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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 i~OR OFi~I('IA1. USN: ONI.Y JPRS L/9979 ~ 11 September 1981 iiii'est E u r~ e R e o rt p p SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 10/81) FB~$ FOREIGN BRORDCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400450029-1 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no pracessing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400450029-1 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9979 � 11 September 1981 WEST EUROPE REPORT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 10/81) CONTENTS SCIIIVCE POLICY - Reseaxch Minister Reveals Broad Outlines of Future Actions (Pierre Langer~ux; AIR & COSMOS, 18 Jul 81) 1 TRANSPORTATION Conference on Advanced Materials in Aerospace In dustry (Yves-Ernest Gra.ndvalet; AIR & COSMOS, 18 Jul 81 : 4 Dutch Minister Interviewed on Civil Aeronautics (~.M.V. Van Aardenne Intervie~r; AIR & COSMOS, 18 Jul 81) 9 � New Commuter Liners Continue To Reap Orders (AIR & COSMOS, 18 Ju]. 81) 12 Volvo Presents Computer-Control Turbo Engine (MTZ MOTORTECHNISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, Jun 81) 17 VW Develops Stop-Start Device for Engine To Cut Fuel Use (Erwiri Schuster, Ernst-Olav Pagel; ATZ AUTOMOBILTECI~TISCI~ ZEITSCHRIFT, Apr 81) 19 - a- [III - WE - 151 S&T FOUD] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE POLICY . RESEARGH MINISTER REVEALS BROAD OUTLINES OF FUTURE ACTIONS ~ Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 18 Jul 81 p 9 ~Articl~ by Pierre Langereux: "Toward a Big Ministry of Research"~ ~Text~ Research Minister Jean-Pierre Chevenement, a guest of the Association of Science Jc;;:rnalists on 8 July, revealed the broad outlines of his future actions, which will be centered on three primary efforts: �--"building" the (big) Ministry of Research and Technology announced by the govern- ment and entrusted to Jean-Pierre Chevenement, minister of state; --preparing the 1982 research budget, on which a budget meeting is to be held shortly to firm up the guidelines, which will obviously be ditficult, considering the subs~antial increase in appropriation requests and the rise in the rate of _ inflation (+14 percent forpcast in 1981); --and orgar~izing for January 1982 a nationwide research and technology symposium to "establish the objectives and constituent elements of the science and technol- ogy policy, tY~e development of which must be a to_ priority task." Preparing the Program Statute The symposium, for which the national organizing committee is now being formed under the chairmanship of Prof Francois Gros, director of the Institut Pasteur, will be prepared by "regional sittings" which are to be held from 1 October through _ 15 November 1981. These sittings must submit their synthesized reports by 20 December 1981. , This symposium will serve especially to prepare the tuture Program Statute on Research and Technological Innovation (1982 through 1985-1986), which is expected to be voted on by the Nati.~nal Assembly at its spring 1982 session and which is to be included in the Ter.~porary 2-Year Plan (1982-~1983) . This Program Statute will have as its objective, already announced by the presi- dent of the Republic, a national research and technology ef�ort--civil and mili- tary--equ~l to 2.5 percent of the GNP (gross national product) in 1985. This w.ill 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400450029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mzan a progression from Fr 53 billion* to Fr 80 billion over a period o� 4 years, hence a very rapid rise in research appropr:iations--at the rate of around 11 ~er- cent annually, not considering intlation! The priorities under this program statute, which are to be defined over the next several weeks in consultation with national committees, will cente= mainly on microelectronics, robotics, biotechnologies, and new energies, according to Jean- Pierre Chevenement. P'rogram Contracts First, it will be necessary to settle certain "problems of coordination" b~tween the scientific research activities that now come under the Ministry of Research and the other research activities--military, telecommunications and civil aeronau- tics--which are not yet in Mr Chevenement's province. It is a matter therefore of redefining the content of the famous "research enve- lope," which the new minister considers "relatively ineffective," which would be replaced by "program contracts" (or plans), and to which the president of the Republic has previously made reference. This will also necessitate the defining of the duties and responsibilities of the Ministry of Research with respect to the overseeing of certain major organizations such as the AEC Atomic Energy Commission~, CNES ~National Center for Space Studies~, CNEXO ENational Center for Exploitation of the Oceans~, CNET ~National Center for Telecommunications Studies~, ete.; as well as the future of other more recent organizations such a~ the CON~S ~Solar Energy Commission~. Jean-Pierre Chevenement stated that the decrees definina the functions of the minister of research should be forthcoming in a matter of days. Dual Oversight of CNES The decree stipulating responsibilities for oversight of the CNES--Jean-Pierre _ Chevenement indicated--was enacted on 17 June by the Council of Ministers and signed by all those concerned (prime minister, ministers of research, finance, etc), except the minister of industry. This decree provides that the CNES budget will be entirely a part of the Research Diinistry's budget (whereas previously, it was part u� that of the Ministry of Industry), and that administrative oversight wi1.1 be divided between the t~inistry - of Research for the CNES strictly speaking, and the rlinistry o� Industry for oversight of the CNES subsidiaries of a more industrial or commercial nature, such - * To~al 1981 appropriations, which ineluded Fr 13.5 billion for basic and applied civil research, Fr 11 billion for military research, Fr 6.5 billion for major technological programs, and Fr 22 billion for industrial research (Fr 5.6 bi1- lion for nationalized industry, Fr 7.2 billion tor the "nationalizable" sector, and Fr 9.2 billion for the private sector). 2 FOR OFFICIAL ~JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY as Arianespace (production and marketing of Ariane rockets), SPOT-Image (production and marketing of SPOT ~Earth Observation Probe System~ images) and Satel-Conseil {telecommunications and TV satellite cansultations). Oversight of CNEXO will also be divided this time among three ministries: Research, Industry and Seas. As for COMES, its future has not yet been decided. A ministerial group is being formed to take stock of solar activities in E'rance anci to study the structure best suited to pursue the research and development ef�ort in this domain. The minister of research also proposed the creation of a Parliamentary Committee on Technological Alternatives. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1980 - 9399 CSO: 3102/369 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400450029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONI,Y TRANSPORTATION - CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED MATERIALS IN AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 18 Jul 81 pp 18-19 [Article by Yves-Ern~st Grandvalet: "Technological Advances in Special Steels and Alloys"] [Text] As a traditional ad~.unct uf the Bourget Air Show; a conference was held on "Special steels and alloys in the aerospace industries." It again was a great success (with around 240 participants) to the point that it could conceivably take on an international dimension. The conference provided an opportunity to hear some very informative talks by Mssrs. Roger Chevalier (SKIAS [National Industrial Aero- spar_e Company]/GIFAS [expansion unknown]f Hilaire (SNIAS), Brunetaud (SNECMA [French National Aircraft Engine Company], R3yne (Creusot Loire), Elghozi (Societe � Commentryenne des Aciers Fi:~s [Commentry Fine Steels Company]), Devillard (CENG [Grenoble Nuclear Research Centsr]), Papier (Acbert et Duval), and Rabinovitch and . Ktian (Onera [National Office for Aerospace Studies and Research)). M Auvinet, chief of the Mater~als Section of STPA [Public Air Transport Company], summed up the conclusions to be drawn from the workshop. Hilaire's talk served to put the utilization of the various material3 in perspective. The information indicated that steel benefits from the most f avorable position, since steel is onl.y to a small degree directly threatened by the composite materials (in contrast to the situation for lightweight alloys) and is even in a position to re- gain favor as a result of strains in the availability of titanium. Titanium mean-, while ought to regain lost ground now because of stabiYization of the market and introduction of new production techniques (casting, powder metallurgy, superplastic forming, diffusion brazing); moreover, titanium has the advantage of coexisting � amicably with composite materials (cf. accompanying table). Respective Prop~rtions (X) of the Various Aeronautic Materials Lightweight Alloys Steel Titanium Composites Airbus A 310 76.5 13.5 4.5 5.5 Boeing 82 13 4 1 Boeing 767 81 14 2 3 Future airplanes 53-75 13 4 8-30 _ Dauphin helicopter 59 15 24 _ Future helicopters 50 13-15 30-35 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Focusing on engines, Buunetaud's lecture emphasized the advances occurring with b~tter production techniques (isothermal forging, involving deformation of the metal at set temperature and rate; casting of turbine blades by directional solid- ification; precision casting) which coupled with other economic advances (recovery and r2cycling of scraps, for example) offer some appreciable cost savings and quality improvements. Especially for titanium alloys ir. temperature intervals below 400-450�C, the devel- opment of powder metallurgy gives ~very indication of a promising future. Organic matrix composites are beginning to have important applications below about 200-250�C. In the high temperature ranges (above 400-450�C), the nickel-base alloys and, to a lesser degree, the austeniti~ refractory steels are used almost exclu~- sively, though with some prospect for development of higher-performance alloys fabricated by the new technologies, including directional solidification and powder metallurgy. The cobalt-base alloys (though considered extremely expensive) are hard to replsce in very-high-temperature applications (HS '25 through HS 31). For applications at intermediate terperatures, the alloys such as Waspalloy or C 263 with 17-20 per- cent cobalt have been replaced by Inco 718, particularly for compressor and turbine disks. As for ceramics, in the near term they can be considered for some nonma~or static parts, and probably ceramic composites will be able to offer more attractive - prospects. The ESR Process The ESR [Electroslag remelting] process used by Creusot Loire has undergone a , rather substantial expansion in recent years, thus responding to the increased demand f or quality metal in aeronautics. The lecture delivered by Rayne took stock ~f a metallurgical survey based on a substantial amount of information, with par- ticular attention to information on the vital assemblies of the Airbus, such as engine support strut parts made of 40 CDV 12 steel and undercarriage parts made of 35 NCD 16-(THQ) steel. A very strict control of all fabrication variables, from preparation of the casting pattern to remelting under slag, has enabled series fabrication to be achieved ~ with a level of quality which formerly could only be attained with the process of remelting under vacuum (VAR [vacuum arc remelting]). Rayne enumera~ed the devices in ESR furnaces of the Pamiers plant which make it possible, without changing the electrode, to produce three types of ingots in weights of 4-10 tons and 26 tons, ~ with the further possibility of bringing the latter type (with a diameter of l.lm) to a size of 33 tons by changing the electrode during the remelting process. Finally, it was pointed out that the "very high quality" (THQ) version of the ESR process was introduced with 35 NCD 16 steel originally to produce the principal parts of the Concorde undercarriage and later was also used for the undercarriage of the Airbus A300; the purpose of the new developments in ESR remelting was to attain the THQ level in a simple remelting operation. The goal was achieved, as indicated by the designation "35 NCD 16-THQ-ESR" for the metal used in stamping out the landing gear wells for the Airbus A3I0 on a 65,000-ton Interforge press. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450029-1 FUR OFFI('IAI. USE ONLY ~ It should also be mentioned that automatic control giving perfect reproducibility of the ESR remelting process was provided by computer, integrating the various ' parameters of operation. Rayne con.cluded by indic3ting present about 100 ESR remelting runs on 35 NCD 16-THQ have been completed. T,oday, the French industry can congratulate itself on havin~ developed a very high quality alloy, a direct outgrowth of the Concorde effort, as Auvine~ mentioned in his remarks. Sheet Metal Sheet metals made of refractory alloys are utilized largely in the manufacture of turbine engines for the combustion chambers, shrouds, nozzles, vanes, etc., in - the form of welded assemblies designed for exposure to high temperatures. In the course of the last two decades, the means for melting and refining have made considerable progress, permitting an improvement of qua3ity and a reduction of r_ost price. In France, the Isbergues plant has equipment for forming stainless steel sheet metal and laminating it to provide structural. stiffening. The plant is also equipped fcr cold lamination of foils consisting of sheets welded and to end. As concerns the sheet metals made of refractory alloys, the French market, relatively weak and dispersed over a great variety of grades and dimensions, does not justify the installation of continuous lamination equipment. The Commentary plant is equipped to perform cold lamination operations on a Senzimir mill on a sheet-by-sheet basis, a mode of fabrication which permits the plant to handle lamination of all the types of sheet metal presently used in the most modern turbine engines. The type designations in this category include Rene 41, Astroloy, Waspalloy, and C 263. By comparison to the U.S. market for refractory alloys (30 times larger than the French market), there nevertheless exists a similarity in terms of tYta means of fabrication between the Pittsburgh plants of the Universal-Cyclops firm (fourth largest U.S. producer) and the Co~nantry plants; according to Elghozi, this similarity means that the quality and cost price are entirely comparable, and he concludes that the Societe Commentryenne process is competitive provided the quality [sic; perhaps quantity is meant], format, or qualities are such as to preclude mass production, notably in situations involving grades of alloys which.are difficult or even impossible to process by hot lamination in coils. Powder Metallurgy The difficulties of supply, the increased production costs, and the substantiai coke rates (capable of reaching 20 kg/ton in certain cases) are the principal reasons for the well-developed effort in France to use powd~r metallurgy in the production of parts made of titanium alloy. This process was developed by CENG with the contributory participation of government agencies. Powder metallurgy, which promes substantial economies of material, is ex~ected to assert itself if three conditions are met: --lowering the costs of powder manufacture to equal the costs for forg~rl bar, --developing more productive shaping cycles to partly reduce capi*_al outlays, , --improving the structure of the sintered products using thermal treatments, 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440050029-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY to render the structure less sensitibe to the almost inevitable contamination in the course of manipulation and bring the performance to the same leve~ as cast- forged alloys. Devillard of CENG described six different processes for producing titanium alloy ~owders from prealloyed ingots. The three main processes--REP (United States), EBRD (West Germany), and PSV (France)--use spinning electrode methods; the atomiza- tion is carried out under argon or helium in the REP process and under vacuum in - the PSV and EBRD processes. The preparation of powders on the industrial scale by at_omization under vacuum holds forth the promise of substantial economies in use of hot isostatic pressing to f abricate compressor disks or parts of complex forms (such as the rods or ribs of airframes) with greater blanking precision. Devillard completed his talk with a presentation concerning an industrial production unit based on 1000 tons of titanium alloy powder per year per statlon. With such ~ a unit it would be possible to cut the coke rate for parts made of cast-forged titanium alloys by a factor of two for engine parts and by a factor of 3.5 percent , of the price of the equivalent piece made of cast-forged titanium alloy. Devillard concluded by emphasizing the present state of acquired knowledge, which from his point of view constitutes a factor favorable to the industrial promotion of this new way of processing titanium alloys: --the powder can be supplied at the price of the rolled bar by setting up a pro- duction unit with a capacity of 100 tons per year; --sintering by hot isostatic pressing permits deformations to be controlled; certain reference surfaces can be produced "to dimensions" by perforing the pressing against reusable mandrels or anvils; --today, by more rigorous quality control for the powder before it is placed in containers, the scatter of the oscillation fatigue test data can be reduced and tihe _ characteristics of rolled alloys can be reproduced with a variance of +10 percent _ about the mean value; --in the aeronautic industry (for airframes and engines taken together) it is possible to achieve savings on the order of 50 percent in materials and 35 percent in fabrication costs. Elements Used for Assembly Papier, of the Aubert et Duval firm, drew attention to various aspects of fabrica- _ tion and quality control in regard to materials for welding and nuts, bolts, and screws, c~lling attention to the continual and necessary overlap of operations ~ for "Quality and Quality Assurance" in the manufacturing procedures. In discussing nuts and bolts, Papier dealt more specifically with problems of bolts obtained by final hot transformation compared to those obtained by cold die forging. The "hot" bolts are produced from age-hardening austeritic alloys (type Z 6 NCTDV 25-15 grades and superalloys of the Nimonic, Udimet, Waspalloy, and Incot 18 types). Papier ended his talk by touching on the very important subject of quality in the domain of assembly by welding, for which Albert et Duval manufactures wires in coils ~ or uncoated rods in diameters between 0.8 and 3mm. This area also includes various _ grades of martensit.ic steels, austenitic stainless steels, alloys, and superalloys. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 FOR OFl~I('IAL USF: ONLY Forces and Challenges In his concluding remarks, Auvinet set forth both the strong points of the French industry and the challer~es which are now facing it. In this spirit, particular attention was given to France's development of both 35 NCD 16 steel (a by-product of the Concorde effort) and powder metallurgy of titanium, for which the community has high hopes. F.qually interesting is the work of Onera on Cotac and the oriented eutectics in particular. (Onera's work, particularly on Cotac 74 an3 744 and on the orientcl eutectics, which was treated in another context at the Bourget Air Show merits separate treatment in ma~or articles, which we will include in an upcoming issue of AIR & COSMOS.) The discussion dealing with Onera, hcwever, put the emphasi,s on the important role played by public institutions and government agencies in these developments. In the category of challenges, we will include under this label various technological changes cited by Auvinet. First, there are the composite materiz~.s, which are al- ready serving as a stimulus to the producers of lightweight alloys, such as in the direction of developing lithium-aluminum alloys. Next, thera is the challenge of other technologies such as directional solidification, oriented eutectics, and single crystal methods appYicable to the fabrication of turbine blades. Finally, Auvinet stressed the advances in ceramic composites, which could turn the world of metallurgy topsy turvy. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1980 9828 CSO: 3102/370 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 - FOR OFFI('IAI. USE ONLY '"1'RANS PORTAT ION DUTCH MIhISTER INTERVIEWED ON CIVIL AERONAUTICS Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 18 Jul 81 pp 8-9 ~Text~ Mr G. M. V. Van Aardenne, minister of economic affairs of the Low Coun- - tries, who heads civil aeronautics construction financing, was good enough to grant , our editor-in-chief an interview, during which he discussed the position of the Dutch authorities in this domain. An Important Industry for the Low Countries Mr Van Aardenne first explained, by way of introduction, the importance the Dutch authorities attach to civil aeronautics construction. For the Low Countries, which have a heavy industry but which are seeking more high-technology industry, aero- nautics pravides an especially apt response to this need because it is an industry whose energy requirements are relatively low. The experience of its engineers and technicians places Holland in an equally apt position to participate in this activity, which is capable of attracting.private capital provided these invest- ments are backed by adequate state loans. To our first question, regarding the aid provided by the Dutch government to civil aeronautics construction, bir Van Aardenne replied that it is a policy that has been followed over approximately the last quarter century, firs~ with respect to the F 27 Frien~ship, then, the F 28 Friendship. The F 27, the developmental fund- ing o� which was only partially underwritten by the Hague government, sold well and has continued selling well. Currently, it is a profitable program. The government's aid has been reimbursed. Sums thus recovered are placed in a revolv- ing fund used for the financing of new developments. An identical method was used for the F 28. Development costs were much higher than for the F 27 and sales ara less advanced. This project has not yet reached the profitability threshold, but expectations of attaining this objective are still alive. The Dutch authorities consides the experience gained from these twa projects to have been positive. They are all the more intent upon pursuing this experience in that, unlike the case o� most countries that have an aeronautics industry, Dutch industry is not being called upon to develop military planes of Dutch design; its manufacturing activities, which are far from negligible, are devoted to the pro- duction of materiel of foreign design. The Dutch authorities are also very intent ' 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440050029-1 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONI,Y upon pursuing a national policy of design, production and marketinq oF civil trans- port planes, a policy being carried out by private iridustry but being actively aided by the state. From the F 29 to the MDF 100 An approach identical to that used in the case o� the F 27 and the F 28 was there- fore adopted for the F 29 project--which was the subject of our second question-- it being understood, of course, that the order ot magnitude of the latter is quite different from that of the F 27 and F 28 and that, �rom the outset therefore, Fokker could not expect to undertake the project alone. Two and one-half years ago, during the negotiations on the Atlantic program, the Dutch authorities con- tacted the French authorities to suggest the study of a joint project designed to - maintain cooperation between the two countries. Unfortunately, agreement could not be reached on the 150-seat airliner program. The exchange of views between the two governments continued, however; and as a result, the Dutch authorities agreed to back Eokker's cooperation in the Airbus orogram, with Fokker taking part in the A 300/310 programs and extending this coop- eration to the A 300-600. The Airbus program alone, however, does_not enable the Netherlands government to fully attain its objective, which is an entirely national civil transport plane design, production and marketing industry. The government has therefore decided to back the E' 29 conceptual. phase, which initially was to end this spring but is now extended by way of the MDF 100 project to, and indeed a little beyond, the end of this year. Fokker must seek partners to share in this phase, and it was in accordance with this requirement that a memorandum of agreement was signed with Mc Donnell Dat~glas under which the two partners hold equal shares in the project. Mr Van Aardenne pointed out that this basic agrepment does not preclude the sign- ing of other coopesative agreements. The Dutch government has also required that the project be of a very advanced techno].ogy and that it not be actually launched until agreement has been reached with a meaningful number of launching airlines. If these three conditions are met, the Dutch authorities are prepared to make loans available to the Fokker totaling in the order o� 1 billion florins, or ap- proximately the equivalent of Fr 2.2 billion, and to grant aid to Fokker identical to that of the F 27 and F 28 programs. - A National Consensus ~ Replying to our question as to the degree of public support for this policy fol- lowing the recent elections in the Low Countries, Mr Van Aardenne said that this policy enjoys a consensus that includes Dutch leadership , Parliament and public opinion in general. Mr Van Aardenne, a minister of a government that will very soon be out of office, anticipates that the policy line pursued to date will not be put into question again. It appears that the new Parliament's Committee on Economic Affairs plans to state its position in this matter by the end of August or beginning of September, without awaiting, that is, the debate on the budget as a whole, which would not permit;more than a superficial examination of the entire issue. - 10 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Dutch authorities are following this matter very closely, both by way of the reports submitted by Fokker on the reactions of potential clients and through the Dutch Aerospace Programs Agency (NIVR), which exercises supervision over the technical quality of the project and which, as the advisory body of the Low Coun- tries on aeronautics policy,is staffed with highly competent experts and is there- - fore well equipped to make value judgements on the evolution of this program. At the end of the exploratory phase currently under way, the Dutch authorities will set forth their de�initive views, it being understood that meanwhile they will maintain contact in the matter with the other European governments, particularly through their contribution to the A 300/310 programs. Mr Van Aardenne stressed that this contribution is not negligible either from the standpoint of the capital funds involved or from that of the risks being undertaken, and reiterated that it is to be continued with regard to the A 300-600 program. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1980 9399 CSO: 3102/368 ' 1]. - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TRANSPORTATION NEW COMMUTER LINERS CONTINUE TO REAP ORDERS Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 18 Jul 81 pp 43,45 ~Article by R. N.~ _ ~Text~ For several weeks now, orders for future comriuter liners have been coming in at a rapid rate, indicating that many feeder airlines throughout the world are now making their choices. In fact, most of the aircraft builders are now in a position to announce the definitive characteristics and calculated performance figures for their planes, and many of the recently placed orders or options prob- ably stem from the competitive exhibits shown at the Salon du Bourget. In the category of future 30- to 50-seaters alone, a total of at least 500 firm orders or purchase options are in hand, without counting all the orders relating to programs already under way (Havilland DHC-6 and -7, Fokker F-27, British Aerospace HS-748-2B, Shorts 330, etc). Of course, the total estimated market of 2,000 to 2,500 planes is sti~ll far from having been attained, but a goodly portion of it is probably in the process of being.decided. The 15-20 Seaters Certification of the Beechcraft C99 (15 seats, two Pratt and Whitney PT6A-36 engines) is now imminent; mass production of the plane has begun and should achieve a rate of 5 planes per month by the end of this year. According to its builder, the number of orders currently in hand will absorb production through July 1982. The Commuter 1900 (19 seats, two P& W PT6A-65 engines) is still scheduled to make its maiden flight next spring. British Aerospace has firm orders for five, and has just sold options for another four, of its new Jetstream 31 plane (18-19 seats, two Garrett TPE 331-10 engines). We recall that its certification is scheduled for the second hal� of 1982, to be followed immediately by the first deliveries. The new Dornier DO 228-100 (15 seats, two Garrett TPE 331-5 or -10, or two P& W PT6A-135 or -41 engines, per option) and DO 228-200 (19 seats, same choice of engines) are off to a shiny start o� their careers. As of mid-3une, 67 haci i~een sold, of which 46 are paying options, with first deliveries scheduled for December 1981 and April 1982 respectively. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Swearingen, a~ter having announced the certitication of its Metro III (19 seats, two Garrett AiResearch TPE 331-11U-601 G) at the Salon du Bourget, has delivered the first plane of the series to the Swiss Crossair company; the plane is being built at a rate of 6 units per month. Piper's two planes in its T-1000 program--the T-1020 (9 passengers, 2 Lycoming T10-540 engines), an offspring of the Chieftain, and the T-1040 (9 passengers, two P& W PT6A-11 engines), an offspring of the Chieftain and the Cheyenne 1--although in a smaller category, should not be overlooked. The �irst of these types could enter service by November, while the second will not b~ certified untii January 1982. Piper has not yet announced any orders for these two types. The 25-45 Seaters In the 25- to 45-passenger category, orders and options already in hand among the five leading competitors (ATR 42, CN 235, Dash 8, ENID-120, and SF 340) are approx- imately equivalent to one another at this time and number close to 110 in all. The decision to launch the ATR 42 program, which is to be developed jointly by AEROSPATIALE ~National Industrial Aerospace Companyl and AERITALIA ~expansion unknown~, will not be taken until October; this, however, has not prevented the two firms from accepting the first option contracts involving financial commit- ments, and pursuing studies of design details. In addition to the basic model, with a capacity for 42 seats at 32-inch spacing (or 46 seats at 31-inch spacing), several versions are being planned: the "combi" (40 percent cargo, 60 percent passengers); the "quick change," equipped with a cargo hatch and rapidly converti- ble to accept type LD-3 containers; the "tout cargo ~all cargo~" (no windows), the "cargo militaire" with axial loading; and a lengthened version that can accommo- date 60 seats and that could be operational 3 years after the ir.itial del.iveries of the basic model (last half of 1985). The other competitors have the advantage of a slight lead, in that their expected dates of entry into service all fall within the year 1984. Their feasibility - studies are already under way and, for some of them, the first metallic hatches designed for their prototypes are already being machined. CASA ~ , and Nurtanio have announced a military version of the CN235, and Embraer has an- nounced a mixed cargo-passenger version of the EMB-120; but to date, Saab and Fairchild are the only ones who have offered a"business" ver~ion of their planes. The latter version seems moreover to be meeting with lively reception, since 25 units of this type have been ordered. Saab and Fairchild are also the only ones to date to have announced the choice of avionics based from the start on the use of color cathodic display (Collins). The most advar~ced in terms of time lead is - unquestionably the Shorts 360, nonpressurized, a prototype that has been under test since 1 June, and the first production unit of which is to be deliveres by the end of next year. Lastly, in the 50-seater category, the appearance on the market of a new American competitor, the CAC 100, must not be overlooked; its builder, the Commuter Air- craft Corporation, expects to put it into service by the beginnir.g af I989 (see AIP. & COSMO5 No. $66 p 21?, 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450029-1 FOR OFFICIAL US1E ONLY Characteristics and Marketing Status of 30- to 5-Seat 'Conunuters' ~p 1 of 2~ SNIA5 CASA ~~uter D.H. D.H. Builder(s) Aeri- Nur- Aircraft Canada Canada Embraer talia tanio Designation ATR-42 CN-235 CAC-100 DHC-7 DHC-8 EN~-120 Seatsl 42 34 50 50 3611 30 Service date Mid- End of Start of In Nlid- End of 1985 1984 1984 service 1984 1994 P&W G,E. P&W P&W P&W P&W Engines 100/2 CT7-7 PT6A-45A PT6A-50 120 115 Takeoff weight 14,510 1,300 - 19,958 13,835 9;~?2 (kg) � Cruising speed (km/hr) 511 469 555 428 500 535 Cruising range i,400 1,450 1,110 1,350 1,200 925 ~km~4 - Firm orders 54 100 - 125 115 110 Options 18 Price$ 5 3.8 - 4.79 3.5 FOOTNOTES TO CHART l. At 32-inch (0.813 m) separation. At 29-inch (0,737 m) separation. 3. At 30-inch (0.762 m) separation. 4. With fu11 complement of passengers and IFR reserves. ' 5. Without reserve. - 6. Inclusive of all models. ~continued on facing page~ l~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Characteristics and Marketing Status of 30- to 50-Seat 'Commuters� ~p 2 of 2~ Gulf- $ritish 5aab Builder(s) Fokker stream Aero- Fair- 5horts Shorts space child Designation F-27 G-1-C HS-748-2B SF-340 S-330/200 S-360 MK 200 Seatsl 44 382 483 343 30 36 Service date In Tn In Start of In End of service ser~~i~e service 1984 service 1982 RR-Dart RR-Dart RR-Dart G.E. P& W P& W Fry-ines ~536-7 MK-529 MK-536-2 CT7-5A PT6A-45R PT6A-65R Takeoff weight 20,410 16,308 21,092 11,734 10,387 11,657 (kg) - Cruising speed 480 490 452 480 352 391 (kg/hr) Cruising range 1,925 965 1,556 1,520 7705 425 ~km~ 4 Firm orders 3 7256 345~ 100 90 21 Options 610 Price8 - 1.610 - 3.75 - 3.25 FOOTNOTES TO CHART - cont'd 7. Series -2A and -2B inclusive. 8. 1981 price in million U.S. dollars. 9. In million Canadian dollars. 10. Modifications of GulEstream 1. 11. At 31-inch (0.787 m) sepa=ation. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440050029-1 FOR OFF'[CIAL USE ONLY ~n _~aportant Market �or the Engine :4anufacturers Although the feeder airline companies are only now makinq their choices among the available aircraft, the builders themselves have already practically all made their definitive choices of engines, thus opening markets that could amount to many thousands of units for each of the competing engine ma?~u�acturers. The lower range of these markets, that is, for 15- to 20-seater planes requiring turbines of less than 1,000 horsepower, is divided between Pfatt and Whitney, with _ its PT6 penetration, and Garrett, with i~.s TPE 331 series. Only Dornier offers its - clients a choice between the two manufacturers for the DO-228-100 and -200. The 25- to 45-seater category, with its higher power requirements (up to 2,000 horsepower), has put Pratt and Whitney, with its new PW 100 (ex-PT7) turbine, into competition with General Electric and its CT7. With the recent decision by AERO- SPATIALE and AERITALIA to equip the ATR42 with the PW 100/2 (2,280 thermodynamic horsepower derated to 1,800 shaft horsepower), the bal~nce has been tipped in favor of the Canadian manufacturer, who has thus obtained a share of the market represented by the powering of 3 out of the 5 major planes currently under develop- ment. The two arguments invoked in �avor of this choice are, on the one hand, the developmental margin of the PW 100 (around 20 percent, enabling the attainment of nominal powers above 2,500 horsepower) and, on the other hand, the special design - of the engine based on its use in this type of aircraft (fos example, it is equipped with a propeller brake enabling the generation of air and of power for the plane's electrical circuits on the ground). Brasilia:?s EN~-120 will be equipped with the PVd 115 version, derated at 1,500 horsepower, and the Dash 8 with the PW 120 version developing 2,100 horsepower at takeoff. The principal argument, on the other hand, in favor of the CT7 is that it is derived from the T 700 turbo engine, which has amply proven itself in helicopters. The CASA-Nurtanio 235 will be equipped with the CT7-7, derated at 1,700 horsepower, and the Saab-Fairchild 340 with the CT7-5A, developing 1,675 horsepower. Also worthy of note is the development by Garrett of its TPE-331 14/10, developing from 1,300 to 1,650 horsepower, which has just begun its bench testing. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1980 9399 CSO: 3102/371 ~6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TRANSPORTA~PION VOLVO PRESENTS COI~UTER-CONTROL TURBO ENr_-~~~, Stuttgart MTZ MOTORTECHNISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT in Germa.n Jun 81 p 248 [Text] In the context of the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) conference, which was held in February 1981 in Detroit, VOLVO presented a four-cylinder gasoline engine with the most up-to-date technology. - Equally impressive as the almost 25-percent increase in power is thP 15-percent lower fuel consumption. Based on the 155-hp (114-kW) 2.1-liter engine used in the VOLVO 244 Turbo, this _ VCCT (Volvo Computer Control Turbo) engine delivers 198 hp (146 kW) for short periods. Figure 1 shows an engine with t'he turbocharger and intercooler. Fig. 1. The VCCT engine with turbo- charger and intercooler from Volvo. #~~~'~~.w.~~~�~ i~~ ~P~~'.~5 .:s~ f~ ;7" ~ . . ~1i~'~ ~ � ~ ~ ~'::M~ . . ' ~ I I II ..t . f . ~ `t `~;S l - i '.~'~3i . Volvo engineers succeeded in reconciling conflicting specifications through the use of numerous electronic components. Ignition and fuel-injection on the VCCT engine are controlled by microprocessors. Various sensors at different locations on the engine transmit electrical impulses to a tiny computer, which then determines the ignition timing as well as the fuel-air mixture corresponding to engine load. Thanks to this sensitive electronic control, which reacts instantly to every change in operating conditions, such as engine load, engine speed and temperature, the - engine offers rapid throttle response, clean exhaust and high performance with low fuel consumption. 17 k'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY Turbocharger boost pressure is also monitoxed electronically to provide optimal fuel metering. A knflck sensor also informs the microprocessor when there is a tendency to knocking or pinging in the combustion chamber; if necessary, the boost pressure can be reduced and the ignition timing can also be changed. In this way, the engine adapts by itself to the octane level of tfie fuel being used at the time. - On the other hand, the minicomputer can also raise the boost pressure by almost 50 percent for a period of 10 to 15 seconds. Thus the vehicle has a considerable in- crease ~n power available for short periods, for example wfiile overtaking. Normally, at a boost pre~sure of 0.65 bar, engine output is 155 hp (114 kW) at 5,400 revs/min, with a torque of 26.5 kg/meter (260 Nm) at 3,200 rev/min. The microprocessor helps _ it to achieve maximum figures of 198 kp (146 kW) and 33.6 kg/meter torque at the same engine speeds and a boost presaure of 0.97 bar. The resulting performance figures--assuming the engine were installed in a VOLVO 244 series sedan are quite impressive: The car would reach 100 km/hour from rest in less than 8 seconds, in a test of engine flexibility, 90 to 140 km/hour in 4th gear would take only 9.6 seconds, and top speed would be over 200 km/hour. At the same _ time, fuEl consumption would be 10 to 15-percent lower than with a current series VOLVO 244 Turbo. With the VCCT engine, important progress has been successfully achieved in engine specifications: cleaner exhaust gases, lower consumption, more power and torque as well as less loss of performance when~.using fiuel with a lower octane rating. During the next few years Volvo will incorporate some of the experience gained with the VCCT system into the construction of its production engine. COPY~IGHT: 1981, Frankh'sche Verlagshandlung W. Keller & Co. Stuttgart. _ 9581 CSO: 3102/377 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400050029-1 ~OR OFFIC'IA1. l'S~' nN).\' ~ TRANSAORTATION VW DEVELOPS STOP-START DEVICE FOR ENGINE TO CUT FUEL USE Stuttgart ATZ AUTOMOBILTECHNISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT in German Apr 81 pp 153-154 [Article by Erwin Schuster and Ernst-Olav Pagei: "Th; ~tc~p-Sta;:~ Device"] [Text~ Abstract With regard to increasing fuel cost and shortage of energy resources, the autom~tive industry is bound to develop suitable methods for optimum fuel utilization. Thus, the autamobile can be maintained as an attractive and competitive means of trans- portation. A novel development which can lead to considerable fuel saving's and release the environment at the same time is the stop-start device. This device allows, during vehicle stops, eli.mination of fuel consumption, i.e., the fuel will only be utilized to keep the vehicle moving and not for heat conversion during idling. This stop- start device is installed by VW and Audi on various models of the "Formula E" concept. 1. Introduction The stop-start operates semiautomatically: The driver can decide independently whether the traff ic situation allows turning off the engine; starting is initiated automatically by simultaneously depressing the accelerator and clutch pedals, while the operating condition of the engine is monitored by a digital-electronic switch mechanism. Development of this device required some basic tests, for example: --when does it make sense to switch off the engine to save fuel? --what is the effect of a restart on exhaust emissions? --what additional loads are imposed on the starter and the battery? --what influence does it have on the balance of the vehicle's electrical system? 2. Fuel Consumption Measurements The first test concerned how high the fuel consumption is at idle and the amount of fuel the engine requires when starting. Tests showed that an Audi 80 LS with a 55-kW (75 hp~ engine, for example, has a consumption at idle~ of 0.349 cm3/sec, and 1.867 cm when starting up. The conclusion is that for this vehicle fuel is saved after remaining stationary for longer than 5 seconds. 19 FOR OFF[CIAL U;>E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400450029-1 MOR OFF'1('IAI. USF. ONI.I' 3. Exhaust Emissions Levels Exhaust emissions levels in the EEG-cycle, Figure 1, were determined with and with- out stop-start operation; it was shown that only minor deviations resulted, Figure 2. 50 3 km/h 3 3 1 - 35 Z - o, 31 V ; ~ ~ u a t5 1 2 1 ~ 0 - " 1 1 1 ~ 0 11 17 - 21 47 21 71 7 5 - 195 2ei1 Fig 1--EEC-city cycle; vehicle speed characteristics versus including gear position designations. The test consists of an advance period of 40 secs. at idl,e (no measurement). The measurement is conducted by repeating the driving cycle four times while an idle share of four times 60 secs. is resulting, which represent about 30.8 percent. , Key: 1. Speed 9/ lesl 7 5 75 1500 Z5 ~ 5.0 50 1000 5.0 ~ ~ ~ , . ~ 1.5 ~ E 25 5pp ~S , : / HC CO (g N0, Fig 2--Emission data from the EEC-city cycle (European test) with and without stop- start device (Audi 100 S). Without ~ with stop-start device By switching off the engine through the idle cutoff valve in the carburetor, emission of unburned HC remains is prevented while the engine is coming to a stop. Against this, there is a sligt~t rise in the HC level because of the starting process, so that an increase ojf 4.8 percent in the EEC cycle is registered. On the other hard, CO levels declined, as expected, by about 10 percent in stop-start operation, while the NOX level increases slightly, with 2.3 percent:. Further tests were conducted to determine what influence a stop-start device has under actual traffic conditions on a vehicle's electrical system balance. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4. Test Drive For this a route was worked out in Munich, over which several vehicles were driven at different ti.mes of the day. Instrument readings were taken of battery charge condition, engine revolutions, the vehicle's electrical consumption, number of engine stops, etc. The average figures from several trips showed: --Route driven 91 l~s . --Number of engine stops 112 ~ --Total driving time 200 mins --Time vehicle stationary 41 mins The results show:; --Stops per kilometer 1.24 --Time stationary per stop 22.1 secs If the numbers calcula~ted above are used as a basi~ for calculating fuel consump- tion, the result is an average fuel saving of about 5 percent for an Audi 80 LS with a 55-kW (75 hp) engine, while on some trips under particularly unfavorable conditions savings of up to 10 percent are possible. 5. Starter Load The calculated numbers also yield some information about the altered load on the starter and the battery. The starter is naturally subject to an extra load during stop-start operation, but this additional load does not materially affect its life, due to a peculiarity of the electronic switch unit. The control switch monitors engine revolutions during starting; when they reach 500 revs/min, as the engine is run up, the starter is automatically switched off. This protects the roller clutch in the starter from overloading (in contrast to starting with the ignition switch). This component is therefore not sub~ected to any additional load fram stop-start operation. Through a link with engine temperature, is also a safeguard that the device is activated only when the engine has reached operating temperature. A start with a warm engine normally lasts about 0.5 sec; carbon brushes, main bearings, etc, experience hardly any extra load compared with normal operation. 6. Battery Charge Condition The state of charge of the battery is not influenced by starting operations. However, discharge of the battery during stopped time has a negative effect due to other sources of consumption, such as the heater fan, lights, radio etc. A balance is created by automatically switching off the rear window defogger. There is additional relief for the system in that the energy output of the generator at idle is minimal; consequently the amount of energy that is lost (or is not generated) by stopping the engine is negligible and has hardly any effect on the total balance of electrical generation, or consumption. Another positive factor is that the vehicles have a generous capacity generator as standard equipment. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404050029-1 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY '1't~e rceult of the messures described ie th~;t there is no deterioration in the battery's state of charge during stop-start operation. 7. Description of Operation The vehicle must be startF.d the first time in the normal way, so Lhat the device is activated. When engine revolutions exceed 30 revs/min, the device switc~es to ready for operation, with a delay of 2 seconds; this is an additional precaution against unintentional operation of the starter. After the f irst start with the ignition key the stop-start device can be used as often as is desired, until it is locked out again by turning off the ignition (ignition key). To avoid starting problems with a cold engine, the stop-start device is also locked out as long as the cold warning light is on, Figure 3. ~ ~ O ~ ; 0 6 1 iZ io 11 ~ O ~ 7 ~ 0 ~ 0 0 Fig 3--Operational schematic of the stop-stari- device Key: 1. Accelerator pedal switch 7. Magnetic idle valve 2. Clutch pedal switch 8. Carburetor preheater 3. Stop button 9. Coolant temperature switch 4. Starter relay 10. Vehicle speed sende-r 5. Battery 11. Revolutions from the coil Starter 12. Stop-start control unit _ To turn off the engine with the device, a button on the end of the wiper lever is pushed. Vehicle speed below 5 lan/hour is a conditian f or activation. An electronic control unit interrupts the electrical circuit to the idle cutoff valve. The engine comes to a stop. To reduce electrical consumption the rear window defogger is switched off while the vehicle is stationary. To start the engine again, the clutch and accelerator pedals must be operated simultaneously. The starter is switched on by the electronic control unit through 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400050029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY servorelay, until the engine has reached a crankshaft speed of 500 revs/min; at this speed the control unit automatically switches off the starter. If engine revolutions drop below 500 revs/min after this, the starter does riot cut in by itself, even though the accelerator and clutch pedals are depressed. Only after revolutions have dropped below 30 revs/min and the pedals are operated again is the starter activated. This prevents uncontrolled switching on and off of the starter at irregular engine revolutions around 500 revs/min. As a result of the double act.uation of the pedals when switching ofi and starting, ar_3 by wiring the control connections to the positive side of the battery (terminal 15), a safeguard is provided against individual malfunctions (detached connections, sticking switches, etc) causing a dangerous condition, in which the stop-start device goes out of control and starts the engine. 8. Summary The automatic stop-start device makes up to a 10 percent saving in fuel possible under unfavorable conditions and when it is used consistently. It also contributes to reducing environmental pollution by lowering emissions of poisonous carbon _ monoxide. Safe operation of the device in traffic is guaranteed by comprehensive electronic protective measures. The balance of the vehicle's electrical system is affected only slightly. . COPYRIGHT: 1981, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, W. Keller & Co., Stuttgart 9581 CSO: 3102/355 ~ 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050029-1