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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L,~9614 - - 19 March 1~981 ~ - ~ = Latin A~�r~erica Re ort p _ (FaUO 6/~ 1) ~ = FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFOR11~tATION SERVICE - = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 ~ NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign ~ - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Ma.terials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources _ are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and - ot~her characteristics r~:tained. Headlines, editor.ial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are suppli~d by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was - - processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar nanes rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate ~.n context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes withir. the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- ~ cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. 1 ; ~ ~ J , COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF - MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE TH~,T DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPR5 L/9614 _ - 19 March 1981 - LATIN AMERICA REPORT ~ - (FOUO 6/81) _ CONTENTS ` COUNTRY SECTION ~ CUBA ~ Walters' Trip to Chile 'Embrace of Old Friends' (.Tavier Rodriguez; PRELA, 27 Feb 81)0 .................~...,,o. 1 ~ - U.S. Government's Alleged Practice of ~Terrorism' Cited ~ (Carlos Mora Herm~; PRELA, 27 Feb 81);...,.,...o.oo..o.,..,,. 3 United States Should Remember 'Lessons' of Vietnam _ (Eloy Concepcion; PRELA, 26 Feb 81),..0., 5 Nordic Brigade lOth Anniversary Discussed With Members (Frank Hechavarria; BOHEMIA, 2 Jan 81)..,....o.o..o...,..,,... 6 - Radio Coverage of Second PCC Congress Noted '(Ilse Bulit; BOHEMIA, 9 Jan 81).o..a.o,,,o.,......,, 12 Preuniversity Science Tra~ning Discuesed - ~Concepcion Duchesne; BOHEMIA, 16 Jan 81)00~0..,0 14 Nicaragua Experiences Desc'ribed by OCLAE Doctors (Manuel Gonzalez Bello; BdHEMTA, 9 Jan Rl) o , . . . . . . o o . o o . . . . . 16 Imp~rtance of Identification Card Explained - (Reinaldo Penalver Moral; BOHEMTA, 9 Jan 81)00,..,.oo� o....,. 24 = - Report on Economic Pro ductivity in Villa Clara Updated - - (Magda Martinez; BOHEMIA, 9 Jan 81).,,.,oo..,.,.o,,.,,.,,.,~... 26 Proble~ in Sugarcane Mills Discussed ' ~ (Andres Rodriguez; BOHEMIA, 2, 16 Jan 81)0....00.....o.oo..a.. 34 Manuel Martine~ Prieto Mill Pinar del Rio Mtlls ~ - - a - [III LA - 144 FOUO] - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ` APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 _ FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA WALTERS' TRIP TO CHILE 'EMBRACE OF OLD FRIENDS' PA271912 Havana PRELA in Spanish 1302 GMT 27 Feb 81 [Article by Ja~ier Rodriguez: "The Embrace of Old Frien,.us") _ [Text) Even as the UN Human Rights Commission was reaffirming its condemnation of .~ugusto Pinochet's government for its repressive and bloody policy against the = Chilean people, a friendly meeting was taking place in Santiago, Chile. ' Brimming with sati~factioii over the mission assigned to him, Vernon Walters, the fqrmer deputy directi>r of the CIA, held cordial meetings with the Chilean dictator, who is in the n?idst o~ a honeymoon with the new U.S. administration. In truth, for Walters it was a matter of remembering old times when, from iiis high-ranking post within the organization of espionage and subversion, he main- tained close contacts wi~h the military which eliminated Chileaa democracy and took over power in 1973. In those days, and ignoring the world repudiation of the bloodbath to which the _ Chilean p~ople had been subjected, Ronald Reagan's current special envoy actively ~ . collaborated with the fascist regime's intelligence services. Walters! name even surfaced during the investigations on the assassination of , - Orlando Letelier, former government minister of the popular unity, who was killed in the United States by Pinochet's agents. It was learned at the: time that one of the most important defendants in this case, ~ the~Chief of Ghile's sinister National Informa~ion Directorate, held a number of secret~meetings with Walters shorrJ_y before the crime was committed. With this to his credit, it was r,nly logical that the former deputy director of the CIA would be appointed to t�ravel to Santiago, Chile, in order to underscore the U.S. Government's decision to raise its relations with the dictatorship to the highest level because, as Walters himself put it, "friends must be treated as - friends." The announcement about this rapprochemen t has already been accompanied by specific measures: the opening up of all types of L'.S. trade negotiations with Chile anc~. � joint U. S.-Chilean armed Forces' participation in military maneuvers. - 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE flNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - . ~ Naturally, in order to give even greater meaning to this holy alliance between - imperialists and fascistsy anoL-her element has been adc?ed as a common denominator. Thus, the governments of Reagan and Pinochet have announced to the world their _ tota:l_ agreement with the aggressive U.S. plans against E1 Salvador., their. joint participation in the campaign of slanders against the continent's progressive forces and their decision to cooperate with each other "in defending the hemisphere." The increase in U.S. aid to the government that emer~ed from the ~nilitary caup in Chile was, of course, another favorite topic durin~; the two meetings held between the Yankee delegate and the Chilean general. - In short, it was a jubilant meeting, as is natural. between two old friends ;aho represent similar interests of sad signiiicance for Chile's werkers and peasants. ~ CSO: 3010 I - 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE OM~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTI~N CUBA ' U.S. GOVERNMENT'S ALLEG~D PRACTICE OF 'TERRORISM' CITED YA281412 Havana PRELA in S~.~anish 1231 GMT 27 Feb 81 - [Report by Carlos Mora Herman] [Text] The U.S. Government has launched a new propaganda campaign under the slogan - "struggle against international terrorism," accusing socialist countries of encouraging and practicing J -Many will recall the campaign launched by the previous li.S. administration about _ "human rights." In both cases, the Washin~ton government is applying the frequently used trick of shouting: "after that thief! after that thief!" in an effort to evade respunsibilities. To begin with, it is necessary to state that international terrorism, as an inadmissible and abominable method of state policy, has besn used for a long time by various U.S. administrations. We could cite many examples: the terrorism against the~missions in New York of -11 UN member nations and the CIA operations aimed a~ killing democratic leaflers who struggle for national liber.ation in their countries. '~Some people have a bad mem~ry or simply would ratl~er not see or hear what does not suit them. This is what happens to the imperialists constant].y. Betraeen 1945 and = 1975, th~ United States used military force or the threat of military force 215 - times to impose its will on other nations. It has used mercenaries against newly ~ libe"rated countries as in the case of Angola and Nicaragua. The overthrowinp ~.;.'bf the Guatemalan Government in 1954 was the result of sinis,ter CIA and U.S. ~`Go~Ve~riment plots. Prior to that, there was the ov~rthrowing in Iran of the Mossadeq government which in 1953 expropriated Ix~an's oil. This coup made room. for the bloody dictatorship of Shah Reza Pahlavi. = There.was the invasion of the Dominican Republic in 1965, the mercenary i~vasion against Cuba in Playa Giron, the assass~nat~.ora of Patrice Lumumba in Africa, the �assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam in 1963. These are some of the - most out5tanding deeds of that policy of terror and crime. - -TYi~~U.S. Government has always used massive terrur and has backed it when its partners use it. The U.S. Government n~s suppoxted and does support the genocidal regime of Pol Pot which assassinated 3 millic~n Kampucheans. The U.S. Government ' 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE a~II,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , imposed the dictatorship of the black colonels in Greece in 1967 and, through the CIA, carried out a coup d'etat in Chile in 1973 that resulted in the overthrow and assassination of President A1lende ancl in the sinking of that sister nation in - an era of terror and cri~me agains~ the people. _ The pr.esent campaign of the U.S. Government against interaational terrorism is - a grotesque farce just like Carter's human rights campaign was. It reveals, among _ other things, the cynicism of a social regime that has committed unspeakable crimes in various parts of the world, that unleashecl. a cruel war in Vietnam - pitilessly using napalm and bacteriological agents ag~ii.nst the Vietnamese people. _ A government that has had no scruples in planning and carrying out acts of terrorism - in almost all the countries of the world and that has protected, trained and armed - the best-known professionat assassins and terrorists such as the ones that operate - - with impunity in that country and carry out attacks such as the one on Lettelier ~ - or carry out attacks in other countries with the protection of the imperial - government--such a government has no right to proclaim itself the defender of liberty, = because it denies liberty and protects only its hegemonic interests and the interesLs - of bloody dictators such as Somoza, the shah of Iran, Stroessner, Pinochet and the murderous junta of E1 Salvador. CSO: 3010 4 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA , UNITED STATES SHOULD REMEMBER 'LESSONS' OF VIETN_AM _ PA28193fi Havana PRELA in Spanish 1220 GMT 26 Feb 81 [Repor't by Eloy Concepcion) - [Excerpts]' President Ronald Reagan this week participated in a strange ceremony which was intended to revive the "prestige" lost by the United States in Vietnam. , At fH'e ceremony, he proclaimed himself the standard bearer of an effort to rewrite what he called "the noble cause." Tk~e ceremony was held to decorate U.S. sol diers who participated in "outsranding" actions in Vietnam. The report with a Washington dateline does not mention - Lt William Calley among the decorated soldiers. On 16 March 1968, Calley raided a South Vietnamese village and murdered more than 500 persosn, including women and children. On that occasion, Calley was decorated with two brass stars and the "purple heart" - for his services in Vietnam. _ The soldiers decorated by Reagan are [Corresponden] also from the year 1968, [as - received] when the murders, violations, to rtures and acts of sodomy pracriced by = the U.S, troops in Vietnam were reported. Presid'ent Reagan said at the ceremony that "the U.S. soldiers were denied permission to wiri the war." For the U.S. people, 1975 was the culmination of an evident failure that was consuming young soldiers in Asian jungles. They went back home ashamed arid defeated. ~ Now th3t the U.S. Government is initiating actions that are reminiscent of the escalation that mired it down in Southeast Asi~, sectnrs in the United States that are concerned with the developments should see in this ceremony another reason for calling for cominonsense and meditation. During his period as governor of California, Zater as presidential candidate, and now as tenant of the White House, Reagan has not hidden his admiration for the U.S. _ action in Vietnam. Some 3 million soldiers were involved in the Vietnam war. The _ Unifed States used all its resources to win, including the worst type of arms for the exferniination of civilian population. The only weapon they did not use was the atomic bomb, but they k~ere defeated by the firm and audacious actions of the Vietnamese. This disaster was a trauma for a nation used Co "winning." Since then, many liberated territories have emerged in many parts of the world and _ the United States has had ta resign its~lf to keeping its hands out or to acting through the CIA. . Has the United States forgotten this ?esson? CSO: 3010 ,5 - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY = APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA NORDIC BRIGADE 10TH ANNIVERSARY DISCUSSED WITH NIE["IBERS - Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 2 Jan 81 pp 44-~47 = [Article by Frank Hechavarria: "Ten Years for a Contingent"] - [TexL] The first contingent formed by brigade members fran differer.t so-called ~ - /Nordic cotintries/ [in boldface) came Lo work in our ~ountry 10 years ago. This - enthusiastic group returned to us again. This time the contingent of~ the Nordic Brigade consisted of 204 people--92 men and 112 women. They came to Cuba in two stages-~-on 2g and 30 November. By 1 December - they were working on housir~ construction for the textile town of Ariguanabo and - the C~iba del Agua agricultural p1an. Five countries were represented in this 10th contingent: Sweden iwith 6g brigade members), Denmark (68), Finland (52), Norway (17) and Iceland (7). The brigade - was subdivided into seven work groups that rotated their work between the rural area and construction. The Nordic contingent remained in Cuba until 26 December. On 20 December, it left for Santiago de Cuba where it stayed until 25 Decembet~. - Remember First Brigades ~ We visited the Julio A. Mella camp in Ceiba del Agua where the brigade was based. We could feel the en~rgy radiating frcqn these modern "Vikings." Their main drive is solidarity with Cuba and other Third World countries. _ . With the help of comrade Gabriel Benitez, carap director, we managed to meet a good group fram this 10th contingent who had already participated in previous brigades. - ~Je had the good fort;une to even find veterans from the first brigades that visited us. We had a very pleasant reminiscing conversation. - The first to speak was Sofie Gammelto�t from Derunark who has participated in four brigades. She first visited Cuba in 1972. She said: - "I had the opportunity to come in the first brigade in which Danes participated. _ - That was one of the largest with 300 brigade members, 180 of us from Denmark. At - � that, I really did not know much about Cuba. I imew something fror~ what I 6 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY had learned in school and in different places but, at that time, I was working in an organization that helped underdeveloped countries. While there, I became in- terested in ~he Gtaban revolution because of its example for the rest of the Latin American countries. I had many questions and much interest in learning wh~t wa~ happening in Cuba." ~ Sofie said: "I have very pleasant memories from tha.t brigade. It was a marvelous experience for me. At that time, we worked on the construction of the town of L�os Naranjos. That was the first time I was faced with hard work; I was then a preuni- versity student. It was wonderful to feel useful; I liked that very much. I es- pecially liked the contact with the construction workers who are very good com- rades; we discussed the Cuban revolu~ion with them. FY~om them I learned how the _ Gt.ibans think, their desires, th~ir tremendous optimism and the marvelous confidence that they have in Fidel and in the revolution. These are things that I will never forget . " - Sven Larsen, another Dane, said that he first participated in the 1976 brigade. That contingent worked in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Sven explained: "I am a plumber. Therefore, I really felt good about our work which was housing construction. The best experience was when we walked around the Gity and talked with the people. The Santiago people are fantastic: They are very attractive, very ni.ce and very open. You begin to talk with them and it soon - seems as if they are old friends. I honestly felt very close to the Cubans in Santiago . " Sven added: "Another thing that impressed me greatly was the group of Cuban work- = ers who worked with us, the camaraderie of those workers and the brotherhood that developed between the Nordics and the Cubans. The visits we made to the CDR [Com- mittees for the Defense of the Revolution] in the Santiago blocks and to the - schools and hospitals were alsc a very good experience. That was such a fantastic - experience that I came again with this new brigade. It will not be my last." Jesper Weime, also from the Danish group, said: "2 work on road construction in Denmark. I came with the 1974 and 1976 brigades. I can tell you that, as a construction worker, I hav~ never felt the fellowship among workers that T have felt with the Cuban construction workers. The way the - Gubans received us has always impressed me. We felt the love from the Cubans. - Ib was a sincere love which always touches one deeply. I believe that I al- - ready left most of my heart here; I am in love with this beautiful country. I can also say that this will not be my last brigade." One of the first presidents of the Swedish-G~ban Friendship Association, Sven Wernstrom, was in the group. He said that this is his third visit to Cuba. '"My first visit was with a delegation of journalists and movie actors in 1966. We toured the entire country and made several documentaries for Swedish television. The,film that I liked most was the one we made in Minas de Frio called 'The moun- tain school.' It was very pretty and touching. The experiences from that trip and the other I made helped me write a book about the Cuban revolution called 'Rebellion.?" ; 7 , FOR OFFiC IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Wernstrom added: "I al~o returned to C~:ba with the 5 de Mayo International Brigade _ in 1968. It wa.s a tremendous surprise because we arrived on 2 January and went . directly from the airport to the Plaza de la Revolucion where we could see anc~ hear ' Fidel." Meeri Lapantie, a mature woman, then spoke of her experiences on previous trips. She put tremendous enthusiasm and joy in her w~rk, an e~mple for the rest of her comrades. "I also participated in the 1976 brigade in the city of' Santiago de Cuba. That - first visit to G~ba was a great experience for me. At my age, I can say that it - was the greatest adventure of my life. I am a nurse who spec ializes in mental health. Here in Cuba T was greatly influer?ced when i visited the Ma.z,orra psychia- Lric hospital in Havana. I realized that the magnificent menta7, rehabilitation - work done in Cuba not only concerns the mental illness but the physical condition of the patient. It is a tremendous technique. I tried to apply it in Finland but - it was very difficult for me because the whole medica'1 organization would have to be changed. I have a bulletin board at the hospital where I put up the articles - written by con~rades who have visited Ma.zorra. That visit, the trip and the work - in the brigade all impressed me so ma~h that I decided to par ticipate again and - here I am." Then Lone Schou Andersen, a Dane who already had five brigades to her credit be- ginning in 1973, spoke. She said: - "I want to talk about the development that 1 have seen in G~ba through my experi- ences with the brigades. For example, we see that there is much more mechanization - in construction work now. In the first brigades, the work was very hard. Now it is more organized which is reflected in the high productivity we achieve now. That is due not only to the institutionalization of the country but also there are more - resources now with which to work. That is very goad. "It greatly impressed me to see the town of Los Naranjos already finished in 1975 with families living in the houses th~at we had helped build and children running - around the new buildings. That experience was very positive for~my and my life." - Veikko Kiokko~a, another veteran of the Nordic Brigade, said: "I am a technologi- _ _ cal assistant in work safety at the Advanced Technolo~ical Institute in Tamberes, _ - Finland. I participated for the first time in the 1972 brigade. _ "I can say that one finds joy in this type of work which is very hard to forget - or to find in my own country. That 1972 brigade was my first experience in Cuba. - - There were many emotions and activities. I also worked on the construction of the - = town of Los Naranjos. In spite of the fact that this brigade is also working on - construction, it is different because now it is w~rking on five-story buildings. - I believe that this is going to be very positive for me just as the previous bri- _ gades were." Bruno Larspn, transportation organization technician, is 34 years old and partici- ~ pated in four Nordic Brigades. He explained: _ 8 FOK OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "In spite of everything they had explained to us, we had a different view of Cuba - there in Denmark. My encounter with this country was tremendous. In my subse- querit trips, I have been able to appreciate how the G~.ibans have advanced, how their _ revolution progresses. I remember that the first time thati we came to this camp, - _ it was very primitive. Now we can say like the song: 'Cuba, how beautiful Cuba - is.' _ "I remember something that happened to me and to other Danes in the town of Los Naranjos. We were putting the roof an a building and had to walk on the beams. It was three floors high and there was no protection on the sidPS. One of the Cu- ban comrades realized that we were afraid and he told us to watch. He went up to - the roof and started to dance the rumba on the beams. We started to laugh and - climb and naturally lost our fear. I am telling you this so that you can see what - - you Cubans are like." ~ - IVow a young blond, Eva Rosenkilde from Denmark, spoke slowly in perfect Spanish. She explained: - ''This is my second brigade but I want to tell you that in 1958 and 1959 we played we were Cuban guerrillas. The Gtzban guerrillas attracted us enormously. ~Iowever, - since we had little education about the Third World, I still had many questions. ~ I began to look for material. When I saw a film on Danish television about Cuba, I began to get interested in this country. T started to study Spanish and I became a member of the Danish-Cuban FY~iendsh~.p Association. I came with the brigade to learn more about Cuba. - "One of tYie things that most impressed me here is the niceness of the Cubans. You = feel that the people are very self~onfident. Of course, socialism gives this to people. I believe that this idea of th~ brigades is very good since it is a mag- nificent way to publicize the Cuban revolution, to have more direct contac t with a - - people in revolution, see how they live, how they think and how they work. I can say that every day I experience something new here. I feel that Cuba get,s under - your skin. Like my comrades, I can say that this will not be my last brigade." Fin GustaJSen came with the group from Norway. He was a journalist on the newspa- per of the Socialist Party of Norway, twice representative to the parliamez~t of his country and president of the Socialist Party from 1971 ta 1973. He wrote a = book about Cuba. - "My first visit to Cuba was in 1966 with a dele$ation of othe~ politicians and - t~miters. We were motivated by the formidable triumph of the revolution and ~y the - fact that this was the first socialist cot.ntry in America. The positive impres- - - sion that I received was so strong that I wrote the book in 14 days of intensive - - work. I devoted myself to that alone. There was an urgent need to tell my people about the marvalous experi.ment that had witnessed. ~"I basically made this trip with the Nordic Brigade because I have a 20-year-old - son who has heard a lot about G~ba and was very interested in comi,ng. We are ~ here, my son and I. Now the experience is different because we are not only visit- - - ' ing the country but also working, helping a little." _ FOR OFFIC7AL USE ONLY . - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 ~ FOR OFFICIAL' USE ONLY ~ Gurular Svein Skarp}~edinn:~on was part of the group fron~ Ice~.and. He was a professar = and at tirnes worked on ship construction in the shipyards of :~is island country. - This wa:, the first time that he and hi~ comrades have come with thE brigade. = "Forming a contingent is a very good idea, especially sa that people like us have = ~he chance to travel to Cuba and see what life in this country that attracts our - - attention is really like. It is not the sarae if a friend or a comrade tells you; _ - I mean comrades whc~ have come with previous brigades. No, thaY, is ~zot the same as = ~ seeii:g things with y~ur cwn eyes~ This is a form;.da~ .4 experience. _ , "I admire the kindness of the people here. We have seen this in our daily work and - in the two times that we have visited Havana. I can tell ,you that your people are = wonderful." Anita Mikkunen was from and spoke perfect Triis was her second trip with the Nordic Brigade. This time wriz came as a repr~esentative of the Finnish- Cuban Friendship Association. She stated : ~ rrThe Finnish-G`uban Friendship Association is a strong and large organization; we have about 5,000 mernbers and they are quite active. The association has branches ~ - in more than 10 cii;ies in Finland. Some of their activities are independent and _ _ others are carried out under the guidelines of the main office in Helsinki. - 'In thF capital we have groups tha~ are concerned with different activities. For - example, they have the reaponsibility for publishing our newspaper CUBA SI. There � is a group that works on translations. Another group organizes parties. We have a well-known. ' Cuban night' once every month or two where we dance, talk about - Cuba, give lectures and see slides. Another group is in charge oi' wor~k or cul- _ - tur~l between the two countries . There is also a group t;~at works for _ the daycare centers that we sponsor in G~zba. With the money that it collected, for exarriple, this group bought *c~o washing machines for those daycare centers." = Anita said: "Our asso~,iation has a bc>ard of directors with 21 comrades on it. ~ These include sever~al representatives from differenL political parties, profes- _ - sionals and students. UJe have a~1 executive cc~mi.ttee and a permarient secretary who works daily at the associatior~ ~ffice , We have a small library there with Cuban literature and Latin American books . I can tell you that BOHEMIA arrives - = promptly alon~ with the RESUNIEN SEMANAL from GRANMA, the magazine CUBA INTERNA- - _ CIONAL ~nd other publications, books and slides that ICAP [Cuban Institute for Friendship with PeoplesJ sends us," Borde Akerlund was the president of the Swedish-Cuban FY~iendship Association. He was a doctor and th~ leader of the 6Q members in the Swedish group of the 10th Nox~dic Brigade . "Our association now has more than 3,000 members throughout the country. The com- _ rades who participate each year in the Nordic contingent that cames to work in - ' Cuk~a belong to the association. It is an indispensable requirement to be an ac- tive member for more than 6 months, ~o narticipate in seminars on Cuba and to do an activity. I feel that the association has been a bridge between C;aba and - - 10 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Sweden. Thanks t4 the brigades, each year the association ~nd, therefore, the _ friendshiP between the two peoples become ;,tronger. The brigades have a very im- - - portant function. Cuba is seen in Sweden as it really is, very opti.mistically. = The Swedish people lmow and admire Cuba because the Cuban revolution has earned ~ i great reputation in my country." ~ - COFYRIGHT': ~OHE~IIA, 1981. - 7717 - CSO: 3010 - - 11 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 _ ~ , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - COUNTRY SECTION CUBA RADIO COVERAGE OF SECOND PCC CONGRESS NOTED = Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish g Jan 81 p 29 _ [Article by Ilse Bulit: "In Congress wit;h the News"] [Text] Radio Reloj and Radio Rebelde are excellent national radio statiions. Their main function is to bring near and faraway events to the listener. Both fight hard - to fulfill this difficult social objective. Good proof of this was coverage of - the Second Party Congress. - Radio Reloj, with its historic ticking, went into the Palacio de las Convenciones days before the communist meeting opened. It dug in, preparing background and con- ditions. Pedro Rojas, head of the team, and Nidia Rodriguez, Osana Osoria, Samuel _ Urra and Ezequiel Perez Martin, plus station director Omar Mendoza, a journalist , himself, attacked their typewriters and, in front of color television, reported - the news to the people as it happened. At the station, another team made special broadcasts on the Main Report, giving constant updates on it. Meanwhile, a group of correspondents took to the streets with the news of this very important event, backed by the clear voices of announ- cers and good technicians . Radio Rebelde, with its own features, undertook the task from another angle. For days, Carmen Caminas and Arnaldo Coro, backed by Carlos Rafael Jimenez, strolled around with a tape recorder. For the opening session, the E1 Rapido news bulletin was expanded to 30 minutes and was offered on all the stations. The program opened with a 10-minute docu- mentary of scenes from the opening and also offered national and international reactions to this meeting of the Cuban canmunists. During adjournments of the - congress, a news summary of what had occurred until then was given. There were bulletins of exc.erpts by the participants themselves. There were also interviews with delegates like the woman teacher from the mountains, the agricultural avia- tion pilot and victorious cutters. Even the voice of the first Latin American - cosmonaut came across the air again to give his impressions as a delegate. The _ live transmissions were noteworthy. Engineers Antonio Gonzalez, Antonio Planas, Eduardo Ane, Santiago Varona and Pedro Lleras were responsible for the electronic - portion which is so important. - 12 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 ; _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Radio Reloj a~;~ Radio Rebelde clearly demonstrated that their teams chosen for - _ this tremendously important coverage were made up of inen and women to whotn jour- nalis~n is not merely a way to earn daily sustenance but an absorbing and consuming - pt"o~`ession to which those who love it give themselves up, body and soul. _ COPYRIGHT: BOH~MiA, 1981. ' ~ 7717 - CSO: 3010 - 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE -0NLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 - FOR OFFICIAL LTSE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUB.~ - PREUNIVERSITY SCIENCE TRAINING DISCUSSED Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 16 Jan 81 pp 42-43 - [Article by Concepcion Duchesne: "Train Specialists in bcact S~.;iences"] _ [Excerpt] We are in a new school for preuniversity students, a specia].ized center - where the students' basic objective is to expand their knowledge of mathematics, ~ - physics and chemistry. _ These are the basic sciences for scientific and technical development, devel.opment - in which we are totally involved. We are doing everything possible to reach the necessary scientific and technical level nationally. Therefore, the center re- sponds to Canmander in Chief Fidel Castro's statements that these subjects are dir- ectly involved in the economic development of the country. In order to carry out the objectives of increasing lmowledge of these sciences as _ well as to guide the youths vocationally and ~ive them adequate professional in- ~ formation, the study plan has two cycles. First cycle: There are a series of activities aimed at teaching mathematics, phy- sics and chemistry. The students participate in optional classes, laboratory work and computation and research seminars in each of the subjects. Mathematics must - ~ be taken by all the students; that is, al1 of them participate in these activities - even if they have chosen one of the other two subjects. Second cycle: All the courses corresponding to the preuniversiiy grades as es- - tablished in the national plans and programs are taught. _ ~ This school is a national school and admission is through competition. The stu- dents apply directly from the different towns and pro~~;~nces of the cauntry. All students who have the right aptitudes and attitudes in basic sciences and have graduated from ninth grade can apply for this competition in the subject that they - choose: mathema.tics, physics or chemistry. However, the examination can only be - taken in one subject. This national school began to operate this school year, 1g80-1981. About 6,000 students, graduates from ninth g~ade and the preuniversity grades--that is, 10th _ and 11th grades--participated in the competition. The 132 students now in it _ cover all preuniversity grades. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL'Y Next school year there will be roan for 290 more students and only graduates of ninth grade will be admitted. - ~'he winners of the national competition in these subjects can enter the school - = directly. The students who-will participate in the International Mathematics Olym- _ piad are also tr~.ned there. - Tota1 enrollment is 132 students: 45 in 10th grade, 43 in 11th grade and 44 in 12th grade. There are 31 girls; 88 of the students are from H~vana and the rest - are from the other provinces. The staff consists of professors fran the University of Havana and teachers sel- - ected from the Ministry of ~ducation. Thern are 21 general education teachers and 15 in special education fran the University of Havana. _ , - The school is organized under the npa�mal. boarding system. Requirements for stay- - in~ are the same as in vocationa~ schools--that is, an 85-percent grade average. In spite of having an educational load of 15 courses, the students have a general $rade average of 95 to 98; 34 of them have over 98. � The center participates in the National Dnulation Plan and, of course, includes recreational, Gultural and sr~orts activities. Here is a new educational experiment, an advanced intermediate school that is the basis for training advanced-level scientific cadres. It is a selective school focused on the vocation of its students. They have had to demonstraL-e their train- ing in the admission competition in which the knowledge acquired at the secondary , level, the application of this knowledge and the abilities and skills developed were measured. The students have chosen the science in they want ta develop their profes- - sional work. Although they come with small gaps that are quickly overcome, posi- tive results have already become reality. They have demonstrated their quality _ through their atLitude toward study, their political level and their desire to improve. They are self-motivated to study and acquire lrnowledge. There is a per- fect student-teacher relationship because both are demanding of each other. The interest of the students demands excelZenc~ from the teachers and the teachers, in turn, see their efforts fulfilled through the work and constant interest of the ~ students. We believe that this new experiment will be a success if it is not already because - its organization is based on rational planning, the product of a conscious analy- sis of past experience and the proposed objectives. COPYRIGHT: BOH~IIA, 1981. 7717 - CSO: 3010 15 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA NICARAGUA EXPERIENCES DESCRTB~D BY OCLAE DOCTORS BOHEMIA in Spanish 9 Jan 81 pp 60-63 _ [Article by Manuel Gonzalez Bello] [Text] The six members of the Maj Francisco Meza Rojas Internationalist Medical � Brigade formed by the Continental Organization c�~ Latin American Students (OCLAE) returned from Nicaragua after spending 9 months there. Talking with them reaff irms that underdevelopment transcends mere social classification, or that repeated written accounts do not give a true picture of the situation, even when = accompanied by f igures which appear to be eloquent. Underdevelapment is a reality, a disease killing our people and which, in the case of Nicaragua, is f inding its cure in the Sandinist revolution. The story told here seeks to off er a synthesis of statements given by these inter- nationalist doctors to BOHRMIA's correspondent. Here is their meritorious labor on Nicaraguan soil; here one can appreciate the harsh reality of that Central American coun~try, only yesterday the victim of the slow Somozist massacre--the consequences of which still remain--and which today, - rising from its rulns, is in itself a cry for true and militant solidarity. _ The revolution in Nicaragua triumphed in July, 1979. In October an OCLAE delegation went there to f ind out how Latin American students might help with national - reconstruction. The need for doctors, so scarce there, was pointed out. In the _ health sector the needs were urgent. There was a shortage not only of doctors, but also of hospitals, surgical equ3pment, medicines and beds. The few hospitals were concentrated in Managua, and such facilities were practically non-existent in o the rest of the country. The mortality rate was high: among infants there wer? '146 deaths for every 1000 births, not to mention that many of those who died in - the mountain regions were never reported. - Somozism left behind a legacy of malnutrition and parasitic, respiratory and other . d.iseases. - There was goo~ reason for OCLAE to form a medical brigade, and it was comp~sed of _ A1ex Sosa, Lorenza Correa and Luis Tapia, all from Chile; Jose Vera and Tabare Arbiza, from Uruguay; and Juan Jose Rabilero, from Cuba. They arrived in Nicaragua at the end of February, and after participating in UCLAE political activities in Managua went to the department of Chontales in the central region of the country, : _ 16 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY - to southern Zelaya and te Boaco. Vera, the brigade leader, Ra.bilero, Tapia and Arbiza were stationed in the hospital at Juigalpa, the departmental capital of Choritales; Lorenza was assigned to Bueyes Municipality in southern Zelaya, and Alpx Sosa to Boaco. Naming the Bi'igade Francisco Meza Rojas was a student leader in Leon, where he was born in 1951. He _ entered the un:iversity in 1971 and took part in student demonstrations for freeing - political prisoners and against the rising costs of living. There he was a public figuie in the Revolu.tionary Student Front, which supported the position of the FSLN [Sandirii~t National Liberation Front]~ In 1975 he was elected president of the University Center of the National University (CUUN), top student body organi- zation. He was always involved with organizing the workers to confront the dicta- - torship and was forced to go underground. On leaving a meeting where the general stiik.e was being planned that would break out at the same time as the popular armed insurrection on 2 June 1979, he was arrested and murdered by the National Guard. - The internationalist doctors saw in this figure a name they could bear with dignity. Juigalpa - To confront an unknown environment, a completeiy different geography, people of a~notHer nation, other customs and habits. Chontales and its capital, Juigalpa, which has 25,000 inhabitants--marked, like all Nicaraguans, by decades of Somozism and the curse which c~me from the north until the Sandinists put an end to all that. Luis Tapia describes it as follows: "Chontales is a pretty backward place. Its people mostly raise cattle, but this does not satisfy their needs. They do not even use the milk, which is sold by the ranch owners. In the summer Chontales is + like a desert; it is very wearing; everything is rocky and burned up. When spring coiries it is a beautiful countryside, like paradise: leafy, humid and with i vegetation. The peasants harvest corn, beans and rice. This is what they eat, - this is the basis of their diet. They seldom eat meat. - "Juigalpa is the capital of Chontales. It has very severe hygiene and sanitary _ problems. Nearly 7q percent of the people lack sanitary services; only a very liinited area around the city has them. Dwellings are of wood and tile; the majority of the houses have no floors, just the bare ground. And the kids are on the ground all tlie time. Ninety p2rcent of the children have parasites. Obviously it is ~ worse in the mountainous regions; the houses are a calamity. _ "In the mountains they are not used to receiving medical assistance; they could not even imagine such a thing." Somoza Hospital A good part of underdevelopment is the result of neglect of the rural areas. . Nicaragua is no exception. The Juigalpa hospital was inaugurated at the beginning of 1979, just months before the people's victory. It is th2 only one constructed by:tYie dictatorship in the interior of the country in the last 10 years. It has � 125 beds. The dictator named it after himself: Anastasio Somoza Debayle. - 1~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tapi? says: ' "The budget for the hospital was larger, but part of it went into Somoza's pocket, ~ sa we were told. Technically it is very w~ll equipped, with sophisticated equipment , - you would f ind in a clinic in a developed country. But that equipment is not used J because trained personnel is lacking." w ftabilero says: "The rooms where we slept were laxge, with bathrooms. That was where the doctors _ held their private consultations, in thz hospital itsel~. It was :i business. The revolution put an end to all that." _ i And Tapia: _ "The personnel were poorly trained--people who becau~e nurses solely on the basis of their experience, for example." _ Tabare Arbiza, cardiologist: "The professional level is low. There are doctors who have been in rural areas for many years. Our Nicaraguan colleagues there are interested in their ranches, - cattle and busir.ess affairs. This takes them away from study and prevents them from having a scientific sense; the environment leads them in that direction and makes them not very amenable to change. "There were diff iculties even in taking x-rays. We suggested improving the level - of doctor and nurse training. No autopsy had ever been performed in the hospital, since there were no pathologists. We did some, two of which were very interesting. 01In each cardiology case we gave a short lecture, including infor.mation about the _ evolution of the di.sease." - "Pongase las Pilas" _ - Jose Vera became the leader of the brigade. He is an anesthesiologist, and he tells us: - "We were the f irst internationalist doctors to arrive there. There were sporadic = - visits from Salvadorans who practiced there for 3 weeks. We proceeded cautiously; we~were going to worlc with colleagues of other nationalities, with different points of emphasis. Everything was a question mark for us. But we must say that we got a great welcome at the hospital, not to mention from the people. The Nicaraguan is frank and open, expressive and spontaneous. ~ "Certainly, at the outset...There is a saying there: 'Pongase las pilas,' which _ translated into 'Cuban' means to hurry up, or something like that. When I arrived at the hospital I was given a taste of it. The next day, after lunch, I lay down to try to get some sleep. I had not yet met the doctors. One of the nurses woke me to tell me there was a patient in the operating room and that the surgeon wanted me there. I went, and when I arrived he asked if I was an anesthesiologist, and I - said I was. 'Pongase las pilas,' he said to me. I did not know what it meant. _ 18 - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 'Pongase las pilas'--let us see how much you fellows know, he said. I explained to him that I was not familiar with the hospital, but he insisted that I get on with it. So I did. Well, we took care of that f irst ~ase and ended up having a drittk at his house. His aggressiveness disappeared when he saw our attitude." Tap ia : "As time went by the hospita'1 workers came to know that the international ists were - not invaders, as they thought at first, but people dedicated to their work with affection and love." An Open People All six of the doctors agree in their praise for the Nicaraguan people. ~ Rabilero sums up: "The first few days only a few children came to the con.sultations, but toward the end we were seeing nearly a thousand cases a month. We won the affection and respect of the people. ' "Cuba was very much maligned during the dictatorship. One girl who was training for the Literacy Crusa3e asked me if they made soap out of the elderly. That was the kind of propaganda they had heard. �1We have learned a great deal in these 9 months about the Nicaraguan peop le. They - are open, sincere, good workers and have the will to fight." _ Dona Aidalina This anecdote has a meaning. Juan Jose Ra.bilero tells us: "I cured one woman's son. I was his doctor and nurse for 3 months, giving hi.m _ shots daily. She was very grateful. Everyone called her pona Aidalina., but she . liked me to call her simply Aidalina; I never used 'dona' with her. When we left she zraveled 140 kilometers down from the mountains to say goodbye to me at the = airport." - From One Parade to Another _ Alex Sosa got to know the militancy of the Nicaraguans by stages: _ "When we arrived in Managua there were some problems with the national situation. There was a 2-hour parade in which I participated. Slogans were being shouted, - particularly having to do with the literacy campaign. 'For every Nicaraguan who learns to read and write, another yankee is beaten.' When I arrived in Boaco I participated in another parade. I had to go on from here and I was sure that in ~ - the next place I would be invited to take part in still another parade. F ine. Anyway this was a very good experience, because we had just arrived, and we were already seeing the militant and revolutionary spir it of the Nicaraguan people. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY " APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Doctor in the Convent ; Lorenza Correa was assigned to Muelle de Bueyes, in the sauthern part of the : _ department of Zelaya. This Chilean doctor has much to tell; - "First I lived in a cattleman's home� but they would all go to bed at 1800 hours and expected me to go to bed at that hour, too, which was impossible because of my - work. I traveled around without any permanent place to stay. The sisters invited me to stay at the convent and I accepted. I got close to them and we talked, and they invited me to the meeting of the Delegates of th. Word. I knew that if I di.' . not get close to the people my work would he impossible; ihose nuns have spent 20 - years there, they know the mountains inside out and they tiave created a Christian community in every nieghborhood. Here the people were religious; they saw me ~vith : the priests and nuns at Mass, and they accepted me more readily." ~ Death is a Way of Life ~ Death is always sad; moreso if it is the d~ath of a child. The internationalist doctors saw it at close range. Death from curable diseases has been a way of life _ for the Nicaraguan people throughout the decades of the silent massscre of Somozism. Rabilero, a pediatrician, relates; "Ma.ny times a child was gravely ill in the hospital, and the father wanted to take him away, because if he should die there would be difficulty in removing the body, because no bus would want to caxry the body. "Frequently a woman's child would be dying, and she would be peaceful and resigned. They are accustomed to having their children diey this 3.s the way it is in the mountains. It makes a deep impression on one." And Lorenza: "That is true. When you ask a woman how many children she has it is.not unusual f or her to say: "I have 18 children: 8 dead and 10 living. For example, one morning I awoke at dawn and asked, 'What happened? Why are you getting up so early?� ' They told me. '17on'~ you see, doctor, that we are ~laving a wake?' And I asked, - 'A wake? Who d3.ed?' 'It is nothing. Our baby died.' It was a baby that had been born 2 days before. His parents toZd me that he was born tired, with 'resma' or, - in other words, asthma. That's the way it is. Someone dies, and life goes on peacefully." . Leprosy in the Mountains and Other Diseases There are various diseases, many of them the result of the country being dr.agged _ down by underdevelopment and Somozism. Lorenza says: ~ _ "Malnutrition is the most widespread. The diet is very limited. There is also mountain leprosy, or 'ronchala' or Tronchulera' as the peasants call it. It is like a mucous ulcer ~ahich, if aggravated, attacks the cartilage of the nose and i.ai1 2~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 ,f. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ affect the larynx. It can be cured with a specific medication. During the - [literacy] crusade I wrote to Ernesto Ca~rdenal, and he sent us the vaccine. I was ~ able to disr.ribute it in thc mountaine through the Committees tor the Defense of ~ S~ttic~ inism. "There are also many diarrheic diseases as well as tuberculosis. "The sanitary conditions are deplorable an.d cause disease." The Vaccines Arrive - An extensive vaccination campaign is being carried out in Nicaragua. The OCLAE _ _ internationalist doctors contributed a great deal of it. - Alex Sosa reparts: ~ "We administered, among others, the triple vaccination, polio vaccine and tetanus - sfiots . We coordinated the vaccinations with a liealth w4rker from the region, a _ companero from the Agricultural Wortiers Association (ATC) or the CDS [Committees - for, the Defense of Sandinism], or with the literacy brigade workers, who were our ~ - link with the p eople, becausa getting to the meeting place could take 2 or more _ hours. There is a great deal af ineasles there, and we also vaccinated against that disease. Against Ignorance and Much More When the internationalist doctors arrived in Nicaragua the li~eracy crusade was j ust about to begin. Health classes were given to brigade members by the doctors. ' The young literacy workers became efficient doctors aides so that not on7.y did they - contribute to eradicating obscurantism, which is what the Nicaraguans ca11 ignorance, - but also to f ighting disease. Lorenza says: _ "Where I was, in Muelle de Bueyes, there were 38,000 persons living in 67 regions 'and ~102 villages. The first time I went to themountains to vaccinate the people I ~f ound more than 300 peasants. I did not know how I was going to manage. Then I - taught a group of literacy brigade workers how to administer the vaccine, and in 3 fiours `we gave 312 vaccinations. From then on they became my helpers. They were `realfiy magnif icent, tremendously willing and ready to carry out any task." - And Tapia says: - "I observed the characteristics of those young people, their way of assimilating the revolution and the country's problems. Through the crusade the brigade workers ~became active members of the revolution." ` = Childbirth by Candlelight and Kitchen Knif e ; , . . Many children d ie in the mountains, where women give birth without medical assistance. - 21 - , FOR OFFIC IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 ~ FOR Or'FICIAL USE ONLY - Rabilero: - "I arrived at the Santa Clara ranch, and a woman was about to give birth. I was nat preparedfor that--no gloves, nothing. I delivered the baby, however, and everything was all right." Lorenza also says: "Women give birth alone. They cut the umbilical cord with a kitchen knife or a ~ razor blade. The faCher takes care of the child and ~ives it canibar oil, which they use to remove the mucous. - "I delivered one infant with a knife by candlelight; I could scarcely see what I was doing." Returning from Nicaragua They returned from Nicaragua having accomplished a humane work. They had helped the Nicaraguan people for 9 months, through one of their greatest diff iculties. They came back optimistic about what the government and the Sandinist Front are doing for the health of the people; health campaigns, vaccination, a unified health program. In 1981 there wi11 be a health crusade. Two hundred thirty-five nurses have already graduated from the Juigalpa hospital, and another group is in training. They know that hunger and poverty, as we11 as curable diseases, will disappear. Some day the people of Nicaragua wi11 be a _ healthy people, thanks to the revolutionary eff ort. From Nicaragua the doctors have brought appreciation from the Ministry of Public Health in the form of a - letter from the head of that ministry: "The solidarity, selflessness and sacrifice demonstrated in the accomplishment of health tas ks are appreciated by the personnel of this ministry and by me personally." ~ And from the 19 July Sandinist Youth; "The great spirit of revolutionary identification with our popular Sandinist ~ revolution throughout 9 months of activity by the aforementioned brigade obliges us ; to make greater efforts to consolidate this process~ which includes the experiences of revolutionaries of Latin Amer ica and of the world." , Here in Cuba OCLAE gave a reception for them, giving them a diploma which they will keep as a testimony to their contribution to the Nicaraguan people. ~ 22 FOR OFFICIAL U SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -A. f!i?} ^S5N x r ~ ~ ~ `YF ' ~ ~ ~~~4f'~ ; Y~~ ~ ~r t~ ~ `$1�ti~~~.~ ~ x 7. 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"+.~'ti., G~. ..g..r :~r:`2. ~ ~ .~-~i' ~ .'~"i,; .wa~t ~:i ~ Jose Vera Tabare Arbiza - COPYRIGHT: Bohemia 1981 8735 - CSO : 301~ 23 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 ; FOR OI'FICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA _ IMPORTANCE OI' IDENTIFICATION CARD EXPLAINED Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 9 Jan 81 pp 8-9 [Article by Reinaldo Penalver Moral] _ - [Text] The fact that I am a Cuban citizen, that my name is Juan or Fedro, that I am so many years of age, that I am a professional man or a worker and that I reside on some street in this populous city of Havana or in one of the other 13 provinces - or the special municipality of Isle of Youth lacks any legal validity, because ' nobody knows me. Perhaps I am not Cuban, nor am I called Pedro or Juan; perhaps I am not a professional person, nor a worker; perhaps I am residing illegally in some street in this populous city of Havana or in one of the other 13 provinces...and they might even - thi.nk I have infiltrated to our society and the economy of the country: we have - had numerous experiences like that in our 21 years of the revolution. It must not _ be forgotten that this is one of the enemy' s favorite methods : to inf iltrate its ' agents into our society. - Now then: If I am a Cuban citizen or a foreign citizen or subject an.d I am 16 years of age, I am obliged to have an identification card, the perinanent, official document which identifies its owner as such. When it is requested by officials of = the Identification Card and Population Reglstry or by other competent authorities and their representatives, I must show it, since it is obligatory to carry and _ present it, as indicated in article 3 of resolution 18 of the 1974 Ministry of _ Interior resolutions establishing the Identification Card and Address Registry Regulation. The only persons who do not have the identification card are members - of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, who have turned them in on entering the FAR [Revolutionary Armed Forces]. you know that the identification card serves as your identification in any legal or administrative matter? Your id~ntification card should not be allowed to deteriorate. If you protect it ~ _ from perspiration and dampness and do not keep any other documents in with it, you will be able to keep it in good condition. Do you know that you could become a law breaker? ~ 4 FOR .OFFICII~IL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY t: Articles 9 to 12 of Law 127�~ stipulate that if one does not have an identification - card, if one is not registered in the Address Register or if one does not have a minor's card minor members of one's family or minors under one's care; or if onp is the principal occupant of a dwelling and peru~its anyone to reside there who does not have an identification or minor's card or is not registered in the Address _ Reg ister, one will be a law breaker. Law 1278 itself establishes that administrative heads of agencies, institutions, bus iness firms and organizations and primary, middle and high schools who admit - c it izens to such work or study centers without an identification or minor's card as = a deposit or guarantee, as well as anyone who changes his identification card or ~akes any kind of notation on it, wi11 be law breakers. What are the Penalties? _ Articles 9 through 12 provide administrative fines of 5 to 10 pesos. - Ah? And if I violate in any way the terms established relative to the Register, I wil 1 be fined up to 30 pesos, and a like fine will apply if I violate any of the provisions of this law twice during the year. Another question; - I am going to make a temporary change of residence. What must I do? I must appear at the CDR [Committee for the Defense of the Revolution] of my new residence within 72 hours of having made the change to register in the Address Registration Book, but first I must get a form RD-3 (red) from any municipal identification card unit. COPYRIGHT: Bohemia 1981 8735 CSO: 3010 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 - FOR OFFICIAY. USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA REPORT ON ~CONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY IN VILLA CLARA UPDATED - Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 9 Jan 81 pp 16-19 ~ [Article by Magda Martinez] - [Text] Information is frequently published on different topics and issues. After some time has passed, the readex quite rightly wonders or wishes to learn about certain projects. This situation inevitably results in the formal commitment to follow up the news to see where it leads. It is almost obligatory to do so and at the same time, there is no other option during the period of the construction of a society and better way of "life. A little over 2 years ago, BOHEMIA published a Villa Clara round table, the genesis of the Revolutionary Movement for High Yields (RR) and this was the topic in ques- tion. On that occasion, the picture was not: very encouraging. With the publica- tion of this edition, that movement will be celebratir.g its sixth anniversary and . it is unavoidable to confess openly that only three provinces are among the best: Ciego de Avila, Matanzas and Havana. As a result, it was almost imperative to return to the topir_: How is Villa C1ara doing? What happened to the pioneer? Was it not able to overcome the situation of 2 years ago? These and many other questions logically had to be asked. Y BOHEMIA ECONOMICA has decided to answer these questions in passing, thereby com- plying with its fundamental duty of keeping its readers consistently informed. This is not a mere matter of circumstances, but rather, an approach to work and the first task is that of refreshing our readers' memories. - In that round table, the following aspects were brought out: 1-- For 1978, Villa Clara Province proposed to offer the peopie 300 pounds of different varieties of tubers per person: potatoes, malan�a and plantains. 2-- Because of improper planting and a lack of suitable care, it was not possible - to obtain 10,000 quintals of yucca. � 3-- Enterprises growing diffexent crops left from 20 to 25 percent of the crop _ in the ground during the harvest as a result of haste, a lack of inspections, poor - quality and indifference, 26 ~OR OFFICYAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4-- It was not possible to produce 10,000 quintals of sweet potatoes. Concerning tomatoes, it was noted that during the first 3 years of the RR, no progress was made. Plantings were conventional despite technical advice. _ 5-- There is a poor practice of requesting more equipment than needed. 6-- There ~.are difficulties with potato yields and seed potatoes came largely from imports. 7-- Crop specialization faced serious problems. 8-- Studies were not completed on soil improvement and the best land was improp- erly used for housing, secondary schools and roads. 9-- Coffee and banana yields were unsatis�actory. The latter was a kind of - AchilYes' heel, especially plantains. � 10 There was a labor shortage, which affected areas planted. 11 It was observed that some enterprises did not meet technical requirements - because of laziness. 12 There were not enough ~ontainers for collections. These are th~e main aspects taken up critically in the round table. This article was developed in the following manner: The provincial agricultural delegation received the foregoing questionnaire and filled it out. In the meantime, we began to tour the Valle del Yabu and Remedios muiticrops enter- prises. Finally, a meeting was held to analyze the questionnaire. It was attended by - engineers Denis Miranda, head of agricultural techniques, and Alfredo Cardenas, in charge of the RR, both from the provincial delegation. From the conceptual standpoint, we shall maintain the logical sequence of the - questions and their answers. In other words, the numbers will correspond perfectly with the preceding order. Answer to Question 1 In 1978, the people were given 117 pounds of tubers per person. Of the total pro- duction, especially malanga, 205,968 quintals of guaqui [type of tuber], were shipped to other provinces for seed. If this figure were added to that for consumption, per capita consumption would have risen by 29 pounds, totaling 147 instead of 117. 27 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY Our aside: As a result, the plan to provide 300 pounds this year was not carri.ed _ out. Nor was it specified whether the 117 pounds were in different batches or _ - unbalanced. To follow the logical train of the response: = In 1979, every person received 129 pounds. During the fourth quarter of both _ years, tubers were supplied by the pound, not following the harvest of specific _ areas. In 1980, the historic problem with deliveries from May to September improved sub- ~ stantially if one compares it with.other periods. The current policy is to main- ~ tain a constant flow throughout the year. tlnswer to Question 2 Xucca of the Senorita variety has a potential yield of 10,G00 quintals per _ caballeria [1 caballeria = 33.2 acres] with irrigation and using the system of traditional planting. When the Colombian method of planting is used, we hope~to achieve high yields, _ based on CEMSA [Agamic Seeds Imprcvement Center] verifications, ranging up to - approximately 29,000 quintals. - In areas incorporated into the RR, the initial commitment was 15,000 quintals. That figure was adjusted and aow stands at 10,000, until there is absolute mastery - of the technology. Note: The Colombian system is nothing more than yucca planted in a furrow with seedlings approximately 50 centimeters high. Based on experimental areas, we know that the method triples and quadruples yields. If one then adds irrigation, one can quite rightly ask: How high can the potential go? Workers will now begin to receive a percentage bonus for final yields. Who will then want to go by conven- - tional figures. Expe~ience alone will te11. Let us continue with the province's proposals for yucca production: Given the shortage of irrigation equipment in the province, it was wise to relegate _ yucca to a secondary place. There is the additional problem that the crop requires a minimum period for digging, shipment and delivery to the consumer or else it declines in quality. The capacity to supervise and inspect went with priority to areas in which the _ largest investments had been made and to crops requiring the most resources. - Plants put in in December and January did not grow well because of the lack of ~ moisture in the soil. This situation r�esul.ted in constant weed problems and yield dropped to 1,000 or 1,500 quintals. The quality of the se~dlings used was not the best and those of October and Novem- ber were lost. Subsequently, there was a growing shortage between December and - February. 28 ~OR OFFICdAL USE ~1VL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY _ The province did away with dry farming in the case of yucca and the Colombian method of planting must be used. - The 1980 plan was for 22.9 caballerias and by 30_September, 17.4 had been planted. The estimated yield in those areas is between 5,000 and 9,000 quintals~ although we have harvested fields with 12,000. We want to be the f~irst in taking up the f ollowing commitment: The.yucca figure should be increased to 15,000. - Care of crops has improved notably. The existence of smaller areas and their - location contribute to their checking and ~upervision. Another o~inion of ours: The RR movement implies the inclusion of specific areas in an enterprise and the commitment of it~ workers. These areas must observe - certain requirements: preparation of the land, irrigation, high-yield seed, the interpretation and incorporation of techniques (fartilizers and their mode of use, _ plant health and care of crop$ in general) . In 1982, not a single caballeria should be~left without irrigation. In some places, this is already a reality. Experience shows us that with dry farming areas, we ~ cannot guarantee the necessary volwnes of production.. But it should be made clear: - Those enterprises that use large equipment will only be costworthy if they can - get high yields. Otherwise, large investments do not pay off. - This observation gives us encouragement for a collECtive ana~.ysis of the use made of available resources. It is a timely clarification. We cannot state that that - is the case with Villa Clara, but it is with many other provinces. However, it is a matter of interpretation, not of inere obsersations. An old saying goes: "A few - words are enough for someone with understanding." Nevertheless, it is sometimes _ worthwhile to repeat because one finally remembers. At any rate, we have a formal commitment for this new year, a commitment to continue the ~eason with our slogan. Nor do we believe it is time to be bitter. We are not applyirg ~nv axiom. Rather; we are simply updating the important plan for the S-year period ofrproviding che people with 300 pounds of tubers a year. _ We must wage a direct struggle against the concealment of many problems. Organiza- tion becomes a key element in achieving our ob~ective, This is also basic with - respect to yields and the daily struggle not to c~istort harvests. It was not an accident that Ciego de Avila, Mat:anzas and Havana w~re the best in the nation. If one takes the provinces lagging behind as a point of reference, all possible doubts disappear because the differences are very clear. It is merely good sense ta recognize this and try to copy what is good. _ Answer to Question 3 ~ Harvesting work has improved with the in~roduction of the single-row harvester ~made in the country. It has been used in picking and loading. _ _ ,The province has embarked upon a catnpaign to free tuber areas from obstacles so as to be able to do semi-mechanized harvesting in general. ' 29. FOR OFFICIAL USE OI`dLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 F(3R OIFFICEAL L1SE ONLY The Hoyo de Manicaragua Enterprise still persists in leaving crops in the ground during the harvest. Note: The reporter told comrades of her lack of agreement with the preceding re- sponse because the only thing that could have reflected a drop in harvest losses was the numbers, which are magnificent when comparisons are madeo Response to Question 4 Villa Clara plants some 60 caballerias in spring swee~ potatoes, rotating with ~ tobacco and po~tatoes. The Valle de Yabu has averaged 6,000 quintals. That produc- tion has increased far beyond demand. _ Tomatoes were shifted fram the best land and replaced by crops with priority; potatoes and bananas. In recent years, we have planted late, failing to take advantage of the month of November. There is also the climatic situation and the result is that seeds are affected and the preparation of the land hindered. This season, there has been an - improvement in the composition of varities, with tomatoes INRA-1 [National Insti- tute for Agrarian Reform] and Nova-1. Note: Poor tomatoes! Now we remember the old saying that it is the fault of the tomatoes. The rains came and did their work and the Revolution in Yields is 6 years o1d. At any rate, we continue to plan~ late and it is repetitious to state that this ostensibly hurts yields. In Villa Clara, the figure dropped :Erom 5,715 quintals in 1979 to 4,041 in 1980 with a larger area in use. The problem is one of technology, of following proper techniques. One must plant _ when it is the proper time, When schedules are nAt followed, one can simply forget about a good yield. ~ This seems to be almost a vicious circle: A given crop is replaced by another with priority. It is acceptable to emphasize.basic crops: potatoes, malanga, plan- , tains and yucca, but without exaggerating. The 5-year plan sets forth very enlightening goals: to pay attention to the f.oregoing tubers without neglecting other crops that the people want and have to consume. We are going to express a very personal opinion. If the success of a crop in a province is proven because of the mastery and interpretation of techniques, why assign plans to those who do not have an excess of good land, forcing them to grow other crops whose techniques they have not mastered? Would it not be better for one group to supply another, which in turn will provide whatever they are best at offering? This ~oould be like creating a kind of trade between provinces, such as that which exists between nations. Response to Question 5 _ Potato yields remain at ~pproximately 5,000 quintals per caballeria on the provin- cial level. 30 FOR dF~IC~TAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY The annual planting program wi11 be followed using 50 percent national seed and _ 50 percent imported, Growth possibilities depend directly on production of seed potatoes. Three enterprises are specializing in this task. One simple detail: The previous reply fits in perfectly with our argument above. First of all, the Revolution in Yields plans the followed established yields for potatoes: imported varieties: 8,500, 7,000 and 6,500; national variety, 6,000. - - Response to Question 9 Coffee production and yields have improved. The planting program was exceeded and _ the Jibacoa coffee enterprise was in first place nationally. - To date, everything seems to indicate that this crop is recovering and may return to its true stature. Plantain planting is going well, despite the wind and its damage to plantations. _ The proportion for the close of the year 1980 is 81.4 fruit and 35.8 tubers [sic]. _ The goal for 1981 is to establish them at approximately 50/50. ~ Note: Concerning the downward curve for roasting plantains, one enterprise _ director told us: "The struggle to produce in quantity affected us." That dizzy- ing, necessary period did exist. Bananas cost little and yield is high. However, we can fortunately now be more selective. Naturally, the former have half the yield of the latter. Nevertheless, we must be vigilant and manage the balance which Villa Clara proposes: 50/50. It is true that the people prefer the roast- ing plantains and should enjoy it. 'There are already ways to stimulate the crop. We must stop destroying the plan- - tain trees after 3 years. There is talk of giving a bonus to enterprises with _ rootstalks that have been producing more years. A well-cared.for plantation can _ last and have up to 8 years of productive life. _ Response to Question 10 The need for labor has gradually been solved by using students. Workers are - assigned to areas. Priority has been given to plantains, potatoes and tomatoes. NbCe: When the labor force is well used, one thing can be observed: better pro- ductivity. One of the main problems to solve in the provinces is assigning men to a given area, thereby destroying the myth that there is not enough labor, - With poor organization and scheduling, there never will be enough. If we want high yields, we must make workers stable on their piece of land. In the future, they will be the best defenders of that land and will consider it their place of work. ' Response to Question 13 ~ We do not mean that Villa Clara has dropped in the RR movement. On the contrary, we believe that it is stronger every year. ~ 31 FOR OFF'IC~AL USE ONi y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Our province has incorporated all potatoes consumed into the RR and this figure - cannot be compared with provinces that have larger suitable areas. The amount of land available for the crop is a barrier to growth. The flatlands do not have underground water. The figure for the incorporation of plantains rises slowly and is limited. ~de do not believe it is an element for comparison. We can say that the Agricultural-Livestock Trade Unjon has systematically taken seminars to the workers. We are pleased to have pertormed this task and to have - maintained rigid discipline in the Movement throughout these 5 years, without bonuses or economic incentives. The province has faced a labor shortage that began in 1977. This has been over- come through the schools. The Movement has been affected in recent years by the fact that men do not tend to stay in growing areas. Opinions of the Agricultural-Livastock Trade Union - The National Agricultural-Livestock Trada Union is completely involved in agri- - cultural tasks and provides its continuing cooperation. This balance is achieved to the extent that it is demanded by the socialist society. The union is the representative of the working class. We talked with Rene Penalver, its secretary general, in order to learn some of his ideas about the RR Movement. He was somewhat pushed for time and we engaged in a battle against the clock. [Penalver] We are involved in a fight to obtain high yields. In some cases, we have to give up our old ~aays and habits. Every year we meet and make commitments. The three best provinces are not the best by accident. They are the economic result of an effort, of a great deal of work. . There are deficiencies that depend on man and they are subjective in nature. Where = problems exist, there must be a substantial change. [Question] How is the RR Movement going? [Penalver] We have made progress but we are not as far as we should be. Granma is one of the provinces that has made the most progress recently. It is in Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba and Tunas where the greatest efforts must be mad.e. [Question) What is the specific situatian of Villa Clara? [Penalver] First of all, there was the local experience of the former Las Villas Province and then we had to respond to an appeal from Sancti Spiritus concerning the application of the wage reform. Then we tried to extend the work to other - places. That was 6 years ago. Reception was good and the results are obvious. Unfortunately, in Villa Clara, the Movement declined. The original place has been - left behind. Nevertheless, it has reacted an.d we are certain it will overcome this situation, determined to regain its initial place. 32 ~~R OF1FiCi~1i, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ON1.Y [Question] What will happen in the future? [Penalver] There are things we could have done better. In the future, there is or?ly the absolute obligation to guarantee the people of proper food and all the provinces must continue to strengthen the RR Movement. But we must work with even greater speed. With these words, the interview came to an end, confirming the importance of expand- ing the movement but without losing quality. I~ is essential to break with rigid patterns and take qualitative leaps. We finally took our leave of Penalver because other business awaited him. One More Point There are 1,161 caballerias of government land and 114 of privately owned land in- cluded in the RR Movement. This is frankly little. It is true that any enterprise that becomes involved knows it has its work cut out for it, but what it needed is more dedication, more systematization, more organization. The RR telerate no pathchwork or carelessness. - The Movement is demanding and involves efficient work. It signifies the coordina- - tion of all factors. Quite rightly, we feel, many fear the pressure. _ The Agricultural Union cannot lag behind and must see that workers ara acquainted , with micro-emulation and the incentives established for high yields. It must hold technical seminars for workers. In our tour of the two Villa Clara enterprises, we detected some problems. The _ fertilizer machine was leaving a bag unused after every completed furrow. The supervisor told us that there were problems with distribution. His reply made us realize the lack of supervision and its eftect on wages and costs. Even such small details cannofi be accepted by the RR. Some furrows were not straight. The new maehinery was blamed and it was pointed out that the operator's difficulty was caused by the wetness of the ground, We believe that there is a lack of observation and vigilance because of the factors involved. The province explained its opinions.and the national meeting of the RR Movement gave its in turn. The Agricultural Union expressed its views. They are all here in black and white. Our own is simple: Villa Clara has an obligation to itself to tighten the screws. Some provinces have gone ahead, causing it to b e lefr be- hind. The province has rough spots to iron out, matters to be defined. But with efficiency, the high yields will be obtained, compensating for the country's tech- nical investments in agriculture. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1981 11,464 - _ CSO: 3010 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CU~A PROBLEMS IN SUGARCAI3E MILLS DISCUSSED Manuel Martinez Prieto Mill Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 2 Jan 81 pp 16-19 [Article by Andres Rodriguez] [Text] The first ~hing that should be said is. ...that we spent 3 days visiting the Manuel Martinez Prieto sugar mi11, located " in Havana, practically a half hour from La Rampa. The purpose of the visit was to get an inside view of the present situation and the possibilities for the immediate future. During the 1976-80 5-year period, this mill (one of 16 that produce refined . - sugar in this country) produced the following results: - It processed 250,564 tons, while the plan for that period called for a total _ production of 290,370 tons. Thus, there was a shortfall of nearly 40,000 tons of sugar. A detailed analysis reveals tha[ the production plan was not fulfilled in 4 out of the 5 years of that period, and that 1980 was the worst year, with only 69 percent = of the plan being fulfilled. The mill was also an oil guzzler: During the 5-year period, it consumed 8.6 mil- lion gallons (in round figures) above what was alloted, or 204,760 barrels of the precious black gold. Such profligacy was not foreseen when consumption plans were made. But we have presen~ed this view to give the reader a general impression, without trying to indulge in flagellation or useless self-analysis, when the causes are well known to the parties involved and are beginning to be duly confronted. The other side of the coin is Chat the Martinez Prieto mill, despite its location in the national capiCal, was ignored' for a long time while the buck kept being passed. But as we said before, that is now history. Why have we come, then, to the only sugar mill in the capital? 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As we already said, we have come to. ...get an inside view of the present situation in the mill-refinery, specific- ally, to hear the opinions of its workers, or at least some of them. In this manner we are beginning a series of articles in which we will closely follow the development of the Martinez Prieto sugar mill until it clears away the last stumbling block. Right now those obstacles are very difficult because they have been building up over the years. We hope to make a fundamental conrribution to this necessary effort. Consequently, we came with a specific methodology in mind: to talk with small groups of workers in this first phase of the cycle we hope to begin. Specifically, we hope to talk with groups of: --Women. --Young workers up to 27 years of age. --Fifty-year veterans. --University graduates and mid-level technicians who recently joined the enterprise. --Workers from the area of the refinery. And we talked with all of them. They are only 35 of the 895 workers in the iiidustry, only 4 percent of the total. We cannot expect them to represent the views of the entire industry, and that assumption was not made at any time. These are simply the opinions of these 35 human beings, of both sexes, belonging to differenl categories, age and interest groups, people who breathe and move around every day in the mill-refinery. In sum, what did they say? ~ They said so many things that. .we were forced to sum up their comments, without leaving out the essence. _ Naturally--and herein lies the usefulness of the dialogs--the views expressed did - not coincide entirely, as if the whole group were standing at attention. On some questions there was unanimity, while there were majority opinions on others, and individual patterns could be discerned on o~her issues. As we said before, we made a synthesized selection of all the views expressed, and we present ~hem here for the reader's perusal. I. Unanimous Opinions --The ncw managemenl, as well as the political organizations and the union, ar.e _ all interes~ed in bringing the mill up to par and reversing the neglect of recent - years. --In the short time that the new management hasr been present, the environmental conditions of the mill have been improved, although there are still some problems with lighting, cleanliness and sanitary services. � 35 = FOR OFFICIAL USE O:~I,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY --There has been a significant improvement in the workers' dining room, in terms of hygiene, display and discipline, as well as food quality. � --Preparations for the 1981 harvest, already underway, have been very good, much better than last year's. Universal Phenomenon _ There was no spontaneous reference to socialist emu?.ation, that important tool in increasing production and productivity. No one was able to say how this refinery ranked among the nation's sugar refineries in last season's emulation program. Another Universal Phenomenon More than 5 years ago the Ministry of the Sugar Industry gathered together the technicians of its 15 refineries in order to make a detailed analysis of the siCuation of refined sugar production in this country. As a result of that ~ meeting, a 10-point strategy was approved to strengthen and organize that produc- tion. On our visit to the Manuel Martinez Prieto mill-refinery, we asked everyone about _ the status of that strategy. But none of the 35 participants was aware that it - existed. Some confessed that this was headline news for them. - II. Majority Opinions ~ --It is not true that burned sugarcane hampers the refinery's production. What � does hurt it is delays in burned cane harvesting. ~ _ ; 1 --More explanation sh~uld be given to workers regarding rhe scope and benefits of i wage reform, as well as the diif erent ways of resting made possible by the _ creation of the fourth brigade. There is still confusion on this issue. _ --The on-the-job evaluations of personnel have been quiCe rigid, with no considera- _ tion given to current conditions for theoretical qualification at the plan~. In view of this situation, comrades who are lacking in theoretical training but know how Co operate the equipment in pract ice, do not approve of the tests given. --The new management has done well to pay special attention to university graduates who recently joined the enterprise. There is just one exception, which will be covered in the individual opinions. Contradictory Phenomenon Several~university technicians who came recently to this mill expressed concern about the icy reception they have gotten from some experienced workers. They say - these workers give them the cold shoulder when it comes time to share what they _ have lr~arned over the years. Certain experienced workers, however, complained _ about the theoreCical approach of the university graduates, and their apparent disdain for accumulated experience. 36 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - III. Individual Opinions _ --There should be stronger ties between the Jose Antonio Echeverria Higher Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE) and the Manuel Martinez Prieto sugar mill, which - are located only a block from each other. In this respect, ISPJAE, which has a sugar technology school, could provide assistance, particularly to the mill's - technical personnel, in terms of bibliographic material and the exchange of - information on sugar research being carried out at the school. _ --More attention should be paid to the refining clarifier workers, as they do not have sufficient training or education to operate the clarifiers efficiently. --The only problem with the treatment of recent university graduates was mentioned - - by chemist Celia Rosa Feito Novo, shift chief of the laboratory. She complained _ that in the 5 months she has been working in the industry she has not been given - sufficient training in her line of work, so her technical development has be.~n - limited. Here are our considerations. . . - ...whic.h could justly be called preliminary, since we have just begun our little - series of articles on the current situation' and subsequent development of ~he Manuel Martinez Prieto sugar mill. - - As this sample of opinions shows, there is a general atmosphere of acceptance toward the new management. But the laCter, at the same time, is aware that it has inherited a difficult task, and consequently people will judge it more by its - - deeds than by its words. Still, as the author noted during his visit to the plant, ' there are some hard feelings resulting from that legacy. - _ Although many workers still consider their sugar mill something of a Cinderella, they also understand that there is no fairy godmother capable of transforming present conditions overnight. To be perfectly honest, the last time we were there--not long enough to expect more--we k*itnessed the beginning of the transforma- tions. This has been acknowledged in conversations with "Bohemi.a economica." They ~ _ are watching hopefully to see if the new pace that has been set will continue and - not suffer the setbacks that are so discouraging and disheartening to the people. The new management showed us those first steps (a mere drop in the bucket compared to wh~~t still has tc, be done), and spoke enthusiastically and confidently of the new projec~s. Martinez Prieto has become a high-priority mill in the nation. Since - this work needs to be followed up, and we have scheduled a return visit in March, - we think the best al~ernative is to wait for next time and then assess what has been done and what influence it has had on production. _ In arriving ae these preliminary conclusions, we have decided to omit any commentary on the opinions expressed by the workers we talked with. In this firsr phase of the follow-up, we feel it~ is appropriate to let the reader see these opinions as they were staCed in essence, without the distraction of our inCerpreta- " tions. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-00850R040340090036-0 i0R OFFICIAL USE ONLY Nonetheless, we would like to take a moment to discuss one of the individual - opirions, because we found it so interesting. It concerns the importance of stronger tic:s between ISPJAE and Martinez Prieto. What technological benefits would the mill receive from such a link with an _ institute only a block away, which has a sugar technolagy school? Similarly, what would it mean to ISPJAE iti terms of its sugar research, for example, to have a mill-refinery so close at hand? Why't this mutually advantageous proximity used to the utmost? Why not tear down the Great Wall of China that has been isolating them in their respective - terriLories? We think this individual opinion merits due consideration by all the parties involved. We hope they will take heed. _ As for the rest, we will return to Manuel Martinez Prieto in March 1981, at the height of the refining season. We Talked with 35 - ~ "The evalua~ions have been quite rigid. Workers with a low level of theoretical training buC who know how to operate the equipment in practice, do not approve of them." (Rolando Abreu Gomez, assistant) - What Some of Them Said - "There should be more ties between ISPJAE and the mill." (Maria Eugenia de Zayas, - chemical engineer) "We are still on this little boat, and we don't want it to sink." (Aurelio Ortiz Meireles, a fifty-year veteran of the industry) _ "The sugar scales should be inspected better." (Rita Maria del Toro, shipment weigher) "The management treats us well, but there are still some in the plant who give us ehe cold shoulder." (Manuel Almeida Estevez, chemical engineer) ~ "We need more personnel in the laboratory for the fourth brigade. The estimators, for example, will not be able to rest if this problem is not solved." (Olga Nelys ~ Aleman, laboratory assistant chemist) - "There arc poor operations in the mill~" (Alina Cruz Amador, refinery technician) - "How can it be the operations' fault if the raw material is of poor quality?" (Carlos Chala, Angola filters operator) 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300094436-4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Pinar del Rio Mills _ Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 16 Jan 81 p 63 [Article by Andres Rodriguez] ~ [Text] Julio Camacho Aguilera, member of the Party Politburo, arrived at the 30 ' - November sugar mill at noon last Friday 9 January at a time when the plant was ; shut down, although its young proletarian workers were in good spirits. "We cannot imagine this type of industry progressing without having to overcome problems," Camacho commented to the director of the mill, an experienced sugar mill adminisrrator who was understandably concerned, but not discouraged. In that spirit, the veteran administrator, Orestes Torres, gave a detailed report to his friendly visitor of the wide range of problems that have arisen to date, - including the frog that got into the generator area and brought the plant to a - halt for several hours. - , What are these difficulties, exactly? Well, as Camacho remarked to Torres, they are the problems that naturally beset a recently opened factory that requires a period of adjustment to iron out wrinkles and reach complete maturity. This mill, - moreover, has a comple~; system of automation like no other in the country, with the exception of the Batalla de Las Guasimas mill in Camaguey, the twin of 30 Novem- ~ ber which was also built by tr~e Revolution. The automated equipmenl cannot be operated skillfully right away, only 20 days after the plant has begun operations. But the important thing is, as we said _ before without any exhortative intentions, the upright spirit of the workers, a group of inen and women with an average age of 26 and an average of 9 years of schooling. - - It is frankly encouraging, as well, to note that despite the intermittent nature of thc~ mill's operation, appreciable quantities of bagasse, the natural fuel of all sugar mills, are obrained. This accumulation was responsible for the industrial- ization of that sugar cane byproduct. Camacho Aguilera mentioned that fact as he . toured the various sections of the modern enterprise in Pinar del Rio, accompanied by a group of comradcs including Luis de la Fe Miguez, vice-minister of the - _ Ministry of the Sugar Industry (MINAZ). Of course, the latter insisted on the need for the young employees of the 3U Novem- ber plant to become accustomed now to keeping the sugar mill clean, even amid the problems that currently plague it. The vice-minister's insistence might seem a bit - exaggerated at this i.nitial stage, but we think it is valid and lasting if we bear in mind the fact that sugar mills produce food, so that hygiene, as everyone knows, is one of the fundamental factors in achieving the optimal harvest that Fidel called for at the closing session of the Sixteenth Congress of the Sugar Workers Union. ` 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Overview of Pinar del Rio Harvest (Other Mills) _ --Manuel Sanguily: This mill has the best yields in the province, with just one hitch: excessive consumption of additional fuel (firewood). It also has the best ~ppearance and hygiene, and is one of the few mills in the country, perhaps the only one, with granite floors under the machinery and where the sugar cane is crushed. --Harlem: Although this mill was affected by the winter rains, it is having an - acceptable season. --Pablo de la Torriente Brau: It suffered a serious breakdown which paralyzed it = for 8 days at the beginning of the harvest, but since then it has gradually gotten back to normal. --Jose Marti: This plant is the surprise of the province, with its high, stable production and overall work levels much higher than those of previous seasons, when there was a prolonged crisis. Its production of extra fine sugar must be stabilized further. - The overview of the Pinar del Rio sugar harvest presented in this "Tandem" section will be expanded soon. Look for it in upcoming issues of BOHEMIA. Curious Phenomenon = While in the three enterprises on the north coast of Pinar del Rio the proscribed - variety Barbados 4362 has been attacked by rust� at the Jose Mar~i mill to the south, there are no symptoms of that disease. Nor has the southern mill suffered smut, although it has suffered a highly susceptible variety, Barbados 42231. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1981 8926 CSO: 3010 END _ � 40 - FOR OFFIC7AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300090036-0