential Cross Section of Scatter With Consideration of Intragroup Spectrum (M. Yu. Vyrskiy, A. I. Ilyushkin, I. P. Markelov, M. N. Nikolayev, A. P. Prit'mov and M. M. Savos'kin) 20 9 ~ High-Speed Set of Programs for Approximate Design of Shielding ! . Against Rad~ation ' (A. A. Dubinin and Yu. A. Kurachenko) 21 9 Modification of Monte Carlo Method for Estimation of Passage of ~ Gamma Radiation From Source With Wide Spectrum in Very Thick i Shields i (A. M. Zhezlov, V. A. Klimanov, A. A. Stroganov and ! B. N. Meshcherin) 22~ ~ Effectiveness of Axial Symmetry of Problem in Planning Reactor Shielding by the Monte Carlo Method ~ (A. M. Zhezlov, V.A. Klimanov and B. N. Meshcherin) 232 ~ One Criterion for Minimizing of Functional From Radiation Field, ~ Calculated by the Monte Carlo Method ~ (P. A. Barsov and V. A. Sakovich) 235 I i 4. Studies of Shielding Materials 24 0 Radiation-Proof Concrete for ReacCor Shielding ~ (V. B. Dubrovskiy, V. V. Korenevskiy, L. P. Muzalevskiy, B. K. Pergamenshchik and Ye. B. Sugak) 24 0 ~ Evaluation of Gas Emission From Concrete Under the Influence of i Reactor Radiation ~ (N. N. Alekseyenko, Ye. I. F3lednykh, P. V. Volobuyev, Yu. A. ~ Yegorov,�A. P. Zyryanov and Yu. V. Pankrat'yev) 254 ; Experimental Study of Gas Emission From Polyethylene ZJith Boron ; During Exposure to Gamm~ Radiation ' (N. N. Alekseyenko, P. V. Volobuyev, Yu. A. Yegorov, ' I A. P. Zyryanov, Yu. V. Pankrat'yev and S. B, Trubin) 25 $ COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1980 - [002-10,657] 10,657 CSO: 1840 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 PREDICTION OF IONIZING RADIATION TRANSFER BY PHOTOMETRIC METHODS Moscow PROGNOZIROVANIYE PERENOSA IONIZIRUYUSHCHEGO IZpPCHENIYA1METODAMI FO.TOMETRII in Russian 1979 signed to press 10 Oct 79 2-4, [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from book "Prediction of Ioniz- ing Radiation Transfer by Photometric Methods" by V. N. Mironov and Ye. A. Panov, Atomizdat, 1000 copies, 116 pages) [Text] First the matter of the use of theoretical photoa?etric methods and the , = theory of heat exchange for the transfer of ionizing radiation ia considered ; and generalized. Theore~ical photometry is used to analyze the radiation of ~ volume sources and the characteristics of ionizing radiation thotometricomethodses ~ with different geometrical shapes. The possibility of using p. to predict the f:teld of ionizing radiation is shown. Examples are given from - the practice of design and study of nonuniformities in the biological shielding of nsclear power plants and research reactoxs. This book is intended for engineers and scientific workers dealing with problems _ of radiation safety in nuclear power plantsinstallationsanprototypes andltesting ' shielding in nuclear power plants, reactor units with sources of iializin rinithisnfield.ma54afiguresus2ftab1e8stuBibts and post-graduates spec 8 liography, 28 references. Introduction The study of the transfer of ionizing radiation ia an integral part of research being conducted on the physics of ionizing radiations. The establishment and - development of the theory of ionizing radiation transfer is based on uantaeralized Boltzmann equation, by means of which problems of neutron and g~a'q Advances transfer in nonabsorbing, absorbing and dispersive mediasics wereeused in the in electrodynamics, astrophysics and other fields of phy development of the theory. But the methods of theoretical photometry and the _ theory of radiant heat exchange are not yet used to the proper extent in the physics of ionizing radiation transfer, even though light, heat and gamma- radiation are identical in nature. The generality of the principles of geomet- ~ rical attenuation and absorption in a medium unites these forms of radiation. In many cases the angular distribution of a volume source is similar whether it be a luminous volume of ionized gas, an incandescent metal, or the active zone . 30 ......+n7 AT 1iCF. njQj,Y ~ _ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - of a nuclear reactor. The basis of theoretical photometry is the cosine law of radiation distribution at the surface of a radiation source. It is inherent to transfer processes of light, heat and ionizing radiations including gamma- . radiation, neutrons, alpha and beta particlea. The cosinusoidal surface source is universal. This source reflects the character of the angular distribution of particles escaping from a radiator surface at large angles relative to the surface normal. The theoretical and experimental data reported in this book indicate the possible use of principles and methods of the~retical photometry (3, 24) in the physics of ionizing radiation transfer. In some cases the same methods developed in the theory of radiant heat exchange (24,25) are used. This book generalizes the experience of the authors in applying the methods of photometry and the theory of radiant heat exchange to the solution of such prac- tical problems as determining the source characteristics at the surface of volume radiators and predicting the radiation field from sources of different-geometrical shapes and the transfer of ionizing radiation through channels, cracks and cavities in the biological shielding of reactors (1, 2, 4, 5, 9-19, T.3, 26), The authors hope that the data reported in this book will help readers to creatively apply the principles and meth~ds of theoretical photometry in different areas of the physics of ionizing radiation transfer. Contents ' Introduction 3 Chapter 1. General Information about Theoretical Photometry 5 1.1. Radiation intensities for volume luminescence 6 1.2. Analogs of phoCometric values 8 ~ Chapter 2. Volume and Surface Sources of Ionizing Radiation 12 2.1. A volume radiator with a nondisperaive medium and unifonn isotropic sources 13 ; 2.2. Volume sources of different shapes 16 2.3. Generalizing the exchange of a volume source by surfaces 21 Chapter 3. Theoretical Photometry Methods in the Problem of Ionizing Aadiation Transfer 24 3.1. The irradiation coefficient. Properties of surfaces radiating - according to the law of cosines 24 3.2. The radiation vector 31 3.3. The radiation vector field 34 3.4. The method of contour integrals 3$ 3.5. The algebraic method 42 3.6. Radiation values at a local point of space 45 Chapter 4. Radiation Transfer in a System of Unshielded Surfaces 52 4.1. Disks and Cylindrical surfaces 53 4.2. Cylindrical surfaces 56 4.3. Rectangular and planar surfaces 69 31 FOR QFFICIAL TJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 r'ux urrl~ltu. u~~ ~riLr Chapter S. Radiation Transfer in a System of Shielded Surfaces 72 5.1. Disks and cylindrical surfaces 72 5.2. Cylindrical surfaces 83 5.3. Rectangular and planar surfaces 93 Chapter 6. Examples of the Practical Use of Theoretical Photometry Methods in Lhe Physics of Reactor Shielding 97 6.1. Experimental determination of the angle of radiation distribution at the surface of volume sources 97 6.2. Charulels passing near the active zone of a reactor 101 - 6.3. The spreading component 104 6.4. Channels with shielding plugs 106 References 110 COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1979 , [433-9342] 9342 ~ ~ CSO: 1840 j I 32 ~no nt~~7rTAT. TTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ' UDC 621.039.526'S34.63'S6+62-5 ACT[JATING MECHANISMS FOR THE CONTROL AND SAFETY SYSTEMS OF SODIUM-COOLED FAST REACTORS - Moscow ISPOLNITEL'NYYE MEKHANIZMY ORGANOV UPRAVLENIYA I ZASHCHITY DLYA NATRIYEVYKH REAKTOROV NA BYSTRYKH NE'ITRONAKH ih Russian 1980 signed to pr.ess 11 Nov 79 pp 2- 3, ~ 176 [Ann~tation, preface and table of contents from book "Actuating Mechanisms for the Control and Safety Systems of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactora" by Fedor Mi.khaylo- j vich Mitenkov, Ivan I1'ich Zhuchkov, Boris Ivanovich Zaytsev and Ivan Aleksandro- ; vich Podtelezhnikov, Atomiz3at, 780 copies, 176 pages] - i [Text] The book gives specific requirements for the actuating mechanisms of con- j trol and safety systems for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Detailed descriptions are ' given of the designs of actuating mechanisms, manufacturing technology, and the j procedure and conditions for testing experimental and series-produced models. i ~ I The book is intended for engineers and technicians engaged in the design and oper- - � ation of sodium-cooled fast reactors, and may b e of use to graduate students and undergraduates majoring in the appropriate fields. - i i Tables 8, Figures 157, references 56. ~ ' Preface I ~ Development of nuclear power in the necessary s cale is impossible without extensive i in~roduction of fast reactors that can solve th$ problem of providing fuel for ~ nuclear electric facilities. The most widely s tudied and most promisir~g of known ~ fast reactors is the sodium-cooled reactor. Research and development of sodium - I reactors has been in progress now for a long time in many nations. By now con- _ - siderable experience has been accumulated both in the Soviet Unj.on and elsewhere on b uilding and operating experimental and research reactors of this type. On the ' basis of the cumulative experience it is possib le to trace the trends in develop- ment of individual kinds of systems and equipment, and to formulate recommendations that may be quite useful in making individual kinds of equipment. In this book an attempt has been made to present on the basis of available experi- _ ence the major problems of design, manufacturing technology and testing of the actuating mechanisms of regulating units, and of systems for excess reactivity compensation and safety in sodium-cooled fast r eactors. Readers should certainly be interested in the description of designs of actuating mechanisms used in sodium reactors now in operation. ~ 33 FOR OFFI('IAI. USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The authors thank V. I. Shiryayev; V. V. Stekol' nikov and 0. B. Samoylov ~or con- structive comments made in reading individual chapters of the manuscript. Contents Preface 3 Introduction 4 Chapter 1. Functional designation of control and safety units, and re- quirements for their actuating mechanisms 6 1.1. Brief information on control and safety 6 1.2. Regulating units 8 1.3. Systems for compensating excess reactivity 10 1.4. Scram systems 12 1.5. General requirements for designing actuating mechanisms 13 Chapter 2. Makeup of the mechanical part of the control and safety systems . of same sodium-cooled reactors - 15 2.1. Experimental reactors 15 2.2. Power react~rs 20 Chapter 3. Actuating mechanisms 27 3.1. Classification of actuating mechanisms 27 3.2. Actuating mechanisms of regulating rods 31 3.3. Actuating mechanisms of scram systems 49 3.4. Actuating mechanisms of systems for compensating excess reactivity 71 3.5. Comparison of actuating mechanism designs Chapter 4. Elements of design of actuating mechanisms 82 4.1. Couplings ' 82 4.2. Braking devices 93 4.3. Energy and motion converters 96 4.4. Seals 108 Chapter 5. Electrical equipment of actuating mPChanisms 113 5.1. Designation and makeup 113 5.2. Electric motors 113 " 5.3. Electromagnetic clutches 116 5.4. Position indicators 121 5.5. Limit switches 124 Chapter 6. Materials for actuating mechanisms 129 6.1. Ge~eral information . 129 6.2. C~rrosion resistance of austenitic steels in liquid sodium 130 6.3. Wear resistance of steels in liquid sodium 134 6.4. Corrosion resistance of structural steels with prolonged use 135 Chapter 7. Testing actuating mechanisms. Programs and procedures of 137 experiments 7.1. Kinds of tests. Purposes and problems 137 7.2. Testing individual units of control mechanisms 138 7.3. Testing actuating mechanisms 141 7.4. Accelerated testing methods 143 Chapter 8. Stands for testing actuating mechanisms 145 8.1. Stand for testing mechanisms in sodi~ 145 8.2. Stands for preliminary checking 152 8.3. Stands for testing individual subassemblies 152 Chapter 9. Making and using actuating mechanisms 157 9.1. Peculiarities of making actuating mechanisms 157 9.2. Installing actuating mechanisms on the react:~r 167 34 r, n~ n~rr. ~nr ~ i T TCT~ (1NT .Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340090026-1 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 9.3. Start-up and adjustment work 171 9.4. Power start-up of the reactor 172 9.5. Using actuating mechanisms 173 Ref erenc es 174 ~ COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1980 ~ [17-6610] 6610 ~ CSO: 1862 ~ - i i i I I ` i I . 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 539.12.08 DOSIMETRIC AND RA:DIOMETRIC MONITORING IN WORK WITH RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES. (A PROCEDURAL HANDBOOK). VOL. 1. ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF MONITORING Mos~cow DUZIMETRICHESKIY I RADIOMETRICHESKIY KONTROL' in Russian Vol 1, 1980 signed ta press 20 Feb 80 pp 1-3, 267-270 [Annotation, preface and table of contents from book "Dosimetric and Radiometric Monitoring" edited by V. I. Grishmanovskiy, Atomizdat, 4350 copies, 272 pages] [Text] The book gives principles of radiation safety and principles of normali- zation as set down in NRB-76, presents recommendations on organization and volume of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring, outlines widely used methods of monitor- _ ing working conditions in the presence of various radiation factors, and also gives ~ methods of monitoring total radioactivity and the activity of separ;~te radionuclides in gaseous emissions, and in liquid and solid wastes. A separate examination is - made of problems of organizing monitoring in mining work and when working with critical assemblies and stands. For specialists on radiation safety, for scientific, technical and engineering workers in the field of organizing and implementing dosimetric and radiometric _ monitoring. ~ Preface i Dosimetric and radiometric monitoring is an important component part of the general problem of ensuring radiation safety. T'nis book deals with the organization and : practical implementation of such n~onitoring. The problem of ensuring radiation safety has been successfully handled as a whole in our nation, favorable condition~s have been brought about for working wiCh radioactive substances and sources of ionizing radiation. This does not diminish the importance of monitoring the radia- tion environm~nt in work areas and at operator stations, monitoring the irradiation of personnel and radioactive wastes for disposal, since the results of such monitor- ing are the only criteria of the actual state of radiation safety. They provide a check on conformity to established norms, enable detection and timely elimination of sources of elevated radiation, allow us to account for different factors of = radiation effect on workers and to take the necessary preventive measures to re- duce this effect to the minimum possible values. 36 FOI~ OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The monitoring of working conditions, determination of the dose of external and _ internal irradiation, radioactivity of wastes to be r emoved to the external environ- ment and other dosimetric and radiometric measurement s are handled by workers in the radiation services of the corresponding enterpr is es and establishments. Over many years these services have accumulated cons iderable experience in dosi- metriG and radiometric monitoring, have developed or iginal monitoring methods and put them to practical use, have solved a m:mber of or ganizational problems, and have formulated requirements for dosimetric and radiometric equipment and instru- ments . The aim of the compilers and editors of this book has been to generali2e thie ex- perience, and to give interested specialists an oppor tunity to use it in their own work. i The book consists of two volumes: I-- "Organization and Methods of Monitoring" , and II "Individual Monitoring. Radiometry of Spec imens." i V. I. Grishmanovskiy i ~ Contents i ' Preface 3 ~ Chapter 1. Principles of Radiation Safety by I. B. K~irim-MarkuE, R. Ya. ~ Sayapina 4 1.1. Principles of setting norms in the field of rad iation safety 5 1.2. Ma~or dose limits and permissible levels 6 ~ 1.3. Working control levels 18 ~ 1.2. Casualty exposure 20 ~ 1.5. Basic principles of organizing work with ioniz ing radiation sources 21 I ~ Ref erences ~ Chapter 2. Organization and Voluu~e of Radiation Monitoring by Ye. V. Devya- taykin, I. V. Levin, F. K. Levochkin, R. Ya. Sayapina, Yu. Ya. ~ Sokolov, Ye. S. Trukhmanova, A. D. Turkin 26 ~ 2.1. Organization of radiation monitoring 26 ' 2.2. Recommendations on the volume of radiation moni toring 28 , 2.2.1. Monitoring dase rate and flux density of ionizing radiation 28 2.2.2. Monitoring radioactive gas and aetosol concentration in the air of work areas 29 2.2.3. Monitoring radioactive contamination of surfaces of work areas, equipment, clothing and personnel 34 2:2.4. Monitoring atmospheric emissions of radio active substances 36 2.2.5. Monitoring the disposal of radioactive was te 37 2.2.6. Monitoring transport facilities 38 2.2.7. Individual dosimetric monitoring 38 2.3. Determining radiation exposure of personnel 41 References 44 Chapter 3. Monitoring Radiation Dose Rate and Flux Density in Work Areas 45 3.1. Monitoring with stationary and portable instruments by V. I. Grishmanov- skiy, U. Ya. Margulis, B. M. Semov 45 3.2. A method of using a single threshold intensitometer to signal gamma dose - rates in excess of a predetermined level at more than one point by A. F. Myrzin 49 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 . C~OR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY 3.3. Measuring the intensity of high-energy bremsstrahlung (up to 100 MeV) by thick walled ionization chambers by V. V. Frolov 52 ' 3.3.1. Measuring bremsstrahlung intensity with known spectral makeup 52 3.3.2. Measuring bremsstrahlung intensity of unknown spectral makeup 55 3.3.3. Design of the ionization chamber 58 3.4. Measuring equivalent dose rate and flux density of neutrons by S. N. Kraytor 60 3.4.1. General principles 60 3.4.2. Measuring instruments 61 3.4.3. Measuring neutron flux density and equivalent dose rate 62 3.4.4. Checking the graduation of the measuring instruments 63 3.4.5. Procedure for measuring the equivalent dose rate and flux density of neutrons 66 3.4.6. Formulation of ineasurement results 6~ Ref erences 67 Chapter 4. Monitoring the Contamination of Air and Exhaust Emissions with Radioactive Substances 68 4.1. Basic goals of monitoring the contamination of ai.r with radioactive sub- stances, and its peculiarities by V. I. Bab'in, U. Ya. Margulis, V. T. Khrushch 68 4.2. Methods of sampling radioactive gases and aerosols by V. I. Bab'in, U, Yz. ~ Margulis, V. T. Khrushch ~1 ~ 4.2.1. Conditions of representativity of samples ~1 ' 4.2.2. Sampling facilities 75 ~ 4.2.3. Selective sampling 76 4.2.4. Aerosol fil~.ers based on absorption filter material 77 4.2.5. Separator size classifiers of aerosol particles 4.2.6. Particulars of sample-taking of radio~.ctive gases 85 " 4.3. Using a centripiter to determine the concentration of alpha-active long-lived aerosols by A. F. Myrzin 8~ 4.3.1. Construction of single-stage centripiter 8~ 4.3.2. Characteristics of single-sta~e centripiter 88 : 4.3.3. Measurement equipment 92 = 4.3.4. Graduation of equipment 94 4.3.5. Sensitivity and accuracy of the me;hod 95 = 4.4. Determination of radioactive emissions of complex composition (aerosols and I-131) by V. I. Sinitsyn 96 _ 4.4.1. Principle of the method 96 - 4.4.2. Characteristics of the medium to be monitored 96 _ 4.4.3. Elements of the sample-taking arrangemen~ 97 4.4.4. Preparation of. samples for laboratory analysis 100 4.4.5. Determining the radioactivity of emissions 101 4.5. Determination of atmospheric emissions of I-131 by R. V. Semova 102 _ 4.5.1. Principle of the method 102 4.5.2. Materials and equipment for taking samples 103 4.5.3. Taking samples 103 4.5.4. Measuring I-131 activity and determining its mean daily concen- tration in emissions 104 4.5.5. Determining the intensity of I-131 emissions 106 4.6. Determination of tritium concentration in the air of work areas by an ionization method by V. K. Gayevoy, L. F. Belovodskiy, V. I. Grish- manovskiy 106 3s FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 _ . FOR OFFICIAL 'JSE ONLY ' 4.6.1. Principle of the metho3 106 4.6.2. Equipment 110 4.6.3. Selecting working conditions of the equipment 112 4.6.4. Calibrating the equipment 113 4.6.5. Procedure for making measurements and processing results ~.15 4.6.6. Organizing continuous monitoring of tritium concentration in air 116 4.7. Determining the concentration of tritium oxide in air of work areas by , V. K. Gayevoy, L. F. Belovodskiy, V. I. Grishmanovskiy, N. V. Nefedov, V. M. Zykov 118 G.7.1. Purpose and principles of inethods 118 4.7.2. Method of freeze-out 118 4.7.3. Method of bubbling 122 4.7.4. Diffusion method 125 4.8. Determination of the cancentration of Critium-containing aerosols by i L. F. Belovodskiy, V. K. Gayevoy, V. I. Grishmanovskiy, N. A. Mishin, i G. L. Tokarev 133 ' 4.8.1. Principle of the methods 133 4.8.2. Equipment 134 4.8.3. Order of doing the measurements 138 _ 4.8.4. Processing measurement results 141 _ 4.9. Monitoring tritium emissions by V. K. Gayevoy, V. I. Grishmanovskiy, V. M. Zykov, A. A. Kukolkin, G. L~ Tokarev 143 4.9.1. Purpose and principles of the method 143 ~i 4.9.2~ Recommended equipmen~ and materials 144 , 4.9.3. Preparation for work and calibration of equipment 145 ' 4.9.4. Order of making measurements 141 ~ 4.9.5. Measurement of samples and processing of results 150 4.9.6. Sensitivity of the method and measurement limits 151 4.10. Determination of Rn concentration in air by I. L. Shalayev, V. D. ~ Spirin, F. I. Zuyevich, K. S. Luchenko, L. P. Pashchenko 151 ~ 4.10.1. Purpose and principles of the method 151 ~ 4.10.2. Preparation of the s~mpling device 153 ~ ~ 4.10.3. Preparation and calibration of the radiometric facility 154 ~ 4.10.4. Taking the Rn sample and measuring its activity 155 ~ 4.10.5. Regeneration of activated charcoal 156 ~ 4.11. Determination of the concentration of short-lived products of Rn~decay ~ in air by V. G. Babich, N. V. Ryabov, K. N. Stas' 156 ~ 4.12. Determination of atmospheric emissions of radioactive noble gases by R. V. Semova 161 4.13. Determining the dispersity of alpha-active aerosols by a method of auto- I radiography by Yu. A. Bolotov, Yu. N. Samoylova 163 ' References 173 Chapter 5. Monitoring Levels of Contamination of Surfaces with Radioactive Substances 176 5.1. Surfaces contaminated with radioactive substances as sources of radiation hazard by V. I. Bab'in, U. Ya. Margulis, V. T. Khrushch 176 - 5.2. Using instruments to monitor the radioactive contamination of surfaces _ by N. F. Turkin 180 5.2.1. Equip~ent 180 5.2.2. Checking the caliUration characteristics of instruments 184 5.2.3. Measuring levels of contamination of surfaces of complex configu- ration 184 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FUR UFHICIAL USE ONLY 5.3. Measurement of radioactive contamination of surfaces by a smear method by V. I. Bab'in, U. Ya. Margulis, V. T. Khrushch 186 5.3.1. Principle of the method 186 5.3.2. Procedure of monitoring by the smear method L87 . 5.3.3. Representativity of sample taking and v~~lume of monitoring 188 5.3.4. Periodicity of ineasurements 192 5.3.5. Working control levels 194 5.4. Determination of beta-active contamination of surfaces with the use of the KRZB-1 semiautomatic smear sampling and measurement device by V. G. Artamonov, V. F. Darovskikh, L. R. Romanov, G. V. Filimonov 195 5.5. Monitoring radioactive contamination of skin and clothing by N. F. Turkin 199 5.6. Monitoring radioactive contamination oi transport facilities 201 . 5.6.1. Organization of monitoring by N. F. Turkit~ 201 , 5.6.2. Automatic monitoring of radioactive contamination of vehicle trans- port on a special stand by A. S. Lyzlov, V. A. Loginov 202 5.7. Determination of levels of contamination of a region with radioactive substances by V. I. Grishmanovskiy, A. F. Lyzlov 204 References 207 Chapter 6. Evaluating the Radiation Environment in Mining 209 6.1. Organizing dosimetric monitoring and evaluation of the radiation environ- ment in extraction of uranium ore by I. L. Shalayev, A. A. Komodov, Yu. A. Lebedev, K. S. Lutsenko, I. V. Pavlov, L. P. Pashchenko, ~ N. V. Ryabov, L. D. Saltykov, V. I. Shishkin 209 i 6.1.1. Problems of dosimetric monitoring under conditions in uranium mines 209 , 6.1.2. Organizing monitoring of contamination of the mine atmosphere and isolated occurrences of short-lived daughter elements of Rn 211 6.1.3. Monitoring parameters that affect formation of the radiation environment 222 6.1.4. Monitoring external gamma-irradiation and contamination of the mine atmosphere with long-lived radioactive aerosols 224 6.1.5. Registration and representation of data of radiation monitoring 225 6.2. Individual monitoring of exposure to short-lived products of Rn decay by V. A. Parfenov, N. V. Ryabov 22~ ' Ref erences 232 Chapter 7. Organization and Methods of Dosimetric Monitoring in Work on Nuclear Critical Assemblies by G. V. Shishkin, L. A. Komissarov 233 244 References Chapter 8. Determination of Radioactivity of Liquid and Solid Waste 245 8.1. Determination of Radioactive substances in effluent water by V. P. Ker- _ manov, D. A. Fedoseyev 245 8.1.1. General principles 245 8.1.2. Taking and preparing samples 246 8.1.3. Determination of specific alpha-activity 24~ 8.1.4. Determination of specific beta-activity 250 8.1.5. Determination of 90Sr-90Y content in effluents 252 8.1.6. Determination of 144Ce content in effluents 256 8.1.7. Determination of 137Cs content in effluents 260 8.1.8. Determination of 131I content in effluents 8.2. Evaluating radioactivity of solid waste by V. I. Grishmanovskiy, 262 A. A. Komodov, A. F. Lyzlov References 266 COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1980 - [19-6610] 6610 cso: is62 40 F9R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPY ~ UDC 535 PHOTONS AND NONLINEAR OPTICS Moscow FOTONY I NELINEYNAYA OPTIKA in Russian 198o signed to press 19 Apr 80 pp 2-11 ~ , [Annotation, preface and table of contents from book "Photons and Nonlinear ; Optics", by David Nikolayevich Klyshko, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 3800 copies, ~ 256 pages] [Text] Ma~or concepts and methods of quantum optics are explained on the basis of - j the example of a few optical effects. Necessary information is given in advance i from quantum mechanics and statistical physics, Ma,jor emphasis is given to certain , phenomena discovered in the last 10-20 years (the Brown-Twiss effect, two-photon - emission, parametric and polariton scattering of light), and also to some effects ~ that have as yet to be observed (correlation of Stokes and photons, ~ the existence of odd field moments in thermal radiation). A common feature of ~ these effects is that photons are emitted two at a time, and the quantum properties j. of light show up most clearly. A concomitant examination is made of some procedu- ~ ra1 questions such as the influence that optical nonlinearity of a material has on i the statistics of its natural thermal radiation. Phenomenological relations are ! established between observed spontaneous and induced processes (generalized Kirch- ; hoff laws). An examination is made of possible metrological applications of such ' relations for absolute calibration of light sources and sensors. j Figures 9, references 189� Preface _ At first glance the title of this book seems contradictory: after all, the term ; "nonlinear optics" is associated with powerful laser emission that contains an enormous number of photons, and it would seem that there is no need here to take consideration of the photon structure of light. Actually most of the effects of nonlinear (and for that matter, linear as well) optics are beautifully described by the semiclassical theory of radiation in which the electromagnetic field conforms to the classical Maxwell equations, and quantum behavior applies only to matter. However, it is difficult or impossible to interpret certain optical effects by us- ing the classical notions, and a systematic theory must describe both atoms and light on the basis of the principles of quantum mechanics. Besides, the graphic photonic concepts are very convenient for qualitative d~scription and classifica- tion of many optical effects. For example the effect of doubling or summation of _ 1~1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL US~ OPJLY the frequency of light as it propagates througli a transparent crystal can be taken as the result of a set of elementary processes in which two photons of the incident light merge into a single photon with the sum energy and frequency. And of course there may be the reverse process of decay of an incident photon into a pair of photons with lower energies. Such ~rocess~s ex~~~]_ain the effect of parametric seattering of Zight. In the Ranczn er~reci, the incident photori is converted to one with lower frequency, called tYie Stokes pnotan, and a quantum of excitation of matter (e. g. a phonon in the case of vibrational excitation). In addition, the photon of incident light may join with a thermal phonon and be converted into an anti-Stokes photon with higher frequency. In the case of two-photon absorption, two photons of incident light are converted to the excited state of an atom, mole- - cule or crystal. Conversely, the excited atom may pass to the ground state, emitting a pair of photons. In tnis book, among all the effects of nonlinear optics discovered over the past - 20 years, consideration is given mainly only to those phenomena associated with pairwise emission of photons (for the of brevity, pairs of simultaneously arising photons will be called "biphotons"). The emission o� pho~ons in pairs (and also in triplets, quadruplets, etc.) is intimately tied up with the optical non- linearity of matter, and this effect clearly shows the quantt~n properties of light. We will also discuss the "classical" effect of eZustering of photons, which does not involve the linearity of matter, and does not require a quantum field for ex- , planation (the Brown-Twiss effect). This clustering is nearly random, pairs of i photons in ordinary light are encountered only twice as often as in a chaotic ' Poisson flow of sand grains (the excess is due to the wave nature of lightl. Let us note that two-photon absorption on the contrary leads to uniform distribution of photons in the light traveling throu~h matter (the anticlustering effect) while in lasers the nonlinearity of the working substance (saturation effect) distributes the photons chaotically. In addition to phenomena of parametric scattering and two-Fhoton decay that have already been observed in the laser age of optics, biphotons should also be emitted in spontaneous Raman scattering of light, which has been known for a long time. As will be shown in this book, anti-Stokes photons are emitted only paired with Stokes photons at low temperatures of the scattering substance. Immediately border- in~ with this effect is four-photon or hyperparametric scattering, which differs from three-photon parametric scattering by the participation of two pumping photons in an elementa.ry act. We will also consider some particulars of the sc~.ttering of light by poZczr'itons, which occupies an intermediate position between parametric scattering and Raman scattering by ion vibrations in the crystal lattice. These vibrations are accompanied by oscillations of the electromagnetic field inside the crystal. The polariton is a quantum of the macroscopic (averaged) field, i. e. a photon in a medium, and therefore it is natural to call scattering of light by poaritons, and also three- and four-photon parametric scattering, seattering of Zight bz~ Zight in matter (the last word distinguishes it from scattering of Zight by Zight in vacuum an extremely weak and as yet unobserved effect of relativ- istic quantum electrodynamics). Parametric scattering provides the unique capability of "manufacturing" two-photon field states, and is distinguished besides by a number of interesting features. ~he spectrum of scattered light is nearly continuous from radio frequencies to the pumping frequency. E~nission is by the entire specimen coherently, rather than independently by individu~.l atoms, resulting in fairly sharp forward clirectionality 1~2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of radiation along the pumping beam. The photons of a pair fly apar.t at certain small angles to one another and to the pumping beam in accordance with the law of conservation of momentum when three photons interact. The effects considered in the book are worthy of investigation not only as "exotic" ma.nifestations of the quantum nature of light and nonlinearity of matter. They h~,,ve alreac~y been r,ut to a number of uses. Parametric scattering is the basis of a new spectroscopic method of ineasuring the linear and nonlinear optical properties - of crystals. When powerful pulse pumping is use~, this scattering is transformed to fairly intense parametric superizaninescence that is a source of short light pulses (down to 10"12 s) with continuously tunable frequency. Let us note that the intensity of three-photon spontaneous parametric scattering is proportional to the pumping intensity, and therefore is observable even with non-laser light sour~es in contrast to four-photon scattering, which is proportional to the square of the - ! pumping, and parametric superluminescence, which by definition depends superlinearly ; (exponentially) on pumping. i From the standpoint of applied nonlinear optics the effect of parametric scattering ~ is a source of noises that limit the sensitivity of parametric amplifiers and light i frequency converters, as well as the maximum stability of para.metric light gener- ators. However, quantum noises could, in principle, be put to use in the metrology of light, becoming the basis of "quantum photometry." The parametric converter is ~ simultaneously an absolute light brightness meter, i, e. one that needs no cali- ~ bration. In addition, the simultaneity and directionality of photon emission in ~ pairs in parametric scattering makes possible a reference photon generator that emits a known number of photons. Finally, the phenomena considered here have a certain heuristic and pedagogical value. They offer the opportunity of a graphic~ example for studying nonrelativis- tic quantum electrodynamics, and for mastering many important concepts of theo- retical physics Green's functions, the fluctuation-dissipative theorem and so on. Although the immediate topic of the book is fairly narrow, a rather wide range of - procedural questions of the theory of interaction of light and matter is con- comitantly treated. For the reader's interest, we list some of them in deliberately i paradoxical form: Can an incandescent transparent substance emit light? Can the ' Brown-Twiss effect be described by a Kirchhoff law? Can the non-zero root-mean cube of an electric field exist in thermal radiation? Is it possible to measure the brightness of fluctuations of an electromagnetic vacuum and make a light source ~ with a known number of emitted photons? Do the Stokes and anti-Stokes components _ ~ correlate ir~ Raman scattering of light? Is it possible to have a field state with - ~ a definite ener~y and an indefinite number of photons? Positive answers are given in the book to all these questions. This book makes an attempt (perhaps the first attempt) to systematically describe the effects enumerated above, an d some related ones. The title might alternatively have been "An Introduction to Nonlinear Quantum Optics." It must be stated that in known monographs on quantum optics [Ref. 1-4] the ma~jor emphasis is on the statis- tics of a free field wiLYiout consideration of the nonlinearity of matter thai; leads _ ~ Let us note that pa.r~.mel;ric scattering is easily observed by the unaided eye at a pumping power of the order of 0.1 W in the form of a ring-shaped rainbow. 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 _ FOR OFrIC1AL US~ ONL'1 to correlation of the radio-frequency components of the field. In analyzing the statistics of laser emission [Ref. 4-0] only one of the nonlinear effects is con- sidered the saturation effect that stabilizes the amplitude of oscillations. Pare,metric scattering is described briefly only in the book by Akhmanov and Chirkin _ [Ref. 7] that deals mainly with transforin~:~ ion c~' tlie statistics of light due tb induced nonlinear effects. Major emphasis is given here to ~he phenomenological description of actually obser- vable optical effects and the relations between independently variable quantities, in particulax relations of the Kirchhoff law type. By establishing such relations, we can restrict ourselves to induced efiects and semiclassical theories in model calculations. This book considers only the simplest qualitative micromodels that clarify the meaning and the orders of magnitudes of phenomenological parameters. More detailed calculations of vaxious optical microparameters and macroparameters can be found in Ref. 8-17 that have come out in the last decade and a half, and deal with the interaction between light and matter. Ref. 18 can be recommended as a general introductory course that covers the principles of quantum optics and many-photon processes. The author has attempted to present the material on an "intermediate" .level (be- tween a textbook and a monograph) and to make it accessible to students who have ~ust completed the principles of quantutn mechanics, and to experimental physicists _ j who have haci time to forget these principles. Most of the effects are described by i several models, beginning with the simplest. The book begins with an introductory ~ chapter that gives a simplified qualitative description of parametric and polariton scattering, and also condensed historical and bibliographic information. Chapter 2 ` then gives necessary data from quantum mechanics and statistics. Chapter 3 de- scribes the transition from classical to quantum electrodynamics. Chapters and 5 deal respectively with one-photon and two-photon thermal radiation. Here fairly general relations are established between spontaneous and induced effects that are called generaZized Kirchhoff Zcnas. Similar relations are used in the next two chap- ters as well, dealing with processes of inelastic scattering. Chapter 6 examines parametric and polariton scattering in more detail than chapter 1. Chapter 7 con- tain~: a phenomenological description of four-photon (hyperparametric) scattering and associated coherent Raman scattering. Finally, the Appendix defines the spec- tral Green's function for the field ;n an anisotropic absorbing medium. - This book is based on research done by the author in the Department of Wave Phe- nomena at the Physics Faculty of Moscow State University. It has been the author's good fortune to work for some years under the direction of an eminent scientist and a fascinating person Rem Viktorovich Khokhlov who together with S. A. Akhma- nov founded the school of nonlinear optics at Moscow University. R. V. Khokhlov had a lot of interest in "photon" effects of nonlinear optics, and gave his ap- proval to the first drafts of this book. The author would like to thank N. I. Nazarova, G. V. Venkin, V, S. Dneprovskiy, D. P. Krindach, A. N. Penin, B. F. Polkovnikov V. V. Fadeyev and others who work in the Department of Wave Phenomena for their assistance and support. The author also thanks P. V. Yelyutin, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, Y,~. A. Il'inskiy and R. L. Stratonovich who reviewed the manuscript of the book and made valuable comments. And f.inally, the author feels that part of the blame for publication of another book should go to V. B. Braginskiy, who instigated the work. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Contents Preface 7 Symbols 12 Chapter l. Scattering of Light by Light in Matter 13 l.l. Paxametric scattering (PS) 13 The PS spectrum (13). Coherent scattering (15). Zero fluctuations of - vacuum (16). Effective temperature of PS (16). Number of photons per mode and brightness of light (18). Brightness of PS (21). Parametric superluminescence (22). Ad~ustment curves (23). Integrated intensities of PS (25). ; 1.2. Scatterin~ by polaritons (SP) 27 , Polaritons and the law of dispersion (27). Comparison of PS and SP (28). ; Intensity of SP (28). Frequency-angle spectrum of SP (29). Normal and ~ anomalous dispersion (30). Linearization effect (31). ~ 1.3. Four-photon scattering and nonlinear spectroscopy 32 ! Hyperparametric scattering (HPS) (32). Cascade HPS (3~+). Hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) (3~+). Emission of biphotons in Raman scattering (3~+)� Resonant luminescence (35)� Two-photon resonant luminescence (35)� Nonlineax spectroscopy (35)� _ 1.4. Many-photon effects a historical bibliographic outline 36 The stone (pre-laser) age (36). The laser age (38)� Three-photon para- metric scattering (38). Other forms of scattering (~+0). Hyperparametric scattering (~+l). Chapter 2. Some Information on Quantum Mechanics and Statistical Physics 43 2.1. The transition from the classical to the quantum description 43 Quantum equations of motion (~+3). Choice of representation (45). Com- parison of theory and experiment (46). Experimental procedure (46). 2.2. Dirac notation and geometric interpretation of quantum mechanics ~+8 Functions as vectors (48). Transformations of functions and tensors (49)� Resolution of unity (50). Various representations (51). Unitary trans- formations (52). Relation to physics (53)� Time as a parameter ~5~+)� Quantum correlation functions (56). Mixed states and density matrix (56). 2�3� Representation of interaction and perturbation theory 58 - Representation of interaction (58). Other representations (60). Pertur- bation theory for the scattering operator (61). Transition probability _ (62). Transition rate (63). 2.4. Fluctuational-dissipative theorems (FDT) 64 i 1;inear FDT (65). Spectral form (68). Symmetry of moments and suscepti- , bilities (68). Quadratic FDT (69)� Approximate cubic FDT (71). ~ 2.5. Relaxation and kinetic equations ' 73 ~ Kinetic equation for density matrix (74). Kinetic equations for averages (75). Kinetic equations for populations (76). Spontaneous and induced transitions (77). Chapter 3� Principles of Quantum Optics 79 - 3.1. Canonical variables of the electromagnetic field 79 - Dynamic equations for the field (79)� 'I'hree-dimensional Fourier trans- _ formation of fields (80). Canonical variables of the field (82). Canoni- cal field equations and Ureen's function (82). Role of dimensions of the normalization voltur.e (84 ) . 3.2� Electromagnetic field quantization 8~+ Field Hamiltonian (84). Commutators of field operators (85). Free field (88). ~xpansion of field operators in a frequency Fourier integral (88). 1~5 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3.3. Possible field states 90 ~ Coherent and ener~}r states (90). The multimode field (92). Properties of base states (94). Mixed states (9~+). Eigenfunction (96). Dynamics of the field state (98). Scattering matrix of the field (100). 3.~� Green's f~anction and quantization of a macroscopic field in a medium 101 Phenomenological Maxwell's equations (101). Green's functicn of a field in a medium (102). Normal waves (10~+). Law of dispersion (lOk). Conversion to kt-representation (105). Quantization of a field in a medium (106). - wr representation (108). ~ Chapter 4. Thermal Radiation in the Linear Approximation 110 ~+.1. Statistics of field equilibrium in free space 111 Equilitrium statistical operator (111). Eigenfunction (111). Photon sta- tistics (111). ~+.2. Macroscopic field fluctuations in matter 113 Two-stage calculation (113). Direct path (114). kt-representation (115). _ Problem of observation (116). Field fluctuations in an isotropic medium - (116). ~+.3� Thermal radiation of heated bodies 118 Application of FDT (116). Kirchhoff law (120). ~+.4. Generalized Kirchhoff law (GKL) 121 Input and output fields (122). Scattering matrix (122). Vector notation (124). Nyquist derivation of GKL (124). Special cases (126). Higher moments of thermal radiation (127). Thermal field in perturbation theory . (128}. Langevin derivation of GKL (129). 4.5. Derivation of GHI~ by the kinetic equation 129 Thermal radiation and the kinetic equation (129)� Kinetic equation for the X-function (130). Equations for moments (133)� Noises of quantum ampli- - fiers (134)� 4.6. Thermal radiation in the far zone 135 The far zone and the ak operator (135). Correlation function (136). Measuring the modulus of the scattering matrix (137). Microscopic model - (137). Coherence volume (139)� Photon count (1~+0). Phenomenological model _ (l~+l) . 4.7. Interference of intensities 142 Probability of coincidence of photon counts (1~3)� Role of the detection space (144). Interpretation of effects (146). Chapter 5. Influence of the Anharmonicity of Matter on its Thermal bnission 148 5.1. Many-photon transitions and higher field moments 149 Anharmonicity and correlation of different frequency modes (11+9). Equilib- rium and nonequilibrium problems (149). The two-photon paradox (150). 5.2. Calculation of field moments by perturbation theory 151 Relation between output and input moments (152). General properties of conversion (154). Higher corrections (155)� 5�3� 'I'hird moment of the heat field 156 Relation to two-time molecule correlation function (156). Interpretation of effect (158)� Estima.te of cube of the field (160). Problem of detec- - tion (161). 5.4. Two-photon Kirchhoff law 163 Effective kinetic equation (163). First moments (.165). Second moments - (~66). Fourth moments (167). Two-photon Kirchhoff law (168). Comparison with one-photon the.rmal radiation (169). Rate of coincidences of photon counts (170). GKL for third moment (172). 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094426-1 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY . Chapter 6. Parametric Scattering 17l~ 6.1. Rate of biphoton emission 175 Third order of perturbation theory (175). Effective Hamiltonian (177). Probability of biphoton generation (178) . Differential rate of biphoton production (179). Law of conservation of momentum (180). - 6.2. Integr~,ted intensity of PS 181 _ Detector with low frequency resolution (182). Brightness of PS light _ (183) . Detector with Iow a,ngular resolution (18~+) , Accounting for non- parallelism of group and phase velocities (185), 6.3. Form of PS spectral line 186 Coherence length (187) . k-spectroscopy (188) . ~;ffective linewidth (189) . , Degenerate case (190) � Influence of pumping spectrum o:~ signal spectrum (190). Gaussian pumping beam (191). 6.4. Field statistics and metrological applications of PS 1.9~+ Heisenberg equations for fi eld operators (195). Spontaneous scattering (196). Reference photogenerator (197). Coincidence rate for ~aussian pumping (198). An absolu+,e radiometer (201). Measurement errors (202). _ 6.5� Parametric superluminescence 2p3 Monochromatic pumping (201+). Eigenfunction (205). One-dimensional model: wqz and kz representations (207). Modulation pumping and the SVA repre- sentation (210). 6.6. Sca+tering by polaritons (SP) 213 Description of SP by linear FDT ( 213) . Use of nonlin~ar FDT ( 216 One-pole approximation ( 218 Kirchhoff law for PS and SP ( 220 ~ Chapter 7. Hyperparametric and Raman Scattering 22~+ i ; 7.1. Nonresonant HPR 22l~ ; Centrosymmetric medium (22~+). HPR in piezocrystals (225). Intensity of HPR in piezocrystals (229). Statistics of cascade HPR (230). ' 7.2. Resonant HPR and Raman scattering 230 Equations for slowly varying field operators (231). Vacuum noises (232) . ~ Molecular noises (233). 7�3� Correlation of Stokes and anti-Stokes radiation in Raman scattering 234 Classical model ( 231~) . Phenomenological description ( 235) . Correlation in the one-dimensional approximation (238). Coincidence rate (240). ~ Gaussian pumping (21+2). Est imating number of coincidences (245). ~ Appendix. Green's Function and Types of Field Polarization in an Absorbing ! Anisotropic Medium 246 Diagonalization and inversion ~f non-Hermitian matrices (21+6). Eigen- : vectors and eigenvalues of the Green's tensor (2~+8). Eigenvectors of the tensors n� e-1 ~,nd e-1 �~r ( 2~+9 Angles of anisotropy ( 251) . ' References 252 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1980 [24-6610] 6610 cso: i862 47 ~ FOR OFFICIAI~ USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PLASMA PHYSICS UDC 533 PR INCIPLES OF MODERN PHYSICS OF GAS-DISCFARGE PROCESSES Moscow OSNOVY SOVREMENNOY FIZIKI GAZORAZRYADNYKH PROTSESSOV in Russian 198o si gned to press 13 Mar 80 pp 2-6 [Annotation, preface and table of contents from book "Principles of Modern Physics of Gas-Discharge Processes", by Yuriy Petrovich Rayzer, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 3600 copies, 415 pages] (Text] The book outlines the principles of present-day physics of gas discharges, and the interaction of electromagnetic fields and laser radiation with ionized ~ ' gases. An examination is made of fundamental problems of the interaction of el ec- ~ tromagnetic waves with electrons, and the kinetic equation for electrons in a field. ! Particular attention is given to explanation of the relation between the classi cal ~ and quantum approaches to effects. A detailed investigation is made of various discharge processes: breakdown of gases, maintenance of a nonequilibrium weakly - ionized plasma, maintenance and generation of a low-temperature plasma in a con- stant electric field, in low-frequency, microwave and optical fields. Consider - ation is given to the most important applications of modern physics of discharges: processes in powerful C02 lasers and plasmotrons. Figures 125, tables 9, refer - ences 116. Preface All present-~day handbooks on gas--discharge physics by Engel and Steenbeck (1935 , Kaptsov (1950), En~~el (1955)~ Brown (1.959) and some others were written many , years ago. These books have acquired great popularity, and are being used to this day in the classroom and on the job. But since the time of their writing, gas- discharge science has taken great strides. The appearance of new and important areas of application of discharge physics in technology and in physics experiments has played a considerable part in this advance: plasmotrons, powerful gas lasers, magnetohydrodynamic generators, interaction between laser radiation and ionize d - gases, and much more. For example the field relating to glow discharges, one of the oldest and most traditional, has seemed to find new life in recent vears in a flurry of research with emphasis on aspects of the phenomenon (instabilities an d their results) that were never even considered in the books. This upheaval is due to the explosive development of powerful C02 gas laser technology, where the effects of instabilities have shown up. The modern researcher is faced with a number of problems whose answers are not to be found in the old books, even though some of them can be answered. The journal ~8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY articles on discharges are literally mind-boggling with an aval.anche of unordered experimental facts and isolated theoretical considerations the gas discharge has always been exceptional for extraordinary variety, complexity and confusion of phenomena and processes. Right now an acute need is being felt for new and up-to- _ date references on discharge physics which, like all good books, would be both textbooks for students and handbooks for specialists. Books on plasma physics ~enerall.y ~ravita~;e toward a different plasma "thermonuclear", magnetized, cosmic plasma and we are dealing here with the "ordinary" traditional gas dis- charge, to which we have recently and quite unexpectedly added the area of dis- charges in fields of the optical band. The proposed book is an introduction to some urgent areas of the physics of gas discharges and interaction of electromagnetic fields and laser radiation with ionized gases. The principles of construction and choice of sub,ject matter are as follows. First an examination is made of general problems of the interaction of . constant and variable electric fields and photons with electrons. This is done both on the basis of elementary concepts and with the use of the kinetic equation. - Then different discharge processes are studied. Gas discharge technology has now completely mastered a number of frequency ranges: 1) the constan~ electric field; 2) the radio-frequency field; 3) microwave fields; optical fields. According to the nature of discharge processes, we distir.guish: 1) breakdown of gases, i. e. development of ionization; 2) field maintenance of a weakly ionized nonequilibrium plasma (glow type discharges); 3) maintenance and generatian of an equilibrium low- ; temperature pla~ma of the arc type. In all we get 4 x 3= 12 types of processes . ' Most of these are considered together with applications to modern C02 laser physics, ~ plasmotrons and experiments on the interaction of microwaves and laser radiation j with gases and plasma. j 2'he book pursues two goals. First, to give the clearest possible presenta~tion of problems of a fundamental nature, that have permanent significance, to make the ' reader permeated with the "physics" of phenomena, to give a feeling for their in- ternal laws, to provide researchers with an accessible tool that they can use iri ~ independent work, be it theory, experiment, or engineering. With this in mind, we have not shrunk from occasional analysis of questions that may appear to be fairly ~ well known. Our other goal is to introduce the reader to the circle of problems i that are now being intensely studied by many physicists and engineers with gas- ~ discharge science as the basis. ~ For many years the author has been teaching a course for students at Moscow Physico- ' technical Institute for the purpose of acquainting them with discharge physics in its present form, which is an integral component of broad high-quality education of the research physicist. And I am constantly faced with the difficulty of having to recommend literature for. concise and effective acquisition of this branch of know- ledge. Perhaps this book will partly alleviate difficulties of this kind. Considering the nature and purpose of the book, we have not made an issue of com- pleteness in cited references. References to original works are given only in con- nection with the presentation or use oi sp~:cific resul~;s and fa,cts. The references cite mor~ogra~hs and survey articles where detailed bibliographies can be found. `1'he au~hor is deeply grateful to A. V. Yeletskiy, who read the manuscript and made . a number of valuable comments, and to N. M. Serikova for considerable help in pre- _ paration of the book. *[Yu. P. Rayzer, December, 1978~ _ 49 - FOR OFFICIAL i7SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340090026-1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Contents Preface ' S - Chapter 1. Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Electrons and Ionized Gas �1. Complex permittivity 7 �2. The platie monochromatic wave 10 �3. Radio-frequency permittivity and plasma conductivity 15 �4. Conductivity and permittivity in a static field 21 _ �5. Critical density of electrons and plasma frequency 22 �6. Increment of electron energy in the field of an electromagnetic wave 25 �7. Bremsstrahlung when electrons collide with atoms, and Kirchhoff's law 31 �8. Electrons in a field of photons 31 �9. Limiting transit ion f'rom the quantum theory to classical theory - Chapter 2. Kinetic Equat ion for Electrons in a Weakly Ionized Gas Located in - a. Field �1. Electron distribution function ~3 �2. Formulation of the kinetic equation ~+5 �3. Approximation for angular dependence of the distribution function ~+9 ~ �4. Equation for the energy spectrum of electrons 53 " �5. Comparison with results of elementary theory 60 �6. Quantum kinetic equation and transition to the classical equation 65 _ Chapter 3. Breakdown of Gases I �l. Types of discharge plasma and fields (classification for future use) 71 ~ �2. Electron avalanche and breakdown threshold 76 ; �3. Experiments on microwave breakdown and their interpretation on the basis of elementary theory 90 �1+. Formulation. of the problem of breakdown based on the kinetic equation 97 �5. Dimensionless criteria 101 �6. Approxirnate calculation of ionization rate 105 �'T. Ionization and breakdown in a constant field 115 �8. Optical breakdown 123 _ �9. Direct ionization of atoms by radiation 137 Chapter 4. Field Maintenance of a Nonequilibrium Plasma - �1. Glow discharge and gas lasers. Introductory remarks 1~+3 �2. Positive column of a glow discharge 1~+6 - �3. Gas heating and its effect on the current-voltage characterijtic 15� �4. When and why a discharge plasma, is nonequilibrium i65 - �5. Glow discharge structure 172 �6. Cathode layer 182 �7. Radio-frequency discharge of capacitive type 191 �8. G~a electric-discharge carbon dioxide lasers 208 �9. Kinetics of electron-molecular processes in laser discharges 233 (:hapter 5� Glow-Discharge Instabilities, Striae, Contractions �1. The sources and consequences of instabilities 2~+3 �2. Quasi-steady state processes 2~+9 ~3. Stability of discharges controlled by sticking and recombination at constant gas density 261 ~ �4. Sticking instability 262 �5. Instability associated with disruption of electric neutrality 268 �6. Ionization-heating (thermal) instability 271 _ �7. Striae ~79 �8. Contraction of a positive column 297 � 0 - 5 - = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 6. Maintenance and Generation of an Equilibrium Plasma �l. Introduction. Ba,lance of ener~r of a plasma 309 �2. Positive column of a DC ar~ 313 �3. Radio-frequeiicy in3uction discharge 322 �4. Microwave dischaxges ~3~ �5. Continuous optical discharge 345 �6. Gener~.tors of dense low-temperature plasma--plasmatrons 360 �7. Discharge in a gas flow 369 ~ �8. Propagation of discharges 376 �9. Luminous detonation 380 �10. Luminous combus-cion 389 �11. Optical discharge under conditions of strong radiation losses 398 Appendix ~~5 References ~+11 ~ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1980 [22-66io] ~ I ~ 6610 i cso: 1862 i -i ' I I I ~ I ; i i ~ I I 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY THERMODYNAMICS ~ UDC 629.78:536.24 SPACECRAFT THERMAL CONDITIONS Moscow TEPLOVOY REZHIM KOSMICHESKIKH APPARATQV in Russian 1980 signed to press 23 Jan 80 pp 3-6 , 231-232 [ Preface and table of contents from book "Spacecraft Therrr?al Conditions", by Vladimir Vikto rovich Malozemov, Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", 957 copies, 232 pages] [ Text ] Prefac e i I Life support for the crew on a long spaceflight is one of the most important prob- ! lems of interplanetary navigation. Solution of this problem is a complex ,job that I, requires considerable effort and close cooperation between _iologists, physicians and engineers in various fields . The temperature-cont.rol system (TCS) is one of the most important components of the overall life~-support system that creates and maintains the conditions necessary for human life and activity in the closed conflines of sealed cabiiis. The job of the ~ TCS is to creat e predetermined temperature conditions of a spacecraft with consider- , ation of its interaction with the crew and the ambient medium when complex extreme - factors are in aperatio n. Efficient handling of this job requires new approaches ' to the devei ~~pment, design, investigation and testing of the TCS . It is conventionally assumed that all that is required for a normal state of health and high capacity for work of the human organism both during a mission and after return to earth is to set up constant temperature conditions of maximun comfort in the inner environment of the sealed cabin. This treats the human organism as some predefined stat ic ob~ect. However, recent data contradict this concept. With a ' prolonged stay under comparatively stable ambient conditions adaptive responses of the organism ma.y atrophy. In such a situation, even a normally permissible change in one of the parameter s may lead to loss of stability of the organism, and hence to deterioratio n of well-being and capacity for work. Normal well being and ca- pacity :~'or work depend not so much on the parameters of the ambient environment at a given time (a person may feel normal both in severe cold and in tropical heat) as on the dynamic s of the variation in these parameters, on the state of the adaptive mechanisms of t he organism that are determined by the conditions under which the ' person had previ~usly been. Therefore the development of a t;emperature control system, especi a11y for a prolonged mission, must be carried out with consideration of its mutual relationship with the human orga~ism, the ambient environment and the 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY design of the spacecraft. Only an approach like this, in which man is treated as the main component of a complex system, can guarantee development of a really ef- fective CTS that ensures normal physical condition and high capacity for work of crew members. Thc;re is ~till another important feature of design of the TCS. In flight training, the crew ETo through special conditioning with consideration of the future con- ditions of their sojourn in outer space. When they are on a mission, as a rule the crew members begin preparing from the very first days of spaceflight for the return to earth with consideration of carrying out the flight program. Under conditions of manned spaceflight, the CTS may take on some functions of a trainer if it is equipped with an appropriate conditioning program and devices that determine and predict the condition of crew members and of the entire spacecraft system. The temperature-control system is a complex made up of subsystems that are inter- related in the functional respect. Comprehensive desig,~ and calculation of a multi- , component TCS with consideration of the mutual relation between crew, environment and individual subsystems is a complicated ~ob. The essentially unsteady nature of the principal processes that take place under all flight conditions introduces ad- ' ditional difficulties both in a.nalysis and in selection of regulatory subsystems. ' As yet there is not adequate experience in comprehensive solution of problems of ' this kind. They can be solved on the basis of a new discipline that is extensively used and involves analysis and synthesis of large systems; this is the field of I systems analysis [Ref. 8. 41]. The scientific (mainly mathematical) basis of sys- I tems analysis is the theory of complex systems. The division of real systems into I complex and simple is to some extent arbitrary, involving as it does the signifi- cance of the part played by "general s,ystems" questions in the study of systems. j And this in turn depends on both the properties of the system itself and the goals ~ for which the research is undertaken. With respect to the properties of a system ~ that put it into the category of complex systems, we can say the following [Ref. ~ 41]: "A system will be considered complex if it consists of a laxge number of interrelated an d interacting elements. It is natural to expect that a complex system is capable of ~erforming a complex function." Witn regard to the temperature-control system of a spacecraft, we can state with certainty that it has all the ma,jor features that characterize large systems. The ~ considerable number of intricately interacting elements, the relation to the ambi- ' ent environment and to man give us a completely sound basis for puttin~ the TCS ' into the category of large systems, whose design, analysis and synthesis must be ' based on systems analysis and the genPral theory of systems. However, realization. of this approach requires extensive knowledge of processes that occur in typical elements as well as on the mutua.l relation between individual subsystems and com- ponents. Only after studying all the particulars of the processes and the mutual relations between the elements for individual subsystems and complexes, and after constructing their mathematical models can we go on to systems methods of automated design and investigation using up-to-date computer technology. To solve complex problems of design, analysis, synthesis and predir_tion, it is ad- visable to use functional decomposition of the TCS with incorporation of the method of matnematical mo3elirig for stucLying individual subsystems and elements, including man. Functional and structural decomposition of the system and the method of - 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY mathematical modeling enable us to formulate the problem without loss of generali- ty, to reduce its dimensionality, to work out a procedure for solution, and to get specific results on one of the functional subsystems. The book offered to the reader's attention is an attempt to systematize the expo- sition of material on calculation, mathematical modeling and investigation of spacecraft temperature-control systems. The first chapter examines general prob- lems of temperature control a.~~d a new version of system classification. The second chapter deals with analysis of external and internal temperature loads. The fo1- lowing chapters present different versions of subsystems for heat protection and thermal regulation. The various subsystems are investigated on the basis of ineth- ods of mathematical modeling. Mathematical models of individual elements and sub- systems are given and analyzed. Methods are demonstrated for studying mathematical models of the elements and subsystems of the TCS using digital and analog computers. The last chapter deals with problems of choosing the design parameters of the TCS. Niany of the problems formulated in the book are still a long way from their final solution. However, their formulation an d study show the importance and nece5sity of doing further research in these areas. The author feels obligated to thank the reviewer, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Professor A. P. Vanichev for a number of valuable comments and advice given in looking over the manuscript, and also D~ctor of Technical Sciences Ye. N. Bondarev, Candidate of Technical Sciences S. M. Bednov, R. M. Kopyatkevich and other comrades who reviewed the manuscript of the book and expressed their wishes and suggestions, which were taken into consideration insofar as possible in the final edition of the book. The author thanks V. S. Pichulin, A. Ya. Donov, E. A. Kurmazenko, V. A. Tomskiy, I. I. Bogachev, S. N. Loginov, S. N. Kutepov, A. G. Bruk and T. I. Baranenkova for assistance with preparation of some materials. Without pretense to an exhaustive treatment of the topic covered, the author will be very grateful to readers for critical comments and suggestions, which should be addressed to: 107885, Moskva, GSP-6, 1-y Basmannyy per., 3, Izd-vo "Mashino- stroyeniye". Contents Preface 3 Symbols 7 Chapter l. General Problems of Temperature Control of Sealed Cabins an d Com- partments of Spacecraft $ - 1.1. Purpose of temperature-control systems a 1.2. Methods of temperature control 10 1.3� Classification of temperature-control systems 13 1.4. Requirements for temperature-control systems and heat engineering parameters 16 Chapter 2. Internal and External Heat Sources 21 2.1. Thermal state of t,he human organism 21 2.2. Internal heat sources ~7 5~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1 FOH UN'N'll:1HL U~.G U1VLY 2.3. Principal forms of external heat sources and radiation models 32 2.4. Calculation of incident and absorbed radiant heat fluxes 38 2.5� Using computers to calculate external heat fluxes 1+2 Chapter 3. Thermal Protec'~ion Subsystems for Temperature Safety of Sealed Cabins and Compartments ~5 3.1. Thermal protection subsystems based on temperature regulating coatings ~+5 3.2. Thermal protcction subsystems based on vacuum-shield therma.l insulation 50 3.3. Thermal protection subsystems based on homogeneous ther?~al insulation 56 Chapter 4. Heat-Scattering Subsystems for Temperature Safety with Convective Cooling 68 4.1. Heat-dissipating subsystems with airtight heat insulation 68 4.2. He~,t-dissipating subsystems with porous heat insulation $p ~+�3� Unsteac~y heat exchange in the heat-dissipating subsystem for temperature safety with porous thermal insulation 91 Chapter 5. Thermal Regulation Subsystems 99 5�l. Convective thermal regulation subsystems 99 5�2� Evalua,ting the area of a radiative heat exchanger lp5 5�3. Open subsystems with phase transition of the coolant 109 , 5.4. Closed subsystems with phase transition of the coolant 115 Chapter 6. Analysi:~ of Simultaneous Operation of the Closed Subsystem of Thermal Regulation and Power Pla.nt 123 6.1. Pr.incipal relations for the power plant and heat pump 1~3 6.2. Evaluation of the parameters of a steam compression heat pump and power plant 127 6.3. Evaluation of parameters of a heat-utilizing heat pump and power plant 135 Chapter 7. P~Iathematical Modeling of Elements of Thermal Regulation Subsystems lkl 7.1. Requirements for mathematical models of elements 1~t2 ' 7.2. Mathematical modeling of heat exchangers 11~1~ 7�3. Mathematical modeling of radiative heat exchangers 15~+ 7.~+. Mathematical modeling of tubing 159 7.5� Mathematical models of locally generalized el~~ments 162 Chapter 8. Nlathematical modeling and investigation of temperature-control Systems ~ 175 8.1. Aims and problems of modeling temperature-control systems 175 8.2. Mathematical modelin~ and digital computer iavestigation of the TCS 178 8�3. Mathematical modeling and analog computer investigation of the TCS 187 8.~+. Identification of parameters of mathematical mode~G ~ 199 Cha,pter y. Optimization of Tempe�a,ture-Control Systems 204 9.1. General problems of optimizing the TCS 204 - 9.2. Selec-tin~ desi~n parameters of the thermal control subsystem by the Lagrange multiplier method 207 9�3� Particulars of the method of geometric programming 210 9.k. Nlathematical rnodel of the heat exchanger 215 9.5� Mathematical models of r�adiator and tubing 221 9.6. Selection of design parameters of thermal re~ulation subsystems by the method of geometric programming 224 References 228 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", 1980 - [23-6610] 6610 CSO: 1862 END 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090026-1