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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054431-8 FOR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY JPRS L/9981 14 September 1981 USSR Re ort p ENERGY CFOUO 15/81) FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORNIATION SERVICE - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400050031-8 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primar ily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, b~it also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets . ~J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indica tors such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or followinQ the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- _ mati.on was summarized ar extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterawed are ~enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded ~y a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times with in items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. i . COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERN ING OW~IERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9981 _ 14 September 1981 USSR REPORT ENERGY (FOUO 15/81) CONTENTS - ELECTRIC POWER Present, Proposed Applications of Nuclear Power Diacussed - (Petros'yants, BaCurov; ATOMNAYA ENERGIYAs Jun 81) 1 Reactor's Energy Dietribution Monitored With~External Senaors (L. N. Bogachek, et al.; ATOrIlJAYA~ENERGIYA, Jan 81) 11 FUELS Ways To Improve Production Efficiency, Work Quality Outlined (N. A. Mal'tsev; NEFTYANAYA PR4MYSHLENNOSTI' SERIYA ORGANIZATSIYA I UPRAVLENIYE NEFTYANOY PRQ~NIYSHLENNOSTI, No 6, 19a1) 15 Induatry Competition Winnera Named for First Quarter of 1981 (NEFTYANAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' SERIYA ORGANIZATSIYA I UPRAVLENIYE NEFTYANOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI, No 6, 1981) 23 Thermal Methods of Working Oi.l Fielda (Nikolay Konstantinovich Baybakov, Aleksandr Rubenovich Garushev; TEPLOVYYE METODY RAZRABOTKi NEFTYANYKH MESTOROZHDENIY, 1981) 77 - - a - [III - USSR - 37 FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY ELECTRIC POWER UDC 621.039.001.4 PRESENT, PROPOSED APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR POWER DISCUSSED - , Moscow ATOrIIJAYA ENERGIYA in Russian Jun 81 pp 371-376 [Article by Petros'yants, A. M. and Baturov, B. B.: "The Role of Nuclear Eaergy in the Country's Energy Complex"] [Text] The resolutions of the 26th CPSU Congress provide for ~the advanced develop- ment of the nuclear pow~er industry in the European sector of tl'~e USSR, where the primary energy consumers are concentrated and where the shortage of cheap fossil fuel is growing more acute. This shortage is made up primarily by deliveries of fuel from the country's eastern regions. AES's, atomic central-heating and power plants (ATETs's) and, in the long-range plan, atomic heat-supply stations (AST's) will in the near future replace greater and greater amounts of fossil fuel~in re- gions where this is economically ~ustif ied. The area of technically and economically substantiated utilization of nuclear fuel in the economy is being systematicallq expanded and encompasses all new classes of installations and the economic regians. Several basic features determine the approach to assessing the role of nuclear ener- gy in the electric-power industry and in the fuei and power complex as a whole. In the f trst place, the primary economic impact f rom the replacement of fossil fuel with nuclear (in connection with its high caloric value) is obtained by the economy not only directly at the AES's and in the electric-power indus~ry, but also in the - spheres of mining and delivering fossil fuel. In this manner, the impact from the - introduction of nuclear fuel is determined on an interindustry basis and not only on the economy of the AES proper. This results in the necessity of jointly exam- ining the question of the economy of atomic electric stations and their fuel cycle and of thermal electric stations and their fuel base. In the second place, AES capital investment can exceed that for a thermal electric station by a factor of 1.5. Despite this fact, .A~S's are economically advantageous as a result of considerably lower capital investment 3n fuel-cycle enterprises in comparison with capital investment for expanding extraction operations and transpor- tation facilities for solid organic fuel. Moreover, the technology of nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle enterprises is, in the engineering respect, immeasurably more compli- cated than that for the extraction and delivery of fossil fuel. In connection with this there arises the necessity for a higher level of eng~neering and industrial readiness in the spheres of construction, production, ope~at:.:,.: and personnel training. This, in the f inal tally, determines the economy and potential scale of development of AES's. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thirdly, the construction of AES's and the broad application of nuclear fuel to obtain thermal and electric power make it possible under the conditions f ound in our counCry to reduce by a factor of 2 or 3 the level.of labor productivity in the spheres of extraction, conversion and utilization of energy reserves in comparison with the prodcuction of power at thermal electric stations using imported solid fuel. This cannot be directly traced in the economic indicators of thermal and electric power stations. In the electric-power cost structure th e wage component is equal to a few percent. Moreover, the introduction of nuclear fuel entails an acute re- duction of labor expenditures in the spheres of extraction and delivery of fossil fuels and a considerable increase in labor productivitq per unit of generated power in the electric station-fuel supply system. For this reason, labor expenditures for the production of power must be examined not only on the basis of the staffing factor at electric stations, which characterizes th~e final stage in the utilization of fuel to obtain power but also taking into account the fuel-power complex as a whole. The development of the nuclear power industry hae now acquired broad dimensions. The toal output of AES's at the beginning of 1981 amounted to more than 14 million kW. Their share in the generation of electric power was more than 5 percent. At the tirst stage, nuclear fuel is drawn into a country's fuel and power balance through the construction of nuclear condensing electric-power stations. At the present time, the construction of these stations is being carried out at more than 20 sites with the gradual displacement af f ossil-fuel f ired base electric- power stations in regions of the northwest, west, center and south of our coun~ry's European sector. AES's are being built in regions of the Caucasus, the Povolzh'ye and the Urals. The growth in the installed power of AES's in the llth Five-Year P1an will occur due to the preferred introduction of 1,000-MW power units with _ RBMK-1000 and WER-1000 reactors. A pilot unit with an RBMK-1000 was commissioned in 1973 at the Leningrad AES. At present, a great deal of experience has been accumu- ulated in the operation of such units at the Leningrad, Kursk and Chernobyl'ska.ya AES's. Further construction of such stations continues with the number of units at a single site being brought up to 4 to 6. The Ignalinskaya AES--largest in Europe--is being built with reactors possessing unit outputs of up to 1,500 MW. The cost indicators for electric power from AES's conf irm their efficiency (Table 1), desp ite the higher capital itZVestment. The installed-capac ity utiliza- tion coefficient (KIM) of the AES's of the USSR Ministry af Power and Electrifica- tion for 1979 comprised 68.9 per~ent. The maximum values for the utilization co- efficient were found at the Novovoronezhskaya (78.8 percent) and Kol'ska.ya (76.5 percent) AES's. High values (70 to 78.1 percent) were achieved at the Leningrad AES and at other stations with uranium-graphite reactors. On the average, the utilization co~ff icients for our country's AES's in 1979 were LO to 15 percent higher than at similar stations in the United States, West Germany, Japan and France. The cost of electric power has been reduced compared to 1978 from 0.86 - to 0.79 kopecks per kWh. This is close to the cost of el.ectric power generated by a thermal station (0.753 kopecks per kWh) in 1979. Ma~y }~ears of operational experience testify to the reliability and safety oi AES performance. For example, radioactive wastes are, as a rule, one to two o~ders below the norm (Table 2). 2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY - Table 1. Economic Indicators for AES's of the USSR Ministry of Power and Electri- fication for 1979 Indicator Novovoronezhskaya Kol'skaya Kurskaya Artayanakaya Chernobyl'skaye Installed capacity, MW 1,445 880 2,000 815 2,000 Generation of ~ electricity, . million kWh 9,915.2 5,900.4 10,34 5.6 2,385.8 12,233.2 Utilization of ' installed capa- ' city, hours 6,814.6 6,705.0 5,172.8 5854.7* 6,616.6 Cost of elec- tricity, kopecks per kW 0.613 0.73 0.785 1.032 0.706 * Not counting the second unit Table 2. Release of Aerosol Radiation from AES's in 1979, Curies/year AES P~IG Long-life aerosol Sr89+Sr90 I131 radiation Kol'skaya 1.9~103* 1.1�10-2 2.1�10-5 1�10-3 6.3�105** 91.2 0.182 18.2 Novovoronezh- 6.6�103 0.3 3.1�10-3 5.5�LO-3 skaya 1.3�106 219.4 0.365 36.5 Armyanskaya 1.8�103 1.1�10-2 - ~�2 - 3.2�105 45.6 - 9.1 Kurskaya 5.0�104 48 - 0.02 7.6�105 109 - 22 - Chernobyl'skaya 4.9�104 0.3 6�10-5 0.14 7.6�105 109 0.22 22 * and The f irst value is actual, the second is the allowable release. The latter is determined by an AES operational engineering regulation based on existing stan- dards and specif ications (SP-AES-79, OSP-72, NRP-76). RIG is radioactive inert gases with a half-life greater than 10 minutes. Long-life aerosol radiation has a half-lif e greater than 24 hours. 3 ~ FOR OrFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The planned development of the nuclear power industry as aarly as the 1990's will lead to a considerable increase in its role in the power-generation structure. The production of electric power will reach 20 to 25 percent of the overall generation, percent: Condensing AES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-38 - TETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-23 GES and GAES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20 AES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-25 According to data from the American Atomic Industry Forum (1980), the production of electric power at AES's in the United States will comprise 16 percent of the country's total electric-power generation iu 1990. - As was already pointed out, the considerably higher capital 3n~~estment in AES con- ; struction causes degradation of such electric-power ind3cators as capital retv~n:; and the unit expenditures for the introduction of electric-power station capacities. _ This is because the chief economic impact derived by the ecc~nomy from the introduc- tion of AES's is outside the electric power industry; that is, it is due to the reduction in the scale and rate of growth of capital investment and labor expendi- tures in the coal mining industry and in rail transport. On the whole, the construc- i tion of AES's is advantageous both ecanomically and with respect to the expenditure of labor resour~ces. This is the result of two basic factors--characteristics af the disposition and consumption of fuel and power resources in our countrq and the high caloric content of nuclear fuel. One of t'~~ features of the fuel and po~er ~ situation consists of the fact that expenditurea for the expansion of the fuel base ~ and for tranaport (mines, open pits, rolling stock, secondary routes, etc.) in the development of fossil-fuel based power generation are comparable with respect to their overall scale. When the fuel is imported over long distances, however, these ~ expenditures exceed those for the construction of the thermal electric station pro- per. For this reason, the overall economic expenditure f or the creation of new thermal electric station capacities and the development of the fuel base are very great (Table 3). With a predicted increase in the level of capital investment in the mining and deli- ' very of solid fuel for consumers in the European sector of the USSR to 40 rublesJton ! of conventional fuel and to 80 rubles/ton, the higher 1QVe1 of~AES ca~ital invest- ~ ment in comparison with thermal electric stations (300 to 350 rubles/ton) does not exceed the limits of economic competitiveness when evalual:ed on an interindustry basis. Analysis shows that this conclusion holds f irm for the lang-range prosgect ' as well. It follows that it is more advantageous to put cr;pital investment into the construction of AES's, the mining of uranium and atomic-machine construction , than into the development of cogl mining and the tranaport ~~f coal. . In comparieon with traditional power generation, the chief acivantage of nuclear ~ power generation, as was alceaay noted, lies in the high caloric content of nuclear fuel. On the basis of unita of mass~ it has approximately 2 million times the ca- ~ loric content of fossil fuels. ~e volumes of co~?~uuned and pr~cessed fuels in the fuel cycle are tens of thousanda of times less than the volumes of fossil fuels - mined, transported and burned with the eame rates of power consvmption. Thus, the _ 1~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050031-8 FOR O~'F[CIAL USE ONLY I development of the nuclear power industry of the large scale desired with a prac- ticably attainable rate of growth of AES capacities (not more than 20 percent an- nually) requires approximately 0.3 tons/year of natural uranium for 1 MW of commie- - sioned and operational capacitq. This meana that for the development of nuclear _ power productian with an output of 100 million kW, the fuel requirement will not exceed 30,000 tons of natural uranium annually, while a corresponding requirement in fossil fuel would amount to 200 millian tons of canventional fuel annually. When AES's with thermal reactors are in operation, 1 tan of natural uranium is equivalent with respect to power generation to 12,00 to 25,00(3 tone of conventional fuel (de- p~nding upon the depth of the dump f or the separation process and the reactor`s physical characteristics). With the growing level of utilization of fossil-fuel resources, a crisis situation - alsa appears in the increasing environmental pollution due to ash wastes as well - as exhaust gases. At a modern 2.4 million-kW coal-f ired GRES about 5 million tons . of coal are burned annually. About 0.5 to 1 million tons of ash are f ormed in the process, out of which 1 to 2 percent (that is, 10,000 to 20,000 tons anuually) are released into the atmosphere, leading to various negative consequences. Particular- � ly harmful are the gaseous wastes. The content of sulfur in the fuel can reach 3 percent with respect to mass. Conse- quently, the discharge of sulfur through smokestacks in the form of sulfurous gases can amount to 150,000 tons per year for the station outputs mentioned. According to foreign estimates, the eff.ectiveness of sulfur-scrubbing can be increased only by a 20 to 30 percent increase in capital investment in thermal electric stations. - Even in this case, however, the ievel of scrubbing is insuff iciently great. In contrast to coal-fired thermal electric stations, there are none of these harmful wastes from an AES. The radioactivity of the exhaust gases is relatively low and, as experience shows, it is considerably lower than the allowable concentrations provided f or by health standards. In order to develop the nuclear power industry, it ia necessary to pPrfect industrial production (including the radiochemical processing of spent f uel), increase the ' quality of the product and organize special machine construction. This is assoc iated with special requirements for the reliability of nuclear-class equipment and for the quality of materials used. For example, in comparison with coal-f ired thermal stations, an AES requires four times the amount of high-alloy and stainless steels, although the overall amount of steel used is reduced by 40 percent. In this manner, the development of nuclear power production brings about an improvement in the quality of materials, equipment and construction work as well as a corresponding increase ~ in the volume of associated capital investment. This circumstance, however, does not alter the overall picture in connection with the increase in expenditures f or the mining and delivery of fossil fuel. In comparison with thermal stations, the advantages of AES's are determined not anly by the initial outlay but, as was already mentioned, by the savings in labor resources. In this case, one must consider the labor expenditures both in power production and in the sectors of the economy associated with i* which, through their activities, insure delivery of the final product--electric and thermal power. That portion of the cost of electric power that goes toward the salaries of electric- station workers amounts to only a few percent, which reflects the high percentage ,of labor expenditures during its generation. The major portion of the labor expen- ditures is due to the mining and delivery of fossil fuel and is reflected in its 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 3. Structure of Specific Capital Investment in Electric-Power Supply for the Construction of Condensing Llectric-Power Stations, Percent of the Cost of an AES Components AES Coal-Fired Thermal Statfon ~ Electric stations 100 6~ Transmission lines 20 20 In all: direct capita? investment 120 80 Fuel-supp~.y enterprises (including transportation) 25 60 In all: direct capital investment 145 140 Associated canital investment 90 120 including: plants for f errous and nonferrous metalZvxgy 20 30 plants for power, transportation and general machine construction 25 20 construction industry and conatruc- tion mat~rials 10 10 In all: total capital investment 235 260 _ Table 4. Unit Labor Expenditures for Coal-Based Power Generation, n~n/PiW ~ Coa1 Basin ~iining Delivery Thermal Station Total vonets with shaft 4.~-5 1.5-2 0.6-0.7 6.5-7.7 . min ing Kuznets with 3haft 2.5-3 4.5-6 0.6-fJ.7 7.6-9.7 mining Ruznets with open 0.8-1 4.5-6 0.6-O.Z 5.9-7.7 pit Table 5. goten~Lial for Utilization of World Reserves of Na~u.r-al Uranium as a Power i Resource, Billions of Tons of Conventional Fuei ~ Reserves, millions of tons In thermal rea~tors In breeder ~ . ~ eac tur s ~ Without With With repeat use uranium ur~niuau of plutonium recovery recovery 5(proven) 81 118 236 8,850 25 (predicter~) 405 59b 1,180 44,250 2,500.(using world ocean reserves) 40,500 Sq,000 118,000 4,425,000 ~ 6 FOIt ,4FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR GFFiCIAL USE ONLY cost and even in the cost of electric power. At AES's, the fuel component of the cost is considerably lower than at thermal electric atations, although the personnel factor and the qualif ications of the pr4duction personnel are higher, which points out the higher level of engineering requirements f or AES operation. An analysis _ of labor expenditures for the production of electric power on the whole at AES's and thermal electric stations, inc~~ding the fuel base, points out the following: with the present and planned scale of development of electric-power capacities in - our country, the utilization of Kuznets and Donets coal as fuel in regions of the - European sector would lead to a considerable increase in the number of workers in ~ fuel a~id power industries. The approximate unit labor expenditures are estimated through the data presented in table 4. The number of personnel f or nuclear power production, based upon the mining, transportation and processing of nuclear fuel at all stages of the f uel cycle and calculated in units of electric power (men per MW), comes to: Mining and processing of ore 0.033-0.062 Production of uranium hexafluoride and separation of isotopes 0.03-0.05 Manufacture of fuel elements and zirconitan production 0.036-0.04 Recovery of fuel elements, production, processing and waste ~ storage 0.02-0.04 Transportation of nuclear fuel among all enterprises 0.02-0.04 - For fuel-cycle enterprises, in a11 . 0.14-0.23 AES's (prototype units) 1.1-1.3 Total for AES's and enterprises in the fuel cycle 1.24-1.53 The values cited ~re 4 to 6 times lower than similar indicators characterizing the development of power production based on imported f ossil fuels. Even if one were . to adopt an error factor of two for calculating the f igures for enterprises serving the nuclear power industry, labor productivity in that caae would prove to be higher by a fsctor of 2 to 3. Thus, nuclear power production not only saves a great amount of fossil fuel but also insures the highest 2eve1 of Iabor productivity per unit of power generated and consumed by the economy (with the exception of hydroelectric stations). A rise in the costs of fossil fuels increases to a greater degree the advantages of AES's in comparison with thermal electric stations and also increases the savings of labor resources. Despite the general trend toward the construction of large-scale in~ustrial complexes ' in the country's eastern regions, intensive development continues on the existing industrial centers in the European sector. Heat supply in these regions is no less ~ ur~ent than the electric-power supply. The utilization of nuclear fuel f or the production of thermal power makes it possible to reduce considerably the fossil = fuel used. As in the case of combustion-based power generation, nuclear power gene- ration brings about a technical-economic advantage when the comb ined generation of heat and electric power at a TETs is compared to the separate generation of heat at an AST and electric power at an AES. The results of studies indicate that nuclear fuel's contribution to meeting the regions's demand for heat in industrial and domes- tic heat supply (both on the basi~ of AST's and ATETs's) is accompanied by a reduc- tion in the power industry's overall consumption of fuel reser~~es. In the case of an AST, the absolute reduction in the overall consumption of fossil f uel (fuel oil) when the overall expenditure of nuclear fuel is kept constant can amount to 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054431-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY approximately 0.17 tons of conventional fuel annually per kW of installed tYne.rnual capacity of AST reactors (when utilized 4,000 to 4,500 houLS annually). In t~e case flf replacement of a TETs with an ATETs using equal initial parametess, 'the saving of fossil fuel reaches approximately 0.45 tons of conventional fu~el annually per kW Qf installed thermal capacity of ATETs reactors. When the initiaT parz~me'tere are reduced to the leval of thosa at modern AES's, the fuel saving is red.uced but does not go below 0.25 tons of conventions~l fuel annually per kW. At the present time, construction has begun on the Odessa ATETs with WER-10010 `rea~e~- to~s and TK-500-Ea central-heating condensing turbines. Long-range plan~ ha~e bee~ made for the construction of several more ATETs's of the type mentioned. Coz~s'trc~cxion began during the lOth Five-Year Plan on AST`s with lower parameters f or the reactmr's cooling agent. This, then, increased the reliability. Such AST's, according to radiation-safety requirements, can be situated in the immediate vicinit~ of i~dus- _ trial and housing developments. This reduces considerably the need~ f ox diameter pipelines for direct mains. The Gor`kiy and Voronezh AST's will be.put into operation dur_ng the llth Five-Year Plan. For central heating it is necessary to make maximum use of the unr~~lated steam bleed-off a~ AES's. At the present timer heating steam io being,ex~t~-~c~ed for heat supply at the Beloyarskaya, Kurskzya, Chernobyl'skaya, Novovoro~?ezhsleaya, Kol'skaya and Armyanskaya AES's. Plans have been made for the construction of ~ p~ototype ~ high-output central-heating installation at the Rostovskaya AE,S. ~'he~cmnstruction of the Bilibinskaya ATETs on Chukotka during the lOth Five-Year Plan c~n an example of a solution to the problem of heat and electric ~,o remote regions throught the use of nuclear fuel. It is composed of foux p4~rer-generating - units with channel-type uranium-graphite reactors of 12 I~,i capa~cit~r each (electric output) and with central-heating bleed-offs with a comb ined capa~city of 100 GCal. The extensive involvement of nuclear fuel in the country's~fuel and power complex requires a step-up in the work on its expanded production. T~e reserves of inex- pensive uranium whose use at present insures ~hat AES's are competetive with modern fossil-fuel f ired thermal stations will be exhausted in the next decades with today's rate of growth of the nuclear power industry. Table 5 presents figures for the approximate worldwide reserves of natural uranium and their probable degree of uti- _ lization in various types of reactors. With their utilization in thermal reactors, the available reserves of uranium are onlq equivalent to the world reserves of pe- , troleum. This, naturally, does not solve the problem of supplying power Lo mankind. ~ Breeder reactors will make the nuclear industry's fuel base dozens af times as large, owing to the incorporation of U238 and Th23~ in the cycle. In this connection, the commissioning of the third power unit of the Beloyarskaya AES with the BN-600 _ was an important event in the domestic and worldwide nuclear industries. The design of the BN-600 makea it possible to verify engineering decisions and the economy of AES's with such reactors on an industrial scale. The extensive introduction of fast reactors and the solution to the problem of recovering nuclear fuel will make the cost of nuclear power immune to increases in the cost of natural uranium. In the "Basic Directions for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1981-1985 and for the Period to 1990," the tasks for the development of science and industry, including the area of electric-power production, are determined thus- .ly : 8 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "In the area of the natural and the technical aciences, efforts must be concentrated on solving the following importar.t problems: development of the physics of elementary part{cles and the atomic nucleus, solid- - body physics, optics, quantum electronics and radiophysics; develQpment of nuclear power engineering, the creation of the bases of thermonuclear power engineering and the improvement of inethods for th~ conversion and transmission of energy." "We must improve the utilization ~f fuel and power resources, reduce the consump- tion of oil and petroleum products when used as fuel in boilers and furnaces and develop the nuclear power industry at an accelerated pace." "In the electric-power industry we must bring the generation of electric power to 1,550 to 1,600 billion kWh by 1985, including the generation at atomic electric stations to 220 to 225 billion kWh and that at hydroelectric stations to 230 to 235 billion kWh. We must insure the increase in the production of electric power in the European sector of the USSR at atomic and hydroelectric stations, primarily. We are to commission 24 to 25 million kW of new capacity at atomic electric stations. We are to continue work on mastering breeder reactors and on utilizing nuclear fuel for generating thermal power." - "In the power-engineering industry we are co insure a considerable increase in the production of equipment for nuclear, hydraulic and thermal electric stations, in- cluding nuclear reactors with outputs of 1 to 1.5 million kW and power units of 500,000 to 800,000 kW for thermal electric statians operating on low-quality coal. We are to manufacture and deliver the f irst nuclear reactors for heat supply to ~ large cities. We are to develop new deaigns for power units with breeder reactors of 800 to 1,600-kW capacities and designs for the equipment of highly maneuverable power units of 500,000-kW capacity." 'jIn the RSFSR we are to increase the output of industrial products by 24 to 27 per- cent. ~ We are to put into operation new capacities at the Smolenskaya, Kalininskaya and Kurskaya AES's." "In the Ukrainian SSR we are to increase the output of industrial products by 20 to 23 percent. I In 1985 we are to bring the generation of electric power up to 280 to 290 billion kWh and obtain its basic growth through atomic electric stations. We are to commission capacities at the South Ukrainian, Khmel'nitskaya, Zaporozhskaya, Krymskaya, Chernobyl'skaya and Rovenskaya AES's and the Odessa ATETs." "In the Lir'r?~nian SSR we are tc increase the output of industrial products hy 21 to 24 perc~nt and the generation of electric power two-fold. We are to insure the commissioning of the first phase of the Ignalin.skaya AES, the Vilnius TETs-3 and the second phase of the Mazheyskiy oi1 ref inery." 9 FOR ~~FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The extensive introduction of nuclear power into the economy will entail the niost important technical, economic and social consequences, the content and significance of which cannot be confined to the contribution of AES's in the structure of gene- rating capacities and power this modern stage. The massive construction of AES's leads to a fundamental review of the production structure throughout the entire fuel and power complex, including mining and transportation, on the basis of modern technology and the latest scientific and technical achievements which insure a considerable economic impact and a substantia.lly higher degree of labor productivity in the fuel and power industries. In addition to the high degree of economy and the eff iciency of utilizing labor resources, the power indnstry creates conditions f or better maintenance of the en- vironment, a reduction in expenditures for the transportation of power and fuel, the nearness of production centers and the consumption of power as well as grounds for eliminating the threat of the so-called "energy crunch." COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, "Atomnaya energiya", 1981 9512 ~ CSO: 8144/1639 I 10 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400050031-8 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY � F1.ECTf2IC P()WER UDC 621.039.524.44:621:0.39.56 REACTOR'S ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MONITORED WITH EXTERNAL SENSORS Moscow ATOMNAYA ENERGIY~1 in Russian'Jan 81 pp 423-425 [Article by L. N. Bogachek, et al: "Monitoring Energy Distribution in the Active Zone of the WER-440"] [Text] Energy distribution in the active zone is usually monitored with the aid of a system of internal reactor sensors [1]. In addition, a six-loop cooling cir- cuit in the WER-440 reactor provides the basis for monitoring in each of six sec- tors of the reactor's active zone the energy carried off by the coolant in the cor- responding circulating loops (see drawing). This being the case, the sensors neces- sary to measure this energy can be located outside the reactor. Ekperiments were conducted on the reactor of the first unit of the Armyanskaya AES in order to substantiate such a method of monitoring. ~ao methods were used to determine the thermal energy transported in the loops of the first circuit: using the thermal balance and using the N16 content in the coolant. The first method is based on the measurement of the differences in temperature of the coolant in hot and cold sections of the circulating loops through the use of standard ther- oupl~s. The second method is associated with the registration of the gamma ra- d tion from the N16 using sensors designed to determine the rate of flow of coolant in the loops [2] (see actual product, page 420). Since the radioactivity of the heat-transfer agent in water-cooled reactors is proportional to the density of the stream of neutrons, one can use the variation of the N16 gamma-ray intensity to ~udge the variation in energy liberation in that part of the active zone's volume through which tr.e coolant in a given loop circulates. The experiments were conducted at the beginning and end of the second reactor run at approximately 35 percent of nominal power with identical cond;tions for the steam bleed-off from the steam generators. The first series of tests involved a deter- mination of the capacities of the individual loops with symmetrical energy distri- - bution in the active zone. Before similar measurements were taken in the second ~ and subsequent series, the energy distribution was "perturbed" beforehand by means of full immersion of the absorbers in one or two of the automatic regulating as- semblies (ARK) in one or two corresponding sectors of the active zone. The same procedure was obser.ved at the end of the run. The table presents the capacity ratio of the loops with perturbed and symmetrical energy distribution. It shows the reaction of the rate of flow in individua.l loops when the absorber is introduced into the active zone. The data obtained by the two methods are in agreement within the lisnits of ineasurement error. 1~ FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ?4 i6 7t1 JO d1 34 36 JB 40 41 44 4G~ 0 52 54 56 ?8 60 6Z ZS T7 29 3/ J3 JS JI J9 41 43 4S 97~9 S/ b3 55 S7 3y 61 ~ ~ ~ I~~3~ c~ ~ 01 A~fi OJ OZ OZ p,~ I ~ ~ 1 OJ O~r ~ 05 ~ OS 06 Ill i Y! P YI !Y ~5 o~-rt U' OB-~ 08 09 ~ ~ p p Y d ID 09 !0 10 1/ ~n 1! 12 I YI P Y! Y lY I ~ 11 /3 e 1J ~if ~ !f _ 15 ~1 d P Y ll !Y IS 16 16 17 /7 18 !Y P'I 1L YI 111 i8 /9 10 ~ 71 I dl !Y 1 7! P1 ?1 73 ~c~'�-r! 4a~`rr 6 7J 15 2% 19 31 33 35 J7 J9 41 4J 45 47 49 SJ SJ 55 57 59 61 I4 ?6 78 JJ JZ 34 36 J8 4~ 47 44 4fi 48 50 S2 S4 56 SB GO 62� Collation map for the distribution of fuel assemblies ~ in the active zone of the reactor and of the loops in ; the f irst unit of the Armyanskaya AES; heavy lines-- ' fuel assemblies; crosshatch--operational assemblies; blanks--working assemblies with thermocouples - 12 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Relative measurement of the loop capacities an3 energy liberation in the corresponding sectors of the active zone . ~1~ ~2~ 3 HoNep nr.rnH (ce~rropa) ~ ISOOpn~+~+aTa cbpomennori ricroA - i~ncceTa C)'3 onpeACncuxn � ' I ~ I g I 4 I 5 I d I 0,9f,�0~02 0,82�O,A3 l,Ott0,03 f,U9�0,03 f,00t0,03 l,05t0,43 ~Z_25 ~ II O,fl7�0,03 0,84�0,04 i,02�0,05 ;,G9�0,04 f,09�0,03 1,02�0,05 II1 l,Ui 0,88 l,Oi i,03 ~,U3 1~~ I ~,(~1t0,(13 fi,l�0,04 i,li�0,04 t,lOt0,03 0,94t0,05 0,73t0,02 ~g_yg ~]1 ~~,~J8�0,03 i,O8i0,OG i,f6�0,05 l,OG�0,03 O,fl6fQ~08 Q,76�O,U6 11I i,U! f,Q6 l,Q7 l,06 l,00 0,?9 , 18-4~J (1G-55 j I 1,14�Q,04 f,20�0,C4 1,f8t0,04 0,82t0,03 0,83�0,03 0,82�0,03 ~ II f,15t0,0! 1 2G�(1,09 i,i9�0,0~i 0,81�0,03 O,S1t0,03 0,78�0,06 06-55 . II l,f/i�q,03 !,(KJ�0,03 0,98�0,06 (),74�O,U3 0,94�0,04 i,ii�0,05 { III 1,U6 f,06 1,04 0,81 O,flG l,05 ~ y3 iI 1,09�(~,06 i,03�0,04 11,8~,+0,06 0,86t0,03 l,08�0,09' i,l6�0,07 { I1I f,C6 1,04 0~88 0,91 l,O~i ~3-~~ I f,A7t0,(13 1,Of�0,03 0,83+0,03 0,93f0,03 1,06t0,03 1,10�0,03 ~ l11 f,05 i,Q~i 0,84 Q,97 1,05 l,05 ~~9 I f,07�U,c13 1,05t(1,02 0,98�0,02 0,83�0,03 f,00f0,03 f,07�0,03 { I11 l,05 l,04 i,00 0,85 i,0i ~ 1,04 03-40 n OG-49 { IIi l,~t it'03 1,0' ~9'03 0,8~ ~,04 O,8U,78'0~i 1,03 OG,03 l,i1 1~,~ e4~' I- no Naeicpcn?!a pasnoctx TeMnepaTyp AT; JI - no Ti~Mepe+n~b n~r. i~oTtocTn Y-nany~tenxn 1~N; iII - pacqer no nporpaM~~e SNIIP. Key: 1. Coordinates of the dropped control and safety rod assembly 2. Method of determination 3. Number of the loop (sector) 4. *I - using the measurement of the difference in temperature; II - using the measurement of the N16 gamma radiation; III - calculation according to the BIPR program. ~ In order to prove that the redistribution of thermal energy in the circulation loops brought about by the deformation of the energy distribution corresponds to its vari- -I ation in the active zone sector adjacent to the loops, the energy liberation in the sectors was.calculated according to a three-dimensional program from BIPR [ex- pansion not provided] [3]. In their calculations, they simulated the reactor's state during the experiments. The experimental values for the capacity of the cir- culating loops dictated by the deformation of the energy distribution in the active zone were compared with the ca~culated variations in the energy liberation in the ~ sectors. A slight disturbance in the coolant f lows in various circulating loops was revealed when the flow rates in the loops were equal. This feature makes it possible to monitor the energy distribution in the active zone by measuring the loop capacities using means outside the reactor. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Mitel'man, M. G. et al, "Detektory dlya vnutrireaktornykh izmereniy energovydeleniya," [Detectors for Internally Measuring Reactor Energy Distri- ~ bution], Moscow, Atomizdat, 1977. 13 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400454431-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. Bogachek, L. N. , et al, A'1'OIrIIdAYA ENERGIYA, Vol 46, Sec 6, 1979. 3. Petrunin, D. M., Belyayev, E. D. and Kireyeva, I. L., Preprint ~f IAE-2518, Moscow, 1975. COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, "Atomnaya energiya", 1981 9512 CSO: 8144/1639 ~ ~ 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FUELS WAYS TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY, WORR QUALLTY DZTPL~TED Moscow NEFTYANAYA PROMYSHLENNOSTI' SERIYA ORGANIZATSIYA I UPRAVLENIYE NEFTYANOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI in Russian No 6, 1981 pp 2-6 [Article by N. A. Mal'tsev, minister of the oil industry: "Increase in Production. ; Efficiency is the Main Task of the Oil Workers in the llth Five-Year Plan"] - [Text] In accordance with the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress. in the llth ' Five-Year Plan the Co~unist Party will successively continue to impLement its economic strategy. I.ts highest goal is a steady rise in the welfare of. th.e Soviet: ~ people b~sed on the stable and progressive development of the national economy, acceleration of scientific and technical progress, more complete use of intensive ~ factors of development, efficient use of the country's production potential, all � possible conservation of all types of resources, and improvement in the quality of work. The chief task in the new stage of economic construction is to make tine maximum use of the advantages of the socialist system of economy, actuate the enormous economic potentialities and reserves, and make a transition to intensification, _ and improvement in production efficiency and wor'~ quality. It is known that the level of extraction of oil with gas condensate in the country in 1980 exceeded 600 million t. In 1976-1980, new large facilities for oi1 extrac- tion were started up. ~ The implementation of the decisions of the 25th Party Congress for further develop- ment of the country`s largest fuel and energy base in West Siberia is a significant achievement. During the last five-year plan, oi1 extraction in this region rose by more than 9-fold, and in 1980 reached 312.6 million t. As a result of the selfless labor of the Siberian drillers, the oil workers of Tatariya, Bashkiriya, the Ukraine, Belorussia, and Saratovskaya and Kuybyshevskaya Oblasts, the volume of drilling operations in the West Siberian regions more than tripled. A lot of work has been done in the sector to improve the efficiency of oil pro- duction. During the lOth Five-Year Pian, 108 complex-automated fields were started up. Experimental-industrial tests were made on new methods of improving the oil output of the beds. New facilities were started up to retine oil gas. The system.of main oil pipelines which transport over 95% of the extracted oil was further developed. This permitted a sharp reduction in oil shipments by railroad. ~ 15 FOR OFFTrTAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444444454431-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY The broad complex of social measures aimed at turther improvement in the conditions of working, daily life and rest of the oil workers had a positive effect on the results of the sector's activity. These measures include development of housing construction, improvement in health protection and medical services, improvement in the skill of the personnel, rise in the educational and cultural level, and creation of a healthy social and psychological climate in the production collectives. All of these results were attained because of the constant attention of the party and government to the developmet~t of the oil industry, continuous improvement in skill and inspired labor of the oil workers, workers, technicians, engineers, ~cientists and all of those who promote the development of the oil resources, builders, power engineers, metallurgists, machine builders, transportation workers, and toilers of other professions. The main directions for economic and social development in the Ilth Five-Year Plan define the task of providing extraction of oil (with gas condensate) in a volume of 620-645 million T in~]_985. The invariable requirement was heard at the 26th Communist Party Congress to all party, Soviet and economic agencies to make more complete use of all the enormous economic potential that our country has. . Comrade L. I. Brezhnev stated in his f iscal the 26th CPSU Congress: "A number of Plenums of the CPSU Central Committee have~stressed ehat our further ~ progress wi11 depend to a greatez measure an the skilful and effective use of all available resources, labor, basic funds, fuel and raw material, and products of the fields and farms. We, comrades, are now capable of solving the largest and most complicated tasks. But a matter that seems to be very simple and prosaic is becoming the core of our economic policy, a thrifty attitude towards the pubZic good, and the ability to make complete and expedient use of all that we have: The initiative of the lauor collectives and party-mass work must be aimed at this. The technical policy, and the policy of capital investments as well as the system of planning and fiscal indicators must be aimed at this." The party and.government, attributing enormous importance to the questions of _ successful development of the oil industry direct enormous material and financial resources at creating new oil extracting facilities. But in addition to guaranteeing timely start-up of the new facili.ties for oil extraction, we need to persistently work on the old well fund, achieving high technical and economic indicators. In many oil regions, this work is correctly set up. For example, in the associations "Tatneft'," "Bashneft'," "Ulcrayneftegaz," "Udmurtneft'," and "Ukr- neft"' control over fulfillment of the technological projects has been~noticeably strengtihened. Precisely in this [control~ lies the main potential for gua.ranteeing current oil extraction and attaining the highest final output. Business should be conducted so that we control the process of working. We have the necessary means for this. ~ _ The production associations, oil and gas extracting administrations and scientific research institutes need to make a thorough analysis of the condition of working 16 , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' of the fields, output of reserves for each bed, section and block, fin~l and use new technical solutions an~? more advanced technologicaJ. modes that guarantee the maximum intensification of the process. In this case, one should bear tn mind first of all the working oi oil reserves th$t are not covered by the dis- placement process, and intensification of work to affect the critical well zone. There are still shortcomings in this matter, while the organizational and technical measures taken do not always reach the planned goals. The collectives of the oil extracting enterprises should impose the proper order in using the well fund, should activate construction and start-up of the field facilities, primarily the gas-lift complexes at the Samotlor and Fedorovskiy fields to involve the fund of wells that _ were flooded during working and have stopped gushing. , In the llth Five-Year Plan, the wells that are operated by mechanized method will comprise roughly 85%. In this respect, the increase in the between-repair period of operation of the equipment acquires decisive importance. This work must be constantly monitored by the technical services. In addition to improving the quality and reliability of the employed equipment, the level of its technical - operation acquires great importance. More attention should be focused on reconstruction and upda~ing of our oil produc-. tion. Our party's requirement is that the capital investments for the maximum output should be aimed primarily at reconstruction and technical re-arming of the active enterpxises. Uf course, one should not in a11 cases without exception oppose reconstruction and updating to new construction. The volumes of capital invest- ~ ments into production and the creation of an infrastruc~ure at the new fields and ~ in new regions will constantly rise in the sector. It is the task of all administrations of the ministry, associations and enterprises to conduct all this work thriftily, carefully substantiating its need in each case. Progress in the oil industry requires constant replenishment of the.raw material base with new explored reserves, creation of new oil extracting " by means of drilling and starting up new wells,and construction of facilities for complex development of the fields and regions. Ccnsiderable financial resources and material-technical resources are allocated for these purposes. The~ must be used efficiently and effectively. Unfortunately, this is not always attained in the sector. - The board of the Ministry of the Oil Industry in 1980 examined and approved for each region complex projects for geological exploration and measures to improve their effectiveness that were formulated by the scientists of IGiRGI [Institute of Geology and Development of Mineral Fuels] ~ointly with the speci3lists of the territorial scientific research institutes and geophysical services. These docu- ments were the foundation for the work of the geophysical, geological exploration, and drilling organizations. The task is for each collective, and mainly, the scientific worKers to display sufficient enterprisingness, initiative and creative implementing the projects to fulfill the tasks set to provide the necessary volumes of increase in oil reserves. 17 F~R nF~rrr~T, TT~F. nNr.v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ The branch drillers have been given great and important tasks in the imminent five- year plan. By 1985, the volumes of drilling operations have to be increased to 35 million m, and the main drilling increases have to be made in the West Siberian regions. It should be stressed that this work has to be done mainly by improving the technical and economic indicators, raising labor productivity, accelerating technical progress and further perfection in labor organization. Currently a large program has been planned for technical reequipping and improvement in organization of drilling operations for oil and gas. It is now necessary to implement a lot of organizational work by the services of the central agencies, scientists, collectives of the production associations, administrations of drilling operations, aimed at realization of the planned program. Complex tasks remain to be solved in the area of capital construction. In order to further improve the efficient use.of capital investments, to concentrate them in the~most important construction sites, and to accelerate start up of production facilities, the ministry has stipulated measures for transition from making i~tdividual block production units to production and complete-set shipment to the construction sites of whole complexes of field facilities of plant manu- facture, and namely: . guarantee further development and introduction of automated systems of planning operations in the branch institutes, bringing the level of automation in planning to 20% (no ~less) of the volume of work to be done~by the end of tlie five-year plan; ' dev2lop and implement a program of organizational-technical measures to signifi- cantly improve labor productivity in in-house construction organizations and bring the volumes of work by the end of the fiJe-year plan to 700-800 million rubles with- out increasing the number of workers; take measures to reduce by 10-15% the cost of building roads by improving the quality of planning, organization of construction and improvement in their operation; guarantee fulfillment of the set plans for construction and introduction of housing, children's preschool instit.utions, sanatoriums-dispensaries, the network~of ed~scational institutions to train workers and specialists in the middle link of basic activity, as well as in the field of trade, publ.ic nutrition and social- ~ general services. In order to solve theae questions, it is necessary: to formulate jointly with the construction organizations of the contracting ministries specific organizational and technical measures and construction schedules, after stipulating ~n them concentration of all necessary material-technical and labor resources, appointing the persons resorisible'for construction and start-up of each facility. In this case special attention should be~paid to construction o� facilities on complete-set imported equipment. Of great importance in the organization and normal course of construction is the - sarvice of the customer. In thefinal analysis,.the successful assimilation of ~ capital investments ar~d start-up of the �acilities must be guaranteed by the oil and gas extracting administrations, oil pipeline a~ministrations, administrations of drilling operations, i.e., the client enterprises. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is not only important to provide the builders with a plan, but to also create the conditions for its fulfillment. timely start-up of the facilities, to regulate the interaction of the related services, establish the degree of responsibil.ity of each for the final results, and stricCly inquire about the assigned work. Scientific and technical progress has enormous importance in improving production ~ eff iciency . Working out of the most important branch problems is mainly united into two national economic programs: ~ creation and mastery of production processes and technical resources for drilling ~ oil and gas wells; ~ creation and broad application of production processes and technical resources to improve output of'the oil beds. In our work we must start from the principle that the eff ect of scientific and technical progress on production efficiency will be more signif~icant if, in addition tointroducing new equipment and technology, the technical potentialities of the available equipment are completely utilized because the equipment indisputably has large productivity reserves. It is necessary to precisely see the boundary between the sphere that refers to organizatian of production, and the sphere of new equipment and technology. This is very important since often these two concepts replace each other. This prevents attainment of the desired results. Questions of social development and improving the welfare of the Soviet people were given a large place in the decisions of.the 26th CPSU Congress. All of our organizational work must be aimed at~solving this important national economic task. This work is complicated and multifaceted. It is housing construct3on and public, nutrition, supply of children's preschool institutions and organizat,iorts for the spare time of y~uth, condition of dormitories and~ taking of therapeutic-sanitation measures. Heat and water have to be supplied in time. The question of the specialized employment of adult family ~nemtiers, tens and hundreds of ma~or and minor questions have to be answered. ~ Questions of improving the occupational skill of the workers; their cultural and I general educational level must occupy a special place in this worlt. ~ The ministry attaches great importance to 'solving social questions, allocating considerable resnurces for these purposes. This approach to solving social problems promotes the efficient evolution of the branch, and most important, the creatior~ of favorable working and living conditions for the people. At the same ~ime it should be noted that the plans of hoi~s~ng and social-general construction are not completely fulfilled. In order to eliminate the existing shortcomings, the ministry and.the central committee of the trade union of workers of the oi1 and gas industry have defined a number af ineasures that will improve the working and living conditions of the workers in our enterprises. It is stipulated in particular: 19 FOR (1FFTrrAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY guaranteed fulfillment of the complex pla~ for improving the working conditions and sanitary measures for 1981-1985 approved by the board of the Ministry of the Oil Industry and the presidium of the trade union central committee; taking additional measures to strengthen major construction in West Siberia, having in mind implementation of complex building up of the workers' settlements, - with regard for the creation of the proper conditions for daily life and rest of the workers; formu3.ation and implementation of ineasures for 1981-1985 to strengthen the.mateirial and technical base of the trade organizations, sovkhozes and auxiliary services and their further deve'lopment; � formulation of a system of ineasures to strengt3~en the dependence of the size of wages on the final results of the work of the collective and each worker, increase in its stimulating role in the rise of lab~r productivity, improving the quality _ of products and conservation of all types ~f resources, perfection in the tariff system and standardization of labor. All these measures must promote the creation. of stable collectives with a high level of awareness and rasponsibility for the entrusted work. Resolution of the problems facing the branch deper..ds a lot on the level of leader- shipi planning and control. Under modern conditions, the value of discipline and _ personal responsibility for fulfillment of the state plans rises many times. ~ Coa~rade L. I. Brezhnev in the fiscal report to the congress indicaCed: "The time has apparently come to make strictP.r requirements both for the planning discipline, and for the quality of the plans themselves. There is no doubt that the plan must be realistic and balanced." In 1979, the CPSU Central CommitCee and the USSR Council of Minis~ters adopted the decree "On Improving Planning and Strengthening the Effect of the Economic Mechanism on Improvement in Production Efficiency and Work Quality." It has be- come the guide to action for the production organizers. The board and central co~uittee of the ministry to improve branah planning and the economic mechanism of cor.trol, and the commissions of the local enterprises have done a 1ot of work - to realize this decree. I would like to dwe11 on that part of it that is directly tied to production organization and perfection of the economic mechanism. First of all, we should isolate such an.important aspect as subordination of the interests of each worker, each collective and enterprise to the attainment of high final results of our oil industry, fulfillment and ove.rfulfillment of the set asssignments for extraction of oil and gas with all possible conservation af resources. This is the main criterion of our activity in the interests of the ccuntry's national economy. What are the ways to achieve this goal? They are a well-thought-out system of planning-estimating indicators of activity, and a system of unified start-to- . _ finish order in the lower collectives and brigades, introduction of the leading experience and broad socialist competitian. 20 JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is necessary to dwell on the.development of a system of.cost accounting, especially lower, as an effective form of improving the level of production organization. Constant correlation of the obtained product and the production expe~tditures and finding new reserves are the main methods ofrworking of the manager and the practical man of socialist formation. Cost accounting is based on record keeping, as is known. We have a lot to do in this area. Speaking of the improvement in pioduction organization, I would like to stress the importance of widespread introduction of brigade forms of labor organization. In recent years, the boar3 has adopted definite measures to strengthen this most important lower production link. The brigades have been renewed for oil extraction in the main industry and the role of tha foremen has been strengthened. At the same time, as analysis has shown, brigade forms in a i~umber of associations have only covered 50-55% of the workers. Work of the leading enterprises in the country shows that success is only attained on the basis of complete use of the brigade forms of labor organization. We need to extensively stt:dy and broadly disseminate this experience in the branch. Our branch has considerable teams of workers, clerical workers and eitgineering- technical workers. The successful work of the ent~rprises and organizations depends a lot on the style and level of work with the personnel. Our task is to work out, as L. I. Brezhnev stated, that style of work "which organi- cally combines peformance efficiency, discipline and bold initiat~ve and enter- prisingness. Practicality and business-like efficiency with striving for greater goals. A critical attitude towards shortcomings with firm confidence in the historical advantages of our selected path." The CPSU Central Committee, USSR Council of Ministers, AUCCTU and Komsomol Central Committee have adopted the decree On All-Union Socialist Competition.for Success- ful Fulfillment and Overfulfillment of the Assignments of the llth Five-Year Plan" which notes that socialist competition is unfolding widely in the labor collectives for improvement in efficiency and quality of work, acceleration of scientific and technical progress, and successful fulfillment and ov~rfulfillment of the assignments of the llth Five-Year Plan. The decree defines the specific tasks in organizing socialist competition. The main motto of the competition must be: "Work efficiently and with quality!" At the 26th CPSU Congress, General Secretary of tYie CPSU.Central CommittEe, Comrade . L. I. Brezhnev stated: "Socialist competition is creativity of the masses. In its very esse:nce it is based on high awareness and initiative of the people. Precisely this initiative helps to reveal and actuate the reserves of production, improve efficiency and quality of work." Entering the llth Five-Year Plan, the labor collectives oi oi~ workers have adopted intensive commitments and counterplans. 21 FOR OFFTrrAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Many collectives that have been included in the socialist competition in honor of � the 26th CPSU Congress have successfully fulfilled the adopted co~itments for extraction of oil and have laid the foundation for stable and fruitful work in 1981. _ Now our main task is not only to preserve the glow of the precongress socialist competition, but also to multiply its success, in every possible way developing creative activity of the workers, aiming it at resolving the tasks set by the 26th - CPSU Congress. COPYRIGHT: Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut organizatsii, upravleniya i ekonomiki neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (VNIIOENG) 1981 9035 CSO: 1822/224 r 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FUELS UDC 65.012.6:[622.323+622.24] INDUSTRY COMPETITION WINNERS NAMID FOR FIRST QUARTER OF 1981~ Moscow NEFTYANAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' SERIYA ORGANIZATSIYA I UPRAVLENIYE NEFTYANOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI in Russian No 6, 1981 pp 40-42 ~ [Article: "Results of ~,11-Union Socialist Competition of Collectives from.the - Enterprises and Organizations of the Ministry of the Oil Industry to Improve Production Efficiency and Work Quality, Fulfillment of the Plan and Socialist Commitments for the First Quarter of 1981"] [Text] Workers, engineering-technical workers and clerical workers of the.oil ' industry have extensively unfolded socialist competition for further improvement ; in production'efficiency and work quality and are laboring successfully in the first ! year of the llth Five-Year Plan. The plan for the first quarter af 1981 for extraction of oil and gas condensate was � fulfilled by 100.6%. A total of 848,OOO.tons above the plan was extracted. Because of the introduction of new methods, the increase in oi1 bed output reached - 600,000 T of oil. The specific labor outlays to service one well diminished by ~ 3.1%. ~ In the first quarter of 1981, 4.5307 million m of rock were drilled, including 181,100 m above the plan. A total of 2013 wells were put into ~peration with a plan of 1892. The volumes of construction-installation work by in-house forces were fulfilled by 107.1%. Labor productivity in construction improved by 5% with a commitment of i 3.5%. ~ ~ The plan to realize the products of the Ministry of the Oil Industry was fulfilled by 101% and 2.5 million rubles of above-plan profit were obtained. The greatest contribution to the labor successes of the branch were made by the collectives of the enterprises and organizations of Glavtyumenneftegaz, the ~i r i~ i ~~ii i~ associations Tatneft , Bashneft , Komineft , Grozneft, Nizhnevartovskneft , "Saratovneftegaz," "Kuybyshevneft'," "Udmurtneft'," "Ukrneft"' and "Or~nburgneft'." - The planned assignments and socialist commitments were fuirilled by the collec- tives from the enterprises and organizations of the associations "Soyuzneftegaz- pererabotka," "Soyuzneftemashremont,""Soyuzneftespetsmaterialy," the enterprises and organizations of the Administration of Field and Industrial Geophysics and the Administration of Worker Supply. 23 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050031-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400050031-8 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Socialist competition �or a worthy meeting of the 26th CPSU Congress was very instrumental in promotin~ the smooth and stable operation of the branch in the first qua.rter of 1981. By 23 Feb:uary 1981, all th~ a~,,ociations, over 800 enterprises, 8000 brigades and about 87,000 ~.-ar?cers had fulfilled the precongress commitments. The oil workers extracted over SOO,Q~~ T o~ above-plan oil w~ith a commitment of 450,000 T. The collectives of the oil and gas extraction administration "A1`met'yevneft"' of the association "Tatneft"' and the Administration of Main Oil Piplelines of West and Northwest Siberia ~.resented an initiative to develop socialist competitian for prudent and efficient expenditure ~f fuel and energy resources. They adopted - increased commitments for conservation of electricity, heat and comparison fuel, and appealed to the workers of the branch ta sup~art their initiative and cr~nti~ue the struggle for all possib2e conservation. In the first quarter of 1481, 300.0 million kW x h of electricity, 152,300 Gcal of heat and 28,500 T of comparison fuel were saved. At the same time there are shortcomings in the work of the branch. The associations "Stavropol'neftegaz," "Tadzhikneft"' did not fulfill the plan and the adopted , socialist commitments far extraction of oil and gas condensate. , I The board of the Ministr~ of the Oil Industry and the presidium of the central committee of the trade unian of oil and gas industry workers have examined the , results of the all-union socialist competition for the first quarter of 1981. From its results t?~e following were adopted: 1. Acknowledge as winners of the all-union socialist competition for the first quarter of 1981, and award the challenge Red Banners of the ministry of oil and _ gas ind~istry workers with first monetary prizes to the collectives of the asso- ciation "Yuganskneftegaz," "Urayneftegaz." "Komineft'." "Udmurtneft'," "Kuybyshev- nef t' "Gi~oznef t' "Ukrnef t' "I~izhnevolzhsknef t' "Saratovneftegaz.," Dagneft' "Gruzneft'," the oil and ga