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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9913 14 August 1981 Japan Report (FOUO 48/81) F FB~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000440040025-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and ather characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are - enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWiVERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OiNLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9913 14 August 1981 . JAPAN REPORT (FOUO 48/81) , CONTENTS ECONOMIC Mazda Srall Cars, Trucks To Be Exported to Libya (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Current Trends in CMOS RAM Market Described (NIKKEI EZECTRONTCS, 8 Jun 81) 2 Secrets To Success of Japan's Auto Industry (Hiroshi Nonaka; NIKKAN KOGY4 SHIMBUN, vaxious dates) 13 Komatsu Receives Orders for Pipe-Layers From Soviet Union (NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUN, 7 Jul 81) 21 More Active Government Role Urged in Developing Natural Resources (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 22 Oil Firms Face Serious Financial Si.tuation; I,iabilities Gain Sharply (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Ju1 81) 24 Six Aluminum Smelters To Join Mitsui Group Froject (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAZ, 21 Jul 81) 25 MITI Hopes To Form Group To Promote Uranium Enrichment Project (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 26 MITI Plans To Develop Quality Robots (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 2'f Fujitsu Fanuc To Use Fiber Optics for Numerical Contro"1 With Siemens (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 28 - a - [III - ASIA - 111 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAi. i 1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Steady Growth in Exports of Auto Kits for KD Assembly Reported (JAPAN ECONOMIC JO'iTRNAI,, 21 Jul 81) 29 Semiconductor Companies Eye Greatly Increasing Ssa Demand (JAPAN ECONONIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 30 New Way Found To Sever Super Thick Steel Platings Under Water (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 31 Nippon Kogaku Develops Unique Indicator Film (JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 33 Laser Beam Bombardment Used for Fi.lming Work on Semiconductors (JAPAN ECONONLIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 34 Red Light Diode Having Brilliance of Five Times Devised (JAPAN ECONONIIC JOURNAL, 21 Jul 81) 35 - b - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ECONOMIC MAZDA SMALL CARS, TRUCKS TO BE EXPORTED TO LIBYA Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 8 [Text] Sumitomo ('orp., one of Ja- pan's lop traders, has won a provisional order from the Libyan Government to supply subcompacl passenger cars and pickup trucks made by Toyo Kogyo Co. The tentalive deal, expected to be formalized soon, calls for Sumitomo to export 30,000 NTazda vehicles, worlh some Y:tO billion. 1'his will be the secoixd auto- mubile sales to the country niade hy Japan af'ter a one- ,vear export stoppage that last- ed until late 1980. 'l'he preceding contcact was concluded by Nonda Motor Co. lasl December (ur supply of soiue ll,o(N) subcompact cars. '1'he exporis by the Sumitomo- Toyo tcam and Honda Motor, taken togelher, will account for niore thun 40 per cent of l.ibya's lolal aulomobile im- pU�tti rstiuiated at some 100,(Nxl vehicles a year. 'I'he Kaddafi regime of l.ibya inslituted a trade nalionaliza- tion policy in 1979 on ils lOth anniversary. In 1980, it forced private trading enlerprises to join statc-run corporations, and ul the same time, it informed forcign automakers that il would not permit them to export their vehicles lo Libya unless ttiey put up repairing costs and supply parts and components. . The demand invited a harsh reaction from the Japanese automakers and resulted in a virtual halt oF exports to the country for the subsequent one year or so. Afler mutual concessions, lionda cansummated a deal last December to sell some 12 ,uou vehicles. Shipments of [ionda cars began lasl March. While sellir.g some 10,000 cars to East Germany in late May, Sumitomo doubled iLs car sales to Chile in the .lanuary-June {xrioxi over a year earlier. A Sumitomo spokesman said, "Successful canclusion of lhe cleal with Libya will enable the company to boost ils overall auto exports in fiscal 1981 by 20 pc:e cenl ovcr a year earlier to some 450,000 vehicles." COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120290 1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL l!SE ONLI' SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - CURRENT TRENDS IN CMOS RAM MARKET DESCRIBED Tokyo NIKKEI ELECTRONICS in Japanese No 266, 8 Jun 81 pp 92-101 [Text] The market for the CMOS [complementary metal oxide semiconductor] RAM %random access memory) is expanding. The main previous applications were bat- tery-operated or nonvolatile memory with battery backup during data storage. These included the ECR (electronic cash register.) and POS (point of sales) terminals. Recently, in addition to these applications, there has been a ten- dency to use CMOS for power-source miniaturization. In areas such as office automation equigment where miniaturization is imperative, ic is essential to - reduce the size of the power source by eliminating cooling fans and other prob- lems. For the same reasons, there is a trend toward using the CMOS RAM as the - main memory of microcomputer systems. One particular application being examined _ is that of tempurary memory for fast transmission of VTR. There is a large market even when just one 16 kilo-bit RAM is used per set. Even in applications to nonvolatile memory, it is expected that the CMOS RAM will be used increasingly to replace core memory and EPROM (erasable and electrically programmable read- only memory). How much will the demand grow? According to the U.S. journal, ELECTRONICS, the consumption in the United States ;rew 3.8 times from 1979 to 1981. By 1984 it is expected to increase to 3.5 times the figure for 1981.1 At present, CMOS devices account for one-fourth of the MOS static RANI market. In 1984 they will be about one-half (the two together will come close to the dynamic RAM). The - number of 4 K CMOS RAM's shipped throughout the world grew from 5 million to 13 million in the period 1979 to 1980 (source: Dara Quest Company of the United States; .*_his is the rate of increase but domestic mauufacturers believe the ab- - solute number is ~hree or four times this). In 1981, as the movement to the 16 K product begins, a total rate of increase of 40 to 50 percent is expected, and 70 to 80 percent of this will be Japanese products. The reasons for this trend include the aforementioned miniaturization of equip- ment and the strong demand for reduced power dissipation in memory devices. For this purpose, the power dissipated durinb storage need not be as low as that during battery backup. However, it will be necessary to bring cost and speed close to that of the n-MOS static RAM. The target for cost is no more than 1.3 times the ccst of the n-MOS static device. The present 4 K product is 1.3 to 1.5 times that, or close to the goal. The speed of the 16 K product has caught up with the n-MOS. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400040025-6 NUR UFh7(7A1. Uti!�: ONl.ti' 'Che applications with battery backup wil] also grow, One reason for this is improvements in batteries. The operating temperature range, reliability, and capacity are being improved. Development is being carried out to reduce power dissipation in the CMOS device during standby, and products have appeared with self-discharging current equal to tha*_ of batteries. Also, lithium batteries have come into use. From4Kto 16K IC manufacturers have also made an effort to develop CMOS devices. In particu- lar, applications involving batreries axe flourishing. In Japan, miniaturiza- tion oi machines is very important, so most manufacturers are working on this, 'rhe recent policy of most manufacturers is to make a complete line of products r.ather than a particular kind of inemary device.. The CMOS RAM is one oF the most important. Most of the large-scale integrated devices of the Cuture wi].1 probably be CNIOS devices because of restraints on power dissipation. = The main product at present is the 4 K RAM. The first of these appeared in - 1977. Some samples of the 16 K product began to come out at the end of 1979. Many manufacturers got involved dur3ng the latter part of 1980 and 1981. The ~ present is a startup period for this product. Toshiba Corporation and Hitachi Ltd are already producing between several tens of thousands and more than 100 thousand units per month (the Hitachi product uses CMOS for only the on-chip- peripheral circuitry; n-MOS with high-resistance load is used for the cell). Nihon Electric Company, Fujitsu, and Oki Electric will soon move into mass production. The goal is 100,000 units per month by this fall. The Harris Corporation of the United States will put out samples this summer and Mitsu- bishi Electric will do the same this fa11. These 16 K products are completely different from the previous 4 K product. Also, the aim o� the 16 K product differs according to the ma.nufacturer. The unit cost for a complete CMOS device (with CMOS memory cells) is about 3,000 yen when pur.cliased in quantlty. This is five times the cost of the 4 K CMOS znd 1.5-2 times that of the 16 K n-MOS. Below we will compare the function, per�ormance, and appl.ication technology of the various products. . f , i ~ -.___..--i�;~ ~ i [ ~ _ ~.I A ' , _ ( . ~ , ~ ~ i [ ~ . i . i�. ....I i i; n _.l ~ C r, r, ~ : ~ ~ ~ ( . ] :s i;; ~r ~ i~~ A ui: r r[. V. A rA 01' c'i' l!, n[:~, ~ c~. ~]i, I riI{ 11 A. (;\I' I ~ 8 I: I~ .~ti t~[_ ~ u~ I u, � p~ [ I u. I~~ II C\I)____~ j . i I I, 1 IJ I I~ I (i I I K � I (d I < I~�1 'li I _ . . . . _ _ . _ _ rigure 1. Pin configuration of 16 K CMOS RAM. There is a pin configuration simi].ar to thar of the n-MOS static RAM (d) and one that is oriented to battery hackup (n). One type of (e) goes into a very low-power dissipation standby mode only when (;F.p is at a high level. There are other types that go into a.standby mocie al either. CE1 or CEp . 3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FIIR OFFI('IAI. Iitil, (DNI.1' ; ii pi ns, ll i t;li-Speed ()pe rat ion I n All Devi.ce5 ln 'I'ahle I, the 1.6 K CMOS RAM product lines are compared. The memory structure is 'Z K words x 8 bits. The 4 K product has a 1 K by 1 bit and a 4 K by 1 bit array. AJ_1 use a standard 24-pin DIP package. The 4 K product had either 18 pins and 20 pins. The pin configuration is a standard form of byte-array memory which is compatible with 16 K EPROI4's (see Figure 1). However, there are three types of chip selection taXminal which choose the needed product type according to use. Looking at function, we see that access time has gotten fastex. It is now about 1.20 to 250 nanoseconds, about the same as the n-MGS, compared to 500 nanoseconds in conventional products. This is a result of miniaturization of pattern dimen- sions. The peripheral circuitry on the chip has beEn made faster by manufac- turers with the objective of replacing the n-MOS device. As a result, products tiave appeared in which the current consumption in active mode is much greater than that of the n-MOS. In some products this has been lowered i:,y manipulation of tre ci.rcuitry. In contrast to the 4 K device, most of these are perfectly static (only one company produces a synchronous model). There is a varying range of current consumption during standby depending on the manufacturer. Some products bring out the special features of CMOS and keep the power consumption at 1 nanoampere at normal t,emperature, while others are halfway between the CMOS and n-MOS. This depends on the purpose of the product. With a power source voltage of 5 volts �10 percent, data can be stored even when the voltage is as low as 2 volts. Also, there are products with a greater range of operating tem- perature. These are for outdoor applications such as automatic vending machines. - The above figures are all taken from data sheets. The focus of concern, however, is on the actual figures for current consumption during standby snd minimum activating power source voltage, as well as for noise resistance and reliability. Three Types of Chip Se'lection Fram the point of view of function, there are two main types of 16 K devices. 'Che two pin configurations shown in Figure 1 correspond to these two types. 'Che difference is seen in pin No 18 and pin No 20. In Figure 1(d), these pins are t}ie chip-enable CE and the output-enable OE. In Figure 1(e), they are both chip-cnable pins, CE1 and EE2; (d) is an extension of (a) and (b) while (e) is an extension of (c). The'configuration of (a), (b), and (d) is the same as that of: the n-MOS static RAM. It aims at replacing the n-MOS. When CE is at a high level, the device goes into the low-power dissipation'standby mode (or the data storage mode). OE controls output. When it is at a high level, output enters a impedance mode and data is not released. In this way, output conflict in the bus Is avoided. Oil the other tiand, (c) and (e) are suited for battery backup applications. This is because the gate can be eliminated by controlling CE1 and CE2 as shown in Figure 2. CE1 is used for chip selection. CE2 puts aIl chips into the low- power d3.ssipation standby mode. This is done simply by applying the high-level memory-save signal MS to CE2. Conventionally, it was ideal to have four control signal.s: CEl, CE2, OE, and R/W (read/write). However, because of restraints on 4 FOR OFF[CIAL LISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FOR OFFICIA L USE ONLY Pabie 1. Examples of the 2 K by 8 bit C`tOS RA11 showing representative characcer;stics. (:ummon char2ctar- istics are as follows: power source voltage range Vcc - 5 V!10 percent; data yturage volCeRe: 2.0 to 5.5 V(excluding 1016116P); package: standard 24-pin DIP. There are aome differencew be- tween companies in input level voltage range, input leakage current, and input capacitance. A 61ank space indicates that data is not available. Address Current consumDtion (max.) _ Operating Chip access time Active*' Standby 2 Control temp. sir,e Manufac- Product number (max.) (ns) (condition) (condition) :dethod range(�C) (mm) turer Mffi8416 200 60mA 101i A CE,OE -40-+85 5.18x5.66 Fujitsu (200 from CE 1 ~CE = Vcc ~ ~100 from OE ~ Vcct0.2V MB8417 200 60mA lOuA CE1,CE2 -40-+85 5.18x5.66 Fujitsu (100 from CE,1 (CEp ~ Vcc-1 1200 from CE~/ Vcc�O.?V f `tB8418 200 60mA lOuA CE1, CEZ -40-+85 5.18x5.66 Fujitsu (200 from CE1/CE2) CE1/CE2=Vcc - (Vcc�0.2V J HM-6516-9/ 250 lOmA SOOuA CE,OE -40-+85/ Harris -2* 3 240 from CE 1U0 f- 1Mhz, out- ICE-Vcc~1CC�0.3V, -55^~+125 ( from OE (cycle put OmA; in- ~ inputyVcc or OV, minimum 390)*4 put Vcc or OV Vcc=2V, outputOmA H16116P-2 120/150/200 80/70/70mA 2mV/100uA*ll'*12 CE,OE 0-+70 4.16x5.5 Hitachi -3/-4 (120/150/200 from CE C ~Vcc-0.2V, in- 1 ( /t^16116LP-2 ,80/100/120 from OE //70/60/60mA put.lcc-0.2V or -3/-4 *5 ~inputS0.2V ~ HM6117LP-3/ 150/200 70mA 100uA*11 '13 CE1,CE2 0--+70 4.76x5.5 Hitachi -4*5 150/200 froml CE1?Vcc-0.2V, in- (CEi,CE2 ~ put2Vcc-0.2V or s0.2V, or CE23 Vcc-0.2V M5N5116P/-12/ 2001120/150 SQmA SOuA CE1,CEZ 0--+70 4.8x6.48 Mitsubishi -15*`' 200/120/150 1 Z:Vcc-02V, or ~ from CE1CE2) at CE1~Vcc- Fnput 2V is fixed close vcc or o v J _PD446C/D-3/ 150/200 38mA/30mA 100uA*u'7 CE,OE 0-r+70 5.84x6.38 ;TEC -2 r150/200 from CE (CE-Vcc) 175/100 from oE .;PD447C/D-3/ 150/200 38mA/30mA 1001,A*n'7 CE1,CE2 0^-+70 5.84x6.38 NEC -Z /75/100 from C1~ (CEZ~Vcc) ~150/200 from CE :.PD449C/D 200 30mA 100uA*ll'7 CE1,CE2 0-+70 5.84x6.38 NEC (200 from CE1, CEZ) (CE1,CE2,=Vcc) KSM5128-12/ 120/150/200 67/62/57mA SOuA*e CE,3E*9 -30-+85 5.65x6.57 oki -15 /120/150/200 from CE 1 CE=Vcc-0.2V,input~ -20 ~80/100/150 from OE f (:0.2V oral!cc-0.2V TC5516AP/APL 250*10 7pmA*10 30t.A/0.2uA at25�C , CE1,CE2 -30--+85 5.06x5.77 Toshiba 100 from CEi 1.OvA at 60�C*to (250 from CEZ) (CEZ-Vpp-O.SV) TC5517AP/aPL 250*�0 70mA*l0 30uA/0.2uA at 25�C CE,OE -30-+85 5.06x5.77 Toshiba 250 from CE 1.0uA at 60�C*10 100 from CE ( (CE-VDD-O.SV) (see not es following page) 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 Irio Ir!: i�'r,i f, I c 1 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY *1. Unless specified, conditions are: shortest cycle time, duty 100 percent, output OmA. *2. Unless specified all cperating temperature ranges are given for Vcc=2.0-5.5V during standby or out of input mode. Chip selection symbols are standardized as shown above. *3. Scheduled for sample shipment in summer 1981. *4. Synchronous; all other products are asynchronous. *5. n-MOS memory cell with high-resistance load, only on-chip peripheral circuitry i s CriOS. *6. Scheduled f or sample shipment in fall 1981. *7. lOuA when Vcc=3V. *8. 20uA when Vcc=2V. *9. Can respond to demand of CE1, CE2 *10. TC5517BP and 5518BP also being readied with 200ns 25mW (standard), and 0.25uW (standard). *11. When Vcc=5V�10 percent. *12. 50uA when Vcc=3V. *13. 30uA when Vcc=3V. ' i;.CCO 1ji,.- ~ 1f.1_,~.,;- ~ ' ( IC l'~: A . 1~0, . i A. I U. Y~ ~~~CCOC~�';' f'U. ~ i ~ ~ - ; - --i ~  . _..I ; ~ ~ . - ai.; Fi~ttre 2. The CE1 and CE2 Control System Eliminates the Gate when Battery Backup Is Used. (From reference materials prepared by NEC) 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400440025-6 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY the number of pins, not all of these can be used. In the 4 K device, at present, 18-pin configurations (a) and (b) are standard. For CE1 and CE2 control, 20-pin configuration (c) is used. In 16 K devices, this difference was eliminated. With 16 K bits, CE2 becomes a negative-logic circuit. It has the advantages of being readily compatible with TTL and being resistant to noise during data stor- age (more explanation later). However, manufacturers say that both types are suitable in practice. _ There are two specific types of control of CE1 and CE2: the type in which low- power dissipation standby mode is entered only when CE2 is at a high level, and the type in which low-power dissipation mode occurs when either CE1 or CE2 is at a high level. The latter type is best for a large system where the chip is placed in a matrix and decoded. All chips but the one selected are put into a - low-power dissipation mode. In the former case, there is no drop in the--power dissipation of a single line uf chips in the semi-selective mode, wrere CEJ is high level and CE2 is low. However, in this case, the access time from CE1 be- comes very short. In the type of control where low-power dissipation occurs when both CE1 and CE2 are at a high level, the access time from both inputs is the same. The selection depends on whether priority is given to power dissipation or speed. Products which enter low-power dissipation mode when only the chip-enable input is held at high level have been produced as 16 K devices and the number produced has risen. The internal circuiLry is designed so that other input gates will be cut off when there is input at CE2. Originally, 1 K devices were designed this way. But with 4 K devices, devices without this feature appeared. The address and data must be fixed close to power source voltage VDD or OV. Even with 16 K devices, some models of this type remain (see conditions for current consumed during standby in Table 1). In this case, feedthrough current flows at the input stage in response to medium-level input. Most manufac:tu.rers have prepared devices of both types (d) and (e) shown in Figure 1. Concern With Actual Pattern of Current Consumed During Standby Performance requirements for the CMOS RAM are generally rigorous. It must have ~ a wide range of operating temperatures and power source voltages and be highly resistant to noise. The user requirements for the properties shown in Table 1 are stringent. They emphasize actual performance figures rather than maximum values. This is an example of good current consumption during standby. When - used with nonvolatile memory, some users demand as low as 1 microampere at nor- mal temperature. In general, the actual values are one order of magnitude lower than the maximum values on the data sheet and one more order of magnitude lower than that at normal temperature. Figure 3 is a graph showing the distribution for approximately 1,000 TC5516APL devices which appear in Table 1. The peak values of the actual devices were under 10 nanoamperes. This val.ue cannot be measured with a conventional tester. This current is highly dependent on tem- perature. In nonvolatile memory applications, the proper temperature level is said to be 25�10�C. That is because the self-discharging current of the battery is much larger than the CMOS memory current at high temperatures. When used in 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400044025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL1' (2)1 ~ Ci , I , _ _ ~ .i i . ~ t,; ` i ~ - _ _ (3) Figure 3. Actual Current Consumed During Standby (in the TC5516APL) Key: (1) N (devices) (2) Test conditions: Vpp = 5.5V CE,) = 5.0 V (=Vpp-0.5 V) other inputs open 25�C (3) Current consumed Ipps2 (nA) a large-capacity memory system, the necessary battery capacity becomes extremely large if the device is designed for maximum current consumption. Some users make demands for the average values and dispersion of this current distribution. The practical values of the power source voltage range are also a matter of concern. In active mode, the nominal value is 5 volts �10 percent. However, there are many products which operate at around 2 volts. In such cases, how- ever, access time increases. The voltage range where data storage is possible is given as 2.0 to 5.5 volts on the data sheet. Actually, it is reported that storage can take place at voltages as low as 1.5 volts. Such a figure means faulty operation. Resistance to Latch-Up Latch-up is a particular problem of CMOS. This is a phenomenon which occurs when the parasitic thyristor in the CMOS structure conducts because of external noise and large amounts of short-circuit current continue to flow until the power source is cut off. The 1 K devices were susceptible to input noise. The cause of this was the diffusion resistance applied to input to prevent electrostatic breakdown. Forward current flowed in the pn junction (parasitic diode) of the resistor, triggering the parasitic thyristor. There were also some 4 K devices in which diffusion resistance was used initially. At present, polysilicon resis- tance is used, so latch-up does not occur excep_* in the parasitic diode. Since resistance cannot be applied to the output circuit, the circuit pattern must be manipulated to increase resistance to latch-up. Manufacturers' know-how is also app?ied to such matters as ttce spacing of the p-MOS and n-MOS transistors, the manner of inserting guard rings, the depth of the p well, the density of impuri- ties, and techniques of equalizing the substrate potential and source potent9.a1. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFLCIAI. USE ONLY Noise During Data Storage a Source of Trouble How to deal with noise when the CMOS RAM is put into low-power dissipation _ standby mode during data storage is a difficult problem. Recent products have high-speed response, so when noise in thin whisker-shaped pulses is applied, errors may occur in reading and writing. Tateishi Electric investi~ated actual examples of this and techniques for dealing with it in 4 K devices. In its in- vestigation, the cause was found to be noise due to static electricity. In Figure 4(a), when the power source voltage drops, CE2 goes to a low level and the memory enters the data storage mode. If noise pulses are applied to the CE2 line at this time, the CE2 level is pulled up and this causes faulty ope- - ration. If fine noise pulses are continously applied, a direct current compo- nent occurs between the capocitor C1 terminals, and the C2 level is pulled up. To eliminate this direct current level, a diode was used as shown in Figure 4(b). This circuit is not perfect but has been reported to be e�fective in practice. Among the products used were some which were particularly susceptible to the - influence of static electricity. This characteristic was concentrated in a particular production lot from a certain company. The voltage of static elec- tricity which causes faulty operation is one order of magnitude lower than that of other products. Faulty operation occurs with a finer pulse and at a lower level than that of other lots. The more these kinds of lots appear and the greater the dispersion of properties between lots, the greater the problem. Also, it is desirable for the chip-enable input to be negative logic. That is. because the margin of the input level is narrow on the low-level side. The - 16 K devices are made with negative logic. Some manufacturers, as a consequence of achieving greater speed, have reduced the size of the minimum write-pulse width. In response, an attempt is being made to increase the minimum write-pulse width. The analysis of noise properties, including latch-up, is difficult. 0::~ . . c ^ il�:, (:I�:. ; 1. 7 'T (:N 1) 1' G\1) 1-1~~. ~ ...J~~_~ ~ ~ F_�-""'7 ~UO n In) . :%i ~ CB: . = fl V ~ r------ i ~ i ~ ; .i. i ~ ~ ~ i ~ M. ~ _ i 9 Figure 4. When tioise is CE2 during data storage, errors may occur: (a). Prevention circuit: (b) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY applied to read-write APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFIC'IAI. USF: ONLY Timing requires caution in active mode as well. The products shown in Table 1 ar.e mostly completely static (asynchronous). However, there is actually a cor- relation between the address and control input, and improper timing can cause writing errors. Problems have existed with respect to reliability. The current consumed during data storage sometimes increased abnormally, causing faulty operation; for exam- ple, reduced voltage in the backup batteries. Also, corrosion sometimes occurred in the A1 wiring. The former was a result of residual contamination. The latter was due to a problem with the protective film on the chip surface. Production Technology D>ffers With the Manufacturer The production technology used by different companies reflects their differing objectives. Toshiba and Hitachi have contrasting approaches. A concept accepted by Toshiba and many other companies is that 2 K by 8 bit MOS static RAM's are _ divided into two types--the fast, low-cost n-MOS and the medium-speed, low- power-dissipation CMOS--and there is no intermediate relationship between them. With this approach, it is necessary to lower the current consur.iption during stand- by as much as possible in order to bring out the special features of the CMOS RAM. In contrast to this, Hitachi has taken the policy of supplying one product with applications of both n-MOS and CMOS. CMOS is used f or the on-chip peripheral circuitry, and a type of n-MOS with high-resistance load is used for the memory cell arrAy which takes up most of the chip surface area.3 Current consumption is lower than that of a perfect CMOS RAM. In order to keep the current consumed during standby in the nanoampere range, it is necessary to use a six-transistor CMOS cell. The current is determined by the MOS transistor cutoff current (subthreshold current) and the pn junction leakage current. In order to obtain the properties given in Figure 3, Toshiba particu- larly lowered the leakage current. In order to do this, it eliminated certain wafer defects, for example, defects which occur iluring formation of the field oxide film, and heavy metal contamination which occu.-s during p-well fabrication. The key in this is the point in the fabrication process where heat treatment and gettering are performed. The design rules are to shrink the RAM from the 6 to 7 micrometers of the 1 K pro- duct to 5 micrometers for the 4 K product and 3 micrometers for the 16 K product. 1,hile a perfect CMOS may be as small as 2.5 to 3.5 micrometers, rhe Iiitachi CMOS/ n-MOS will be 3 to 4 micrometers, a little slack. Toshiba uses a 10:1 projection exposure apparatus. In order to hold down the expansion of chip surface area without using this exposure apparatus, NEC is using dual-level polysilicon and Mitsubishi is using dual-level aluminum interconnections. In a conventional CAiOS structure, a p well is formed in an n substrate and p-MOS is fabricated on the n substrate and n--MOS in the p well. Hitachi forms a p well and an n well in a high-resistance substrate and places a large n-MOS cell array inside the large p well. By this means, high speed can be achieved along with resistance to alpha-ray soft errors. Mitsubishi uses an n well in a p substrate. The same process as that for the high-speed n-MOS can be used. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400440025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL1' As shown in Table 1, when a CMOS RAM becomes faster, the power dissipation dur- - ing active power increases. In order to reduce this, NEC uses the method of internal dynamic activation.4 A sense amp and clocked control of the bit-line load are particularly effective. An example of bit-line load is shown in , Figure 5. When clocked control is not used, if the word line rises and the cell transfer gate opens, a direct current path occurs as shown in the figure. This affects the entire cell connected to the word line. This is very serious with an increased number of bit lines and chips. To prevent this, the bit-line load must be cut off when the word line rises, as in Figure 5. The internal control clock activates during address change. Toshiba uses the same concept in its 4 bit Froduct, the TC5514AP. The plan is to use it in the 16 K product as well (BP version). Another possible technique for achieving high speed is to reproduce signals mid- way on the word line (Hitachi and NEC). Aiming at the Field of High Speed Hitachi is aiming for high speed with the aforementioned CMOS/n-MOS technology. Its first product was a 4 K RAM with a maximum access time of 55 ns/70ns. This January, Hitachi put out a sample of a 16 K by 1 bit RAM, the HM6167, which has access times of 70 ns/85 ns/100 ns. The power dissipation is markedly lower than that of the n-MOS. It is housed in a standard 20-pin DIP package 7.6 milli- meters wide. The surface area is small, 40 percent of the standard 24-pin DIP. Purthermore, samples of a fast version of the 4 K RAM, the HM6147H, are sche- duled for shipment this summer. Intel Corp of the United States will ship samples in the near future of a 4 K by 1 bit RAM with maximum access times of 100 ns/150 ns/200 ns. This is a perfect CMOS using an n well. Another U.S. company, Integrated Device Technology Inc, is selling a 2 K by 8 bit CMOS RAM with a maximum access time of 70 ns/90 ns/120 ns. ]F~ ; , ; _ l.p.i ' ~ . . ' . ~ ~?..1 Figure 5. Active current is restrained by internal clocked control. This is an example of bit-line load control. When th? w:,zd-line potential rises, the bit-line load is turned off by clock � and the direct current path shown in the figure is cut off. A sense amp also pro- vi.des clocked control. 11 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL LSE: ONLY A 64 K CMOS RAM By 1983 [Jhen the move is made from a 16 K to a 64 K priduct, production of pure n-MOS static RAM's wi.ll probably be reduced. Because of power dissipation restraints, the peripheral circuitry will have to be CMOS. CMOS/n-MOS and pure CMOS tech- nology will be used. Manufacturers will probably split into those who are mak- ing both types and those who make only one. In the area of technology, an n-well device which has many fabrication processes in common with n-MOS is attracting notice. With respect to this, some observers say that the pure CMOS with an n - well will have problems with power dissipation during standby, and the CMOS/ n-MOS combination will have trouble with alpha waves and input undershoot. As miniaturization proceeds, both the n-MOS and p-MOS will reach the optimum structure for independence. Samples will be put out during 1981 at the earliest. Most observers believe that mass production will take place from 1983 on. (Rikiya Okabe) REFERENCES 1. "Forecasting the U.S. and European Electronics Market for 1981," NIKKEI ELECTRONICS, 30 March 1981, No 261, pp 201-233 (table on p 230). 2. Takagi and Nakagaki, "Countermeasures for Electrostatic Noise in CMOS Memory Cards," Collected Technical Papers of the 1981 Electronic Communi- cations Society General Conference, presentation No 425, p 2,190, April 1981. 3. Yasui, Makimoto, Masuhara, "High-Speed, Low-Power Dissipation, High Integra- tion Density MOS Static RAM," NIKKEI ELECTRONICS, 17 March 1980, No 234, pp 130-150. 4. Akatsuka, Y., Nagahashi, Y., Sasaki, I., Eguchi, K. and Hotta, N., "Fully Static 16 K RAM Using Dynamic Circuitry Technique," 6th European Solid State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, pp 155-157, September 1980. COPYRIGHT: Nikkei-McGraw-Hill, Inc 1981 9651 CSO: 4105/179 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE ANID TECHNOLOGY SECRETS TO SUCCESS OF JAPAN' S AUTO INIDUSTRY To6;yo NIZKAN KOGYO SHIMBUN in Japanese 23, 24, 25, 26 Jun 81 [Four-part article by Hiroshi Nonaka, NIKKAN KOGYA reporter] [23 Jun 81 p 81 [Text] Rising World Appraisal The 1980's are said to constitute an era of global atito warfare. The joi:iing of hands (joint ventures) among automakers oF the United States, Europe, and Japan could be seen as efforts to "survive" in this war. Nonetheless, technological capability is the basis for survival, General Motors, the king of the world's carmakers, has invested the enormous sum of 40 billion dollars in research and development funds for the 1980-84 period toward the development of new-model cars, because it believes that "technology is the decisive factor." During the past several years, Japanese cars have won a universal reputation as the "world's top- level cars." But can they maintain this superiority? Also, what are the factors that go to make up this superiority? I will take a:look at these questions. (Reporter Hiroshi Nonaka.) In February of this year, Nissan Mntors announced in the Japa.nese newspapers that it had developed the "E"-model engine. A week later, the company received a techni- cal inquiry from the Ford Company of the United States. "We have never had such a speedy response. It probably indicates the degree of interest in Japanese auto technology among foreign carmakers. Nonetheless, we are amazed to receive such at- tention after only a week." Managing Director Jiro Tanaka, who is Nissan's director of technology, had a sardonic smile as he spoke. One does not need to cite the "E"-model engine as an example to emphasize the speed with which news concerning Japanese technology and new models developed by Japan's carmakers travel around the world today. to MOTOR MAGAZINE, a major motor trade magazine: "Until four or five years ago, news concerning Japanese car model changes were carried in the world's trade publications a year or so later. More- over, no mention was made regarding the engines and components. Recently, practi- cally every motor trade ma.gazine has been carrying news about the new Japanese models as soon as they are announced. This is indicative of the interest abroad in Japanese cars." (Hajime Kaida) 13 FOR OFFT(:TAT, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400044025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Japanese cars and Japan's auto technology are widely introduced throughout the world, and a great mass of usera are waiting out there. Consequently, "proud" foreign manufacturers cannot help but focus attention on Japanese auto technology. In this sense, the technical cooperation agreement signed in January this year between Daihatsu T;ogyo and Inocenti Company of Italy could be considered a case that underscores the high level of Japan's engine technology. The agreement calls For an annual export shipment by Daihatsu to Inoceriti of 20,000 engines to be used in the compact passenger car "Charade." (1000-cc engine, 3 cylinders) Approval was granted by the Italian Government in late May, and [the shipment] is scheduled for loading soon. Daihatsu Kogyo has suddenly begun to at- tract attention from the world's carmakers, including an agreement signed lasC fall to export 100-200 "Charade" engines annually to Auto Mekanika, a new Greek auto- maker. With regard to the blitz announcement last sunmer of a Toyota-Ford partnership, Fard Company reportedly is strongly interested in the technology of Toyota's sub- compacts, especially the "Corolla" model. In the background is Ford's interest in the technology of Daihatsu Kogyo, a partner of Toyota Motors. The Daihatsu people admit that "Ford representatives made three visits to Japan between late 1979 and late 1980, meeting with President Sakae Ohara and other Daihatsu officials." The feasibility of providing technology is said to have been the center of discussion, but it did not materialize because of Daihatsu's refusal. However, as a result of the visits to Japa.a, Ford succeeded in obtaining technical cooperation concerning Toyota's "one box wagon car." This has become an era of "technical assistance to troubled American carma.kers." (Toyota President Eiji Toyoda, at a press conference at Narita Airport imnediately following announcement of the Toyota-Ford partnership on 20 July last year) The provision of technical cooperation by Japanese automakers is not limited to the United States. The provision of production techniques and a complete set of facil- ities by Honda to the established British manufacturer British Leland (an agreement was signed in December 1979 on the subcompact passenger car "Ballad,") is well knawn. Also, Nissan Motors is providing the prominent European car manufacturer Citroen of France wiCh techniques to cope with gas exhaust problems. In January 1980, Citroen, which had been unable to meet exhaust pollution standards in Japan-- the strictest in the world--requested Nissan's cooperation concerning catalytic technology to be applied to its cars for export to Japan, and it succeeded in ob- taining an agreement. However, this fact is not lrnawn to the general public. The reason is that "proud" Citroen feared a decline in its image if it became known - that it had received technical assistance. Details of the Nissan-Citroen agreement on technical cooperation are therefore un- clear. But such cases are not rare in today's auto indusCry. Requests for techni- cal cooperation continue to pour in from Europe, the United States, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union. But it is questionable whether they will be made public in case they do materialize. An official in charge of technology for a Tokyo auto- maker, conducting negotiations on technical cooperation with a leading European manufacturer, says, "Our company would like to publicize it widely. But the European manufacturer in a reputedly leading car-producing nation is strongly 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "against publicizing any introduction of foreign technica.l assitance, and has in- cluded a clause in the agreement forbidding any publicity." - The world's carmakers are joining hands in many forms in order to survive in the - war of compact cars in the 1980's. Technical negotiations are part of the phenomenon. Consequently, many negotiations tend to be held in secret. One thing which could be stated with certainty is that during the past several years, Japan's auto technology has suddenly become the center of world attention. Since when? Why? Clarification of these questions would indicate the fLture trend of Japan's auto industry. [24 Jun 81 p 9] [Text] Improved Durability and Reliability . Toyota Motors has "matured" to the point where it is now providing Ford, the world's second largest automaker, with auto production techniques. But it started out by "copying Ford." (Managing Director Masatoshi Morita) A copy cannot be better than the original. Naturally, various problems were encountered. Between 1945 and the mid-1950's, the most frequent problems experienced by not only Toyota but all of Japan's carmakers were "breakdowns." In those days, Japan's roads were extremely inferior and the percentage of paved roads was low. In addition to the imperfect auto technology, the bumpy roads naturally resulted in frequent breakdowns. Ironically, however, the bad roads con- tributed to the drastic improvement in the durability of Japanese cars, and this became an important factor in producing the world's finest, "breakdown-free" cars. Ma.naging Director Masatoshi Mnrita of Toyota Mntors and Managing Director Jiro Tanaka of Nissan Motors, technical directors of Japan's top two carmakers, agree: "The taxis which traveled on bumpy roads performed the ro le of test drivers and gave us the incentive to improve the performance and durability of our cars." Until the mid-1950's there were few owner-drivers, and the majority of the cars in demand were taxis. The taxis traveled on unpaved roads like "kamikaze taxis," somewhat like the road races held in the mountainous regions of Africa. Just as the road races tested the performance and durability of cars under severe conditions, the taxis of the mid-1950's provided a number of important "data":to auto production experts. This has culminated in the subsequent leap in car quality and performance. This year's April issue of the popular West German weekly magazine FUNK UHIt L car- ried a special article entitled, "Which is superior, the Japanese car or the German Car?" To compare its own cars with Japanese cars is itself unusual in Europe, and indicates the rising evaluation of Japanese cars. What is especially noteworthy is the high praise expressed in the article: "Japanese cars are highly reliablia, but the Toyota is especially good." It thus rates them higher than their own Mercedes Benz, Opel, and Audi. Data obtained by the West Gennan car inspection (TW) in 1980 also clearly show the high reliability of Japanese cars. The West German inspection checked out 26 15 FOR OFFTrrnr. i1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY items: 8 items on the chassis, 10 items on the brake system, 5 items on lighting, 2 items on exhaust pollution and noise, and 1 item on comfort. The results of the inspection are provided in terms of an average fault rate (average for all model cars in an inspection year), 3nd the superiority of a cax is based on how low its fault rate [is]. According to the results, the West German Mercedes Eenz had the lowest fault rate, with 3 out of 28 items. Next were Nissan (4 items) and Toyota (5 items), followed by Toyo Kogyo, Mitsubishi, and Honda--all Japanese makes. Following them were West German models other than Mercedes Benz, a Swedish model (Volvo), the French models Peugeot and Renault, and the Italian Fiat. It is ironic that the inspection results for France and Italy, which severely re- strict Japanese imports, were inferior. Peugeot and Renault had a fault rate four times that of the Japanese makes, which have the lowest fault rates. In the case of Fiat, it was even worse. One benchmark for car reliability is the marketability of used cars. This is be- cause the value of cars that have fewer breakdawns and greater durability does not decline. According to a user poll conducted by the West German motor trade maga- zine MOT in October (1 Oct 80 issue), used car prices for the Mercedes Benz and BIrb,T are high, followed by such Japanese makes as the Honda, Mitsubishi, Toyota, and Nissan models. Here, Italian and French car prices are generallq low. "Japanese cars have established a reputation for few critical defects, even as used cars." (MdTOR MAGAZINE president H.ajime Kaida) Only some 20 years ago, Japanese cars had a low reputation abroad for reliability because of frequent troubles. But today their defects are caught immediately, and major breakdowns are prevented through a driver training control system and a diagnostic system which accurately pinpoints the trouble. There are now practi- cally no cases where a driver is compelled to abanclon his car on the road and walk home on foot. Additionally, Japanese car production technicians, who seek greater perfection, are aiming for the "Feller mode analysis." (Shinji Seki, managing director of Mitsubishi Motors) "Feller mode analysis" is a technical method devised by Che U.S. National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA) in implementing the Apollo space project. It is applied in order to "anticipate the occurrence of technical trouble, and to perform checks and doublechecks in order to prevent their occur- rence.11 [25Jun81p9] [Text] Fuel-Efficient, Low-Pollution Cars Late last October, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its initial list of fuel-efficiency standards for 1981 model cars (put on sale in October 1930) sold in America. According to the list, the Toyota "Starlet" and Mitsubishi "Mirage" had the highest fuel efficiency rating among 1300-1600-cc engine models. They were followed by the Nissan "Sunny," Toyota "Tercel," and 16 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Toyo Kogyo "Familia." 'Phe Japanese makes were far ahead of such compacts as the ' General Motors "Chevette" and Ford "Escort." ~ Of course, the 1300-cc Starlet and 1400-cc Mirage cannot be corapared on the same basis with the 1600-cc Chevette and Escort. Still, the Chevette and Escort do not have becter fuel efficiency than such "top-grade cars" as the 1800-cc Corolla (Toyota) or the 2000-cc Violet (Nissan). The EPA list clearly shows the out- standing fuel efficiency of Japanese cars. The results of "test driving" by taxis in the late 1950's bore fruit in the late 1960's, and Japanese cars began to gain a high reputation for reliability. How- ever, "it has only been in the past two or three years that they have begun to be viewed as superior cars at home and abroad." (Sadao Kobayashi, executive director of Mitsubishi Motors) The improved reliability of Japanese cars was as yet insufficient as a barometer for evaluation. From that point on, hawever, world appraisal of Japanese cars changed rapidly, and they began to be regarded as "outstanding cars." What were the factors? What was added to their reliability? Regarding the reasons for their climb to superiority both in reputation and substance, Japanese auto experts say, "This cannot be discussed without considering antipollution measures." (Kiyoshi Matsumoto, executive directar of Toyota Motors) _ In December 1976, the Japan Environmental Protection Agency issued the antipollution control act for automobiles (enforced in FY 78) despite fierce protests by the auto industry. Dubbed the "Japanese Muskie Act," it was actually much more restrictive _ than the Muskie Act. Even today, automakers do not hide their resentment toward its severity. In reality, the investment necessary for development in order to pass the strict standards brought an added burden to the automakers and resulted in higher car prices and increased costs to the consumer. Moreover, the fuel efficiency and horsepawer of cars immediately following the enforcement of controls were not very satisfactory. Nonetheless, the reason that "the development of Japanese cars cannot be discussed without considering antipollution measures" is because the strict controls helped to accelerate research and development on engine combustion technology and were instrumental in its progress. In general, the decrease in NOX (nitrogen oxide) and hydrocarbons are a tradeoff for fuel efficiency. An increase in the compres- sion ratio of a reciprocating engine boosts its power and results in better fuel efficiency. But the temperature also rises and increases the amount of NOX exhaust. Conversely, a lower compression ratio results in less power and lower fuel ef- ficiency. "A drop on one side of the equation results in a rise on the other side." The keys to solving the tradeoff relationship were i:nproved engine combustion technology and the development of catalysis technology. The Honda CVCC-II, the Nissan 2-plug rapid combustiori, and ttie Mitsubishi MCA jet technologies are hi;hly evaluated throughout the wurld as improved engine technologies. Also, such leading cotn- bustion tecliniques as the rarified combustioii method used in the light Toyota engine, the whirlpool COA1bUSt10I1 method using the modified intake port adopted by 17 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY various manufacturers, and the establishment of the electronic-control fuel in- jectiosi method were successively developed between 1975 an3 1980. Meanwhile, research and development on catalytic technology, which played a key role in antipollution measures, came to fruition, and it became possible simultan- eously to eliminate the three elements of NOX, hydrocarbon, and carbon dioxide (ternary catalysis). The advent of ternary catalysis meant the attainmerit of low pollution without depending on combustion technology. It was thus possible to di- - vert research from that area of engine combustion technology to fuel efficiency _ and boost in power, resulting in the world's most fuel-efficient, pollution-free cars. Realization of low-pollution, fuel-efficient cars through advanced engine combus- tion technology and catalytic development was an epoch-making event in Japanese auto manufacturing. Managing Director Ma.satoshi Morita of Toyota N1Qtors said in retro- spect, regarding the improvement 3.n combustion technology and development of catalytic technology, "It was the first drastic reform in the history of Japan's auto industry." The unfavorable environment of unpaved roads in the mid-1950's played a role in sharply improving the durability and reliability of Japanese cars, and the world's strictest antipollution standards in the mid-1970's sparked the creation of fuel- efficient, low-pollution cars. It could be said that these minus factors, non- existent in other countries, were converted to the plus side. In that sense, Japan's top level auto technology could be said to have been "born from an ad- verse environment and from a persevering national character which was able to over- come that environment." (Junichi Orino, vice president of Daihatsu Kogyo) [26Jun81p7] [Text] Improved Engine Performance The Ogikubo business office of Nissan Motors is located in a quiet residential dis- trict of Momoi, Suginami Ward, Tokyo Prefecture. In December 1977, a project team was formed there. This was the beginning oF the "new engine development project" headed by Fujihiko Deguchi, deputy director of the second engine design division. Soon after the project team was formed, three points were established as basic guidelines for new engine development: 1) reduce the engine weight; 2) improve the fuel efficiency; 3) reduce friction. The objectives of new engine development were higher performance and fuel efficiency, based on the premise of a global auto war in the 1980's. Naturally, it would be necessary to apply the most advanced technological standards. The project team had selected the three goals for develop- ment as the most urgent tasks from a number of development themes. The matrix of today's reciprocating engine was the internal combustion engine de- veloped in 1885 by two Germans, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz. Today's reciprocat- ing engine is basically no different from the engine of those days. Thus, "the engine has undergone a succession of modifications and reached the stage where it is difficult to improve it any further." (Sadao Kobayashi, executive director of Mitsubishi Motors) Others hold the extreme view that while "it is impossible to 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "improve the reciprocating engine any further, it is another matter to develop a totally different engine system." Under such circumstances, the project team pre- pared detailed designs for the selection of ma.terials for a new engine, for solu- tions to the problems of noise and pollution resulting from smaller and lighter engines, for changes in the configuration of the combustion chamber, for a de- crease in the speed of heat transmission, for the measurement of crankpin friction, etc. In May 1978, prototypes were made; however, it took another two years to put them into practical use. - Takao Noda, of the second engine design division, who was assigned to development, says in retrospect, "There were many cases where we built prototypes according to the designs bu*_ failed to achieve the expected results in the tests." For ex- ample, the configuration oF the intake port designed to accelerate the speed of heat transmission was cfucial, and Noda says, "We built six precise configuration - models alone. And we measurements to see how whirlpools could be produced to speed up heat transmission. But the distribution of whirlpools would differ, de- pending on the air volume. Each time we would have to alter the configuration." This indicates that, despite the major advances in the field of electronics today, basic research can depend only on trial and error. It was through such trial and error that the "E"-model engine used in the compact "Pulsar" model was built. It is 17 kilograms lighter than the previous 1200-cc engine. It is one of the lightest Japanese engines in its class. Since it is used exclusively in front-wheel-drive cars, it will play a strategic role in cars built for world competition by Nissan Motors, which is planning to convert *o front-wheel drive. It is not surprising that "Ford responded immediately to the "E"-model en- gine." (Managing Director Jiro Tanaka) Incidentally, the "E"-model engine has another structural feature which could be- come "epoch-making" in the history of Japanese auto technology. This is the var- iable cylinder d.rive system. This is a system which changes the number of cylinders in use while the car is being driven. When starting the engine or when climbing uphill, or when a high torque (power to move the car by engine revolution) is de- manded, such as at a speed in excess of 60 kilometers per hour, all cylinders come - into use. And at ordinary speeds of 20-50 kilometers per hour, the number of cyl- inders in use is reduced. It was desi.gned to avoid the use of unnecessary cylinders at certain speeds, and to economize on fuel consumption. Actually, this system was introduced last fall by General Motors on its Cadillac supercar, and it became a world sensation. Japanese automakers have been working on a similar system as an important theme for more than 10 years. Thus, some tech- nical experts undoubtedly felt that they were "bsaten to the draw" when General Motors put its system into practical use. However, a mere six months later, Nissan Motors--and subsequently Suzuki Motors-- succeeded in building similar systems. Nissan's "E"-madel engine can shift from 4 cylinders to 2 cylinders at braking speed, or stop all 4 cylinders., Suzuki Motors' "variable cylinder engine" (installed on its light comm,:~rcial "carry van") can shift instantly at high speed from 2 cylinders to 3 cylinders and vice versa. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Wi=n Nissan's variable cylinder conversion limited to braking speed and Suzuki Motors' variable cylinder system focused on a 2-cycle engine, the prevailing view is that "tkiey are still not ready." In any case, they are certainly Japan's first examples in t}ie premature worldwide stage of practical use. Especially, the Iact that Suzuki Motors, a minor automaker specializing in light cars, has produced a variable cylinder system indicates the broad range of technological development achieved by Japan's car manufacturers. COPYRIGHT: Nikkan Kogyo Shimbunsha 1981 5884 CSO: 4105/200 20 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400440025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECfIlNQLOGY KOMATSU RECEIVES ORDERS FOR PIPE-LAYERS FROM SOVIET UNION Tokyo NIHON KEIZAI SHIMBUN in Japanese 7 Jul 81 p 1 [Text] It became known on the 6th that Komatsu Works, which is our country's biggest con:,truction machine manufacturer, has received orders for pipe-layers for shipment to the Soviet Union, amounting to 160 mi.llion dollars (about 36 billion yen, at the present yen quotation), and that it has already started their shipment. This is a business deal, which the Caterpillar Tractor Corpora- tion of the United States had been negotiating at first with the Soviet Union. However, as Caterpillar Tractor became unable to export them to the Soviet Union because of the U.S. Government's policy of banning exports to the Soviet Union, Komatsu received the orders for them. In the Soviet Union, the laying of pipelines for oil and natural gas is being carried out in various places, centering on the Siberian region, and demand for pipe-layers is increasing. A pipe-layer is a machine which is something like a bulldozer with a small-size crane attached to its side, and it lifts up the pipe and then lays them, one by one, while the machine moves foxward. Cater- pillar Tractor and Komatsu are virtually the only companies in the world, which manufacture these pipe-layers, and both companies have actual records of exports to the Soviet Union. Taking into consideration the delicate international situation surrounding trade with the Soviet Union, Komatsu has not announced the fact of these large-scale business talks. However, there is even the possibility that the business talks for 40-million-dollar worth of pipe-layers, which the Caterpillar Tractor is naw pushing with the Soviet Union may also be handed over to Komatsu. The = development of the "Yamburg project," which is a project for the laying of natural gas pipeline from the Soviet Union to West Europe, is now being watched with attention, and the moves of Komatsu are also likely to attract attention. COPYRIGHT: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha 1981 CSO: 4105/214 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MORE ACTIVE GOVERNMENT ROLE URGED IN DEVELOPING NATURAL RESOURCES Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 3 [Text] Japan Federation of Eco- danren, headed by Shinpei Keidanren insists that the nomic Urganizations (Keidan- Omota, chairman of Mitsui and Mining & Smelting Co. Government should set up a system for sharing the develop- ren ) has worked ouf proposals calling for the Government to , were accepted by the board of inental risk involved in mining take more responsibility in directors of Keidanren late last projects by private companies securing overseas natural re- month. The natural resources under in addition to the cooperation extended by the Metal Mining sources, such as non-ferrous coal and lumber for oil metals consideration include oil, coal, Agency of Japan in research , , the ecotiomic security of Japan. non-ferrous metals and lumber for resource development. After six months of study, - with an emphasis on non-fer- Keidanren will also request headed by Yoshi- Keidanren rous metals and lumber be- that the Government improve , hiro Inayama, has come up cause of the difficulty in devel- the overseas investment insur- with various proposals to be oping these natural resources ance system so that private submitted to the Government. and their poor business per- corporations can avoid risks 'Chey will call for the Govern- formance resulting from the resulting from their own in- ment to talce a more active role dull tone of the market. vestment in overseas countries in direct negotiations with other Keidanren will ask the Gov- and from fluctuation of the for- governments for developing ernment to step up its diplo- eign exchaage rate. natural resources abroad. macy on resources in which It will ask the Government, The proposals will also ask governmental agencies will ini- in more specific terms, to allow the (=overnment to try to help tiate negotiations with other private enterprises to use the lessen the investment risk in governments to obtain mining insurance to invest in countries overseas development of na- concessions abroad. facing political instability. tural resources by private approving tions b The Japanese non-ferrous metal industry has increasingly The overseas investment in- t b t y corpora overseas investment insurance been defeated lately in bidding surance at presen canno e applied to such countries as for developmental projects competilion with international Iran, Iraq, Zaire and Papua with any country. Keidanren will also ask the major oil �companies and U.S. major non-ferrous metal com- New Guinea - all of which are Covernment in the proposals to panies. abundant in oil, copper and lumber buy up in principle the da~nes- With many developing coun- . Keidanren will Furthermore tic stockpiling oi natural re- tries nationalizing their mining , request that the Export-Import sources as "the government stockpiling" and abolish the of non-ferrous metal ores, it has become increasingly im- Bank of Japan extend its loans i present "repurchase agree- portant for the Japanese Gov- n directly to foreign companies the form of buyers' credit or ment" for non-ferrous metal ernment to negotiate with the bank loans when Japanese non- products. The proposals were compiled governments of these develop- ing countries for opening up ferrous metal companies are to the Natural Resources Coun- b new business opportunities for carry out a joint developmental y termeasure Committee of Kei- the domestic industry. project with the foreign com- panies. 22 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As far as the non-ferrous metal industry is concerned, the Exim Bank, in most cases, gives out its loans to Japa- nese companies in the form of suppliers' credit sys- tem. The Japanese noo-fer- ro'us metal industry, con- sequently, has to take full re- sponsibility for the exchange risk and is currently burdened with $300 million in deficit which is the remainder of loans extended when the dollar was V 360 at the exchange market. The domestic non-ferrous metal industry is faced not only with these investment and ex- change risks but also with the cost for stockpiling natural resources at home as domestic demand for such resources is rather sluggish. Although its stockpiling of copper has considerably de- creased, the industry is still left with 100,000 tons of zinc. Under the present agreement, the in- dustry is reguired to repur- chase stockpiled resources in- cluding interest rates three years after the Government purchased such resources. And Keidanren wants the Govern- ment to buy up the stockpiled resources. � COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OIL FIRMS FACE SERIOUS FINANCIAL SITUATION; LIABILITIES GAIN SHARPLY Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 6 [Text] Oil companies' financial posi- tions have deteriorated rapidly. Many are operating at loss be- cause of twin pressure of slow product oil price hikes and for- eign exchange losses (caused by the weak yen in recent months). The situation is so bad that of the 34 companies,l0 will witness their cumulative, carried-over loss surpassing net worth by the middle of iiscal 1981. Effective July 1, they were curtailing refining of crude oil, while the Ministry of Interna- tional Trade & Industry is try- ing to assist the industry by planning price guidelines (as allowed by the Petroleum In- dustry Law to prevent price nosedive and skyrocketing). Despite these measures, the whole industry fintls it difficult to turn its operation into prof- itable one unless the yen gains strength quickly. Maruzen Oil Co. is in the most serious problem. The re- finer reported Y28.8 billion in recurring loss, reducing its net asset to only Y 1,925 million at the end of March, 1981. Every month since April, Maruzen has lost an estimated Y 10 bil- lion because of failure to have its Y 7,000 per kiloliter price hike accepted by all users and toreign currency exchange losses. Maruzen Oil has come up with business rehabilitation measures and will submit them to its related financial institu- tions late this month. The measures are slashing the number of its employees by 1,000, such as by recruiting voluntary retirees and sending employees to related ' firms, reducing costs for cruie oil imports by modifying import contracts, selling the Osaka head office building and stceks held, and cutting directors' remunerations. The company, however, intends to continue operating its four refineries. Even Nippon Oil Co., the largest in Japan with an access to inexpensive Aramco (Ara- bian Americal Oil Co. ) crude oil, was expected to report nearly V 20 billion recurring loss for the first half of fiscal 1981. Also in the April-Septem- ber period, Idemitsu Kosan Co. was likely to report V60-80 bil- lion in loss, followed by Mitsu- bishi Oil Co. with Y40 billion and Daikyo Uil Co. with V 25 billion. A MITI investigation found that 14 major oil companies' combined recurring loss totaled V 165 billion in the first quarter of this year. Besides the price and usance (foreign exchange) problems, these firms are pay- ing extra for stockpiling. Crude oil imported in recent months is being stockpiled in the bunkers of tankers, which carried the crude oil cargo. The stockpiling is costing an estimated il a barrel a month, making it a new cost problem. The imports were not im- mediately reduced because contracts had been signed be- fore the 15 per cent refining re- duction since July 1. Oil losses were expected to snowball - if no price hikes are possible and yen continues to be weak against the dollar. As- suming that the exchange rate of the dollar to V 230 continues through the end of September, the industry will lose V500 bil- lion in the. exchange loss alone. The nine major firms' net worth averaged 5.41 per cent of total capital as of March, 1981 - one-third of electric utilities' and steelmakers' ratio of net worth to total capital. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECH.NOLOGY SIX ALUMINUM SMELTERS TO JOIN MITSUI GROUP PROJECT Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 6 [Text ] 1fie six major aluminum smelting companies here have decided to join in the joint developmental research on a carbothermical aluminum production method being un- dertaken by three Mitsuigroup companies. The carbothermicai alumi- num production method, when practicalized, will open the way for Japanese aluminum smelters to strengthen their international competitiveness since it uses much less elec- tricity than the present plec- trolytic cell process. The new method uses a blast furnace and coke as a main energy source. A special alumi- num-containing clay abundant in Japan, coke and a solvent are fed into the blast Furnace to directly extract aluminum. The present bauxite-based aluminum smelting - process requires nearly 15,000 kila watts/hour of electricity per ton of aluminum ingots produced. In order to reduce the elec- tricity consumption to around 10,000 kw/h, the Japan Alumi- nium Federation has been studying an aluminum chloride process but this study has so far been not so successful. The three Mitsui group com- panies - Mitsui Alumina Co., Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co. and Mitsui Aluminium Co. thus are developing a blast furnace process aluminum production method. They succeeded in extracting rela- tively high-purity aluminum in an experimental blast furnace last year. They want to con- tinue the research in collabora- tion with the Government's Agency of Industrial Science & Technology. The six major aluminum smelters also wish to partici- pate in the research. They are Nippon Lighl Metal Co., Showa Keikinzoku K.K., Mitsubishi Light Metal Industries Ltd., Sumitomo Aluminium Smelting Co., Mitsui Aluminium Co. and Sumikei Aluminium Industries Ltd. COPYRIGEiT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400044025-6 FOR OFFICIAL US.E ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MITI HOPES TO FORM GROUP TO PROMOTE URANIUM ENRICHMENT PROJECT Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 6 [Text] The Ministry of International Trade & Industry will try to have nine electric utilities and three uranium enrichment equipment makers form a joint committee to help promote an enrichment enterprise with Australia. The Japanese-Aus- tralian enrichment venture, as conceived by MITI, combines Japan's technology with the partner country's uranium re- sources. Most of the enriched uranium will be supplied to the power industry here. The joint venture has been studied by the two Governments since the top- level agreement in November, 1974. The committee of 12 com- panies will serve as a core once the joint enrichment venture plan was finalized hetween Tokyo and Canberra. MITI wants to start feasibility stu- dies with Australia. Their co- operation until now included submitting by Japan of tech- nical information. Encouraged by possibilities of collaboration, the Australian Government in- structed a 4 company enrich- ment gcoup to start detailed feasibility studies. MITI envisages joint feasibil- ity studies, with the Japanese participants slated to include equipment makers, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Hitachi Ltd. and Toshiba Corp. The Ministry believed that, al- though Canberra is interested in feasibility studies with Euro- pean companies, Japanese will be picked up as partners pri- marily because of planned sup- ply of enriched uranium to utilities here. The plant to be sited in Aus- tralia will have an initial capacity of 300 tons separative work units a year. One ton SWU is equivalent to consumption of fuel by a 10,000-kilowatt atomic energy plant for one year. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MITI PLANS TO DEVELOP QUALITY ROBOTS Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 7 [Text] The Ministry of International Trade & Industry has report- edly started ptans to intro- duce a seven-year Y30 billion national research and develop- ment project, beginning next April 1, to develop "intelligent" robots, including one that assembles a machine, a me- chanical "seeing-eye," an earth digger, a nuclear power plant builder, a space factory builder, and an ocean develop- ment floating plant builder. A new research and development group to be created by MITI will be responsible for the "na- tionally important major tech- nology development scheme," sources close to MITI said. Initial key study themes include development of small, lightweight devices to make the limbs and other active mecha- nisms of each robotand sensors to make such seeing, hearing, speaking and other sensing systems, as well as control systems and language under- standable to humans. The popularity of indu.strial robots has been picking up such a momentum in Japan that in fiscal 1980 domestic industrial robot production shot up 85 per cent in value over the year before to total V78.4 billion. The annual growth in output is expected to keep rocketing up by an average of at least 50 per cent until 1990 to build Japa- nese robot production into a ~ 1,000 billion industry. MTTI has seen the need for more adaptability of robots and wider application, such as to general office and even house- hold and personal uses. It also sees the need to build robot tech- nology and to pull away from past reliance on imported West- ern knowledge. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIGNCE AND TECFiNOLOGY FUJITSU FANUC TO USE FIBER OPTICS FOR NUMERICAL CONTROL WITH SIEMENS Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Ju1 81 p 7 [Text] The world's first attempt "to full-fledged computer. appl}� modern fiber optics to the 7be System X will also be far production of numerical control etter in cost-performance than systems is being planned by the best conventional NC Flijitsu Fanuc Ltd. of Tokyo, it devices. 'Itie magnetic bubble was recently learned. Machine memory "brain" has a huge tools can be commanded by memorizing capacity. flashing light through hair-thin pn top of this, all its instruc- plastic fiber lines. tions to many machine tools According to the top-rated under its control, including Japanese maker of NC sys- transmitting commands, tems, it has decided to try the receiving information and venture on its proposed joint giving corresponding instruc- product with Siemens A.G. of tions, with accompanying input West Germany. and The "System X," now being hanuopera orV~w 11 be done devaluped at iLe, laborat-y iprough a fiber optics sysl,em. under an extensive tech- ~ the case of telephone com- nological cooperation pact with Siemens, will be an innova- munication, a single optical tional NC system that could be ~lber line is capable ot trans- called "a second generation" of mitting 100,000 circuits of con- such facilities. lt will also be tact, pertectly free from the ef- useful for controlling all sorts fects of externai electric cur- of industrial robots, for which rent or pressures usually jar- demand is now explosively ring the conventional telecom- mounting both in Japan and ab- munication wires and cables. road. Such fiber lines will be sed The System X, with a built-in on the new NC system for the microprocessor of the 16-bit decided benefits of parallel processing type, cur- simultaneously sending various rently the most advanced, in- information, promising struc- d u s t r i a l 1 y a p p 1 i c a b 1 e tural miniaturization of the specialized midget computer, whole NC system, and isolating wi11 have a high enough the system from jarring elec- capacity to equal that of the trical and other workshop im- minicompater, the smallest pact. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 28 FOR OFF[CIAL USE.ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400040025-6 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY SC?ENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STEADY GROWTH IN EXPORTS OF AUTO KITS FOR KD ASSEMBLY REPORTED Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 8 [TextJ ~ Japan's exports of auto- mobile kits ior uverseas knock- ed-down production are stcadily increasing in contrasl with a lull in exports of completed cars. Statistics show that KD kit exports in the January-May period o[ this year totaled some 203,100, up 16.4 per cent from the same term of last year. tlonda's exporls o[ KD kits, though small, swelled by 3.3 limes over a year earlier. Similarly, expurts by Nissan Molor and Mitsubishi Motors increased by 2e.9 per cent and 19.7 pcr cent, respectively. Exporls of KD kits look a cunspicuous upturn in March. Ailer dropping by 10.7 per cent in January and rising by 12.6 per cent in February, exporls in March climbed by 252 per cent, and in April burgeoned by 41.4 per cenl. Behind the gain in KD kit exporls is the industrywide efforts to meet the policies of developing countries to pro- mote more nationalization of automubile prcxiuction. South Africa and Mexico, ma- jor KI) kit destinations, place a ban un imports of finished cars as a rule. Also, 7'aiwan and Aus- tralia put domeslic production ratiu lo imported contents at 70 pxr cent and s5 per cent, re- spectively. H:xports of KU Kils by hlukcr Jan. May Makrr 1978 1979 1980 1991 N issan Motor Co . . _ . . _ . , . . . _ . 148,925 178,746 183,492 87,767 Toyota Motor Co. . . . . . . 70,610 78,510 87,910 36,690 Mitsubishi Motors Corp 11,776 64,250 76.716 72.580 Toyo KogYO Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55,060 65,180 71.120 34.060 Honda Motor Co. , . . . . . 6.100 5,400 71000 8,560 Fu{i Heavy Industries, Ltd . 8,450 17,700 91500 3,500 Others - 300 570 - Total 330,321 I0I,066 139.668 207,157 COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 SCTENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NOR OFNI('IA1, l1SN: ()NI.Y SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANIES EYE GREATLY INCREASING SEA DEMAND Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 9 [Text] Major Japanese semiconductor mak- ers are going !o step up production of integrated circuits in Southeast Asia to meet rising demand in local market. Japanese-Affiliated Semiconductor Plants in Southeast Asia Date ot establish- Number ot ment employees Hitachi Semiconductor (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. . Toshiba Electronics Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. NEC Malaysla Sdn. Bhd. NEC Singapore Pte. Ltd. Southeast Asia is Matsushita Denshi emerging as a ( 5ingapore) Pte. Lttl. . promising semicon- ductor market as many Japa- nese, American and European firms locate their plants there to assemble a variety of consumer electronics. Greater semiconductor production by Japanese-af- filiated companies is expected to stimulate "fererunners" mostly affiliated with American interests. This indicates possi- bility of the so-called Japan- U.S. semiconductor "war" spreading to the Southeast Asian market. Hitachi, Ltd., Toshiba Corp. and Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) have a plant in Malay- sia, and NEC and Matsushita Electronics Corp. operates one in Singapore. Flilachi Semiconductor iMalaysia) Sdn. Bhd. has Nov.. 1972 1,500 � � � Mar., 1974 11000 July. 1971 1.200 � � � May, 1976 250 Dec., 1978 300 started manutacturing 16-kilo- bit random access memory (RAM) chips to replace a part of their production in Japan. As it also produces silicon trans- istors and bipolar ICs, the pro- duction value of the Malaysian plant will reach * 7-8 billion this year, compared to V 6 billion last year. Matsushita Electronics plans to have its Singapore sub- sidiary double monthly output of bipolar linear ICs and small- signal transistors to 5 million and 30 million units, respec- tively. Most of the products will be supplied to Matsushita-af- filiated plants in Southeast Asia which produce color TV sets, radios, tape recorders and stereo sets. In contrast, NEC has been marketing semiconductors COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 30 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY produced in Southeast Asia to local consumer electronics makers affiliated with Amer- ican and European capital, in- cluding N.V. Philips. NEC Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. will boost output of transistors to 50 million units monttily from 36 mi!lion units and that of house- hold linear ICs to 13 million units from 10 million units. The Malaysian subsidiary will new- ly take up production of indus- trial linear ICs - several million units monthly. NEC Singapore Pte. Ltd. will build a transistor manufactur- ing plant with a floor space of 6,600 square meters in order to further increase production. Toshiba plans to invest V700 million in its Malaysian sub- sidiary to boost output of small- signal transistors to 40 million units monthly from the present 30 million units and linear ICs to 3.5 million units from 2 million units. The increased output at Toshiba Electronics Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. will be shipped to Japan to meet rising demand mainly from video tape recorder makers. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400044425-6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NEW WAY FOUND TO SEVER SUPER THICK STEEL PLATINGS UNDER WATER Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 17 [Text] A new way to cut underwater very-thick steel platings cover- ed with stainless steel, be- lieved to be effective for both marine engineering jobs and for dismantling radioactive steel structures of nuclear power plants, has been de- veloped by the Government's Industrial Research Institute, Shikoku, of the Agency of In- dustrial Science and Tech- nology, it was recently learned. According to the institute at Takamatsu, a regional re- search arm of the agency be- longing to the Ministry of Inter- national Trade and Industry, its new achievement follows earlier development of a simi- lar underwater cutting method for e:cceptionally thick stainless steel plating, such as is used for fast-breeder reactor pressure vessels. The new method con- sists of two stages, first cutting a groove through the stainless steel coating of very thick steel plating, and then oxidizing the gas cutting of the parent steel plating. Apart from marine engineer- ing, such underwater disman- tling of unused N-power plant structures has become neces- sary in Japan, as in all other nuclear power developing countries, because underwater cutting is the only safe way to separate such bulky structures for ultimate dumping. In build- ing a new N-power station by pulling down a disused one, simple wrecking in the atmos- phere poses the danger of spreading radioactivity. Various ways of cutting tsed N-power plant steel plating have been developed in the U.S. and in Japan, including a water-jet method, an are saw method, and a plasma-cutting method. An American-de- veloped plasma-cutting method applied to a research nucleaz reactor has reportedly worked in cutting underwater a 76-mm- thick piece of stainless steel- clad steel plate. Japan's Ishikawajima-Hari- ma Heavy Industries Co (IHI) has developed its own under- water plasma-cutting method to sever 2 mm-thick steel plat- ing at a speed of 2 meters a minute. The company plans to improve its method and apply it to dismantling an unused N- power plar.t material testing reactor of the governmental Power Reactor & Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. But the plasma-cutting method is said to have become deadlocked in the U.S. because it cannot cut through steel plating of 130 mm or thicker. Research reactor plating is ustially thinner and easier to cut, but commercial reactor types reach anywhere between 150 and 300 mm in thickness. According to the government institute, it developed its own method after studying the plasma-cutting method and an- other promising way known as the powder method. 'ltie latter is to mix powdered iron in an oxygen gas used for cutting and do the severing job by the heat of chemical reactions occurring between dxygen and dustiron and also collision of the dust iron with the surface of the steel plating. The plasma method is to generate an elec- tric discharge arc between a tungsten electrode and the steel plating and cut by strongly con- centrating the arc. But the powder metlwd has been found to have a frequent trouble of the heat-producing point be- coming wet and inhibiting the dust iron flow. 7be plasma method has been found to pose the danger of electric shock when the arc voltage has to be sharply raised for thicker plat- ing. Besides, a shielding gas of argonne or helium needed has been found to be hard to re- claim because it catches much radioactivity. 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY '1'he institute's oxygen gas cutting method essentially util- izes the heat of oxidizing reac- tions between oxygen and softer steel making up the parent material of stainless- clad steel plating. But the stainless steei covering ot- structs cutting because its chromium content reacts with oxygen to produce chromium oxide, a substance with a high melting point. The institute thus has devised the two-stage method to lay either a rod of carbon or a piece of soft steel wiring on the stainless steel, and create an electric charge arc in between. A11 resulting molten metal is swepNaway by jets of water. A groove is thus dug through the stainless covering. 'lhen the parent steel plating, after being pre-heated with a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen (or acethylene) gases, is cut off by the oxygen-soft steel chemical reaction heat. To keep water fronn the pre- heating and cutting section, a strong circular ctwtain of water jets is spewed ;hrough a ring of nozzles. Inside that ring, there is a pre-heating gas nozzle and a cutting gas nozzle. The whole extraordinary underwater "torch" is made easy to ignite by creating sparks of a high- frequency electric current be- tween an electrode tip and the torch tip. The new method has so far proved so effective as to clean- ly cut off 150 to 250 mm (15 to 20 cm) thick stainless-clad steel plating. It enlarged, the torch could cut through even 300 mm thick ones. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400044025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NIPPON KOGAKU DEVELOPS UNIQUE INDICATOR FILM Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 17 [Text] A thin chemical compound type of electronic illumination filming that has prospects of becoming a new indicator material by offering cleaz visibility in all directions has been developed by Nippon Ko- gaku K.K. The Nikon camera and optical instrument maker said the new filming formed of some chemical compounds, con- taining nickel and tungsten, was developed on the basis of an idea of Prof. Yoichi Mura- yama of Toyo University, as the company's technology development service for the semigovernmental Research Development Corporation of Japan. The company said it had been well known that such chemical compound filming coming in a transparent condition, when chazged with electricity, such as 1 to 2 volts, emits a very strong blue-colored light, but if not electrified, it remains quite transparent. Thus, utilization of such filming for cameras, microscopes, watches, elec- tronic calculators and many other indicator-requiring products had been envisioned, but it had been technologically difficult to produce such filming of just a few microns in thickness and a transparent electrode. 'Itie company solved the problems by develuping its own "Ion Plating Process" to produce such compounds of high precision by heating up materials with a high frequency electric coil as well as - its own new method of making a transparent elec- trode. - The resultant product proved to be incomparably stronger in color shade than the liquid crystal display devices, in addi- tion to its visibility from any- where. Its luminescence comes from two layers sandwiching an insulation layer, with the lower layer made of nickel hydroxide to light up by an oxidizing reaction and the upper layer tungsten oxide by a reducing reaction. But the new product still leaves one technical problem to be solved - 10 to 100 times as much time as the liquid crystal to react to elec- tric chazging. COPYRTGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4I20/290 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400044025-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LASER BEAM BOMBARDMENT USED FOR FILMING WORK ON SEMICONDUCTORS Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 17 [Text] A simple, [ast, and sure method o( forming oxidized filming on the sur[ace ot semi- conductor substrates by means of Iaser beam bombardments has been developed by a tech- nical college research team. Accorciing to the team, led by Prof. Tetsuro Nakamura, of 1'oyohashi University of Tech- nology o[ Toyohashi City, de- mand far gallium-arsenic (GaAs) semiconductors has been growing, such as for use in very high-speed computer elec- tronic elements, laser sernicon- ductors, and light-emitting diodes (LEUs). But it had so far been tech- nologically difficull lo form a uni[orm quality type of the oxidation filming on the surface of the GaAs semiconductor hecause of its hvo chemical composition, it says. To dcal with this, two methods, heat oxidation and pl:isma oxidation, had so far bcen used. But il had still been difficull to obtain really, reliable semiconductors of the typc. The new method, though slill at the laboratory stage, promises high applicability as a very simple, swift, and un- failing method. A number of such semicon- ductor substrates are placed in a box. Atter a vacuum is [orm- ed, the box is filled with oxygen gas to anywhere between one and [ive atmospheres in pressure. All that remains to be done is to flash a laser beam a tew times upon the substrates through lhe box's glass win- dow. A pulse type of laser device flashing its beams like a camera strobo illuminator is used. Each ilash lasts only 13 nanoseconds. The electric power output needed is only one joule. Adjusting the degree of bombardment so that the light energy density per square centimeter of the substrate surface attains about 1.5 joules, the leam has applied six rouncls of such beaming to find a 0.2 micron-thick good qualily kind of oxidized filming [ormed on the substrate surtace. I.ocalized oxidalion has been also possible, and the need for prehealing the substrale at the risk of quality changes as seen in conventional methods has been eliminated. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6 FOR OFFICIAI. USF. ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RED LIGHT DIODE HAVING BRILLIANCE OF FIVE TIMES DEVISED Tokyo JAPAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL in English Vol 19, No 964, 21 Jul 81 p 17 [Text] A red light-emitting diode about five times as brilliant as conventional ones has been developed by Staaley Electric Co. of Tokyo. According to lhe company, such semiconductors giving off bright light when electricaliy charged have already been commercially produced in various colors including inira- red, red, orange, green and blue. They have been widely used in electronic indicating devices or, in combination with photoresistors, as photo- couplers between two electric or electronic devices. But their generai lack of brilliance and low eFficiency in large-scale communication, signalling and olher purposes, has been a technological bottleneck to wider marketing. Stanley Electric was the tirst in Japan to break the bottle- neck by its development, some time ago, of its own red light emitting diode made of a com- pound of lhree elements, gallium, aluminum and ar- senic. It generaled 200 milli- candela at 1.7 volts and 20- milli-amperes. The conven- tional gallium-phosphorous or gallium-arsenic-phosphorous equivalents are still so low in brilliance as to have attained only 10o milli-cd or even less under the same electric charg- ing conditions. This time, the company has come up with a[ar more brilliant version. The brightness is 5 to 10 times higher than its own last outstanding product. In converting electricity to light, the new product has at- tained about 4 per cent efticien- cy, compared with only 1.6 of its predecessor. The comp.rny has attributed its new achievement to a special "temperature dif- ference (utilizing) multi-layer continuous liquid phase build- up" process developed by Prof. Junichi Nishizawa of Tohoku University. The secret ot the process lies in producing semi- conductor chemical compounds free from defects. The com- pany envisions wide application of its new LED, through some reduction in its stiil higli cost and price, to short-dislance fiber optics communicalion lines, traffic signals, large tlicker warning lights and light- controlled electronic elements. LED and related equipment now account for nearly IO per cent ot the company's annual sales. COPYRIGHT: 1981, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. CSO: 4120/290 END 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400040025-6