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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 � FOR OFFI('IA1: :1SE UNLY JPRS L/9693 28 April 1981 _ USSR Report METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY No. 12, December 1980 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from fureign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are - enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clesr in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items 3re as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF _ MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9693 28 April 1981 USSR REPORT METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY No. 12, December 1980 Translation of the Russian-language monthly journal METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA published in Moscow by Gidrometeoizdat. CONTENTS Some Problems of Meteorology of the Stratomesosphere 1 On the Prediction of Air Temperature 11 Structure of Atmospheric Fronts 26 Stdtistical Characteristics of Instantaneous Wind Shears in the Lower Layer of the Atmosphere 31 Remote Monitoring of Gas Effluent by the Combined Light Scattering Method....... 40 Method for the Interpolation of Data From a Field Experiment 51 Annual Budget of Exchange of Oxygen Between the Ocean and the Atmosphere.... 58 Use of SatPllite Measurements of the Surface Temperature Field in a Numerical Model o� the Upper Layer of the Ocean 67 - Evaluation of the Accuracy of Numerical Computations of Stationary Wind-Driven _ Currents on the She1F 77 Hydrometeorological Validation for Interzonal Redistribution of River Runoff.... 83 Prediction of Distribution of High-Water Runoff by Months in the Middle and Lower Courses of ttie Ob' and Irtysh Rivers ................................a... 90 Computation of the Main Hydrophysical Characteristic af Soils Using Data on Soil-Hydrolagical Constants .................o.......... 102 Phytoclimatic Features of a Rice Field in the Southern Ukrainian SSR........... 112 - a- LIII - USSR - 33 S&T FOUO) F(1R nFFT('TAT. i1,CF. nNT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Some Characteristics of Heavy Precipitation in the Ukraine 118 Relationship Between Turbulent Diffusion Coefficients for a Drifting Spot and the Medium......a 123 Review of Monograph by Ye. M. Dobryshman:"Dynamics of the Equatorial Atmosphere't (Dinamika Ekvatorial'noy Atmosfery), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980.....o ...........................o..o........... 126 - Eightiet'7~ Birthday of Taisiya Vasil'yevna Pokrovskaya 130 Seventieth Birthday of Nikolay Vladimirovich Petrenko 132 Official Awards to Soviet Hydrometeorologists................................ 135 Conferences, Meetings and Seminars........................................... 137 Nutes From Abroad............................................................ 141 ~ Obituary of Ivan Varfolomeyevich Kravchenko (1912-1980) 144 - b - EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 w F'OR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.510.(532.533) S014E PROBLEMS 0F METEOROLOGY OF TEIE STRATOMESOSPHERE Moscow MFTEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 5-13 [Ariicle by G. A. Kokin, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Central Aero- logical Observatory, manuscript submitted 9 Jun 80] [Text] Abstract: The author examines some problems in the present status of the atratomesosphere. . 'I'he article discusses methods for collecting the information, climatic characteristics of the upper atmospfiere, problems involved in intraseasonal and interseasonal restructur- ings, different factors in the formation of - the thermal and dynamic regimes, as well as individual aspects of solar-atmospheric re- lationships. _ The region of altitudes 20-120 km is corLstantly attracting the attention of re- searchers. This is attributable not only to the theoretical, but also the prac- tical aspects, which are determined by the needs of aerospace science and radio cammunicatian, but also synoptic and climatological study of the troposphere. The latter circumstance is associated with the fact, in particular, that such cata- strophic Fhenomena as winter stratospheric or stratomesospheric warmings are ac- companied by the blocking of tropospheric processes, and the climate of the tro- posphere to a definite degree is dependent on radiation and dynamic processes in - the stratome5osphere. All this haa stimulated international scientific organizations to propose the glo- bal research project MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program) (IAMAP), w',lich'is to be im- plemented during the period 1979-1985. Most of the data on temperature and wind iu the indicate,' altitude region have been , obtained using radiosondes (to altitudes 30 km), rockets, and recently, IR satel- lite radiometers. The methods for measuring atmospheYic parameters with radiosondes are well known; - rocket methods are more diversified, different with respect to accuracy character- istics, varying with respect to working range of altitixdes, complexity, and ac- cordingly, degree of use. For example, the rocket grenade method, to a consider- _ able degree without significant systematic errors, is so complex in application - 1 - FOR OrF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY that it has not come into wide use,and according to data at our disposal at the - present time is not in use at all. Other methods, such as the Pitot tube method or the method of light falling spheres, are used sporadically at individual points. The principal mass of data has been accumulated by means of rocket probes in = which the temperature sensor used is a thermistor or resistance thermometer and the wind sensor used is a parachute. The sounding is accomplished for the most part from the network of rocket sounding stations in the USSR and the United States. In addition, a mass of regular data is obtained in 3apan (Riori), in In- dia (Tumba polygon, in collaboration with the USSR), and more limited masses of data in Great Britain and France. Measurements o f temperature and wind by means of rockets were earlier made at[ioomer (Australia), and also in some other countries. hocket measurements for measuring classical meteoro logical parameters, used in dif- ferent countries, tiave different systematic and random errors, but as indicated by their comparisons, the discrepancies in data are : mall to 60 km. Above this level the diffeie*_ces become substantial and special attention is being devoted to the correlation and collation of the different methods. _ T;rtortunately, satellite methods applicable to the considered levels are more of a semiquantitative character because the basis for the processing of data is the regression relationships between the radiation flux measured with radiometers and temperature or geopotential difference, determine d by direct methods, and also geopotential charts for the principal lower levels. Despite this, the satellite method makes possible the best study of macroscale processes in the upper atmo- - sphere. Recently surface radioelectronic methods have come into increasing use for investigation of dynamic parameters in the upper a tmosphere. The method of radar observati.on of ineteor trails and the radio fading meth4d for determining wind in the upper mesosphere have come into extensive use. Successful attempts have been undertaken for studying movements in the stratomeso- sphere by the method of incoherent scattering of radio waves, but due to its high cost this method cannot be employed on a network basis, although it makes it pos- sible to obtain continuous series of observations, which is especially important in a study of diurnal and more short-period atmospheric fluctuations. Attempts to use the method of partial reflection.s of radio waves have been undertaken for ' these same purpases. The composition of neutral and charged components is determined by remote (optical, spectrophotometric, radiometric, laser and radiophysical) and contact (mass spec- trometers with cryogenic evacuation, collpction o-f samples into cylinders, chemi- luminescent instruments, thin silver films, resonance-luminescent instruments, aluminum oxide and coulometric sensors, sensors of aerosol particles, d-c probes, high-frequency and impedance probes, special capac itoes, etc.) methods. Unfortunately, not one of the enumerated methods o r instruments for the time being has become a network instrument or method, although optical methods have come into quite broad use, especially in satellite limb sounding. Now we will examine in greater detail some peculiarities of the st.ructure and pro- cesses in the stratomesosphere. The seasonal change in the direction of zonal flow, caused by the seasonal inversion of the temperature gradient, is a characteristic 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY feature of the considered layers of the atmosphere. The s ummer period is characterized by an almost zonal distribution of temperature - and a predominance of easterly zonal flow, determined by the stratomesospheric anticyclonic vortex, whose center virtually coincides with the geographical pole. In the stratosphere of the summer northern hemisphere the temperature gradient is direc ted from the high to the middle latitudes. At an altitude of about 60 km there is a change in the sign of the thermal gradient. At an altitude of 80 km in the middle latitudes the temperature is approximately -90�C, whereas in the polar regions it is -100�C or lower. During the summer in the southern hemisphere there is a similar picture, but on the basis of a relatively limited volume of observations the conclusion can be drawn that the gradient in the stratosphere between the middle and high latitudes - somewhat exceeds the similar values for the northern hemisphere, the inversion of - the gradient occurs at altitudes 65-70 km, and the value of the temperature gradi- ent i tself at these levels is approximately the same as for simuner in the northern hemisphere. During one and the same summer season the interhemisphere differences in wind velo- city a t similar altitudes are manifested particularly strongly in the upper strato- sphere and lower mesosphere of the low latitudes (in the southern hemisphere the wind velocity is 20-30 m/sec greater in the region of the tropics). In the middle latitudes the interhemisphere differences decrease and do not exceed 5-10 m/sec - (in the southern hemisphere the wind velocity is greater). These fluctuations are - associated with the asymmetry of the annual variation in the tropical and equator- ial zones of both hemispheres. According to some data, in the stratosphere of the summsr hemisphere (20-35 km) there are traveling waves in the temperature and wind fields moving in the general flow with a velocity exceeding the velocity of the latter. ThP nature of such formations for the time being has not been clarified. Since in 'Lne tropical and equatorial latitudes there is a predominance of the semiannual harmonic in temperature fluctuations, the temperature gradient between _ the temperate and tropical latitudes varies considerably in both the summer and winter seasons. - The winter period is characterized by a westerly flow caused by a cyclone whose _ cente r is situated in the high latitudes and also a substantial impairment of zon- ality in the distribution of temperature and wind. In the northern hemisphere these impairments are more substantial than in the southern hemisphere. In the northern hemisphere a temperature decrease to 30-50 km continues up to the high latitudes. In the upper stratosphere of the southern hemisphere the region of lowest tempera- tures is displaced in a meridional direction into the region 50�S. This can be as- sociated with the formation of a region of relatively high temperatures in the upper stratosphere over Antarctica in the second half of the winter. As a result, in the zone 50-10�S during the greater part of the winter period there is an inversion of the mean meridional temperature gradient at altitudes greater than 30-35 km. In the - northe rn hemisphere, however, a similar inversion in general is not observed. There are different hypotheses concerning the temperature rise in the mesosphere of the winter hemisphere. A hypothesis can be expressed concerning the nature of the in- , terhemisphere differences in this phenomenon, but all this for tlie time being does not have an unambiguous explanation. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The value of the positive temperature contrasts in the upper stratosphere in the subtropical and middle latitudes of the winter southern hemisphere is greater than in the winter northern hemisphere. This is one of the reasons for the inter- hemisphere differences in wind velocity in the upper stratosphere. According to some data, the interhemisphere differences in the zonal wind velocity in the mean winter stratosphere of the extratropical latitudes exceed 40-50 m/sec (in the southern hemisphere the wind velocity is greater). A change in the nature of the circulation in the stratomesosphere occurs in spring and autumn for each of the hemispheres, clearly delimiting the summer and winter periods. In addition to interseasonal restructurings, in the stratomesosphere there are large intraseasonal restructurings accompanied by stratospheric or stratomesospheric warmings. It must be noted at once that despite the general sim- ilarity, the restructurings in the-northern and so,ithern hemispheres have many sig- nif7cant differences. The nature of the interseasonal restructurings of circulation is clear and is determined by the annual variation of the thermal regime in the c-tr. tomesosphere. However, the processes developing with a change in the thermal :gime of the stratomesosphere and determining the nature of the interseasonal re- :�tructurings are different. For the most part they have a dynamic character, but in individual years the contribution of radiation prncesses is substantial. _ It was discovered earlier that the spring reversal of circulation occurs first at altitudes greater than 80 km, and then this process moves down as far as the velo- pause; the autumn reversal, on the other hand, begins from the middle stratosphere and is propagated upward and downward. The duration of the spring restructuring is greater than the duraLion of the autunn restructuring. It was established in later investigations, makiag it possible to create high-level pressure-pattern charts, that the spring restructuring, like the autumn restrscturing, begins for the most part in the middle stratosphere and is propagated into the upper and lower layers. It was nated that sometimes the spring restructuring also begins in the upper meso- sphere simultaneously with restructuring in the middle stratosphere. The times of - onset of the spring restructuring, in contrast to the autumn restructuring, migrate rather greatly and this is also true of its duration. As a result, it is possible to distinguish early, intermediate and late spring restructurings. The onset of an - early restructuring is in the second half of March, the onset of an intermediate restructuring is about the mi&le of April, and the onset of a late restructuring is in late April or early May. The time of onset of the autumn restructuring is the second half of August and the duration is approximately 20 days. We note that .in the southern hemisphere the times of onset of the spring restructur- ing migrate less and its duration is also less than in the northern hemisphere. a A number of investigations have been c�rried out for the purpose of determining the relationship between [he time of onset of the spring restructuring and the phase of the quasi-two-year equatorial cycle of circulation, and also the nature and times of intraseasonal restructurings, but, in our opinion, unambiguous relation- ' ships have not yet been established. Although the morphology of the intraseasonal restructurings has b::en investigated in sufficient detail, their physical nature still has not been thoroughly clarif- ied. 4 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The development of high-altitude anticyclones (Pacific Ocean and Atlantic) is at- tributed by a number of authots to the propagation of long traveling waves from _ the troposphere into the stratosphere, arising as a result of instability of the westerly general flow. The propagation of these waves into the stratosphere is re-- lated to the development of unstable stratification of temperature and wind in the stratosphere. However, until now this concept has not been thoroughly developed and a number of features of intraseasflnal restructurings have not yet been exr- plained. In particular, problems relating to the mrphology of development of high- altitude anticyclones are unclear, their migration paths have not been explained, the fact of appearance of centers of heat associated with the mentioned high-alti- tude formations is not fully understood, etc. The opinions cited in the litera- ture have more the form of hypotheses than rigorous theories. Synoptic research methods have made it possible to establish that intraseasonal re- structurings and the warmings in the northern hemisphere associated with them are - macroscale processes, in contrast to processes in the southern hemisphere, where _ they rarely arise, have a local character and have a relatively low intensity, not exerting'any significant influence on circulation processes. According to the modern WMO classification, intraseasonal restructurings can be Classified as strong, weak and local. Each of them, as in3icated above, is asso- ciated with the development of a high pressure region. In addition to the two an- ticyclones mentioned above, recentl}r such aa anticyclone was discovered in the Tndian Ocean and the warmings associated with it were propagated to the Central Asia and Siberia regions. In addition, it was established that the spring restruc- turing is associated with the intrusion of the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic anticy- cones into the polar latitudes. It was emphasized Chat the more powerful the in- traseasonal restructuring, and the later it occurs, the laCer will be the onset of the spring restrunturing. During recent years (beginning in 1974) it was dis- covered that powerful final warmings can undergo direct trans3.tion into spring re- structurings. With the approach of anticyclones to circumpolar space the velocity of the anticyclonic vortex increases, which is a result of a sharp increase in the pressure gradient. With velocities of approximately 70 m/sec a heat wave arises, propagating downward from great altitudes. The horizontal propagation of heat oc- curs across the flow and along the frontal discontinuity with velocittes exceeding the velocity of propagation of heat due to turbulent heat conductivityo Theoretical investigations have shown that this propagation of heat is a wave processo In the case of strong warmings the temperature of the upper stratosphere increases by 40- 60�C. It was noted that in a case when the upper boundary of the anticyclones at- tains the upper mesosphere there will be mesospheric or stratomesospheric warmings. Tonospheric sounding has indicated that periods of warming are accompanied by the anomalous absorption of radio waves and direct measurements in this period have revcaled an increase in the electron concentration in the ionospheric D region. Tftis indicates, evidently, a change in the composition of atmospheric air due to. powerful vertical mixing. True, it was recently demonstrated that an increase in the electron concentration in the ionospheric D region apparently occurs only in tfie case of inesospheric or stratomesospheric warmings. Some authors have attempted to attribute winter warmings to the direct effect of corpuscular streams with an increase in solar and geomagnetic activityo However, tFie apparently real temporal coincidencs of these phenamena which has been noted 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OF FICIAL USE ONLY cannot be regarded as their direct correlation. Some facts indicate that if such a correlation does exist, it is indirect and more complex. We emphasize that during a period of warmings there is a marked temperature decrease ir. the lower strato- sphere and troposphere, not only in the region of warmings, but even in the trop- ~ ical latitudes; hence, evidently, there is a parrial transport of energy into the higher latitudes. In general, the winter season is characterized by a decrease in the solar energy accumulated by the atmosphere and therefore the role of dynamic factors increases to a considerable degree. Now we will proceed to an examination of some proeesses in the tropical region. As indicated above, the thermal regime in this zone is characterized by the presence of both semiannual and annual harmonics. The wind regime is characterized by the presence of semiannual, annual and quasi-two-year cyclicity, that is, with such a trequency the easte;:ly flow is replaced by a westeYly flow. Already in the 1950's it was established that the easterly circulation of the summer hemisphere in the middte stratosphere is propagated into the winter hemisphere; the zone of propaga- ti ain different geographical regions is different and varies from year to year. lccordingly, it can be surmised that the annual cycle in the trcpical zone is caus- .,d by the annual variability of atmvspheric parameters in the middle and high lati- tudes. The nature of the quasi-two-year circulation cycle has not yet been precise- ly established, although there are several theoretical attempts at its explanation. One of these is based on the correlation of this cycle with the two-year cycle in the variation of solar radiation caused by the migration of the earth's orbit arourd the sun; another theory attributes this phenomenon to parametric resonance arising as a result of the annual variation of solar radiation. We note at once thac quasi-two-year cyclicity is also observed in the intensity of _ galaceic cosmic rays, in the variability of the planetary geomagnetic index, in the indices of zonal and meridional circulation, in the intensity of winter strato- - sFheric warmings, etc. Accordingly, we feel that the solar radiation hypothesis of - quasi-two-year cyclicity is preferable. It was also noted that the duration of the easterly phase of the cycle is dependent on the degree of solar ac- ~ tivity. The energy of the tropical and equatorial zones probably plays a substan- tial ro'le in formation of the high-altitude Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and pos- sibly, Indian Ocean anticyclones. The polar regions are characterized by an unstable stratification, which creates conditions for the propagation of wave disturbances in them. If it is taken into account that the stratosphere and thermosphere of the trapical and equatorial re- gions are accumulators of solar electromagnetic energy, whereas the polar region is an accumulator of corpuscular energy, it can be postulated that precisely these regions determine many processes in the middle latitudes. However, this hypothesis requires further confirmation. - Eoth the zonal background distribution of structural and dynamic parameters of the stratomesosphere and the factors determining energy transitions in the atmosphere are caused by the absorption of solar energy of wave and corpuscular nature. Some of the absorbed energy is then radiated as IR radiation into space; part geneiates dynamic and dissipative processes in the atmosphere itseif. G FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY The principal components responsible for the absorption of solar UV energy in the considered range of altitudes are molecular oxygen and ozone. The short-wave part of the W spectral range is absorbed above 100 km and causes the dissociation of ' molecular o;rygen (Schumann-Runge continuum); the longer-wave part of the W rgdia- , tion dissociates molecular oxygen at lesser altitudes, causing ozone formation. In turn, ozone, being an active accumulator qf radiation energy in the range of wavelengths 2600-3500 A, is responsible for the heating of the upper atmosphere and lower mesosphere. Some of the solar energy in the visible part of the spectrum is absorbed by ozone in the lower stratosphere, and although the absorption coef- ficient in this spectral region is extremely small, a definite effect from absorp- tion of this radiation is observed, because this specCral region takes in a consid- erable part of the solar wave energy. Some of the wave energy is absorbed and scattered by the aerosol component, but computations of these mechanisms are dif- ficult due to the extremely limited information available on the physicochemical nature of stratomesospheric aerosols. The ozone heating function is dependent on the system of chemical reactions deter- Mining its equilibr.ium state in the atmosphere. Despite the great number of stud- ies which have appeared recently in connection with the problem of artificial mod- ification of ozone, the question of receipts and losses in the photochemistry of atmospheric ozone additional to those set forth in the Chapman theory for the time being still remains open and this limits the poss ibility of parameterization of radiant receipts and losses of energy, which is extremely necessary for creating three-dimensional models of general circulation of the atmosphere. Some of the solar W radiation is absorbed above 60 km by water vapor, which leads to the for- mation of additional quantities of hydroxyl and atomic hydrogen, actively partic- ipating in ozone cycles. The emission of the radiation part of the energy occurs for the most part in the IR range. The principal emitters are carbon dioxide (15FLm), ozone (9.6~1m) and water vapor (2.7; 6.3',lm and > 20�.m). 1"n the lower thermosphere a definite part of the IR en- ergy is emitted by atomic oxygen (63 N.m). Whereas carbon dioxide is a quite stable component, the other components are extremely variable. This applies, in partic- ular, to water vapor and atomic oxygen. The computations show that the main frac- tion of the effiitted energy falls in the C02 band 151A.m. However, these computations assumed a model of an almost "dry" atmosphere. The latest, now quite numerous meas- urements have indicated that a model of a"dry" atmosphere does not correspond to reality and the ratio of the mixture can attain 10'4 g/gair) at altitudes 70-80 km. In addition, the mixing ratio tias a tendency to an increase from the low to the high latitudes. If these data are confirmed, wate r vapor must be assigned a more significant place in formation of the heat and dynamic regimes of the stratomeso- sphere, especially during the period of the polar night in the high latitudes. It appears that corpuscular solar streams to a definite degree can exert an influ- ence on the dynamic and thermal regimes of the stratomesosphere. Their energy is extremely inadequate for exerting a direct influen ce on the state of the upper at- mosphere, but they can play the role of an additional catalyst of some processes. First, solar cosmic rays, according to some data, exert a definite effect on mol- ecular nitrogen, generating a nitrogen oxide cycle of ozone destruction. Second, they are an additional source of atomic oxygen, which in turn can lead to the 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - additional formation of ozoneo These mechanisms for the time being are not indis- putable and there is a need for experimental and theoretical investigations di- rected to their study. Third, solar cosmic rays are an additional source of ion- ization. Their role is particularly conspicuous in formation of the nighttime ion- osphere. An increase in the electron concentration in the ionospheric E region re- sults in an increase in the intensity of the polar electrojet, and this in turn de- termines the strength of the induced electric field in the atmosphere, and accord- , ingly, the dynamics and thermal regime of the lower thermsphere and upper meso- - sphere. We note that the creation of theo retical models of circulation and the thermal re- - gime is impossible without sufficiently complete information on the tensor of tur- bulent diffusion, and also on the eontribution of wave processes to the energy of the upper atmosphere. Although a number of studie.: devoted to an examination of the mentioned mechanisms have recently appeared, for the time being they have a strictly exploratory character. 'r. should be noted that solution of the problem of wave generation in the atmo- sphere is closely related to solution of the problem of the relationship between Lhe underlying surface and the atmosphere. In particular, the tiighly promising attempt at explaining the generation of long waves i^ related to clarificatio n of the meEhanism of the influence of the oro- graphic and thernal nonuniformity of the underlying surface on the general flow. tJa feel that sucti an examination is only part of the more general problem. The general flow is exchanged with the underlying surface not only by momentum and lcinetic energy. As a result of the processes of turbulent thermal conductivity and turbulent diffusion there is a transfer of thermal energy and matter through the atmospheric boundary layer. This must certainly be taken into account in solving such important problems relating to the upper atmosphere as the formation of standing and traveling waves, receipts and losses involved in ozone formation. It remains to emphasize that a decisive role in these processes is also played by cloud particles, for the upper atmosphere constituting a singular underlying sur- _ face. We note that at the present time these matters only now are being mentioned in the literature and the prablems are only being formulated. Finally, we will examine the problem of the relationship between processes in the stratomesosphere, solar and geomagnetic activity. We have already dealt with some of its aspects before. iJhereas the problem of the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity, on the one hand, and weather tropospheric processes, on the other, still remains open to a considerable degree, evidently due to the facti that clear an'd unambig- uous relationships between these phenomena cannot be established because of char- acteristic tropospheric "noise," it is easier to establish such relationships with stratospheric and mesospheric processes, despite the fact that these regions have their own characteristic "noise." The correlation between the diurnal variation of teniperature and wind in the stratomesosp}iere a,id the diurnal variation of the radiation flux of the quiet sun has been established quite reliably both theoretically and experimentally. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It has also been discovered that during individual periods the amplitudes and � phases of diurnal and semidiurnal fluctuations of temperature and wind in the atratomesosphere are disrupted and there are substantial differences from the val- ues pred?_cted by theory. An analysis indicated that these phenomena evidently oc- - cur during solarly and geomagnetically disturbed periods. At the present Cime it _ is extremely difficult to draw a final conclusion concerning the correlation of these phenomena due to the substantial errors in rocket measurements. It is obvious that during periods of solar disturbances, accompanied by the intrusion of solar cosmic particles into the stratosnhere, thEre are sharp changes in the dynamic and temperature regimes of the stratomesosphere in both the polar and ir. the tem- - perate latitudes. A singular wave disturbance is propagated from the upper strato- sphere upward and downward and the amplitude of this disturbance increases with an increase in altitude and attenuates with its decrease. Five to seven days af- rer this phenomenon in the winter period there are substantial changes in the thermopressure regime of the stratomesosphere, which is evidently attributable to the migration of high-altitude anticyclones into the polar re gions. - A spectral analysis which was made indicated tnat approximately such a periodicity - after the onset of a disturbance is observed in the increase in mean temperature of the mesosphere. Since during periods of proton flares, accomp anied Uy the in- trusion of solar corpuscular streams into the earth's atmsphere, substantial per- turbations were noted in the vertical ozone profile, the conclus ion can be drawn that during these periods in the upper atmosphere there is a change in the radia- tion regime. If it is taken into account that the change in the radiation regime can exert an influence on characteristic atmospheric instability, ways to explain these effer_ts should be considered. It is probable that the above-mentioned fact of correlation of winter warmings with solar and geomagnetic disturbances is ex- plained by these effects. T'lere is also a correlation between 27-day variations of solar activity and the change in the regime of the stratomesosphe re. An amplitude - of the pressure variations in the stratosphere with a Feriod of approximately 27 days is predoaiinant. Attempts have been made to attribute this phenomenon to res- - onance phenomena in the atmosphere. We note that such a periodicity is also observ- ed in an analysis of changes in the ozone concentration. Since unifarm series of rocket observations are still relatively short, but none- theless cover an almost 20-year period, it is possible to establish a correlation ' between the 11-year solar cycle and a similar periodicity in variations of strato- mesospheric parameters. It can be assumed that the facts of an increase in mesospheric t emperature with an - increase in solar activity, a: d ?1so the correlation between geopotential height at the centers of the win ter circumpolar vortex and the Pacific Ocean anticyclone and solar activity, have been quite reliably established. It has been found that with _ an increase in solar activity there is a decrease in the geopoten tial height of the 10-mb leziel in an anticyclone and an increase in the geopotential height of this same level at the center of a cyclone. In the summer there is a direct correl- ation between the level of solar activity and the geopotential height of the 10-mb Ievel at the center of the anticyclonic vortex. The nature of the correlation between solar acti.vity and ttie intensity of strato- spheric formations is also confirmed by the results of investigations of circula- tion processes. In particular, it was established that during periods of increased 9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY solar activity of the 11-year cycle the velocity of the zonal flow at the 10-mb level decreases, whereas meridianality ;ncreases. Estimates of the contribution of the energy of the polar electrojet to the energy - of the upper atmosphere have recently appeared. The computations indicated that during periods of geoma.gnetic storms the earth's magnetosphere receives 1018 J of energy, which is adequate for the heating of the atmosphere in the auroral zone at an altitude of 100 km by 90 K, and at an altitude - of 30-35 km by 10 K. In turn, this can lead to a change in the atmospheric re- f lection coefficient for long'waves,- characterizing weather processes. 5uch is an incomplete and quite fleeting review of the problems characterizing the nresent status of the meteorology or the s tratome so sphere. Solution of the problem of the relationship between processes in the troposphere and in tYe high layers of the atmosphere in the light of recently accumulaced data is now acquiring special significance not only for understanding tropospheric cl imate, which we havE alreac3y mentioned above, but also for solution of the problem of long- and superlong-range weather forecasts. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gaygerov, S. S., ISSLEDOVANIYE SINOPTICHESKIKH PRQTSESSOV V VYSOKIKH SLOYAKH ATMOSFERY (Investigation of Synoptic Processes in the High Layers of the Atmo- - sphere), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1973. 2. Goody, R. M., FIZIKA STRATOSFERY (Stratospheric P11hysics), Leningrad, Gidro- meteoizdat, 1958. 3. Kats, A. L., TSIRKULYATSIYA V STRATOSFERE I MEZOSFERE (Circulation in the the Stratosphere and Mesosphere), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1968. 4. Koshel'kov, Yu, P., TSIRKULYATSIYA I STROYENIYE STRATOSFERY I MEZOSFERY YUZH- NOGO POLUSHARIYA (Circulation and Structure of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere in the Southern Hemisphere), Leningrad, Gidrameteoizdat, 1980. 5. Kholton, Dzh. R., DINAMICHESKAYA METEOROLOGIYA STRATOSFERY I MEZOSFERY (Dynam- ic Meteorology of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1979. 6. Bucha, V., "Possible Mechanism of Solar-Terrestrial Relations," COLLECTED EXTEND. SUM. CONTRIB., JOINT SYMP., C, IAGA/IAMAP, Joint Assem., Seattle, Wash. 1977, Boulder, Colo., s. a. 3/I-3/II. 7. Geller, M. A., Avery, S. K., "Calculations of Solar Activity Effects on Planet- ary Wave Propagation," COLLECTED EXTEND. SUM. CONTFtIB., JOINT SYNIP., C, IAGA/ IAMAP, Joint Assem., Seattle, Wash. 1977, Boulder, Colo., s. a. 611-6/10. 8. Kokin, G. A., "Stunmary of Atmospheric Observations and Investigations in zhe Altitude Region from 20 to 80 km," REPR. FROM (COSFtin) SPACE RES., Vol XIX, Perg. Press, Oxford-New York, 1979. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.509.323(470.311) ON TEEIE PREDICTION OF AIR TEMPERATURE - Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in IJo 12, Dec 80 pp 14-26 [Article by A. I. Snitkovskiy, candidate of geographical sciences, USSR Hydrometeor- ological Scientific Research Cen`er, manuseript submitted 13 Jun 80] jText] Abstract: The author examines the, status of prediction of the minimum and maximum temperature for 1-3 days in advance and the possibility of improving the predic- tion of air temperature on the basis of the "model output statistics" (MOS) concept us- ing regression equations. In routine forecasting work, due to the lack of hydrodynamic models of grediction of the minimum and maximum temperatures, a short-range prediction of air tempera- ture for 1-3 days is prepared by the synoptic method. In the prediction for the first day advection, transformation and the diurnal variation of air mass tempera- - ture are taken into account quantitatively [2, 5, 91; for the second and third days the temperature prediction is prepared for the most part on the basis of general concepts concerning the nature of development of atmospheric processes in the middle troposphere and at the ground, and, in particular, on the position and in- tensity of the high-altitude frontal zone, the resulting possible change in the pressure field at the ground level, and accordingly, air temperature. Such an ap- proach to temperature prediction for 48, 60, 72 and 84 hour.s was dictated by the _ lack of reliable surface pressure prognostic fields for the corresponding times, as well as the temperature and huniidity fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The work carried out during recent years for the objectivization of short-range - forecasting of weather phenomena and elements on the basis of the MOS concept [7, 8, 11, 121 indicates an increiise in the qua].ity of objective forecasts, that their quality surpasses the quality of synoptic forecasts, and this is manifested par- - ticularly clearly with an increase in advance time [ll]. These_ objective fore- casts to a considerable degree are responsible for the increase in the success of numerical prognostic fields of ineteorological elements, on the basis of which the initial data used in statistical correlations, objectivization of the choice of predictors and selection of decision rules are determined. In this study we will examine the status of prediction of temperature for 1-3 days and in the example of prediction of minimum and maximum temperatures for Moscow and Moskovskaya Oblast for 24, 36, 48 and 60 hours we will point out possible 11 FOR OFFICIAL IJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 _ FOR OFFIC'[AL USE ONLY ways to carry out objectivization and increase the quality of air temperature pre- diction. 5tatus of Problem The existing status of prediction of minimum and maximum air temperatures for 24, - 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours will be examined in the example of routine synoptic forecasts for Moscow and Moskovskaya Oblast in 1979. We will turn to the data in Table 1, where we have given the absolute (S) and relative ( E) errors in synoptic forecasts (S) of temperature for individual seasons of the year. As a comparison, we have also given evaluations of inertial forecasts (I), in accordance with which the temperature tomorrow, on the second and third days should be the same as today. In the third column of the table we have given the standard deviation for tempera- ture (d) obtained from daily m.inimum and maximum temperatures averaged for sea- sons of the year. The relative error E_J/ d given in the table is indicative for a comparison of the synoptic and inertial forecasts for different times and is con- ve!~.ient for subsequent comparison of the relative errors in the prediction and in- 2rria of temperature at different stations. In order to obtain a,& and Lrthe ac- +:ual temperature was averaged using observational data for 30 meteorological sta- tions in Moscow and Moskovskaya Oblast and the predicted temperature was repre- sented as the mean value of the anticipated temperature gradation (the tempera- ture values in the terms "local," "in part of a territory," "in clearings" etc. - were included in the predicted temperature with a weight of 1/3). Table 1 Evaluation of Predictions of Mi.nimum and Maximum Air Temperatures for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 Hours for Moscow and Moskovskaya Oblast and Their Comparison With Inertial Forecasts in 1979 . 3 4 i 2 t 24 k r) ' 48 Y - 72 K 36 Y I bO K - 84 l 5 . - I 3~_lal 1 z I ~ 3 I- 6 c j 4.; I j i,a;o,3o12,s:o.:4 2,9 ~~,sZ, .~,2 2,1 0.46 3,4 ~~,ss 3,6 0.72 11 ~ 2 3,Q,; 2 3,E O.S4' 4.i, ~ U,'J6 2.6 0.56 4,0 0,79 4,6 0,92 7 C' 3.0 l, #~0,43I1,1 ,+),70!2.3 , 0,761 :3,1 l,i 0.62 2.4 0.3�", 2,~Y 0,94 ll 2.~I,Q,ig':~,4;1.1313,6 1,19l 2.3 0.78 3.3 l.td6 3,7 1,21 g C. 4,3 1.710,4' j2,JIO,62; l,6 ' 0,66 4.9 I.i 0,39 2,2 0,52 1.:, Q,;~6 ll 2,2 0,5fit2,60,66 2,9 0,72I 2.0 0,47 2,9 0,67 ~5.5 0,78 g C I�I 7,6 2,3~0.'714.110.5514.7 i S~Ji 7 4 U 96! 8 0 I;0 0,64 3,7 I u7; 2.2 3 1 '),47 55 0 3.1 4 6 0,53 0 81 3.9 5 3 0.69 1 02 10 C. ` 4,9 , 1 , , , 1 1,7 ~0.39I 2~0,61:~3, I , 0.67 4,7 , 1,9 , ),-49 . 2.8 . 0 65 . 3,2 1 , 0.13 L1 2.~5 0.61, 4,2I0 .9U! 4,8 0,99 1,c ;).�i'.! 3,7 0,33I 4.4 I 0.93 KEY: 1. SeaSOn 6. Spring 2. Forecasts 7. Summer 3. Minimum temperature 8. Actumn 4. Maximum teruperature 9. Winter 5. hours 10. Year C = synoptic M = inertial 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An analysis of the data in Table 1 makes it possible to draw the following con- clusions: in general, synoptic forecasts for 1-3 days are appreciably better than inertial forecasts, but in months when the inertia is great the quality of the synoptiC forecasts is not much higher than for inertial fcrecasts; the absolute error in predicting temperature for 48 and 72 hours in comparison with the error in prediction for 24 hours on the average is greater by a factor of 1.6 and 1.8, whereas the absolute error in predicting maximum temperature for 60 and 72 hours in comparison with the error in prediction for 36 hours on the average is greater by a factor of 1.5 and 1.7; due to the greater variabil ity of nighttime temperature in comparison with day- time temperature in the autunm and winter the absolute error in predicting the minimum temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours is greater than the absolute error in predicting maximum temperature for 36, 60 and 84 ltours. To be sure, an analysis of 365 cases of the prediction of minimtnn and maximum tem- peratures for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours (Table 1) possibly does not fully re- flect the quality of temperature forecasts, but during the last five years routine evaluations of temperature forecasts for 1-3 days iz advance for Moscow and Moskov- skaya Oblast indicate their stability at the level 87-83% in accordance with the current Instructions on the Evaluation of Forecasts [6]. How good are the synoptic forecasts of teiuperature whose evaluations are given in Table 1? According to the data in [11], the absolute error in objective forecasts of the minimum temperature in the United States (winter of 1975/76, checked on the basis of data for 126 stations) on the basis of the MOS concept for 24 and 48 hours is 2.3 and 2.9�C; for the maximum temperature for 36 and 60 hours 2.5 and 3.1�C respectively. (Unfortunately, the literature pertaining to evaluations of tempera- ture forecasts in the United States do not give the relative forecasting errors - and this naturally affords no possibility for a sufficiently adequate statistical analysis.) However, it can be seen from the comparison that the synoptic forecasts - for Moscow for the first day are better than in the United Srates, whereas for 48 - and 60 hours they are inferior. In France, where an objective forecast of the minimum air temperature is accom- plished in accordance with the "perfect prognosis" (PP) concept for seven cities _ in the country with an advance time up to 96 hours, the results of forecasts for the first day also are inferior to synoptic forecasts for Moscow, but on the sec= ond and third da.y are close [10]. For example, the absolute error in objective forecasfis in the summer of 1979 for 24 hours was 1.6, inertia 1.8�C, relative error - 0.65; for 48 and 72 hours the absolute error in forecasts was 1.7 and 2.1�C, iner- _ - tia 2.0 and 2.3�C, relative error 0.68 and 0.84. It must be remembered that in France objective forecasts use only information on tropospheric geopotential fields. From a comparison of evaluations of temperature forecasts in the Soviet Union, United States and France the conclusion can be drawa that the objectivization of temperature forecasting already after 24 hours makes it possible to enhance the capabilities of the weather forecaster. - In the early 1970's specialists at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center undertook an attempt to objectivize the prediction of nighttime (for 0300 hours) air temperature for 24 hours on the basis of the current hydrodynamic model of pressure field 13 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY forecasting [1]. The prediction was prepared at the points of intersection of a regular grid with a 300-km interval. The absolute error in predicting nighttime temperature cited in [1] is about 3�C, considerably greater than the absolute errors of synoptic temperature forecasts, and naturally such a forecast cannot be used in operational work. During recent years another attempt was undertaken at the objective forecasting of air temperature. Beginning with mid-1979, on an experimental basis, specialists at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center almost daily have used a synoptic-hydro- dynamic model for predicting pressure at the ground level, a hydrodynamic forecast of the geopotential field at the 850-mb level and a model of the Crajectories of air particles at these two surfaces in preparing air temperature forecasts at the ground level for 2100 hours on the current day, 0300 hours on the next night and 1500 hours on the next day at points of grid intersection with an interval of 300 r:m [5, 9]. Our comparison of objective forecasts for 24 and 36 hours with the ac- tual temperatures at Moscow at 0300 and 1500 hours indicates that the absolute - eY or in objective forecasts for the period November 1979-April 1980 for 24 hours is 3.2�C, for 36 hours 3.6�C. During this same period of time the errors in syn- Optic forecasts were: for 24 hours 2.0�C, for 36 hours 2.1�C. What is the reason for the low quality of the objective temperature forecasts? In our opinion, there are several. First, due to insignificant errors in the pressure field at the earth there can be considerable errors in finding the initial points of the trajectories of air particles and the use of inean coefficients for conversion from the velocity of the geostrophic wind to the actual wind does not reflect the real wind pattern at the earth. Secand, the use of inadequately close correlations be- tween the dew point spread at the 850-mb level and the quantity of lower-level clouds for determining the diurnal temperature variation. In addition, the low level of objective temperature forecasts is also related to the quality of objec- tive analysis of temperature and humidity. A common shortcoming of the mentioned models of objective forecasting of tempera- _ ture [1, 5] is the absence of forecasts of extremal temperatures in these models. If the difference between the maximum temperature and the temperature at 1500 hours is relatively small, averaging 1-3�C, the difference between the minimum tempera- ture and the temperature at 0300 hours is relatively great. In autumn, winter and _ spring in the temperate latitudes, when the temperature minimum is at 0600-0900 hours, the difference attains 4-60C. Accordingly, in numerical models for the pre- diction of extremal temperatures it is evidently necessary to use statistical cor- relations for determining the minimum and maximum temperatures. "Sifting" of Predictors and Evaluation of Regression Equations In order to include independent predictors in the regression equation we carried out "sifting" of a large group of predictors using the algorithm set forth in [4], tlie sense of which is as follows. In the interval L we select the maximum (in absolute value) paired correlation co- efficient between the predictant and predictors r(L) and tY!e sequence number T of this predictor (z = l, 2,...,m) is stored. Then weTfind the paired correlation co- efficient rjT between the selected predictor T and the others. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 NOR OFN'ICIAL USE ONLY After this we carry out orthogonalization of the system of values of the predic- tors relative to the predictor T selected in the interval L: _ic) A tc-i 1) -A x(l) _ rcI 1 Xi1 T where J xj~ -;-I) - xi, - xi. j = 1, 2, , . . , k, - z are the values of the variables in deviations from the means; ~ and aT are the standard deviations. As a result of this procedure _\xtc->> _ 0. Ir Then the statistical characteristics are again computed for the already transformed orthogonal predictors. The paired correlation coefficients between the predictant and orthogonal predictors are computed, the maximum r(L+l) is selected and the num- - ber of the predictor is again stored. All these operaElons are carried out L times. In each interval L the multiple correlation coefficient R(L) = D~L) and the ac- cumulated total dispersion of the predictant, caused by the use of the selected predictors, UM = iZlr rz'-'~. . . . :r , (2) and also the difference of the accumulated dispersions in adjacent intervals S _ D(t) - Di t are computed. If the value (3) is less than the stipulated thresholci (in our case 0.03), the computations stop. (3) Thus, there i:: a ranking of predictors and thereafter the contributioi: of the - predictors to the dispersion of the predictant is determined. - After the ranking of predictors a linear multiple regression is constructed using the algorithm in [3], in which the number of predictors ensuring the best quality of construction of the regression is determined. The regression is constructed using the method of ordered minimizing of risk, the essence of which is as follows. - In the ordered set of predictors the least squares method is used in constructing a regression for 1, 2, 3,...k predictors. Assimte that OC Q are regression coeffic- ients found by the least squares method. For each constructed regression we ascer- - tain its quality evaluation of the I(k) parameter: k \ : (4) l(k!= z~-~` ) PtX, N,l dxd\,. 15 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY where I(k) is ttie mean risk; y is the predictant; x=(xl, x2,...,xk) is the vec- tor of predictors; P(x,y) is the joint density of the distribution of probabilities x and y. It is known from theory [3] tizat with the probability 1-)7(0.~~) R e-a,;.>R k(R) P(R) R-= dR, ~ R Ne = N. n �f, k, S dQ S where No is the uumber of photons in a laser pulse, n is the number of pulses, Ot(Xo), a:(i1) are the coefficients of atmospheric absorption at the laser uavelength a o and the shifted radiation a; kl(A ) is a coefficient taking into lccount the losses in absorption and reflection in the receiving optical system; 'j(A) is the quantum effectiveness uf the phbtodetector (taking into account the collection af electrons from the photocathode); S is the effective area of the receiving unit; d d/d.2 is the differential scattering section of the investigated gas; k2R is the lidar geometrical factor; /O (R) is the concentration of the inves- tibated matter (the number of molecules per unit volume); R1 and R2 are the limits of the investigated volume of the atmosphere. Tlie minimum detectable concentration (NIDC) of molecules of any impurity is depen- clent on the required reliability of detection, which is determined by the statis- _ tical signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). In the registry of the signal by the method of counting of "photons" the S/N ratio is determined using the following expression: S/N = Ne/~ tde + 2 (Nbacl: + Ndark)s (2) where Nback, Ndark are the noise signai in the photoelectrons, caused by the back- ground of the sky, and the dark current of the photomultiplier during the time of measurement of the CLS signal T= nt, Q,= 2(R2 - R1)c is the time of ineasurement of a signal allocated to one laser pulse, c is the speed of light. The number of photoelectrons caused by radiation of the sky background is found from the expression - N kO.1 r, (1) Ar.SQ TB (3) back - h ~ ~ where lc( is a coefficient taking into account the total losses of the background radiation in the optical part of the measurement unit; Q~ is the width af the reg- - istered part of the spectrum;S2 is the solid angle of collection of sky airglow; B(T) is the spec*_ral density of the energy brightness of the sky background; h-V is the energy of a photon in the registered part of the spectYum. In order r.o determine the MDC of the measured contaminant it is necessary to stip- ulate the required S/N ratio (or the required accuracy in measurement). Expression (2) is used in determining the necessary minimum number of photoelectrons Nemin� If it is assumed that the concentration P in the limits of the sounded sector R2 - Rl is constant, we can then write NoR= R; ' [M N H min ] /0 MDC = - ~ R R N, nr ki (i.) S~ ~ � e � e-1 k�: (R) dR (4) R, The response and effective radius of the CLS system are detPrminecl for the mosc part by tlie optimum choice of the working parameters of dll the units in the system and ttie possi.bilities of their technical rea]ization. 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USH: ONLY Laser. The principal parameters determining the effectiveness of excitation of the CLS spectrum are the power and wavelength of the light radiation. It can be seen from exprPSSions (1)-(3) that the received signal is amplified with - an increase in the energy of the laser pulse and the number of pulses (total radi- ation energy). The wavelength of radiation does not enter in direct form into these equations, in the last analysis determining the MDC value, but to a strong degree it governs such parameters as the quantum effectiveness of the photodetector, the scattering cross section of molecules and the in[ensity of the background glow of the day sky. For the photocathodes the maximum of the quantum yield falls in the near UV and the visible region.s of the spectrum and its value for the best models of photomultipliers attains 0.3. In the red region of the spectrum (first harmon- ics of a ruby laser and a neodymium glass laser) ~ (~1) is tenths of a percent or less. The CLS section in the absence of resonance conditions, as is well known [S], is proportional to the fourth power of the frequency of scattered light. In the range of wavelengths shorter than 300 nm the spectral density of the brightness of the sky background B('l) is virtually equal to zero due to absorption by ozone in the upper atmosphere, but in the region shorter than 250 nm strong absorption by at- rnospheric oxygen bpgins to exert an effect. Accordingly, fcr the re- sponse of the laser to CLS and in order to be able to work in the daytime it is better to use lasers radiating in the range of wavelengths 250-300 nm. At the present time solid-state ruby pulsed lasers (second harmonic) and alumo- yttrium garnet lasers (alloyed with neodytnium) (second, third and fourth harmon- ics), as well as Excimer lasers [10], satisfy the enumerated requirements most completely. Receiving unit. In accordance with equation (1), the received CLS signal is pro-- - portional to the effective area of the receiving unit and therefore it is selected as large as possible and is limited both by design considerations and the pos- sibility of matching with the employed spectral instrument. In actuality the di- - ameter of the receiving unit in known apparatus varies in the range 0.3-1 m[3, 9]. Unit for selecting spectral lines. The principal requirements imposed on such an apparatus include a high luminosity, a high transmission in the working range of wavelengths and a high degree of suppression of scattered light for the main laser frequency ~0. In the real atmosphere scattering at this frequency is caused by aerosols. Its value with a range of visibility of about 5 km exceeds the molec- ular scattering value in the visible and UV spectral regions by a factor of ap- proximately 20-100. Accordingly, for the registry of a contaminant with a rela- tive concentration)D it is necessary to have suppression by at least a factor of 105/p . It therefore follows that for measuring concentrations of 10 mill'1 the suppression of scattered light at the nondrifting frequency must be about 1010. Atmospheric precipitation, dust particles, etc., increasing the scatteriag, lead to the need fo r increasing this value. The required suppression can be ensured by a set of narrow-band rilters, their combination with spectral instruments, or by a spectral ins trument with triple monochromatization. 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Photodetector. Ln the successive registry of contaminants use is made of photo- multipliers having a high quantum yield in the working part of the spectrum, a - high amplification factor necessary for the registry of each photoelectron knocked from the photocathode and having the maximum possible time resolution. An important advantage of the CLS method is the possibility fer simultaneous regis- try of all or several contaminants present in the investigated volume of the at- mosphere. In order to exploit this advantage it is necessary to use multichannel photodetectors with the corresponding electronic circuitry. System for the registry and processing of data. In order to exclude the influence of instability of the source of excitation of the CLS spectra, the atmospheric parameters along the sounded path and the instabilities of the apparatus on the accuracy in measuring the absolute concentration of different substances in the remote registry of CLS spectra use is made of reldtive measurements employing the _Line of atmospheric nitrogen as a concentration reference point. This is accom- plished most simply in a multichannel system for the registry of spectra. In addi- tioa, the multichannel system makes possible a substantial reduction in measure- ilent time and an increase in the effectiveness of use of the laser capabilities. The reliability of the results of ineasuring small CLS signals is increased with the accumulation of readings of the series of laser pulses and therefore the registry system (both single- and multichannel) must have a unit for accumul- ating or integrating the photodetector signals. The registry system must ensure measurement of interfering signals (the dark current of the photodetector, sky background, atmospheric fluorescence and fluorescence of impurities, etc.). The data processing system is usually assigned the functions of control of the - lidar components, computation and documentation of the results of ineasurements by means of a digital printout, monitoring of parameters of t}ie apparatus and also implementation of different measurement programs. Its structure and specific embodiment are determined by the range of tasks assigned to the entire system for _ monitoring the sources of contamination in the atmosphere. Experimental Investigations At the Spectroscopy Institute USSR Academy of Sciences specialists have created a mobile apparatus for remote monitoring of the composition of industrial ef- fluent (CLS lidar) in accordance with joint technical specifications prepared by specialists of the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the State Covsnittee on Hy- drometeorology. The apparatus is mounted in the interior of a PAZ-672 bus [1]. Its distinguishing characteristics, making it different from similar systems [3, 9], are: a) the use oF laser radiation with a wavelength of 266 nm, which made it pos- sible to carry out measurements during the daytime; b) use of a spectrograph with tr.iple monochromatization; c) presence of two registry systems three-channel for a photomultiplier and multichannel�television system (MTS). Both systems oper- ate in a photon counting regime; d) registry of the profile of the contaminant along the sounded path on a display; e) automation of the outpu*_ of wavelengths in the spectrograph and processing of the measurement results uGing a 15 VSM-5 pro- grammable calculator. As a result of careful processing of individual lidar com- ponents [2] it was possible to improve soma of it5 parameters. The quantity of 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAI, iJSF. ONLY scattered spectrograph light is reduced to 10-12. The inverse line dispersion was reduced to 2.5 A/mm. The system for registry from the photomultiplier has a mean _ noise value of 1 reading per 105 laser pulses. The MTS with respect to its response (in one channel) is inferior to the photo- multiplier system due to a lower quantum yield of the image converter photocath- ode (5-9X versus 25% for the selected photomultiplier models) and high noise. The purpose of the experimental measurements made at industrial enterprises was: clarification of the interfering factors limiting the fundamental possibilities of the method; measurement of the contaminating substances in the atmosphere and industrial ef- fluent. In the process of ineasurements with a lidar in the atmospheric CLS spectra there was registry of a continuous background caused by atmospheric fluorescence. It was pointed out in [7], in pa.rticular, that when working with an argon laser (458-515 nm) there was fluorescence of atmospheric aerosols in a broad spectral range. Atmo- spheric fluorescence can also be caused by some contaminating substances S02, N02, petroleum products and other organic matter present in the form of vapor and aerosol. However, reports on observations of atmospheric fluorescence under the influence of radiation in the near-W spectral region could not be found. Accord- ingly, measurements were made of the fluorescence level and a study was made of the distribution of its intensity by wavelengths with excitation by the two wave- lengths most preferable for reuiote sounding of the atmosphere by the CLS method: 266 and 347 nm. ihe total fluorescence was not determined, but its intensity was neasured at different points of the working range of wavelengths. It was found that the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum increases smoothly toward the long-wave end of the working range. At the shift frequency 3000 cm 1 it is approx- imately 3 times greater than at a frequency of 500 em 1(the intensity of scatter- ed light, on the other hand, increases with approach to the exciting line). Thc measured values of the atmospheric fluorescence level in the frequency range 2000- 3000 cm 1 are given in Table 1. The intensity of fluorescence in Table 1 and elsewhere is given in the equivalent concentration of nitrogen. By this is meant such a concentration of uniformly dis- tributed nitrogen with which the CLS signal is equal to the fluorescence signal. In order to facilitate a comparison of the measurement results at different wave- lengths they were all scaled to an identical width of the discriminated spectral sector, equal to 10 cm 1. The table shows that the fluorescence of atmospheric pre- cipitation is more intense when working with the second harmonic of a ruby laser, whereas for the fourth harmonic of a YAG laser the fluorescence noise is less. Measurements of the fluorescence level were made imder different atmospheric con- ditions and were separated by large time intervals. Accordingly, Table 1 gives the limits of the averaged values. Using the already i.ntroduced value of the equiva- lent concentration of nitrogen)o eQuiv it is easy to compute the signal strength Nfl in the photoelectrons caused by fluorescence. For this purpose in equation (1) it is necessary to introduce the factor Q-WOrk110 cm 1, taking into account the width of the working spectral interval AYWOrk in cm 1. In most cases when the ratio of the concentration of the fluorescent impurity Pequiv to the concentra- tion of the measured gas)o does not change within the limits of the sounded 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY sector R2- R1, Nfl can be expressed through the CLS signal, Np of the measured gas in tFie folluwing way: Nfl _ Qvwork Pe uiv N (S) 10 ~odrel e' where ~ el = d~/~ dO~ is the relative CLS section of the measured gas. d,R d5~ N2 Thus, the S/N ratio during fluorescence deteriorates in comparison with (2) and can be expressed as follows: (S/N)fl - Ne/ Ne + 2(Ndark + Nback + Nfl) (6) Using expressions (5) and (6) and the measurement results given in Table 1 it is possible to estimate the sensitivity of the CLS method in sounding of the atmo- sphere, taking into account the interfering effect Qf.f_luorescence. For example, with ~lY= 30 cm 1, accumulation of the signal for 104 laser pulses and a S/N ratio 2 ~he response is limited for NH3 to 40 mill-1 and for S02 to 15 mill-1 (without taking into account the resonance amplification of the CLS section). A fluorescence of the effluent from a heat and power plant was also discovered. The neasured fluorescence values as a function of the type of fuel used at the heat and power station are given in Table 2. The measurements also indicated the presence of fluorescence of effluent from cars and trucks. For example, the level of fluorescence of the exhaust gases from a diesel engine was 500 mill-1 and its spectrum extended from 1500 cm-1 and beyond into the red region. Table 1 Level o.f Atmospileric Fluorescence in the Range 2000-3000 cm 1,0 V= 10 cm'1 lJavelength, Equivalent concentration of mm nitrogen in mill'1 fog, rain, snow 347 300-500 266 20-100 without precipita- tion Table 2 Intensity of Fluorescence of Effluent of Heat and Power Plants as Function of Type oi Fuel Employed Wavelength, I:quivalent concpntration nm of nitrogen in tnill-1 mazut, coal gas gas 50-200 532 500-1000 100-300 - 20-50 266 300-1000 200-500 20-50 The htllC for contaminants distributed uniformly in the atmosphere and atmospheric components were estimated using measurethents in a special cell and directly in the atmosphere. The following results were obtained when determining the MIDC f_or some gases in a specially fabricated cell with a length of 12 m set up at. a distance of 100 m: for - C6H6 10 mill-1, NIi3 100 mill'1, kerosene vapors 0.1 mill'1. The low re- sponse in determining CO is attributable to the inadequate selectivity of the spectral instrument, as a result of which it is not possible to separate noise from the vibrational-rotational structure of N2. Figure 1 shows the relative 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY positioning of the CO line and the N2 structure. The dashed line represents the instrument fur,ction of the spectral apparatus and the three-channel system for registry f.rom the photomultiplier. A high response for kerosene vapors was ob- tained with their registry in the fluorescence spectrum in the region 270-300 nm (it was not possible to discriminate the CLS line due to the high fluorescence level). We should note some characteristies- and difficulties in making the cell measurements. Ip particular, these include the fluorescence of the cell windows, absorption by the cell walls, difficulties in admitting the gas and taking samples. It was established that in meas urements of C02 in the atmosphere for R= 100 m and Q R= 20 m the MDC value was 50 mill'1. Meas urements in the plumes of effluent were made at heat and power plants operat- ing on different fuQls (coal, mazut, gas). The distance to the muth of the stacks was 200 m. The cross section of the plume was 10-15 m. In our first tests [1] we note d a strong absorption of laser radiation in the work- ing region of frequencies (266 nm) by the solid particles, aeroso].s and S02 gas present in the plume of effluent. In cold weather the plume became "milky" and translucent due to the formation of aerosols during the condensation of water vapor both for laser radiatlon and for simlight, as was easily observed visually. _ One of the problems solved at heat and power plants was the separate estimation of the absorption of laser radiation by S02 gas and solid particles. Since ab- sorption by dust and soot was virtually nonselective, by two-frequency soundtng it is possible to measure the absorption caused by SOZ. The sounding was carried out at wavelgngths 266 and 532 nm. Radiation at 532 nm is _ not absorbed by S02 [11] and NO 2[8]. In this experiment the influence of water aerosols could be neglected because the measurements were made in warm, dry weather (3-17 September 1979). rigure 2 shows oscillograms of the signal of scattered radiation at 266 and 532 nm. It can be seen that the plume of effluent is completely opaque for radiation at 266 nm. The mean S02 concent ration measured at this time (at a wavelength of 532 nm) was 750 mill'1. Computations made in [11] using the absorption coeffic- ients for S02 at a wavelength of 266 nm confirmed that with such a S02 concentration the radiation of the fourth harmonic of a YAG laser (266 nm) should be completely absorbed. The dashed curve in Figures 2 and 3 shows the shape of the signal for a case when there is no absorption in the plume. Figure 3 shows oscillograms of signals at the nonshifted frequency 266 nm for the effluen*_ of a heat and power plant operating on coal and gas. It can be seen that the absorption by effluent of a heat and power station operating on gas is not oreat. In this case the S02 concentration, measured by the sunlight absorption Method, was 30 mill'1. The S02 concentration was measured by this method at wave- lengths 303.8 and 305.0 nm, at which the absorption coefficient has extremal val- ues. A concentration of 30 mill-1 was not registered from the CLS spectra; this can mean that there is no strong resonance increase in the S02 section for radi- ation at 266 nm, as was asserted in [6]. 47 FOR OFFiCiAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In addition to measurement of sulfur gas, attempts were made to detect NOZ, HZS - and CH4. However, signals were not reliably registered. Accordingly, it is only possible to speak of an upper limit of the content of these gases in the plume - of effluent, determined by the response of the apparatus, that is, the content of the mentioned gases was lower than 100-500 mi11-1. Such a relatively low lidar concentration response when sounding the effluent fram heat and power - plants is attributable to the low effective extent of the sounded layer, which due to the absorption of laser radiation at 266 nm by S02 gas was only 1-2 m, instead of the 10-15 m extent of the plume. When making measurements at the stack rwuth the effluent of contaminating sub- stances can be determined using the expression Q = cV, where c is the mean concentration, V is the volumetric rate of gas escape. Estimates indicated that the discrepancies between the measured values of s ulfur &as effluent and the computed values obtained with allowance for the composition of the fuel did not exceed a factor of 2. This discrepancy falls in the limits of computation accuracy. In order to evaluate the possibilities of ineasuring effluent from cars and trucks by the CLS remote spectroscopy method we carried out measurements of the exhaust gases of a KRAZ vehicle with a diesel engine. The distance to the vehicle was R = 100 m, the direction of the exhaust was perpendicular to the laser ray, passing approximately 5 m f rom the side of the vehicle. CO with a concentration 1500 mill-1 and SOZ with a concentration of 200 mill'1 were registered in the exhaust. N= Scattering in telescope -laccemr SMum Pjume !D mrntcnen~ t - - ' - ~ V I J oM ~~a;+c~ nsec Fig. l. Relative positioning of vibration- Fig. 2. Oscillugrams of signals of - al line of CO and vibrational-rotational scattered radiation for 266 nm (a) and structure of N2. 532 nm (b) obtained with two-f requency sounding of plume of effluent from .c~c~~~,ca Plume lieat and Power Plant. ~ ~ mtnrt,ront T Fig. 3. Oscillograms of signals ut nonshifted fre- - quency 266 nm showing depenZance of laser radiation , ,,absorption on type of fuel (content in 502 efflu- 1~~-' aaM,~zo Hc~ nsec ' ent). a) gas, b) coal. 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 Z 750 '700 1130 2300 1350 Ju c,N' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Summary 1. An examination of the characteristics of the CLS method made it possible to ev8luate its possibilities applicable to remote detection of gas effluent of in- dustrial enterprises and formulate the principal requirements on the apparatus. The CLS lidar created on the basis of these requirements is in no way inferior in its characteristics to similar foreign apparatus, and with respect to a number of technical solutions is superior to them. 2. In the course of lidar tests for the first time there was found to be fluor- escence of the real atmosphere and the gas effluent of heat and power plants, cars and trucks. Its intensity was measured under different atmospheric condi- tions and with the use of different fuels. This phenomenon fundamentally limits the analytical possibilities of the method. At the same time, it was demonstrated that careful selection of the laser radiation wavelength can lessen this influence. - 3; Experimental operation of the CLS lidar revealed the possibility of detecting at distances 100-200 m different gases with the following concentrations: C02 200 mill-1, NH3 100 mill'1, CO 1000 mill-1, SOZ 300-500 mill-1. The discrepancies with the computed values of the concentrations in the effluent of heat and power plants, obtained with allowance for the composition of the fuel and the combustion regime, do not exceed a factor of 2, which falls in the limits of computation accuracy. The response of the developed CLS lidar can be substantially increased by improv- ing its energy characteristics (use of a more powerful laser, coating of optical - parts, improvement of matching of the receiving telescope with the spectrograph). With the present-day status of optical and laser instrument making the energy characteristics of the lidar can be realistically increased by a factor of ap- proximately 1000. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Vayner, Yu. G., Kuzin, M. Ya., Malyavkin, L. P., Sil'kis, E. G., Tanaka, K. V., Titov, V. D., Combined Scattering Lidar for the Analysis of Industrial Atmo- spheric Contaminations," KVANTOVAYA ELEKTRONIKA (Quantum Electronics), 6, No 3, 1979. 2. Vayner, Yu. G., Malyavkin, L. P., Sillkis, E. G., Titov, V. D., OTCHET 0 NIR "RAZRABOTKA USOVERSHENSTVOVANNOGO MAKET LIDARA KR I METODIKI DISTANTSIONNYKH IZMERENIY GAZOVYKH VYBROSOV PROMYSHLENNYKH PREDPRIYATIY VBLIZI USTtYA DYMOVYKH TRUB" (Report on the Scientific RQsearch Project "Development of an Improved Model of a Combined Scattering Lidar and a Method for Remote Measurements of Gas Effluent of Industrial Enterprises Near the Mouth of Stacks ISAN, = Troitsk-Moscow, 1979. 3. Vetokhin, S. S., Gulakov, I. R., Pertsev, A. N., Reznikov, I. V., ODNOELEK- TRONNYYE FOTOPRIYErINIKI (Single Electron Photodetectors), Moscow, Atomizdat, 1979. 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4. Nazarov, I. M., Fridman, Sh. D., Rozhdestvenskaya, V. N., Zhuravlev, V. F., - "Determination of Mass Structure of Aerosols in the Plumes of Industrial Enterprises With the Use of a Lidar," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA (Meteor- ology and Hyclrology), No 3, 1980. 5. Sushchinskiy, M. M., SPEKTRY KOMBINATSIONNOGO RASSEYANIYA MOLEKUL I KRISTALLOV (Cotnbination Scattering Spectra of Molecules and Crystals), Moscow, Nauka, 1969. 6. Torgovichev, V. A., Klimova, T. N., "Preresonance Amplification of Combination - Scattering of a Number of Gaseous Components of che Atmosphere During Lidar Sounding in the Middle W Spectral Region," V VSESOYUZNYY SIMPOZIUM PO LAZER- NOMU T AKUSTICHESKOMU ZONDIROVANIYU ATMOSFERY: TEZISY DOKLADOV. CH. II (Fifth All-Union Symposium on Laser and Acoustic Souiiding of the Atmosphere: Summaries of Reports. Part II), Tomsk, 1978. 7. Gelbwachs, J., Birnbaum, M,, "Fluorescence of Atmcspheric Aerosols and Lidar Implications," APPL. OPTICS, Vol 12, No 10, 1973. 8. Hall, T. C., Blacet, F. E., et al., "Separation of Absorption Spectra of N02 and N204 in the Range of 2400-5000 A," J. CHEM. PHYS., Vol 20, No 11, 1952. 9. Hirschfeld, T., Klaner, S., "Remote Raman Spectroscopy as a Pollution Radar Optical Spectrum," July/August 63, 1970. 10. Uchino, 0., Maeda, M., Hirono, M., "Application of Excimer Laser to Laser- Radar Observations of the Upper Atmsphere," IEEE. J. QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, Vol QE-15, No 10, 1979. 11. Warneck, P., Marto, F. F., Sullivan Y. 0., "Ultraviolet Absorption of 502: Dissociation Energies of S02 and 50~," J. CHEM. PHYS., Vol 40, 1964. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.501:519.24 METHOD FOR THE INTERPOLATIQN OF DATA FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 48-53 [Article by V. Ye. Lagun, V. F. Romanov, candidate of physical and mathematical sci- _ ences, V. A. Safronov, and N. P. Smirnov, doctor of geographical sciences , Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute, manuscript submitted 11 Apr 80] [Text] Abstract: Z`he article gives tl:e results of nwner- ical experiments for studying the accuracy and filtering properties of different interpolation methods in model and real fields. This makes it possible to select the method most acceptable for the creation of the initial network neces- sary fo r a spline approximation. A method is proposed for interpolation of data from aero- logical sounding of the atmosphere based on a comb ination of the finite elements and spline ap- proximation methods. The method is applicable in the processing of aerological information of the "POLEKS- Sever- 79" experiment. Investigation of the large-scale interaction between the atmosphere and ocean and - evaluation of the relative contribution of "subgrid" processes to the energy ba1- ance for their parameterization in models of global circulation and clima.te are _ among the principal purposes of field experiments under the POLEKS program [13]. In the formulation of a theory of climate as a mean relative,.yto a set of syr,optic records the emphasis must be on investigation of the structure, energy character- istics and influence exerted on the mean fields by synoptic diszt}rb}ahces 3;n the atmosphere. The aerological informa.tion collected in the course of a field experiment as a ba- sis for further analysis consists of data from radiosonde measurements of the at- mosphere, which is carried out at aerolo gical stations, and also an weather ships and on the ships carrying out the field experiment. The exis-ting network of aero- logical stations and expeditionary observation facilities do not make it possible to carry out measurements over sea areas with a spatial discreteness of less than 600 km. Even when computing the advective energy influxes integral for the area of the ex- - periment on the basis of regularly schedul.ed data such a discreteness is inade- quate for explicit allowance for processes of a synoptic scale. Synoptic 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - disturbances are "subgrid" and cannot but introduce errors into the i L,gral eval- uations. In order to investibate synoptic processes in the aCmosphere it is necessary Chat, - the total duration of the observations and the extent of the experimental polygon = correspond to the values of the characteristic temporal and spatial scales of global circulation. In addition, the spat ial-temp oral discreteness of the observa- tions must be adequate for an explicit description of synoptic disturbances. It follows from what has been said that it is necessary to develop methods for interpolation of data from the existing network of observations to the points of intersection of a more detailed grid. A qualitative analysis of the system of equations shows that a 12-hour discretPness of observations is adequate for de- scribing the evolution of synoptic processes. Thio makes it pc~~sible to emphasize spatial interpolation. Tho fields obtained as a result of interpolation must be smooth and retain the ;:rincipal statistical properties of the meteorological elements, to a minimum clistorting the harmontcs with scales of the processes to be studied in the spa- tial spectrum of the fields to be interpolated. The methods of optimum and polynomial [8] interpolation are the most important of the linear interpolation methods used in meteorology. It was noted in [2] that a f undamental of the polynomial method is an arbitrariness in the choice of the polynomials regardless of the properties of tlie meteorological fields. Being freE of this shortcoming, optimum interpolation requires the stip- ulation of the statistical structure of the field, which is difficult for regions where field experiments are carried out which are poorly supplied with information. During recent years work has been carried out on development of a method for rep- resenting meteorological fields using the spline functions method [1]. Being a solution of the variational problem, splines give not only a smootlt and consis- tent approximation, but also have a clear physical interpretation: in splines there is realization of a minimum of the potent,ial energy of some mechanical sys- tem [6]. [In general, it is unclear how it is related to the a.ctual potential en- ergy of a meteorological (synoptic) process.] The latter circumstance advantageous- ~ ly dis criminates spline interpolation from other polynomial methods. The classical formulation of interpolation by splines is the interpolation of a f unction [6]. Accordingly, a necessary preparatory stage for the use of splines is the creation of an initial grid region. Tre observation points in a field zxperiment O.o not form such a grid. In [7] it was proposed that climatic and prognostic data be used for filling in the lacking information. An initial grid region, which we will call a"base" region, can be obtained using ordinary polynomial interpolation or the fin.ite elements method (FEM) [12]. The essence of the FEM method is a breakdown of the region of stipulation of the function into simpl.e subregions (triangles, recr_angles) with the vertices at the observation points and polynomial interpolation of f:ne function in each subregion. 52 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY The smoothness of the field is retained with an alternation of the subregions - (elements). The degree of the approximating polynomial is determined by the num- b er of stations forming the element. For territories with a thin network of sta- tions it is only possible to use two-dimensional simplex-elements. For example, for a simplex-element with three vertices (xi, yi), (xj, yj), (xk, yk) a t which the field values Ti, Tj, Tk are stipulated the interpolation formula has the form [10] - T - ;V, T; N; Tj +,V,; Tk, where 1 :V, = l A ((xj yk - .Yk Y/) - (yj y0 .r (-rR - -rj) y 1 'Vi = 1 .-t ~(xr, Yi - Yk xr1 (Yk - yd x (xT - xk) -v Nk - 2~q ((x, - xj Y 0 r (Yr - Y) .r ; (.rj - x,) y1, A is the area of the triangle, x, y are the current coordinates. i ~ I - % ~ .i ] ~ : L _ 1..~ (1) Fig. l. Diagram of distribution of aerological soimding stations, computation grids and surface pressure field (1 real and 2-- computed). 3) aerological stations; 4) points of intersection of base grid; example of computation grid lower left ca rner of polygon. After creation of a base grid the function to be interpolated in each "square" of the grid region is represented in the form of a bicubic polynomial 3 3 _ _ Til (.1e = v I Qkl (X Xi 1" (2) k-u I:U 53 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 :  , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY where i= U, n, j= 0, m and satisfies additional conditions at the boundary of the region. Source [6] gives an algorithm for finding the coefficients aki and the convergence of the method is demonstrated. - The results of studies for comparison of different interpolation methods [3, 41 make it possible to conclude that a priori it is difficult to give preference to any of the methods. It is necessary to make a special investigation for the purpose of selecting the method most acceptable for the problem considered. In this case as test material it is possible to use model fields constructed in ac- cordance with the processes to be studied. Examples of model fields are given in [3, 4]. Below we give the results of numerical experiments for studying the accuracy and filtering properties of some interpolation methods in model fields for the pur- _ nose of selecting a method for the processing of data from aerological sounding in the field experiment "POLEKS-Sever-79." A diagram of the location of sounding - st Cions is shown as Fig. 1. The model fields simulated synoptic formations. The real network of stations was used in the computations. _ The experiments were carried out with the following types of interpolation: a) _ interpolation into the computation grid region by means of algebraic polynomials by the least squares method (LSM); b) interpolation into the base grid by the LSM with subsequent spline interpolation into the computation grid region; c) interpolation into the computation grid region using the FEM method; d) interpol- - ation inro the base grid by the FEM method with subsequent spline interpolation into the computation grid region. a~ a soo s4 ~ SJB S17 d) ~ S04 Soe 5f1 BI L512 Fig. 2. Example of interpolation of model field (a) into base grid by FEM, into computation spline appro ximation (b)- and by FEM in two stages (c). Figure 2 shows a precise model field, and fields obtained by interpolation by meth- ods (c) and (d). The figure shows that the spline field in general is close to the initial field, whereas the simplex variant of the FEM gives a highly smoothed approximation. It follows f rom the cited experiments that: 1) polynomial interpolation in the casF of a determi.ned field ensures a high accuracy of the analysis; 2) spline in- terpolation in a"true" base grid has good interpolation properties (the relative Lnterpolation error is less than 1%); 3) a splins interpolation in a base grid constructed by the FEM considerably corrects its smoothing --ffect; 4) the intro- duction of a random component into a model field is reflected to an insignificant degree in the spline approximation; if the base grid is constructed by the FtM meth- od, on the other hand, there is a marked decreuse in the accuracy of interpolation by polynomials using the least squares method. 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI+ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 4) C) ~ . ~o 10 r ~Q ; r; 10 700 ~ I a) 1 ..r 10 -i ?00 ' 1! r FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY f0 t ~ 3 Fig. 3. Evaluations of two-dimens ional spectra of model fields. a) evaluation of spectrum of p recise mAdel field; b) evaluation of spectrum of field constructed by spline interpolation in base grid by FEM method; c) evaluation of spectrum of field constructed by FEM method in two stages; d) one-dimensional representations. In o rder to clarify the filtering properties of the interpolation we used spectral _ analysis methods. The statistical processing of the interpolated fields included computation of the elementary stat istical characteristics and evaluation of the two-dimensional correlation functions and spectral densities [10]. For greater clarity the two-dimens ional functions can be reduced to one-dimension- al sumnation of the values of the field of evaluations for the determined wave num- - bers. Figure 3 shows evaluations of two-dimensional spectra of fields shown in Fig. 2 and the one-dimensional analogues corresponding to them. An analysicr.of the one-dimensional representations shows the degree to which the statistical structure of the field changed as a result of interpolation. For ex- ample, the f ield obtained by the FEM method is characterized by a mi.nimum disper- sion. The mo s t informative partof the spectrum (the region of large wavelengths) - is considerab ly distorted and the short-wave part is smoothed. 55 FOR OFFICI,?"'j"_, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 .0 2 4 k APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFI(:IAL USE ONLY The spectrum of the spline field is closer to the true spectrum; only the short- wave part is insignificantly distorted. 'I'he harmonics of a synoptic scale are virtually not distorted. Idumerical experiments convincingly indicate that spline interpolation, in addition to technical simplicity, makes it possible to obtain the fields of ineteorological elements which meet the requirements imposed on data when analyzing the re- sults of a field experiment. The computations of real fields (Fig. 1) confirm the conclusion which was drawn. Thus, the proposed interpolation method for data from aerological sounding in a field experiment involves two stages. The first stage is preparatory.and inw?ves the creation of a rough grid region whose interval corresponds to the characteris- - tic dimensions of the studied pr.ossure formations. In the second stage the spline inte rpolation of the fielcls of meteorological elements is carried out at the points of intersection of the computation grid. The further improvement of the tain ing the base grid and also for spline interpolation of thi of intersection. 1. A1'berg, Zh., NiJ'son, E., (Theory of Splir:es and Its method involves a refinement of the method for ob- the development of a sufficiently simple algorithm : function with a nonuniform distribution of points BIBLIOGRAPHY Uolsh, Dzh., TEORIYA SPLAYNOV I YEYE PRILOZHENIYA Applications), Moscow, Mir, 1972. 2. Gandin, L. S., OB"YEKTIVNYY ANALIZ METEOROLOGICHESKIKH POLEY (Objective Anal- ysis of Meteorological Fields), Leningrad, Gidrom--teoizdat, 1963. 3. Kostytllcov, V. V., Zvereva, N. I., Tarasova, L. V., "Numerical Experiments for Comparison of Different Objective Analysis Methods," TxUDY GIDROMETTSENTRA - SSSR (Transactions of the USSR Hydrometeorological Center), No 170, 1977. - 4. Kostyukov, V. V., Seredkina, I. G., "Numerical Experiments 4Jith Objective An- alysis of Synoptically Significant Pressure Systems," TRUDY ZSRNIGMI (Trans- ~ actions of the Western Siberian Scientific Research Hydrumeteorological Inst- itute), No 29, 1978. - 5. Koshlyakov, M. I., "Scientific Results of 'Poligon-70' and Other Soviet Exped- itions," ISSLEDOVANIYE SINOPTICHESKOY IZMENCHIVOSTI OKEANA (Investigation of _ Synoptic Variability of the Ocean), MGI AN UkSSR, Sevastopo].', 1977. 6. Marchuk, G. I., METODY VYCHISLITEL'NOY MATEMATIKI (Methods of Computational Mathematics), Moscow, Nauka, 1977. 7. Penenko, V. V., "One Method for the Objective Analysis of t:ie Fields of Meteorological Elements on a Sphere," MEIEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOc=IYA (Meteorology = and Hydrology), No 5, 1974. 56 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 wOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 8. Petrov, A. A., "Objective Analysis on the Basis of Approximation of Fields by Polynomials," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA, No 6, 1968. 9. Polyak, N. I., Shakhmeyster, V. A., "Some Results of Tao-Dimensional SpectYgl Analysis of the Geopotential Field af the 500-mb Surface," TRUDY GGO (Trans- actions of the 14ain Geophysical Observatory), No 409, 1978. 10. Rozhkov, V. A., METODY VEROYATNOSTNOGO ANALIZA OKEANOLOGICHESKIKH PROTSESSOV _ (Methods for Stochastic Analysis of Oceanological Processes), Leningrad, - Gidrometeoizdat, 1979. _ 11. Segerlind, L., PRIMENENIYE METODA KONECHNYKH ELEMENTOV (Use of the Finite Ele- ments Method), Moscow, Mir, 1979. 12. Streng, G., Fiks, Dzh., TEORIYA METODA KONECHNYKH ELEMENTOV (Theory of the Finite Elements Method), Moscow, Mir, 1977. 13. Treshnikov, A. F., Sarukhanyan, E. I., Smirnov, N. P., "Results and Prospects of the Polar Experiment," PROBLEMY ARI;TIKI I ANTARKTIKI (Problems of the Arc- - tic and Antarctic), No 54, 1978. 14. Thompson, R. M., Payne, J. St. jd,, Recker, E. E., Reed, R. J., "Structure and Properties of Synoptic-Scale Wave Disturbances in the Intertropical Converg- ence Zone of the Eastern Atlantic," J. ATMOS. SCI,, Vol 36, No 1, 1979. 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.456.7 ANNUAL BUDGET OF EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN BETWEEN THE OCEAIC AND THE ATMOSPHERE Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 54-61 [Article by Yu. I. Lyakhin, candidate of geographical sciences, Leningrad Aydro- meteorological In.stitute, manuscript submitted 14 Apr 801 [Text] Abstract: On the basis of generalization of materials from hydrochemical observations in the world ocean for the period 1960-1978 the author has construct-- _ ed mean seasonal maps of the distribution of the concentrations of dissolved oxygen at the ocean surface. Computations were of the rate and mean annual budget of oxygen exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. It was established that with respect to oxygen exchange the world ocean is close to equilibrium with the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved axygen in the surface layer of the ocean is determined - by the relationship of the processes of oxygen production in photosynthesis and consumption in the oxidation of organic matter, as well as the influence of hor- izontal advection and exchange with the lower-lying layers. As a result the sur- - face waters in some regions are supersaturated with oxygen, whereas others are undersaturated; accordingly, the oxygen f.lux will be directed from the ocean into the atmosphere, or vice versa. The world ocean clirectly participates in the formation and regulation of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and there- fore a quantitative estimate of the receipts and losses in the gas exchange budget in the ocean-atmosphere system is one of the most important problems in chemical - oceanography. The oxygen flux 0 02) per unit time through a unit area of the ocean-atmosphere interface is dependent on several factors: [ N= invasion, 9= evasion] A U, = n, 9A C, (1) where p C(ml/liter) is the difference between the equilibrium concentration (solu- bility of oxygen at a given temperature and salinity [111) and the actual oxygen - content in the surface water, d-'i is the invasion constant (22.0�2.2 liter/(m4�iour) at 20�C [10]), when lAC>0, iX e is the evasion constant (11.5f1.1 liter/(m2�hour) 58 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 a) b) C> d) ~ . ~ ` ~ � 1 JS ~7 S, 40 ~ ~ . 09 . ~ r~. + + +e.,~ o~~' ~ ~ ~ D'' ~ ~l/ Y~ � ~ 40 � ~10~ f to -JO I ~4_ ' . .1 - 'J ~ 40 � ; .4-9.5 y6 t4i' ' , y s ~ ; - y ~ 40 40 ~ 1 �.C..'`..~.;;-~y ~ -/.S a ti . - - ` + \ ~ ~ ~ �1a. . ~ , ~ .'.'~t, Y1..2~~., 1~ 12 40 -10 - - - -1 ,o A6 ' �n~.. ~ ~ za ~ o~o : ~ ~ ~~o -6 ~01 ~ - -L 4D ; , _J ~ ` p , �!0 ` �?D % fiiz. ~SQ.-- . . Fig. 1. Content of dissolved oxygen (ml/liter) in surface water of world ocean according to actual data (a, c, e, g) and distribution of A C(x10'2 ml/liter), averaged by 5� trapezia at the surface of the world ocean (b, d, f, h). 59 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 e) f) g) nJ FQIt OFFICIAG USE ONLY o a k� " 40 I C~ � f0Y'J ~ ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ - - ;~9:~ - '--I 7o I-- - , - ---o ~:T _-ro �3a 40 a '1 f ~ ~ �ao ` - - - - - - ~ , - - - - -43 - - - 'f 4f~s 4~�.~ Y. . 4,~-y} y~s 6 ~i y6. . 71 IS~, ~T ~ - _41-- 1 ' . � ~ , . 1) ~ Q151 i ,-1--- \ 0:I z ~ A, IL - _ 40, -i~;'sor - ' : ao ~J '�l.-~.-~._..-^.~ / �1 ' i;~,JA ,-�4e.~::.,.~ .^r^'�`~~l.T'*~~ - -i _2B - . ~a~ ' ~ aUsarption of oxygen by ocean, release o{ oxygen from ocean and atmo- sphere. a, fi-- January-February, c, d April-May, e, f) July-August, g, h) ~ Uctober-November. 60 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY at 20�C [lO]), where nV is an integral coefficient [9] showing by how many times the rate of gas exchange increases with different wind velocities (V) in compar- ison with an ideal calm (1 + 0.27 V2 with V4.8 m%sec, -7.38 + 0.40 V2 with V,-,8 m/sec), nt is a temperature coefficient for reduc:ing the exchange constants frnm 20�C to the observed water temperature [10], linearly related to temperature (0.75 at 6�C and 1.10 st 25�C). Computations of transport of oxygen masses across the ocean surface requires a knowledge of the A C values at all nodal points in the world ocean, not as an av- erage for the year or for a half-year, but for each season of the year because averaging at large time scales can substantially distort tha result. The surface oxygen fields represented in the ATLAS OF THE OCEANS [2, 3] represent an averag- ing of observational data for the warm and cold half-years in the northern hemi- sphere, whereas it is necessary to have a mDre detailed idea r_oncerning the nature of the oxygen distribution in the surface water of the ocean from season to sea- son. For this purpose we carried out processir.g of bathometric data (TGM-3M tables) available at the Wo rld Data Center (Moscow) for 1960-1978 for the periods January- Februaay, April-May, July-August, October-November. lde used observational data from USSR expeditions (departments of the USSR Academy of Sc:iences, Academy of Sci- ences Ukrainian SSR, State Committee on Hydrometeorology, All-Union Institute of Fishing and Oceanography, USSR Navy)= axpeditions of the United States, Great Brit- ain, Japan, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Australia and African countries. The basis for evaluating the qualiCy of the initial data was the principles formul- ated by the author of [7]. The total number of observations remaining after the discarding of doubtful and erroneous values is given in Table 1. The greatest number of stations was in the Atlantic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean was covered with a less dense number of observations. The distribution of stations over the ocean area was also nonuniform. The greatest nwmber of stations (up to 30 in a 5� grid square) was ir. the regions of the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, shelves of Africa and South America, and in fishing areas. There were up to 10 stations each in the 5� grid squares of the northern parte of the oceans. There were far fewer stations (often 1-2 each 5� grid square) in the central regions of the southern halves of - the oceans and in the Antarctic Ocean. Nevertheless, the total numbPr of stations during the last eight years increased considerably. This made it gossible with an adeq uate degree of reliability to construct maps of the distribution of the concen- trations of dissolved oxygen for the four seasons of the year (Figure la, c, e, g) . In constructing the maps the values falling in a 1� square were averaged; the oth- ers were used as the result of ane-time observations. Sources [6, 14, 15] were used as auxiliary sources. The figures show that the general natterns of distribution of oxygen concentrations at the surface of the oceans and the shape of the ;solines persist during the en- tire year with insignificant variations in the tropical and temporal latitudes. Ap- preciable changes in the fields from season to season are noted in the high lati- tudes (to the north and south of 50�S). A"zone of uncertainty" of arrangement of the lines of equal oxygen concentration has a maximum width (up to 5� in longitude, 2-30 in latitude) in the tropical and equatorial latitudes; in other regions it does not exceed 1-2� in latitude. In general, the seasonal oxygen fields have a 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE (1NLY zonal character, revealing a similarity to the temperature fields and diagrams of circulation of surface water masses. The distribution of A C values character- izing the direction and intensity of oxygen exchange (Fig. 1b, d, f, h) reflects the mean seasonal relationships between oxygen production, the biological absorp- tion coefficient, temperature regime and processes. The princinal cen- � ters of oxygen absorption from the atmosphere are the Antarctic Ocean and the re- gions to the north of 45�N (all seasons, except summer), and also the east-tropical part of the Pacif ic Ocean (all seasons, except January); a weak invasion close to equilibrium is usually observed around Australia; the remaining regions of the world ocean are characterized by the release of oxygen from the water into the at- mosphere. Table 1 Number of Stations With Determinations of Dissolved Oxygen in nceans (1.960-1978) Used in ConStructing Fig. 1 Jcean Season Total January- April- July- October- February May August November Atlantic 2227 2679 2314 2355 9575 Indian 1320 1105 1237 960 4622 Pacific 2602 1813 1339 1750 7504 The rates of oxygen exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, computed using the mean monthly wacer temperature and wind velocity values from [2, 31, were com- pa red on characteristic profiles intersecting the uceans from the extreme north- ern to the extreme southern latitudes (Fig. 2). In the tropics and subtropics of the oceans during the entire year there is a predominance of the evasion of oxygen cvith rates of 10-20 ml/(m2�hour). In the temperate and high latitudes, where atmo- , spheric processes are more intense and the wind velocities increase, the release or absorption of o xygen, depending on season, attain 100 ml/(m2�hour). The general character of the variability of the oxygen fluxes by latitudes coincides with the - data in [1], obtained by another method. The fields of dissolved oxygen and the gas exchange parameters (Fig. 1) serve as a basis f.or computing the annual budget of gas exchange for the area of the world ocean using the equation M02 ='G SntnV ainvasion, evasion PAC, . (2) where "t is the number of hours in a season, S is the area of a 5� square in depen- clence on the geographic latitude [11], P is oxygea density under normal conditions (1.429 mg/ml). The summing of exchange masses of oxygen by 5� squares gives the budget for each season and as an average for the year for the entire world ocean. When making the computatio ns we took into account the generally accepted boundar ies between the oceans [13] and the position of the ice edge from [2, 3]. The results of the cum- putations are generalized in Table 2, froia which it is easy to see- the seasonal differences in the absorption or release of oxygea in latitude zones in the oceans. The total absorption and release of oxygen in rne world ocean (more than 52�109 62 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tons/year) are comparable with the production of oxygen by continental vegeta- tion (235�109 tons/year) and by phytoplankton in the ocean (154�109 tons/year) [4, 5], but the resultant annual budget is not great (-0.54�109 tons/year). The errors introduced into the results of the computations are created primarily by the errors in determinations of the oxygen content (�0.02 ml/liter) and the devi- a tions Q C from the mean values in 5� grid squares as a result of the intraseas- onal and spatial variability. The mean relative error in the Q C and Mp values will evidently be not less than 10% (Table 3) and the resultant annual gxygen ex- change budget is only 1% of the total exchange masses. Accordingly, it can be stated with certainty that with respect to oxygen exchange the world ocean is in ast3te close to equilibrium with the atmosphere. _ �~n/fM2y; II1/ (m2�hour) ~ _ C) a) ~ . -7G - / / - 0 .4~ ~ - ~ �s 4:' ~ ~O 1 ae ~ 4 ..i / -BO -4o 0 40 BO -BO -'YO 0 ~ ~ i . ' ` ~Y ` BO �i 2 S ~am 60 40 20 0 ZD 40 6f - N - Fig. 2. Rate of passage of oxygen through the ocean surface. a) along the meridian 30�W, b) along the meridian 60�E, c) along the meridian 160�W. 1) winter, 2) spring, 3) summer, 4) autumn (in the northern hemisphere). absarption by the ocean, release from the ocean. 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 3 r l d) C) . % - . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FUIl OFFICIAL USE ONLY u I vi - c: e- La ^ ^ oo ^7 c~ -r el Qf � ~ N:O CI ^ _ 1 -r I l~ I -t~ :.D N cl tf: P t.: O ~ ~W J.l I 'F i" I i + I + ' +Y + N 0 eMU7[- -r = so 0 ~ C ~ ~ N N^o oo - 'y c~ ' O v l ~N r-1 I . ONONC ^ o;+^. o ^ ~iccc^ ~ A y ~i - ~ O N ao ..i ^l 0 N cli Le) ci Qf Q1 ~ ti U: j 0 ' 6 C [ + O e^ .a: - C c0 c S O tl aG o0 L Q ~ ! ~ - ~ 41 00 :y1 Q~uS ~ ~r! co v ~AMQ T ~ f~ I O^7h0 N O ~ NCO O- CO ~1 -O OO r .C tA c^ N ct r; cc o c5 C) n oi -aoc ~ p "F OOCCO - O-O - 00-~N ~r t~ N ~ y ~ pf e- U15 C 00 r 41 . c++CO -.-:CO LC) G! ~ - 44 ~ ~ ~i~cv � - ~~ci a ~ �r oc ~c?tz c ~ - A - CO~^iC 7~r- c0 OM`�'N _ ^ . c~ .r., O~G v^! u^ c0 ~ - tl- C~r O ._r N V I o= cicc r: clioo 4 O ~ .r 4 ~ - - rn o N �r -r -r r. W -r a a, c~ o:c r oo ~ - ^ x o0 ~ I otic4 c- o t.-e ? ~ poC-_. Ti CC- ~i -CCic~i x = v ~ _ a) a o j ~,n'_' -r ti;~o :h ci o v: u: ^i v ci ~ oc--o ; c .r o Ln- - m ro ~ c; o 41 j d 3 . I N- =1Iv Q~ O M i[: t,-~p C7 C? O N If, C? CO c.1 G ~ ~ ! I N cd 0 ~ ~ L~ ~ 'n L^: ^ l ' . o nn U% S T C=' ' 4.J ~ 4-1 .r-1 4-1 :J . . . ~ ~ 1 J S! ti_= i :j { -^o a ~ b0 , CQ t~ q U ~7 W I ~ j V U G �'-I U O co 4-4 Q) 60 I 'b U r I - M F+4 ~ - O 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE OP1LY 7j ~ A �w z U W O .C: 4-J :3 O rn ~ C~ W O ~ ~-1 z Qi ~ cd N U O El 0 1+ w 0) N co a, ~ ~ 1+ I ~ ~ cd N U O >1 en ~ 0 r-1 ~ 0' ~ p td + v N ~ ~ O z APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 3 Averaged Errors in Computing AC and M02 in 5� Grid Squares in Different Zones Latitude zone Standard Maximum Mean rela- deviation deviation tive error L1C, ml/liter Q C from M021, % mean, ml/liter 25�N-25�S 0.02 up to 0.04 10 25�-40� 0.03 up to 0.05 10 _ North and south 0.04 up to 0.06 10 _ of 40� The general conclusion finds a satisfactory explanation when using data on the ~ balance of organic matter in the ocean. It was shown in [51 that about 2% of the _ organic carbon (109 tons Corg) produced by photosynthesis in the world ocean en- ters bottom deposits. The remaining oxygen mus t be a pure increment and be releas- ed into the atmosphere. But, on the other hand [12], approximately the same quan- tity of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon enters with the continental runoff and is virtually completely oxidized in the water masses of the ocean. Thus, the - halance is closed: that quantity of oxygen which remains with the transfer of or- - ganic matter into the bottom deposits is expended on the oxidation of organic mat- - ter in continental runoff. For the time being it is evidently premature to examine the problem of an excess of oxygen produced in the ocean and its role in the earth's atmosphere [8]. It should be noted that the computations discussed here were made without taking - into account the possible presencP of organic films on the ocean surface. At the present time there are still no reliable data on the chemical composition, thick- ness and structure of s urface films and therefo re a quantitative estimate nf the film effect is a matter of the future. BIBLIOGRAPHY _ 1. Ariel', N. Z., i3yutner, E. K., Bortkovskiy, R. S., Strokina, A. L. ,"Influence _ of Ocean Contamination by a Petroleum'Film o n Exchange of Oxygen With the Atmo- sphere," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA (Meteorology and Hydrology), No 2, 19791. Al 2. ATLAS OKEANOV. TII:HIY OIiEAN (Atlas of the Oceans. Pacific Ocean.), Izd-vo VMF, 1974. - 3. ATLAS OKEANOV. ATL,ANTICHESKIY I INDIYSKIY OKEANY (Atlas of the Oceans. Atlantic and Indian Oceans), Izd-vo VMF, 1977. 4. Dobrodeyev, 0. P., "Experience in a Quantita tive Evaluation of Global Activity of Living Matter," VESTNIK MGU: SERIYA GEOGR. (Herald of Moscow State Univer- sity: Geographical Series), No 1, 1974. - 5. Ivanenkov, V. N. ,"Investigation of Some Components of the Chemical Balance of the Oceans," OKEANOLOGIYA (Oceanology), Vol 14, No 3, 1974. 65 FOR OFFICIAL ri1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 6. Ivanenkov, V. N., "Chemistry of Waters in the Atlantic Ocean," ATLANTICHESKIY _ OKEANA (Atlantic Ocaan), Moscow, Mysl', 1977. 7. Ivanenkov, V. N. ,"5ources of Errors in ~t Chemical Analysis of [Jaters and an Evaluation of the Quality of Hydrochemical Observations," METODY GIDROKHIM- ICHESKIKH ISSLEDOVANIY OKEANA (Methods for Hydrochemical Investigations in the Ocean), LMoscow, Nauka, 1978. 8. Kagan, B. A., Ryabchenko, V. A., TRASSERY V MIROVOM OKEANE (Tracers in the Wo rld Ocean), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1978. 9, Lyakhin, Yu. I., "Rate of C02 Exchange Between the Ocean and Atmosphere in the Central Atlantic," TRUDY LGMI (Transactions of the Leningrad Hydrometeor- - ological Institute), No 57, 1976. - 10. Lyatch~n, Yu. I., "On the Problem of the Rate of Oxygen Exchange Between the Ocean and Atmosphere," OKEANOLOGIYA, Vol 18, No 3, 1978. 11. OKEANOGRAFICHESKIYE TABLITSY, Izd. 4-ye (Oceanographic Tables, Fourth Edition), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdar, 1975. 12. Roma.nkevich, Ye. A., GEOKHIMIYA ORGANICHESKOGO VESHCHESTVA V OKEANE (Geochem- istry of Organic Matter in the Ocean), Moscow, Nauka, 1977. 13. Stepanov, V. N., "General Information on the World Ocean," OKEANOLOGIYA. T l. GIDROFIZIICA OKEANOV (Oceanology. Vol 1. Ocean Hydrophysics), Nauka, 1978. 14. Chernyakova, A. M., "Dissolved Oxygen," TIKHIY OKEAN. T 3. KHIMIYA TIKHOGO OKEANA (Pacific Ocean. Vol 3. Chemistry of the Pacific Ocean), Moscow, Nauka, 1966. 15. Wyrtki, K., OCEANOGRAPHIC ATLAS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INDIAN OCEAN EXPEDITION, U. S. Co vt. Printing Off., Washington, 1971. i 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551. (465: 507.362) - USE OF SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF THE 3URFACE TEMPERATURE FIELD IN A NUMERICAL MODEL OF THE UPPER LAYER OF THE OCEAN Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 62-70 [Article by V. P. Kochergin, professor, I. Ye. Timchenko, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, V. I. Klimok and V. A. Sukhorukov, candidates of physical and mathematical sciences, and V. M. Talanov] jText] Abstract: A numerical model of the upper quasihomogeneous layer of the ocean was used in assimi.lation of data from satel- lite and contact measurements of the sur- = face temperature field. A statistical pro- cedure is proposed for adjusting the re- - sults of these measurements. The data used - were materials from the Soviet-French ex- pedition in the Gulf of Lyons in 1976. The different problems involved in the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean are of great importance with respect to monitoring the state of the ocean, weather forecasting, solving navigational probleros and op timizing the process of search for concentrations of fish. The forma.tion of a quasihomogeneous layer at the acean surface plays an important role in the transfer of heat reaching the ocean surface into the ocPan. The monitoring of the state of the ocean involves tracking the spatial-temporal evolution of the principal fields in the ocean in the investigated region. In carrying out such monitoring it is necessary to use not only contact measurements ' of the f ields, but also information on oceanic processes at the ocean surface which can be obtained from satellites. In recent years, due to the use of scanning _ measuring instruwents on satellites, it has become possib le to obtain images of the ocean surface in the IR range [13]. Such images constit ute a virtually instantan- - eous photograph of the surface temperature field at tI-ie time when the satellite _ trajectory intersects the investigated region. The purDos e of calibration of satellite information is its joint use with contact data for the ocean. One of the first experiments for adjusting the,measurement results was made by French scientists [12] during the second Soviet-French expedition "Sovfrans-II" in the Gulf of Lyons in 1976 [8, 14]. In the course of the experiment simultaneous 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY remote and contact measurements were made of the surface temperature of the gulf (scientific research ship "Suroit" and the American satellite "NOAA-4"). These measurements were accompanied by density surveys from aboard the scientific re- search ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" [10]. The totality of collected measurement data makes it possible to carry out numerical experiments for the joint use of the results of satellite and contact observations in a model of the upper quasi- homogeneous layer (UQL). The satellite carried a radiometer with a very high space resolution (0.9 km) which gave an image of the ocean in the IR range. Evaluations of the assimilation of data from real satellite and contact observa- tions obtained in the course of "Sovfrans-II" are given in [12]. Observation of the temporal change in the characteristics of physical conditions in the ocean medium is best accomplished using maps of the fields of these parameters obtain- ed in the course of computations on the basis of theoretical models of ocean dy- namics [3, 11] ur direct processing of the results of observations in a polygon [2)� _ At the present time, in addition to these traditional approaches, increasing use is being made of the four-dimensional analysis method or the dynamic-stochastic - approach to the modeling of fields and construction of their [9]. In this ar- ticle the author proposes a dynamic-sCochastic model of the behavior of the upper quasihomogeneous layer of the ocean; provision is made for the assimilation of data from remote and contact sounding of the surface temperature field. The dynamic part of the mpdel makes it possible to compute the changes in the time- = averaged and spatially smoothed components of hydrothermodynamic fields in the ocean. The method for camputing the characteristics of the upper layer in the ocean used in the model was developed at the Computation Center Siberian Depart- ment USSft Academy of SciEnces and set forth in a number of studies [3, 51. The fundamental system of equations, written in a Cartesian coordinate system with the x and y axes in the direction 30 and 120�, has the following form: equations of motion du 1 r,P� d rd du - ar - lv a.r g a I ? dz K o ~ A, ' (1) - , H d + Itt = - ; ' d � + g a (P dz ~ t Z K s A, ~ �a; (2) continuity equation ~ N dm , du dv az ~ ax av - 0' (3) density diffusion equation 6 p + u + v d ' w d ' - a K P Ap� dt dx oy dz dr. dz ~ ' (4) coefficient of vertical turbulent exchange, an analogua of thP Obukhov formula - with a turbulence scale proportional to the thickness of the surface turbulent _ layer the Prandtl mixing path [4] 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY " APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY , ~ d dn A ? _ (0,05 h)� l/ ( az ) + ( dt a: d= ' (5) Mamayev equation of state 1 7- 1(28,132 - 0,0735 T- 0,0,469 T=) � 10-3 + (0.802 - 0,002 T)(S - 3-5) � l0-'1. where S= 38.20/0o is the mean salinity in the polygon. The boundary conditions for equations (1)-(4) have the following form: at the surface (z = 0) (6) K d U - - -r K ~v = f �J X, v)� (7) n: 1O ~z ?u at the depth H1 (geostrophic currents, z= H1) I ( . dP., d Hi % odtl. zp pdx I, (8) !!s = oy ~ o.r + d.r l? � . ~i X, yl. (9) At the lateral boundaries of the polygon the values of the density anomaly and current velocities u and v are stipulated: 'Ir =~'r (t, x, y, Z), u, v r= uri vr (t, X, 1, (10) At the initial moment (3 July) the velocity, density anomaly and vertica.l turbu- lent exchange values are stipulated over the entire region of the polygon: t~_ 0: u, v= r/,,, z. 0 (x, z ) (a, y.. Z) h'-A�(x.y.z) In equa tions (1)-(11) use is made of the following notations: Pa is atmospheric - pressure in the near-water layer, 'CX, 'Gp are the components of wind shearing stress, g is the acceleration of free falling, H(x,y) is bottom relief, h is the depth of the upper quasihomogeneous layer, 1= 0.976�10-4 sec-1 is the Coriolis parameter, corresponding to the location of the "Borha-II" buoy laboratory. In the model in the first approximation in the equations of motion allowance is _ made only for lateral exchange. The level surface is determined by the dynamic rethod [I1]. c = - Po f dz. (12) 0 The wind shearing stress is computed using the Ackerblom formulas using data on near-water pressure far each day from 3 through 27 July 1976. 69 FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~aa do W i ~ dx - a y� ~ (13) where Ka = 105 cm2/sec is the coefficient of vertical turbulent exchangz in the - atmosph.err. The thickness of the upper quasihomogeneous layer h is determined by the first com- putation point zk, where the following condition is satisfied du � at' d F = K ~ (0,05 zkl= l( d 1~ l dz ~ P� dz min~ (14) - In the computations it was assumed that ICmin = 0.1 cm2/sec. As the boundary values _ for th e density anomaly we used real data obtained in the course of density surveys [10] on 3 and 27 July, linearly interpolated between them; deeper than H1 (H1 = 200 m) the density anomalies to the real depth H were linearly interpolated from ~ P1(t, X. Y, Hl) to 0. The boundary conditions for the velocity of horizontal mtion (8) were found as a result of diagnostic computations of equations (1), (2), (5) in a stationary ap- proxima.tion without allowance for lateral exchange for 3 and 27 July with subse- quent linear interpolation for the entire period of the experiment. The initial conditions (11) were determined as a stationary solution of equations (1)-(5). Use was made of a numerical method based on use of two nested grids in the vertical coordinate (6]. The computations were made from 3 through 27 July with a time in- terval of 12 hours. i 4 5 6 Hapcenp ~ n s , 11,s i ?7. 1~S i 1?.S 17,5 9~ 3 - ' 12 ?1 CJ 10Pd ~ f ~S n I' 1~1J S3S CC12 S' . 14 14 ; 11, f22 z~ ?J ~ c3 J 1,r IJ 13..~ 1113 0% 73 1 j ~ ~ 2 1~ ~ 1 6'LU~ - - - '~r- ~ ;2J~ 10 1J, S 1j . ~ I \ ; c1J, 5 I ~ V 4 Fig. 1. Map of surface temperature of Gulf of Lyons on 9 July 1976, constructed us- ing data from the "NOAA-4" satellite [12]. The hydrophysical polygon is represent- ed by a rectangle. 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY The stochastic part of the model, consisting of statistical algorithms for the as- similation of observational data developed at the Marine Hydrophysical Institute Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR, makes it possible to carry out a joint analy- sis of observations obtained by remote and contact soundings of the ocean. Sat- ellite measurements made on 9 and 21 July covered parts of the Gulf of Lvons which differ in area. The southern boundary of the satellite measurements on 9 July passed along latitude 41�55'S, on 21 July along latitude 41�35'N. Con- - tact measurements of surface temperature carried out along the trajectory of ~ motion of the "5uroit" are extremely nonuniformly distributed over the area of - the polygon and therefore the observations made on 8-10 and 20-22 July were as- signed to 9 and 21 July respectively. Satellite data of 9 July (in Che form of isotherms) and the trajectories of motion of the "Suroit" are given in Fig. 1. Using statistical analysis algorithms [9] the results of contact and remote meas- urements of the surface temperature field were investigated for anisotropy. The computations of the correlation functions of the temperature field for 9 and 21 July along the directions (Qtf= 30�) and on the assumption of uniformity indicat- ed that with allowance for the width of the confidence intervals (30%) there is satisfaction of the hypothesis of uniformity and isotropicity of the mentioned fields. The correlation functions of the random temperature component fields were apgroximated by a dependence in the form (15) K~(;.~';)~ e~(~(-(x~;�Y; ~'os~s,l-~"~� The values of the coefficients [X i and Pi are summarized in Lhe table. Type of ineas- Date of ineas- O~i km`1 Pi km 1 urement urement Remote 9 July 0.0346 0.0157 (NOAA-4) same 21 July 0,0097 0.0143 Contact 9 July 0.0425 0.0415 ("Suroit") same 21 July 0.0616 0.0449 _ The prefiltering operation was carried out on the basis of the theory of ineasure- ments and interpolation of random fiel.ds developed by Petersen and Middleton in [15, 16]. Tlie representation of satellite data in the form of a map of the meas- _ ured ocean field was examined in detail in [1]; therefore, we will discuss only the principal results. We will examine the values of the field measured from a satellite f(z as the sum of the values oj the smoothed component of the true f ield s(~ and the measurement error 7?(X), which we will assume to be in the form of "white noise." f (X) = S (X) lX 1, A' (16) The "informative" component of the satellite frame, which is :epresented by the the field values at the points of intersection in a regular grid, can be discrim- inated in the process of averaging of the field f(X with some weighting function y(X), characterizing the measurement method. - 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL I1SE ONLY S ( VI~ij) X) ClA . - (X) (17) The evaluation of this component is determined by the linear interpolation for- _ mula S (X) Ia ~ (A - Vim)I ' S tml (18) Minimizing the mean square interpolation error S(X) = E{Is(X) - S(X)~2 on the assumption of uniformity and isotropicity of the random field S(X), we obtain a system of Kolmogorov equa.tions for determining the optimum weighting coefficients of the interpolation correlation algorithm Ks.T Gy - VI fii11= af (X - L,~m1) 'h..~ ~ ~~Iml - l"[^I~~� (19) Iml It was demonstrated in [15, 16] that if the measured field is represented at the poi;its of intersection of a regular grid and is uniform and isotropic, there is P definite form of the weighting coefficients. In the case of a square measurement brid the optimum weighting coefficients are determined as af I X. 1') _ Sin 2 r. Bx ' sin ? - By _ 2 _ li.r B ~ ~ ~ ~ y ~ and the spectral algorithm for optimum interpolation at arbitrary points X as- sumes the form s (X) ig� (,Y - l'1R1) ' s (Ilikill, (21) I;1 where V[m) is a grid in which the prefiltration field values were determined. We will use an algorithm for prefiltering the field f(xi, that is, replacement of a set of initial satellite data by a representative set in a thinner grid, ~ > 5i4, (0) = J ( XI4l) r i(0 - X) g~~, - X~k~~ Ci~' (22) - (Xl or in the spectral form ~ A f ( XlR)) i Sixi (0) _(4 r~U)) G(11)) exp iw �.Y~~~) dW, (23) where (r ( W) and G(c~) are Fourier transforms of the weighting functions. Requiring - satisfaction of the relationships between r(~ and G(ZT) as conditions_for the repreeentativeness of the s(0) values, we obtain expressions for the s(V[m]) values as a result of prefiltering of the satellite frame 1 sln 2 r. Bx sin ? r. By ` ' S~ f(X1R1) l a~ 1- ex 2 a ey (24) where a is the dimension of a cell of the initial dbservation grid, 2riB is the upper limiting cutoff frequency of the field to be filteredz separating the infor- mative low-frequency part of the spectrum from the high-frequency noise. The noise level is assumed to be equal to 10% of the power of the eatire received signal. In connection with approximation of the correlation functions of satellite meas ure- nients by a dependence in the form (15) for constructing the generatrix of the two- 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY dimensional spectrum of these fields use was made of the results in [7] and the upper limiting cuzoff frequeney was ascertained. It was 0.0792 km 1. The interval of the new grid was 39.3 km, which is three times greater than the interval of the initial grid of satellite observations. The prefiltering of satellite data mads it possible to obtain representative "measurements" of temperature from a satellite. Optimum interpolation of these "measurements" was carried out at the points of intersection in the polygon and at the point of contacti measurements in accardance with the optimum interpolation spectral algorithm (20), (21). The cor- relation algorithm (19) was used for the optimum interpolation of contact meas ure- ments at the polygon points of intersection. At the points of contact measurements we form the nonclosures r(Xk) between the val~ues of the contact measurements f2(Xk) and the prefiltered satellite data s(Xk): -i 1 -s r (Xk) _ A (Xk) - s (xk) = fz (,tk) - ~ ig (.Xk - V~~~1 's t V~~I)1� (25) l~l After interpolation of the nonclosures (25) by the correlation optimum interpola- tion method (19) at polygon points of intersection we carried out an assimilation of satellite and contact measurements of the field of surface temperature. The fields of ocean surface temperature were transformed into density fields at the ocean surface using the equation of state (6). m!n 2 max 47 mi,7 7 max 42 min 2 mcx dB min7 mox 42 Fig. 2. Surfaces of lower boundary of QHL on 23 July 1976, constructed using the re- sults of computations. a) without assimilation of information on the surface temper- ature field; b) with assimilation of eontact data; c) with assimilation of satellite data; d) with aasinilation of matched satellite and contact measurements. Tt2us, as a result of use of the stochastic part of the model for 9 and 21 July we computed the boimdary conditions for the density field at the surface using both data only from remote and contact saundings of the ocean surface and with their matched values. 73 FO& OFFICIAL USE 4NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The computed density fields were introduced into a numerical scheme of the dynamic part of the model as "fresh10 boundary conditions effective 9 and 21 July. We note that in computations with correction of the boundary conditions the inte rpolation of surface boundary conditions was accomplished from the moment of the receipt of fresh infor.mation (9 and 21 July) to the time of the second survey (27 July). In the course of numerical experiments there was found to be an influence of mod- ified boundary conditions on the behavior of one of the finest characteristics of the upper quasihomogeneous layer the spatial distribution of its depth h during the period 3-27 Ju1y. The greatest depth of the QHL was a~tained on 23 July when the field of wind shear= ing stress assumed maximum values ~ lmaX = 1.76 WM~. A factor exerting a great influence on fo rnoation of depth of the upper quasihomogeneous layer is the local value of the wind shearing stress and medium stratification. For examP le, on 23 July the wind s tress assumed a value in the range 1.19 N,,: dn+Io > Hn+la early with rapid thawing of snow N� > Hn; dn-flo C dn=in early without rapid melting of snow H� yn+i(l late with rapid melting of snow _ H� < H,,; dn+10 G bn-I-1u late without rapid melting of snow "r'or the years included in each of these groups we computed the mean hydrographs of Zateral inflow, computed from expYessions (3), (4), (6), (7), (9) and (10) from each part of the basin. These hydrographs are reduced to the norm by multiplying their water discharges by the value of the ratio of the mean long-term volume of lateral inflow to its mean volume for the years characteristic for the particular type. The standard hydrographs obtained for each part of the basin, reduced to the norm by means of the corresponding influence functions (Tables 1, 2), are trans- formed to the lowest-lying stations and entered into tables. Then, for the first, earliesC forecast prepared on 31 March, using known classification criteria the water levels or the sums of wa,ter discharges in the rivers of the sector and the anticipated 10-day air temperatures from these tables for each part of the basin we determine the particular type of distribution of lateral inflow. Its or- dinates are multiplied by the modular coefficient of the anticipated volume of spring lateral inflow, equal to the ratio of the volume of this inflow in a par- ticular year to its norm. As an approximate indicator of this volume for the dis- cximinated parts of the basin we took the modular coefficients of the observed A (up to 31 March) maximum snow reserves K= h/h, where h is their mean value and h is the norm on this date. - The lateral inf].ow hydrographs predicted in this way for each part of the brisin, transformed to the lowest-lying stations, are summed together wii:h the transform- ed planned �water discharges of the Novosibirskaya and Ust'-Kamenogorsl:aya Hydroel- er_tric Power Stations, which gives a hydrograph of the anticipated runoff at each - oF the considered lowest-lying stations. - Table 3, as an i]_lustration, gives a forecast of the high-water hydrograph for the Ob' at Belogor'ye prepared on 31 March 1975 using equation (14). In this table we used the planned monthly water discharges of the Novosibirskaya (71) and Ust'- Kamenogorskaya (Q6) Hydroel.ectric Power Stations. The anticipated hydrographs of lateral inflaw f rom three parts of the Ob' and two parts of the Irtysh are deter- mined using foraula (22), in which the distributions of the particular types c,� lateral inflow are taken from the tables on the basis oF the clasaification cri- teria. The distributions are multiplied by the corresponding modular coefficients 98 \ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .14. of the maximum snow resexves observed up to 31 March. The hydrographs obtained in this way in the first columns of Table 3 are then transfoxmed in the subse- quent columns and are finally summed for the lowest-lying gaging station Belo- gor'ye. A prediction of the monthly water discharges at the time of high water on the Ob' at Prokhorkino, Belogor'ye, Salekhard and on the Irtysh at Tobol'sk is made using equa- tions (12)-(14) and (21) for different times in advance, for one, two, three monttis, etc. Depending on tne advance time of the forecast and the real conditions prevail- ing in the basin at the time of the forecast, iTi these equations allowance must be made for the monthly water discharges in the lateral inflow, predicted using ex- pression (22) or using hydrometric data. - Whereas on 31 March the lateral inflow hydrographs are predicted on the basis of allowance for the volinne of spring runoff anticipated on the basis of snow re- serves and its corresponding standard distribution in time with subsequent summ- ing of the transformed partial hydrographs, on 30 April, when melt water is flow- ing into the river network in the basins, in formulas (12)-(14) and (21) some monthly water discharges Qi,n+l of rivers flowing in can be predicted in these sectors after the maximum inflow of water into tne river network on the basis of hy3romAtric data using the equation Qf. n._i = (2 Wn fl9u+ (23) . in which Wn and qn are the channel water volumes and inflcw into the river network at the time of the prediction n, a and b are constant values. For this purpose for each part of the basin a method is developed for predicting the monthly water dis- charges in the lateral inflow on the basis of hydrometric data for the rivers flow- ing in this area [1, 2]. The first step is a determination of the dependence of the monthly water discharges, obtained in the reaches Qlat, T�n the basis of for- mula (1), on the sum of monthly discharges N ~1Qj, of N rivers flowing in within the defined sector. These correlations usually have - the form N 41at,T - A ~Qi, T' (24) where A is a constant coefficient. The monthly water discharges of lateral inflow in the defined river reaches are determined using the equation N A' Q _ A(~l ~ Wt. n-- by q;. ~ I. lat,T (25) ottained on the basis of (23), (24), in which the channel water volumes and inflaw into the river network at the time of the forecast n is taken into account for N rivers f'lowing in within the defined sectors. 99 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE dNLY For example, the total volume of lateral inflow computed using formula (1) in the Ob' reach from the Novosibirskaya Hydroelectric Power Station to Kolpashevo is also determined for this reach on the basis of expression (25) with A= 1.1, a= 0.89 and b= 0.33. The channel water volumes and inflow into the river net- work of four rivers (Inya, Tom', Chulym and Chaya) are determined on the basis of the water discharges determined each two days at seven gaging stations. The lateral inFlow in the Ob' reach from Kolpashevo to Prokhorkino, where the Ket`, I'arabel', Vasyugan and Pim Rivers flow in, is predicted for a month on the basis of equation (25) with the coefficients A= 2.0, a= 0.38 and b= 0.35. The chan- nel volumes and water inflow of four rivers into the river network are computed at six gaging stations for two-day intervals. The refinement of the hi;h-water hydrograph on the basis of hydrometric data is usually prepared aft2r onset of the maximum of inflow into the channels. The water discharges of lateral inflow for two reaches predicted for the neYt month on t!ie basis of equaCion (25) are taken into account in equation (12) in a pre- di~_cion of Ob' runoff at Prokhorkino for a month in advance: ~ l), } 2 n T i=l _ ; -i- 0,15 q1 n 0.56 -0,81 0.19 Ql. (26) r-~ a a + U, 76 2: W_ _3. I. n-47 0,70 ~ 9' -3, i, n; i=1 - and for two months in advance: 0,26 (11. n}1 t 0,73 ;~1, rt-~-t + 0.01 Qi, n-1 + 0,44 KI - Ql-^_. n+� + (27) 4 a - _ 0.54 IWI-z.r.n 4- 0,18 ~ qj-^-. j, n+Kz-a Cl2-:3. n-1-2� For three months in advance in (12) use is made of values predicted using (22): 43. ,.+a = 0,26 Ql. n+a 4- 0,73 Ql. rr-4-2 + 0,01 Ql. n-:-., + (28) - + 0.44 K; n-3 -I- 0,56 IVI n+^ In equations (26)-(28) the monthly water discharges Q1 of the Novosibirskaya Hydro- electric Power Station are taken into account for the two months up to the time of the forecast and thE planned discharges for three months; the actual monthly _ water discharges at Kolpashevo Q2, ch.annel volumes and water inflow into the river network for four rivers in the reach Novosibirskaya Hydroelectric Power Station- - i:olpashevo and four rivers in the reach Kolpashevo-Prokhorkino, and the modular coefficients of the anticipated volume of lateral inflow in the reaches K1_2 and K2_3 (see Fig. 1) are also taken into account. The use of hydrometric data somewhat improves t'Ze results of predicting the high- water hydrograph based on classifi-cation procedures. 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus, the described method for the long-range prediction of the high-water hydro- graph by months makes it possible to take into account the hydrometeorological cvnditions in different parts of the basin prevailing up to the time of the fore- cast and anticipated later, including the course of the anticipated (planned) water discharges of the Novosibirskaya and Ust'-Kamenogorskaya Hydroelectric Power Sta- tions, the spring lateral inflow anticipated on the basis of snow reserves and hy- drometric data, the 10-day air temperature at the time of snow melting predicted on the basis of a weather forecast and the travel time of runoff from a part of the basin to the lowest-lying gaging station. The computations of the monthly water discharges of the Ob' at Prokhorkino and Belo- gor'ye from April through September for 16 years (1960-1975), made by Z. I. Rub- tsova using equations (12) and (14), are characterized by a mean error (in of the actual monthly water discharges at Prokhorkino of 3.4% (it varies by months from 1.6 to 5.2%), at Belogor'ye 3.2% (1.8-4.7%). The same computations for the Irtysh at Tohol'sk for 20 years (1956-1975), made by V. T. Kurbatova using equation (13), givc a mean error for six months of 1.7% (0.5-6.1%). Control forecasts of monthly water discharges with allowance in expression (22) for the modular coef- ficients of maximum snow reserves up to the day of the forecast of 31 March for these same years and months give a mean error in percent for the actual iaater discharges of the Ob' at Prokhorkino of 19.3% (15.3-24.0%), at Belogor'ye 16.1% (11.5-25.9%) and for the Irtysh at Tobol'sk 24.8% (19.3-29.9%). BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. RUKOVODSTVO PO GIDROLOGICHESKIM PROGNOZAM, VYP. 1. KRATKOSROCHNYYE PROGNOZY RASKHODOV I UROVNEY VOBY NA REKAKH (Manual on Hydrological Forecasts, No. 1. _ Short-Range Forecasts of Water Discharges and Levels in Rivers), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1964. 2. Sapozhnikov, V. I., PROGNOZY STOKA REK V BASSEYNE VOLGI PO RUSLOVYM ZAPASAM VODY I PRITOKU V RECtiNUYU SET' (Predictions of River Runnff in the Voiga Basin on the Basis of Channel Reserves and Inflow Into the River Network), Moscow, Gidrometeoi2dat, 1960. 3. Sapozhnikov, V. I., DOLGOSROCHNYYE PROGNOZY GIDROGRAFA POLOVOD'YA I PAVODKOV NA BOL'SHIKH REKAKH S UCHETOM NERAVNOMERNOSTI STOKA V BASSEYNAKH: METODTCHESKOYE PIS'MO (Long-Range Forecasts of the High-Water Hydrograph and Floods on Large Rivers With Allowance for the Nonuniformity of Runoff in Basins: Methodological Letter), Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat, 1978. 4. Sapozhnikov, V. I., "Prediction of the Hydrograph of Spring Water Inflow Into the Kama Reservoir for Advance Times Up to Z~ao Months," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDRO- LOGIYA (Meteorology and Hydrology), No 2, 1979. 1101 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 556.142 COMPUTATION OF THE MAIN HYDROPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SOILS USIidG DATA ON SOIL-HYDROLOGICAL CONSTANTS _ Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 93-101 [Article by Yu. G. Motovilov, candidate of geographical aciences, USSR Hydrometeor- ological Scientific Research Center, manuscript submitted 23 May 80] 'rext] Abstract: Formulas derived by the author and a number of other researchers are given which can be used in approxdmate computation of the depen- dence of soil moisture potential on moisture us- ing data on soil-hydrological constants. Evalua- ~ tions of the accuracy in approximation were made for each formula by means of comparison of the computed curves and the actual dependences of. the basic hydrophysical characteristic on the basis of data for 53 soils of different types. An anal- ysis of the errors makes it possible to recommend - the formulas proposed by the author for use in practical computations of moisture transfer in the aeration zone. Definite experience has now been accumulated in hydrology in the modeling of inelt and rainwater runoff with the use of dynamic models of moisture transfer in the ground [3, 4, 8]. In a one-dimensional variant in the simplest models for describ- ing the dynamics of moisture in the soil use is made of the equattion C L _ d d~+ o: ds (K dz - K (1) where 4t is the capillary-sorption potential of soil moisture; K is the moisture conductivity coefficient; C= dW/a is the differential moisture capacity; W is soil moisture content; z is the vertical coordinate with a positive direcCion downward from the soil surface; t is time. - The dependences of capillary-sorption potential on moisture content in the "moist- ening-dessication" process were subjected to hysteresis, which is manifested, in particular, with high soil moisture content values. However, in actual practice hysteresis phenomena are usually neglected, and as the dependence of capillary-sorption potential on moisture content use is made of its desorption branch. This dependciice is also called the tnain hydrophysical soil characteristic (MHSC) or moisture content characteristic [11]. 102 FCIR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The soil moisture potential has the dimensionality of work related to a unit, quan- tity of water and can be expressed in specific energy units (J/kg), pressure units (Pa, bar, atm) and pressure head units (m HZO, cm H20). In soil science it is also common to employ the parameter pF = lg(4lcm H20). The V, K and C parameters are hydrophysical characteristics and for a specific soil are functions of moisture content W. The form of these functions is determined by such properties of the ground as mineralogical composition, structure, specific surface, etc. The distribution of these characteristics over an area, even for small homogeneous terrain sectors, has a stochastic character. It is possible to take into account the spatial variation of factors governing the permeability of graund in a drain- age basin by use of models of the formation of runoff with distrihuted parameters, for example, using two-dimensional models [4]. The dynamic-stochastic approach to modeling of infiltration [1, and others] is most promising. A peculiarity of this approach is the carrying out of large-scale computations using an equation of type (1) with different combinations of soil hydrophysical cha racteristics. In an opera- tional. regime the carrying out of such computations is limited due to the lack of data on the hydrophysical characteristics and statistical parameters of their dis- tribution over the area of the drainage basin. The existing situation can be at- tributed to the exceedingly great expenditures of time required when using tradi- tional methods for determining the hydraphysical characteristics of one soil aample and at the same time the small number of specialized laboratories for the carrying out of such work. In addition, much material has now been accimulated on soil-hydrological constants, which are the generalized characteristics of the water-retaining capacity of the ground in definite soil moisture pressure ranges. Data on the constants for dif- f erent agricultural fields in the network of agrometeorolo gical stations are pub- lished in regional agrohydrological handbooks of soil properties. A number of in- vestigators have used information on the soil-hydrological constants for approx- imate stipulation of the dependences V= f(W). We will give a brief review of the investigations which have been made. As early as 1939 M. B. Russell [17] proposed a parabolic dependence in the follow- ing form for approximating the main hydrophysical characteristic in the pressure range 4.2> pF> 2.5 pF = 7.0 - 3.3/WM W+ 0.53/14M2 W2. (2) In this formula the sole characteristic of the water-retaining capacity of th.e soil is the wilting moisture (WM) of plants, and according to the determinations of M. B. Russell, pFWM = 4.18. I. S. McQueen and R. F. Miller [14] proposed a method for constructing the moisture content curve. The essence of this method is the breakdown of the main hydrophys- _ {_cal soil characteristic into three segments: stably adsorbed moisture (pF = 5.0- 1.0), adsorbed films (pF = 2.5-5.0) and capillary moisture (pF = 0.0-2.5) with subsequent approximation of the moisture characteristic curve for each segment us- ing a dependence of the type - pF = c; - m; W. (3) ~ 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL LISE ONLY Here ci and mi are constants which are determined from the two known moisture content values and the potential values corresponding to them. In the abGenc.e of physical measurements as such reference points of the main hydrophysical soil characteristic curve use is made of the values of the soil-hydrological constants, such as, a) WM (pF'WMfv4.2) and the minimum moisture capacity (M`I, pFpim'% 2.5), or b) maximum hygroscopicity (MH, pFMH N 4. 7) and r'IIM (pFM x 2.5). K. K. Pavlova and I. L. Kalyuzhnyy [9], on the basis of an analysis of actual data, for an approximation of the desorption branch of the main hydrophysical character- istic with W9 WM, proposed the exponential dependence 41 = 10220 exp (-3. 58 W- 14M/MA1 - WM). (4) A. S. Rogowski [16], for approximate computation of the main hydrophysical char- acteristic curves in the pressure range from 15 bar (corresponds closely to the pressure of soil mo isture at the WM) to the pressure of "entry of air into the - syGtem" (bubbling p ressure Ve at which tha soil moisture content We is ciDse to saturation) proposed the logarithmic dependence W- w, : ~Wi - ~�e) In(~-~+e+1) e I ri (~t s-~e.f 5� (5) ~ Brooks and Corey [12] in the approximation of the main hydrophysical characteris- tic used the dependence Se= where S_ S- S, S_ W' S_ Wr e- 1-Sr~ p' p ~ (6) - P is porosity, Wr is the soilinoisture content at which the hydraulic permeability of the medium is as:;umed to be equal to zero, A is the porosity factor character- izing the distribution of pores in the medium by size. Formula (6) is used exten- sively in the foreign practice of hydrologic:al investigations for approximation of the main hydrophysical characteristic on the basis of actual data for the pur- pose of determining the value of the ;1 parameter, which then is used for approxi- mate computation of the curve relating hydraulic permeability to the moisture con- tent of the ground. Dependence (6) can be used in approximate computations if at least three points on the main hydrophys ical characteristic curve are known. If as Wr we use the maximum hygroscopic moisture, We and Yfe are moisture content and the prsssure of "entry of air into the system" and as the intermediate point we take a point with the coordinates WM and VWM, computation of the main hydrophysical characteristic with the use of dependence (6) can be carried out using the formula 19 �:l 1f; =na (7) [rtr= rix~ P -,NjrNg (ss - Mr) -i,(P _ m r) [B3 = wM ] - 'je ~ W - Mr J . In 1956 E. E. Mill er and R. D. Miller [15] advanced the hypothes:s of similarity of poraus media, within the framework of which the main hydrophysical character- istic curves for different monodisperse media were generalized by means of trans- formation of the Laplace equation on the basis of similarity theory. 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A further development of this hypothesis for polydisperse media was obtained in the studies of B. N. Michurin [5]. Assuming that adsorption pressure is in an inverse dependence on the thickness of the water film (h), whereas capillary pressure is proportional to surface tension (0") and the specific surface of soils (Sp), B. N. Michurin obtained a similarity invariant, so-called reduced capillary-sorption pressure P", in the form of the combination ~ .h P" - ; s� (8) - Using this criterion, the correlations between capillary-sorption pressure and moisture content for different types of soils in the range of change in the specific surface 20-150 m2/g were reduced to the single dependence P" = f(W) [S]. - The correl;ition equation has the form s = 1,33 lE'-�.ah (9) n If the thickness of the water film is expressed as h= W/Sp, we obtain ; - = 1,3.; W-a.a,~ (10) In 16, 7] dependence (10) was used by the author as a basis in deriving computa- tion formulas for approximating the main hydrophysical characteristic curves and the phase composition of moisture at negative temperatures using data on the max- imum hygrosc opicity of soils. The following formula was derived for computing ~ the main hydrophysical characteristic ' 9) _ 91MH (MH/W)3.46. A formula similar in structure was proposed on the basis of an analysis of the ac- tual main hydrophysical characteristic curves by P. Fageler [10]: q, _ 4)MH(MH/W)n, (12) _ where n is a parameter dependent on the nature of the exchange cation. The autho r found the me an value of this parameter to be equal to 3. The results of computations of the phase composition of moisture with the use of dependence (11) in general can be characterized as positive [6, 71o However, a _ comparison of the computed and actual main hydrophysical characteristic curves indicates that in a number of cases, especially with high soil moisture values, the results are unsatisfactory. In a detailed analysis of the initial material it becomes apparent that the graph of the correlation Wh/a"Sp = f(W) constitutes a field of points with a definite degree of scatter grouped around the curve ' SVW/ CrSD = 1. 35 W 2.46, In constructing this graph at a logarithmic scale the individual curves WW/O'S2 0 f(tid) are s traightened; the slopes of the straight lines, that is, the numerical values of the exponent on W are different for different types of soils, although they do not differ greatly from the mean value -2.46. 105 FOR OFFICIAL L7SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300144456-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is known from theoretical considerations that the mechanism of retention of moisture by the soi.l is determined not only by the degree of dispersion of the medium, whose main characteristic is the specific surface, but also to a high degree by the structure and aggregate state of the ground. In o rder to take this factor into account, we will assume that porous media similar in structure are characterized by the same slope of the straight line VW/a'S~ = f(W) at a logarithmic scale, and for them we write criterion (10) in the form ' 'J - A lF'-� (13) where A=~P(So) is a constant for the particular type of soil, characterizing the adsorptivity of the ground, n is a parameter reflecting the structure of porous soil space. I'or a sFecific soil the values of the parameters A and n can be determined using data on the soil-hydrological constants. It is known that the maximum hygroscop- icity to a considerable degree characterizes the degree of dispersion of the medium and its specific surface [5]. With the substitution of the MH and i/fMH values into formula (13) we obtain A=4/MHMHn, then - (Mr n _ _ ~~~ir 1 u� ~ � ~ (14) In order to determine the value of the n parameter we will use data on the minimum moisture capacity of the soils, Mt�1 is a soil-hydrological constant which reflects - the structure and aggregate state of the soil. SubstitutingPtM and 4IMM into for- mula (14) in place of W and 7? and reducing the resulting expression to logarithmic form, we find n= lgVMH - 1g~PI,II,t/lg MhL- lg MH. (15) 'thus, the final expression for approximate computation of the main hydrophysical characteristic curves wili have the form 19?'air - lg Wxe ~Ir \ g Hs - ig Lvr (16) [M = MH; xB = rSM ) ,y _ w J . In order to make computations using formula 4H, 6) it is necessary to have informa- tion on four parameters of the ground: MH, N'L`'I and fMM. As already noted, information on MH and MM was generalized in a grohy dro dynamic handbooks. The poten- tial Yf�,H is a constant whose numerical value is dependent on the method for deter- mining MH: by the MitchPrlich method VMH-'%5�104 cm H20, by the Nikolayev method '~'MHx 3� 104 cm H2O, 4fMr4 is a unique characteristic which is not measured in the network, and in addition is a variable parameter. According to data published by F. Dyushofur [2], the mean Vmm value for sandy ground is 102 cm H,)O, for clayey losm soils approximately 3�102 cm H20 and for clayey soils --j/- z103 cm H20. For computations V~.m can be estimated using a pF~ = f(~) correla- tion graph, which we constructed using data on the actual main hydrophysical characteristic curves for 53 soils of different types from different regions of the earth (see Fig. 1). The SH values for these soils were ascErtained by us using a W1/3 correlation graph (moisture content with a pressure ef s4iL moisture 1%3 atm) with an SH value cited in an article by E. A. Coleman [13]. The analytical 106 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ expression for the curve in Fig. 1 can be written in the form pFMM = 5.2�10-6 Mt,3.5 + 2.1. _ where MM is expressed in percentage of the weight of dry soil. (17) In the absence of data on MH, in evaluatory computations it is possible to use _ data on the wilting moisture WM. According to numerous investigations, pFWM~& 4.2. In this case instead of rif-I and VIHH, in formula (16) it is necessary to substitute the WM and 1rfrATM values respectively. _ _r r . � . ~ 2 0 h � � � � x ` 10 ?0 JO HB%MM% Fig. 1. Dependence of soil moisture potential with MM on M41 value. A11 the formulas cited above, generally speaking, were computed in an approxima- tion af the main hydrophysical characteristic with W?/>t~l~ Beyond these limits computations made using f.ormula (2) give what are known to be incor- _ rect results. Considerable computation errors are obtained when using the formula (3) derived by McQueen and Miller. In practical computations use of the dependence (3), in our o inion, is undesirable, because there is an impairment of the smoothness of the ~function and its derivatives at the points of intersection of segmPnts of the main hydrophysical characteristic for different segments. The method is also unsuitable for pF,t>2.9. Fair results in computations of the main hydrophysical characteristic are obtained using the formula derived by Pavlova and Kalyuzhnyy (4). The errors in computa- tions using formula (4) to a considerable degree are caused by its structure, which for different soils assumes constant values of the potentials with WM and MM equal to VWM = 10220 and lymm = 285 cm H20 respectively. A higher approximation accuracy is attained when making computations using the Rogowski (5) and Brooks and Corey (7) formulas. However, in these formulas as one _ of the parameters use is made cf a point with the coordinates We and 7?e, which are not measured sys*_ematically. Formulas (4), (5) and (7) are suitable for computing the main hydrophysical characteristic when W> WM. Entirely satisfactory results are obtained when making computations using formulas _ (16) and (18). It is assumed that they can be used in the entire range of change _ in soil moisture content. In formulas (3*), (16'') and (18*) in place of MEI and - V MH use is made of the values of the parameters WM and Vwm respectively. As a result of this replacement in the range of pressures 0-1.5�104 cm H20 the approx- - imation errors are considerably reduced, obviously as a result of a more precise stipulation of the upper end of the main hygrophysical characteristic curve. In the pressure range 0-105 cm H2O, on the other hand, the errors increased somewhat. - In our opinion, in practica]_ compuiations it is desirable to use formulas in which MH and VMR values are used, not WM and 3,+fWM, because the method for determining the WM by the vegetation method can give considerable errors since it is not with- out an element of subjectivism and much is dependent on the experience and skills of the specialist making the measurements and also on the conditions for carrying out the experiment. The inaccuracies in determining WM by the vegetation method can result in a considerable error in stipulating VWM, and accordingly, large errors in computing the main hygrophysical characteristic on the basis of formulas employing this parameter. The method for determining a characteristic close to the ldM by direct measurement of the moistur.e content with a soil m4isture pressure 105� 104 cm H20 ("15-atm moisture content") is free of subjective errors. 109 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY We note in conclusion that the stipulation of the qfMM parameter in the computd- tion formulas using the approximate dependence (17) slightly distorts the results of the computations. In particular the values of the total criterion St t for formulas (16), (18), (16*) and (18were in the pressure range 0-105�10cm H20 1.40, 1.38, 0.95 and 0.90 respectively, and in the range 0-105 cm H20 were 0.89, 0.87, 1.05 and 1.01 resnectively. On the basis of an analysis of the errors it is possible to recommend the formulas which we have proposed for operational use in practical computations of moisture transfer in the aeration zone. BIBLIOGRAPHY l. Gusev, Ye. M., "Influence of Horizontal Nonuniformity of the Soil Filtering Coefficient on the Intensity of Percolation," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA (Meteorology and Hydrology), No 7, 1978. 2. Dyushofur, F., OSNOVY POCHVOVEDENIYA (Principles of Soil Science), translated from French, Moscow, Progress, 1970. 3. Kulik, V. Ya., INFIL'TRATSIYA VODY V POCHVY ([dater Infiltration Into the Soil), Moscow, Kolos, 1978. 4. Kuchment, L. S., MODELI PROTSESSOV FORMIROVANIYA RECHNOGO STOKA (Models of Processes of River Runoff Formation), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980. 5. Michurin, B. N., ENERGETIKA POCHVENNOY VLAGI (Energy Characteristics of Soil Moisture), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1975. 6. Motovilov, Yu. G., "Numerical Modeling of the Process of Water Infiltration Into Frozen Soils," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA, No 9, 1977. 7. Motovilov, Yu. G., "Method for Computing the Phase Composition of Soil Mois- ture at Negative Temperatures," SBORNIK DOKLADOV VTOROY VSESOYUZNOY KONFER- ENTSII MOLODYKH UCHENYKH GIDROMETSLUZHBY SSSR (Collection o:E Reports of the Second All-Union Conference of Younb Scientists of the USSR Fiydrometeorolog- ical Serwice), Moscow, 1977. 8. Motovilov, Yu. G., "Modeling of Losses of Melt tidater in Infiltration Into the Soi1," TRUDY GIDROMETTSENTRA SSSR (Transactions of the USSR Hydrometeorolog- ical Center), No 218, 1979. - 9. Pavlova, K. K., Kalyuzhnyy, I. L., "Generalized Dependences of Soil Moisture Potential and Moisture Conductivity of Soils on Moisture Content," TRUDY GGI (Transactions of the State Hydrological Institute), No 268, 1980. 10. Fageler, P., REZHIM KATIONOV I VODY V MINERAL'NYKH POCHVAKH (Regime of Cations and Water in Mineral Soils), Moscow, Sel'khozgiz, 1933. 11. Baver, L. D., Gardner, W. H., Gardner, W. R., SUIL PHYSICS, New York, 4th Edi- tion, 1972. 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY 12. Brooks, R. H., Corey, A. T., "Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media," COLO- RADO STATE UNIV. HYDR. PAP., No 3, 1964. 13. Coleman, E. A., "A Laboratory Procedure for Determining the Field Capacity of Soils," SOIL SCI., Vol 63, No 4, 1947. 14. McQueen, I. S., Miller, R. F., "Approximating Soil Moisture Characteristics From Limited Data: Empirical Evidence and Tentative Model," WATER RESOURCES RES., Vol 10, No 3, 1974. 15. Mi11er, E. E., Miller, R. D., "Physical Theory for Capillary Flow Phenomena," J. APPL. PHYS., Vol 27, No 4, 1956. 16. Rogowski, A. S., "Model of the Soil Moisture Characteristic," WATER RESOURCES RES. Vol 7, No 6, 1971. 17. Russell, M. B., "Soil Moisture Sorption Curves for Four Iowa Soils," SOIL SCI. SOC. OF AMER. PROC., Vol 4, 1939. 111 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONI,Y UDC 551.584.4:633.18(477.7) PHYTOCLIMATIC FEATURES OF A RICE FIELD IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINIAN SSR Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 80 pp 102-106 [Article by V. M. Prosunko, candidate of geographical sciences, Ukrainian Regional Scz=ntific Research Institute, manuscript submitted 7 May 801 [Text~ Abstract: The diurnal variation of air tem- perature and humidity in a rice field and at a meteorological site was investigated. In the rice field at a height of 0.5 m in - the course of the entire growing season the mean daily air temperature is 0.5- 1.8�C lower and the mean daily relative humidity is 8-19y higher than at the meteor- ological si.te. Regression equations are pre- sented for three interphase periods in the development of rice, limited by the phases "sprouting," "leaf tube formation," "head- ing of panicles" and "gold ripeness." These make it possible, using data on the mean diurnal air temperature at the meteorolog- ical site, water level in the rice paddy and the height of plants to compute the mean diurual air temperature values (at a height of 0.5 m), as well as the diurnal tempera- ture of the water (in the middle of the lay- er) and soil (at the depth of the tillering - node) in a rice field. Investigations for study of the phytoplankton of a rice field have been carried out in Central Asia [1-3, 51, in the Northern Caucasus [4] and in the Far East [9]. In these studies the authors have developed methodological approaches to investigation of the problem and have obtained quantitative indices characterizing the microcli- matic differences between a rice field and the underlying surface of the meteoro- logical site. A comparison of these indices indicates that while conforming to an identical law they differ from one another in value. The latter is attributable to the dissimilar regime of hydrometeorological elements ir. 3ifferent- climatic regions, under whose influence the phytoclimate of the rice field is formed. This made it necessary to ascertain the phytoclimatic indices for each zone of rice cultivation. 112 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In order to ascertain the pliytoclimatic features of a rice field applicable to the conditions prevailing in thP southern Ukraine the author generalfzed data from special observations and field experimental studies carried out in 1972-1978 in rice fieldR in the zone of rice cultivation in the Ukrainian SSR. The features of the temperature and humidity regime in a rice field are formed in the first stages of development for the most part by the water temperature, and after closing of the rice stand, by the intensity of plant transpiration. Accord- ingly, the data from parallel phytoclimatic observations in a rice field and at a meteorological site were grouped by interphase periods: "sproutin~leaf tube form- ation," "leaf tube formation-heading of panicles" and "heading of panicles-gold ripeness." These periods in the development of rice are characterized by different states of the field (density, height, area of the leaf surface of the plants) and the regime of flooding of the field with a water layer. t'C a) 61 ~��b) 22 ~ a ~ 20 , s ; ~ a le a ~ , ~ a 16 � ~ , f2 o-0o Z 10 fX o ~ ~ p 1 ~ b 9 h,o-~rJ ~0~ 8 ; Z 16 20 24 0It B 12 16 20 24 4� r b e) / ) OQ~'h P , d t : a\~ d 9 ad 04L B 12 16 20 r hours Fig. 1. Diurnal variation of inean air temperature and mean relative humidity in a rice field at a height of 0.5 m(1) and at the meteorological site at a height of 2 m(2) during interphase periods. An analysis of gradient observations in the rice field indicated that in the inter- phase period "sprouting-leaf tube formation," when the plants form an unclosed stand, the air temperature in zhe field is close to its values over the field or somewhat lower. With the closing of the stand the intensified transpiration of the plants favors a greater cooling of the air and its temperature acquires lAwer val- ues at the water surface. Accordingly, an inversion vertical temperature distribu- tian predominates in the field. The vertical distribution of air humidity is char- acterized by its decrease with height. 113 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Figure 1 shows the diurnal variation of temperature and rElative humidity at a height of 0.5 m in a rice field and at a standard height (2 m) at the meteoro- logical site, determined using tihermographs and hygrograghs. In the course of the growing season tlie rice field is characterizpd by a lower temperature and a higher humidity. The difference between the values of the mentioned elements in the rice field and at the mereorological site on the average for the period "sprouting-leaf tube formation" is 0.5�C and 8%, "leaf tube formation-heading of panicles" 1.6�C and 14%, "heading of panicles-gold ripeness" 1.8�C and 19%. The reduction in air temperature in the rice field is attributable to an increas- ed heat expenditure on total evaporation (transpiration of plants and evaporation from the water surface). The heat accumulated during the day by the water layer somewhat compensates the cooling of the air in the rice field at nighttime and the microclimatic differences of air temperature between the rice field and the meteorological site are smoothed. In the diurnal variation of relative humidity at a height of 0.5 m in the rice fi.e1d there is a maximum which sets in nrior to sunrise (0400-0600 hours) and a ,iinimum which is observed at about midday (1200-1400 hours). The amplitudP of the variation of the mean diurnal temperature and relative humidity in the rice stand ciuring the entire growing season is less than at the meteorol.og- ical site (Table 1). As a result of a correlation analysis of data from parallel observations of temper- ature in the rice field and at the meteorological site it was possible to derive linear regression equations characterizing the correlation between mean air temper- ature in the field (0.5 m) and its value at the meteorological site (2 m) during in- dividual interphase periods (Table 2). The correlation between the mean diurnal soil temperature at a depth of 3 cm in the f.ield (y) and the mean diurnal air temperature at the meteorological site (x) is also expressed by a straight-line equation with a regression coefficient 0.51 and a free term 8.0. The equation can be used in determining the optimum sowing times. The correlation coefficient for this correlation is r= 0.83t0.05. The error of the equation is Sy = f1�C. The equation is applicable with x= 9.8-18.5�C. There was a closer correlation between soil temperature, measured using AM-17 maximum-minimum thermometers placed at a depth of 3 cm in the field and at the meteorological site. This correlation is expressed by a straight-line equation with a xegression coef- ficient 0.92 and a free term 1.4. The correlation coefficient is r= 0.98t0.03. The error of the equa.tion is Sy = f0.7�C. The equation is applicable with x= 9.0-17.6 - �C. These equations can be used for obtaining information on the soil temperature in the rice field prior to its flooding on the basis of data for the nearest meteor- ological station. We also computed equations for the correlation between soil temperature at the depth of the tillering node in the field and air temperature at the meteorological site, water level in the rice paddy and the height of the plantG (Table 3). They can be used in evaluating the influence of agrometeorologic3l conditions on the growth and development of rice in different parts of the growing season. 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Table 1 Diurnal Amplitude of Temperature and Relative Humidity in a Rice Field (First Line) _ and at Meteorological Site (Second Line) , Interphase period Air temperature, �C Relative humidity, % "Sprouting-leaf tube formation" 21.5 72 25.4 76 "Leaf tubE formation-heading 15.8 63 of panicles" 19.0 69 "Heading of panicles-gold ripe- 18.6 62 ness" 20.00 65 Table 2 Correlation Between Mean Daily Air Temperature in Rice Field (y) and Mean Daily Air Temperature at Meteorological Site (x) Interphase period Regression coefficient Correl- Mean Number - ation square of angular free term coeffi- error cases cient "Sprouting-leaf tube formation" 0.66 7.3 0.84 0.9 80 _ "Leaf tube formation-heading of panicles" ' 0.82 3.3 0.79 0.8 94 "Heading of panicles-gold ripe- ness" 0.55 8.0 0.76 1.2 78 s Table 3 Dependence of Mean Daily Soil Temperature at Depth of Tillering Node of Rice (t) on Mean Daily Air Temperature at Meteorological Site (x), Water Level in Paddy (y) and Plant Height (z) - Interphase period Regression equation Multiple Mean Number of correla- square cases tion coef- error ficient "Sprouting-leaf tube forma- tl = 0.164x-0.021y + 0.73 1.1 84 tion" 0.02z + 18.5 "Leaf tube formation-head- t2 = 0.212x-0.080y + 0.81 0.7 116 ing of panicles" 0.08z + 12.7 "Heading of panicles-gold t3 = 0.134x-0.077y + 0.76 0.5 92 ripeness" 0.09z + 6.9 115 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY Table 4 Dependence of Mean Daily and Minimum Temperature in M.iddle of Water Layer in Rice Field (u), (u) on Mean Daily Air Temperature at Meteorological Site (x) and Depth of Water Layer (y) Interphase period Regression equation riultiple Mean Number of -0 correla- square cases tion coef- error, - ficient �C "Sprouting-leaf tube for- ul = 0.437x+0.218y+10.175 0.73 1.0 68 - mation" ul = 0.179x+0.163y+9.768 0.76 1.2 82 "Leaf tube formation-head- u2 = 0.097x+0.144y+19.094 0.83 0.9 74 ing of panicles" ug = 0.143x+0.198y+11.806 0.80 0.9 74 "Heading of panicles- u3 = 0.808x+0.660y-8.463 0.77 0.8 62 j-old ripeness" u3 = 0.030x+1.110y-6.294 0.74 0.6 62 ihe tYeermal regime of the water in the rice paddy exerts a great influence on the - formation of side sprouts and the formation of the fruit-bearing organs [8]. How- ever, the measurement of water temperature in the rice field involves definite technical difficulties. Therefore, we computed regression equations (Table 4) characterizing the correlation between the mean daily and minimum water tempera- tures in the middle of the water layer in a rice field and the mean daily air tem- perature at the meteorological site and the water depth in the rice paddy. The statistical characteristics of these equations indicate the po5sibility of using them for computing the water temperature when measurement data are lacking. The cited equations correlating the elements of the thermal regime in a rice field with the factors determining them make it possible to take into accoLmt the phyto- climatic characteristics of a rice field in the hydrometeorological servicing of agriculture in the rice cultivation zone. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Abdulayev, Kh. M., "Some Characteristics of the Temperature Regime of a Rice _ Fi.eld," TRUDY SARNIGMI (Transactions of the Central Asian Regional Scientific Research Hydrometeorological Institute), No 56(137), 1978. 2. Babushkin, L. N., "Agrometeorological Observations in Rice Fields," TRUDY TGO (Transactions of the Tashkent Hydrometeorological Observatory), No 8, 1954. 3. Zhapbasbayev, M., AGROKLIMATICHESKIYE USLOVIYA PROIZRASTANIYA RISA V KONTINEN- TAL'NOM KLIMATE (V KAZAKHSTANE) (Agroclimatic Conditions for the Grawth of Rice in a Continental Climate (In Kazakhstan)), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1969. 4. Ibragimova, E. A., MIKROKLIMAT OSNOVNYKH SEL'SKOKH07YqYSTVENN`.7KH POLFY LEN- KORANSKOY PRIRODNU-EKONOMICHESKOY ZONY AZERBAYDZIiANA. RAZDEL II. MIKROKLIMAT RISOVOGO POLYA (Microclimate of the Principul Agricultural Fields of the Len- koranskaya Natural-Economic Zone of Azerbaijan. rarz II. Microclimate of a - Rice Field), Fond IG AN AzSSR, 1968. 116 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. Nurguliyev, 0., Saparaliyev, K., "Temperature Regime in a Rice Field," VEST- NIK SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNOY NAUKI KAZAKHSTANA (Herald of Agricultural Scisnce - of Y.azakhstan), No 6, 1972. 6. Prosunko, V. M., "Method of Phytoclimatic Observations in Rice Fields," TRUDY UkrNIGMI (Transactions of the Ukrainian Scientific Research Hydrometeorolog- ical Institute), No 151, 1976. 7. Prosunko, V. M., METODIKA AGROMETEOROLOGICHESKIKH NABLYUDENIY NA RISOVYKH POLYAKH (Method of A.grometeorological Observations in Rice Fields), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1978. , 8. Smetanin, A. P., "Reasons for the Occurrence of Infertile Rice Grains," AGRO- BIOLOGIYA (Agrobiology), No 1, 1959. 9. Chernysheva, L. S., "Heat Supply for the Cultivation of Rice in Primorskiy Kray," TRUDY DVNIGMI (Transactions of the Far Eastern Scientific Res earch Hy- - drometeorological Institute), No 25, 1967. - 117 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.577.21(477) SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAVY PRECIPITATION IN THE UKRAINE Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec- 80 pp 107-109 [Article by T. N. Zabolotskaya, candidate of geographical sciences, and V. M. Much- . nik:. candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Ukrainian Regional Scientific ]tejearch Institute, manuscript submitted 18 Feb 80] ~Text] Abstract: It is shown that heavy precipitation of the shower type at a station most frequently is a result of passage of several centers of precipita- tion. The time between the onset of the maxima of intensity of two successive centers and the distance b etween their midpoints are determined. Heavy rains are thoc e in which 30 mm or more of precipitation falls at a station in the course of 24 hours [3]. These rains can cause great losses (especially in rnountain regions) and there�ore are considered dangerous for the national econ- omy. Their study is necessary for the p urpose of grediction and warning, ancl also fo r developing metho ds of modifi cation for the purpose of regulating rainfall. It was noted earlier in [2] Chat the intensive development Qf a center of pre- _ cipitation is accompanied by the combining of a main center with a center forming - to the rear of it. However, the authors of [2] gave only one case and therefore it was important to ascertain how frequently such cases occur and whether such processes are typir_al for the foruiation of heavy precipitation, that is, whether heavy rains are caused by the passage of one center or several centers, one fol- lowing the other. As the initial data for the investigation we used data trom the pluuiometric and precipitation gage network in the Experimental Meteorological Polygon of the - Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute during the summer of 1977 and also data - from radar observations during this same period. Since the radar observations were made during the daytime, for selecting the cases with heavy rains we employ- ed the semidiurnal precipitation sums (for the observation time 2000 hours), but the initial sum selected was 30 mm or more, that is, the selected rains can be called "heavy." Attention was given to those cases when the p recipitation was in the form of showers, not continuous. Despite the fact tl;at the polygon region is a region with inadequate moistening, the occurrence of heavy precipitation at individual stations is not a rare pheno- menon. For example, in June the hydrometeorological posts registered the falling 118 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of abundant precipitation over the course of 12 days, in July 8 days, and in August 7 days. During this time heavy precipitation uras observed at 102 posts. The frequency of recurrence of the quantity of falling precipitation during a half- day at individual points was as follows: Gradations of 30.1-40 40.1-50 50.1-60 60.1-70 70.1-80 80 quantity of pre- cipitation, mm Frequency of re- currence, % 49 23 10 7 7 4 It can be seen that in almost 30% of the cases individual posts register a very " great quantity of precipitatinn per half-day (more than 50 mm). During this period the program for radar observations provided for conical sections at different angles of antenr_a elevation with calibrated attenuation of the signal. - Series of such sections were obtained each 10 minutes. In general, such a program made it possible to determine the boundaries of individual centers, track the moments of their formation and further development, but in some cases (during inten- sive processes of precipitation formation) it was difficult to carry out such an an- alysis, since the 10-minute interval between observation series exerted an influ- ence. Accordingly, the need arose for checking whether the number of centers pass- ing over a station agrees with the record of rainfall intensity on tlie pluviometric tapes. Such check3ng was carried out at 31 posts (48 rains). It was found that the number of centers passing over an observation point according to radar data agrees rigor- ously with the number of maxima on the curve of variation of intensity. As an illustration, using radar observations with the MRL-2 we will examine the falling of precipitation on 13 June over a station (see Fig. 1). The semidiurnal sum of precipitation at this post was 50.2 mm. The figure shows observational data each 10 and 20 minutes from 0830 hours for a two-hour period. Observations were made at the ground surface with a response of the radar detector 18 db below its total response and aloft with its total response. Thus, it was possible to make a more precise determination of the position of the centers. The figure shows that four centers were formed in the neighborhood of the post. - The first center was detected at the ground surface as early as 0740 hours and for about 1 hour developed very weakly botk in area and in height. At 0830 hours (Fig. la) its development was intensified and at its rear at a distance of about 10 km at an altitude of about 2.9 km at a vertical angle of 10� center 2 was already dis- covered. It is interesting that according to data from a radiosonde launched at _ 0955 hours at the place where the radar was set up the altitude of the isotherm 0�C was about 2.8 km. According to [1], with the appearance of the first echo at the level of or above the 0�C isotherm the center has a tendency to development, which in actuality was not the case. Thus, after approximately 10 min center 2 reached the ground surface (Fig. lb), whereas after 30 min (Fig. ld) its altitude already exceeded 4.5 km. Later the altitude of centers 1 and 2 was more than 8 km, 119 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/48: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300144456-6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY that is, these centers became centers of thunderstorms [4]. According to observa- - tions at the ground surface, during this period a thunderstorm was noted. a) b) c) d) e) Q) �1 �1 � 1 "i � ~ ~ . ~3 0) ? : , , Z ~ i J 3~ ~ t) 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 ~J 3 a~ 1 Z 2 27o' 16' 19 � Z > f _rz z z \ , ~ J 1 J ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ J J � ` 4, 3V ; 2 J t gY ~ > > 1 3 J y Z 4 2 ~ h ) 3) Fig. 1. Projection of centers according to radar observations on 13 June 1977. At angle of elevation 1� contour of radio echo 18 db below its total response, at an angle of 10, 13, 16, 19� at full response. Range marks each 10 km. a) 0830 ho urs; b) 0840 hours; c) 0850 hours; d) 0910 hours; e) 0930 hours; f) 0950 hours; g) 1010 ho urs; h) 1030 hours. i:enter 3 appeared at 0840 hours between centers 1 and 2(Fig. lb). It can be assumed that this center is dynamically related to centers 1 and 2. All rhree centers were situated i.n a line in the direction of their movement. Accordingly, they also - 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY  APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100056-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104456-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY passed over the post one after another, creating abundant rainfall. The data from radar observations are confirmed by pluviometric observations at the ' post. For example, according to these data there are three rainfall maxima: the first at 0940 - 0947 hours, Imax = 0.56 mm/hour, second at 0959 -1006 hours, ImaX = 0.64 mm/hour and third at 1020 - 1025 hours, ImaX = 1.55 mm/hour. At 0950 hours the center 4(Fig. lf) appesrs at the ground surface somewhat to the left of the system of centers 1 and 3, which by this time had succeeded in join- ing together. By lOlQ hours all the centers mentioned above had joined into one enormous multicell, the individual centers of which, except for center 2, cannot - be traced either at the grotmd surface or aloft. The passage of this multicell also caused the formation of heavy precipitation. Using radar and pluviometric data it was possible to analyze all cases of the fall- ing of heavy precipitation during 1977. It was found that only 20% of the cases (20 posts) of heavy rain were caused by the passage of a single center, at 22 - posts the passage of two centers was noted, at 33 posts three centers; at 11 posts the passage of 4 and 5 centers was observed and at 5 posts 6 cen ters; the ' average quantity of falling precipitation in these cases was 33, 45, 46, 41, 49 and 64 mm. Thus, it can be assumed that heavy precipitation at a station most fre- quently is a result of the passage of several centers. It can be concluded on the basis of the material set for�th above that with artific- - ial modification the problem is to act upon the subsequent centers in order to ex- tinguish the process of intensive development. Accordingly, it is of interest to determine the time between the onset o"L' the intensity maxima of two successive cen- ters at a particular point on the basis of pluviometric observations. This time av- eraged 21 minutes. The distances between successive foci of the centers were com- puted taking in to account the velocity of movement of the centers for each day and _ are presented below: Distance gradation, km