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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050033-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9983 14 September 1981 Latin Am~rica Re ort p cFo~~o 2~ia1~ ~ FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST I~IFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050033-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency _ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. ~ Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets _ [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mati.on was summarized or extracted. _ Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and en^losed in parentheses were not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with tlte source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- ~ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGE�T LAWS AND REGU',,ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION - OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OYLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . JPRS L/9983 ].4 September 1981 LATIN AMERICA REPORT (FOUO 21/81) CONTENTS COUNTRY SECTION COSTA RICA . - PVP Leader: Revolutionary Situation Exists Aere (Eduardo Mora Va].verde Interview; BOAEMIA, 3 Jul 81)............ 1 CUBA Malmierca Visit Ends; Mongolian Commun~.que (PRELA, 19 Aug 81) 5 Castro Receives Message From al-~adhdhafi (PREI~A, 22 Aug 81) 6 Purpose of Rendering of Accounts MEetings Redefined (Susana Tesoro; BOHEMIA, 26 Jun 81) 7 Commentary Scores Repression in Uruguay (Sara Arias; BOHEMIA, 26 Jun 81)......: 9 Increase in Advanced Science Degrees Noted ~ (H. Nunez Lemus; BOHEMIA, 26 Jun 81) 15 Research Done on Sugarcane Rust Problems (Andres Rodriguez; BOHEMIA, 5 Jun 81) 24 SURINAME 'Anti-Imperialist Front' Supports Grenada ~ , (PRELA, 25 Aug 81) 25 - a [III - LA - 144 FOUO] FOR OFF'i('TAi, IJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION COSTA RICA PVP LFADER: REVOLUTIONARY SITUATION EXISTS HERE Havana BOHEMIA in Spanish 3 Jul 81 pp 72-73 [Interview with Eduardo I~bra Valverde, assistant secretary general of the Popular Vanguard Party, by Mario G. del Cueto, in, date not given] [Text] It was not difficult to obtain an exclusive interview for BOHEMIA with Fduardo Mora Valverde, assistant secretary general of the Popular Vanguard Party of Costa Rica, the party of the Costa Rican communists. We had heard him in _ Havana on 16 June on the occasion of the cammemoration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the PVP when he spoke on the origins of the organization, its in- defatigable struggle against the imperialists and their domestic lackeys, its re- iterated and constant support of the Cuban Revolution, the Nicaraguan and Grenadian revolution, and the liberation processes that are setting the peoples of E1 Salvador and Guatemala free in a heroic gesture. Now he is with us, f ollaw3ng a previously arranged appointment, to speak about his country, which is undergoing an acute economic and social crisis as a result of its grawing dependence on Yankee influence. "We have a very complicated political situation," was his answer to our first ques- tion, "because Costa Ri~ca is located in a region of great revolutionary activity. The revolutionary process has moved to the Caribbean area and particularly to Central America, and the Costa Rican bourgeoisie is extremely concerned, or rather tormented, and the reactionary sectors are getting ready to adopt repressive measures against the democratic movement. We are facing up to all these plans and are daing everything possible tc~ prevent a bourgeois group headed by the chambers of industries and businessmen and by old Costa Rican fascist cliques from taking power. The reactionaries 3n Costa Rica lack important personalit~,~s~, there are old freebo~ters who serve the imperialists. They have seized control of extreme right- ist groups who are pushing 4thers towards arbitrary positions; such is the case of former president Mario Echandi, who broke with Cuba in 1980 and is now trying to obtain the presidential seat in:the February 1982 elections. But the most serious problem is forei~ intervention in Costa Rica, U.S. capital interferring quite directly through its police and intelligence bodies, namely, the CIA. The revolutionary process developing throughout Central A~erica frightens them out of their wits. The economic and social crisis Costa Rica is experiencing - in this conte~ct is the most dramatic in its histoxy. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 [Question] How would you describe it? [Answer] Well, SO percent of our exports renain abroad to pay interest charges and principal on our fareign debt. T'hat means that we have a deficit of 50 per- cent in our exports to begin with. We cannot pay for what we buy and the budget must be balanced with inflated currency. Inflation in Costa Rica is auch that it is noca close to 40 percent. The government cannot even cover one-third of the bu3ger. This situation becomes worse each year and thus the crisis is extremely serious. The reform parties that have alternated in po~wer--the National Liber- - ation Party of Figueres and the one Luis Alberto Monge hopes to lead and the Unity Party--have noth~ng to offer our people Ours is tre only solution, the United People's Coalition camposed of the Costa Rican Socialist Party, the People`s Revo- lutionary Movement, and the Popular Vanguard Party, with our profound revolutionary changes. The bourgeoisie is in serious trouble. And that is the situation we meant, one that is developing the subjective conditions for revolution. The people are organizing; the United Workers' Central is being created; the peasants are oc- cupying lands; they are creating their own labor union; the students are fighting in their campuses and are taking aver student organizations; they are taking the initiative; the towns, cammunities, the neighborhoods are organizing; they are blocking streets; they are demanding housing; demanding water; demanding better living conditions; the workers and goveznment employees are dema.nding wage increases; farmworkers are going on strike, supported by the peasants; worker-peasant uni.ty is being created; the leftist politiaal parties are growing, they unite, and form the United People's Coalition. The most interesting thing in this phenomenon is that other sectors not involved with the Left are drawing close to the United People; they are anti-imperialists who do not want socialism but a process simi'lar to Nicaragua's; they want an independent and sovereign nation and they hope to strengthen the democratic system, to give it deeper roots, to make it ma.ter~ ~_alize.... I would say there is a revolutionary situation in Costa Rica." With regards to the recent agreements with the International Monetary Fund, which constitute humiliating submission to foreign capital, Nbra said that the Costa Rican crisis is so serious that the U.S. House of Representatives, without wait- ing for a request from the Government of Costa Rica, resolved to offer $35 million in "aid" to the domestic bourgeoisie. "~his aid was offered to neutralize what they term the beginning of terrorist actions. In other words, if Costa Rica pre- viously represented for them a stable system, naw, according to them, it has lost that tranquility. And what has happened is that the people have raised their level ~f organization and prospects are increasingly better for the incorporation of new 5ectors in the anti-imperialist sCruggle. Naw imperialism is turning to its instru- ,~~ents of economic repression, and the International Monetary Fund has come to the ~_d of the local bourgeoisie." `.~t us see how the IMF operates: ~ is known," Mora continued, "according to IMF statutes no more tha.n 125 percent country's quota in the Fund can be loaned to it. Costa R;ica has a quota of " million and the most it could expect would be $41 million. The IMF has always very st~ict in this, very stingy; it gives much less than a country has a right c~~~ -zquest; on the other hand, it demands humiliating conditions. Well then, now ~~_ypears, for some reason, that the IMF is offering us not $41 million but $350 ~;i?.'.~on. Why has it been so 'gsnerous'?' In addition, it gives us a guaran~ee so 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "that we can obtain_from its sister brtnk, the Reconstniction and Development Bank, a like stmm and the chance to obtain more from other similar institutions. All this could total a billion dollars. We diseo~ered and charged that among the em~nitments entered into by the government with the IN~' was one of such despicable character that even certain sectors of the bourgeoisie protested: that of break- , ing relations with Cuba. There was an ir.dignant outcry because relations between Cuba and Coata Rica have always been normal, friendly. The conditions imposed by the IN~' affect the basic services of the country: education, public health, and other important elements of social and economic welfare because the budget items devoted to them have been drastically cut back." For Mora there is something worse in the economic sphere. "A mini Marshall Plan has been announced for Central America," he says. "Actually, conditions in Europe at the time of the Marshall Plan, as a result of the Second World War, are not comparable to Latin America at present. This plan should really be called the Mini-Alliance for Progress, which we knaw failed because it was aimed at isolating Cuba frc+m the .rest of Latin America. It was all, I repeat, a complete failure. They were not evett able to invest the $20 billion they offered. They cou~.d not stop the revolutionary process and the Alliance for Progress was halted. And naw that revolutionary process has grawn, how it has grown: Besides Cuba--the beacon and guide, led by Fidel and the party, we have revolutionary - Nicaragua, a free Grenada, and the people of E1 Salvador and the people of Guatemala who fight heroically to gain full independence from genocidal governments." We spoke about repression. "It is obvious," Mora emphasized, "that the policy is to increase repression. The repressive organizations are improving their techaiques. So~ thing is happening naw in Costa Rica that never happened before. When there are strikes, especially aga.inst U.S. businesses, people are in~ured and even killed. Peasants are killed during land seizures. This alarms us. We are ~truggling, denouncing, mobilizing. Now, just before I came to Cuba, a bill was presented~proposing the mobilization of watchmen who guard foreign and domestic companies and their incorporation into the Civil Guard for the purpose of training them and leading them to kill. Fortun- ately, the bill encountered strong resistance in the Legislative Assembly which we headed as the Uaited People, and it failed. The minister of'security limit~ed him- self to requesting a higher budget to strengthen the Civil Guard; but the intent is to augnent and train the repressive organizatione." With regard to Qlection prospects Mora believes it would be perhaps too early to make predictions. He believes that the most reactionary candidates will be de- feated to judge from the polls that have been taken "rhe important thing," he says, "is not that the United People will win--although naturally that would be welcome--but what should be ~mphasized is that the Unitec~ People, through the election process, will bring about a deep political conscious- ness that will it to adopt new forms of struggle and gather around itself broader sectors of the population, which will in turn strengthen it. Whoever wins will have to ~ace a much more serious economic and social crisis. United People is prepared for this.... As a party, we believe that we must use the po~.itiGal �~rms 3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 ~ " "of struggle while they are still possible; but when it is necessary to turn to armed struggle, we are ready to do so. Tk?e PVP will not betray its people. Back in 1948, during the civil war, we used it. At present armed struggle in Central ~ America and the Caribbean is an incontestable fact. Each day the moment is grow- ing closer when it will be necessary to resort to arms to expel the imperialists from this part of the contirient. We have always foreseen it. The problem is to have the right conditions. The forms of struggle are employed in accordance with prevailing conditiona. We must not f~rget the principl~e established by Marx in his discourse on political action by the working class. Ma.rx said that when it is possible to take action against bourgeois governments in a peaceful manner,.that is should be done, but when it becomes necessary, one must take up arms." _ A fraternal embrace concludes the meeting alon~ with a greeting to his brother, Manuel~ Mora Valverde, se~retary general and founder of the Popular Vanguard Party. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1981 9015 CSO: 3 910/ 1626 . 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY \ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA MALMIERCA VISIT ENDS; MONGOLIAN COMMUNIQUE PA192354 Havana PRELA in English 1930 GMT 19 Aug 81 � [Text] Ulan Bator, Aug 29 (PL)--Cuba and Mongalia rated Washington's decision to produca neutron weapons and NATO's plan to deploy m3ddle-range missiles in Western Europe as an extremely dangerous step for world peace. In a joint communique on the official and friendly visit the Cuban foreign minister made to Mongolia, both parties coincided in their assessment of the international situation and underlined their full support to the peace :Lnitiat3ves undertaken by the Soviet Union. The document states that the political and mil3tary approachement between the United States and China increases the threat to world peace and the security of the national independence of the peoples of Asia, Latin America and other regions of the world. The two parties stated that the situa~ion has sharpened following the U.S. Govern- ment decision to provide Seij:tng with offensive weapons. Cuba and Mongolia are in favor of the stepping up of the coord3nated efforts and actions by a11 the social3st coun~ries and all peac~-loving forces aimed at strengthening the process of detente and the peaceful cooperation among the states. The document also stressed the need to carry out continuous eff~rts so as to assure the restructuration of the international economic relations upc;n fair and demo- cratic bases. In this regard, Cuba and Mongolia highlighted the importance of the speech de- livered by the president of the Councils of State and ministers of Cuba, F3de1 Castro, at the 34 session of the United Nations Gen eral Assembly as president of the movement of nonalignment. In the communique the two countries expressed their satisfaction for the steadfast development of their friendly and cooperation relations based on the principles of Marxism-Leninism and internationalism. ~ During the talks Isidoro Malmierca held with the foreign relations m.inisteY of the - People's Republic of Mongolia, Manglyn Dugersuren, a collaboration grogram was signed by the *_wo countries in the field of culture, science and education.for the 1981-85 Five Year Plan. CSO: 3020/145 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400454433-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA . CASTRO RECEIVES MESSAGE FROM AL-QADHDHAFI PA222000 Havana PRELA in English 1805 GMT 22 Aug 81 [Text] Havana, 22 Aug (PL)--The leader of itl~e Libyan revolution, Mu'am~nar al-Qadhdhafi, denounces the aggressive attitude of the ~J~n3ted States against that Arab nation, in a message sent to the ~resident o� the nonaligned movement, Fidel Castro. The text, published in tlze front page of the G~iMA, stresses that the military maneouvres of the U.S. Sixth Fleet in t'~,e Med3terranean are carried out within the framework of the campaign of terrorism arid provocations of the United States. This constitutes, it says, a step which eviden~ly announced hostile intentions against the Libyan people, for confirmed reports indicate that these exercises are taking place in two regions which to the territozial waters of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahizya. It explains that these areas of maneouvres are 3.n the region of the Gulf of Sidra and par3: of them.are taking~~place within the ~orbidden zones, specifically destinated to the instruction of the Arab Libyan Air Forces. The message also denounces that on the day ].9 a U.S. air sc,uadron of the Sixth Fleet interfered two Libyan planes and shot down one of them, while they were in their routine reconnaissance flight aver tihe Libyan territorial waters and air space. This aggressive attitude of the U.S.. admin3stration a:gainst the Libyan people, is considered as an act of terroxts~ and provocatian headed to destab3lize the - regior_ and put in danger world peace and security. The text underlines that the Socialist People's Li}ayan Arab Jamahirya reserves itself the right to adopt "all the necessary to preserve the legit3mate rights of their territorial waters and air space." Mu'ammar al-Qadhdhafi expressed his wish that this memorandum would be considered as one of the off iciad~. documents of the nonaligned movement and to have it be generalized to all its rae~abers. CSO: 3020/145 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION CUBA PURPOSE OF RENDERING OF ACCOUNTS MEETINGS REDEFINED ~ Havana BOHF~IIA in Spanish 26 Jun 81 pp 56-57 [Article by Susana Tesoro: "Rendering of Accounts Meetinga"] [Text] We quickly became used to the meetings tha.t began one day, after the voting and presentations in the district-. At the first meetings, we hardly lmew how to act. Then we started the method until we learned what to present and what to demand. I am referring to the rendering of accounts meetings w}tich are rarely mentioned but exist and continue to be the gauge of the good ar bad of an area. What has conspired against these important meetings? First, attendance. If the - elector does not go, he does not participate or understand. Sec~~nd, the delegate. Does he take care of his electors? Does he try to find solutions to the problems? Does he give a pleasant, interesting and brief report and not bore his listeners - from the beginning of the meeting? If so, he is a good delegate. If not, this can - be one of the things tYsat weaken the intention of a nei.ghborhood assembly. Last Februar'y, the lgst renderfng of accounts meeting ended and Havana City, the most populated province in the country, was careful to issue an agreement by the Execu- tive Committee. It explained the steps to follow to prevent stagnant and repeti- tious presentations when there are subjective problems that can be solved. T~ao undeniable realities occur in the capital. One, in successive rendering of ac- counts meetings the electors have repeatedly shown their disagreement with certain services or specific problems that affect them, in spite of the fact that the basic causes for these situations fY~equently obey subjective �actors. The other is that the administrative directorates that should satisfactorily solve those problems have not yet achieved results that can be considered acceptable. This leads to the repetitions. In the February meeting, the sector that received the largest percentage of com- plaints was water and sewerage. It was followed by co~erce, co~ity services, housing, electric power industry, transportation, construction, education and pub- lic health. This was more or less the story last October with the inclusion of complaints on problems that still exist: in the wa.ter sector, leaks, prob- lems with water supply and the construction and maintenance of sewers and drains; in housing, the regair and maintenance of multiple housing units and ~he poor dis- tribution of materials;, in co~nerce, poor treatment of the public and lack of 7 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 hy~ietie; asi~ in coiistructioci, problems in cunstructio~ arad street re~a,ir~s. Tt~zy continue from one meetir~ to another and increase the lack of interest in the meet- ing since the elector has to go and say the same thing ov~r ar~d caver. That situation was analyzed--as we already said--by tMe Pruvir~cial Exec;utive Commit- tee which agreed that the achni.nistrative directorates subo~~iit~ate the province and involved in these repetitions must make an in-depth ar.~alys~,s of the causes of - that situation, review the methods used and adopt new proc~dures~that include, when necessary, Lhe aid of political and mass organization:, the elaboration of plans and cor~rete measures to elimina.te all the problems of s~bjective origin and estab- lishment of forms of systematic control and analysis. k'ith respe~t to the enterprises and organizations n~at us~d~r the people's government�, the Provincial Executive Co~nittee requested th~t the~l take the necessary meascares to overcome the problems that most affect the ~peop7:~. 'The ~reement added that these aciministrations must have corresponding s~ol~a'~~.on~ and responses for each as- sembly process within the time indicated and a1so~ must ~resent a report to the standing commi.ttee about the work in question so the .level of efficiency can be analyzed. The provir~ial and municipal star~ding, ~committees were asked to maintain strict control wer the results achieved by those adi?~.nistrative directorates. The provincial government's decision seems coi�~oct to us because what does the re- petition of a problem mean? There are matte~s unsalved; certain directorates are not working well because of lack of or,ganizat.ion ror resources or whatever. GJe are not going to go inr,o detailed evaluations but unquestionably something is not work- ing. The is that, with t~:~~e jain~ analyses, the problems can be de- fined, the elector can be pleaseci and tk~ie ;progress and development of a certain area, whether a district or province, ~a~111. improve. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1981 7717 CSO: 3010/1664 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COWi TRY SECTION CUBA CONII~NTARY SCORES REPRFSSION IN URUGUAY Havana BoHErtzA ~ Spanish 26 Jun 81 pp 64-66 [Article by Sara Arias: "Pressure on the Dictatorship"] [TextJ "The 'no' victory clearly reveals the gigantic fc~rces within the country, surrounded by the even more vast interna~ional solidar- ity, up to save the fatherland from fascism.'' (Rodney Aris- mendi, secretary general of the PCU [Co~st Party of Uruguay]) The Uruguayan regime met failure in the plebiscite last November, re- jected by a large vote which shc~red the Uruguayan people's repudia~ion of a re- pressive policy that has given Uruguay sad notoriety as one of.the South American ' champions of torture and murder. This is complemented by its economic policy to bankrupt the country and reduce the standard of living of the working masses to hunger, poverty and unemployment. All this has placed the military--the real gov- ernm~ent behind whichever pupnet is on duty--at a difficult crossroads. With the people's rejection which is i.mpossible to hide~=now--the regime fell into its own trap--the military has had to discard its famous ".timetable" for the al- leged opening. It is now forced to f3nd new formul~.s fa,cing growing internal un- rest in all the political and labor sectors and the agricult~al and industrial bourgeoisie which has been seriously affected by the official economic policy dir- ~ - ected by the minister of economy and finai~ce, Valentin Arismendi, followirig the IlKF' dictates. Also international conde~mnation and isolation have increased. This has even been recognized in a recent editorial in the newspaper EL PAIS. Repercussion of Plebi9cite; Search for New "Timetable" After the results of the plebiscite were learned, there was an i~aaediate~reacticri fram the military to this new, arzd inexplicably s~mprising, situa.~ion. While some "interpreted" the results of the popular referendwn as the wajori~y's desire to maintain the present status, others saw the need to recognize the rejection and seek new formulas to legalize their stay in power. In the com~anique issued immediately after the plebiscite, the conmiander~ in chief of the three branches announced that the basic political ~lan of 1977 "aimed at constitutional normaliz,ation" (read institutionalization of the anticonsti~utional 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054433-6 laws i.niplemented by the dictatorship) remained unaffected and that the "process of democratic i.nstitutionaliza~ion" (sic) will. continue irreversibly to its culmina- tion under the regune. The commander in chief of the army, Gen Luis Queirolo--who has lmown presidential aspira~ians--emphasized that national securit; itself is in ~anger and the effective presence of the army is required to protect the nation. Gen Abdon Raimundez, chief of the IV Army Division and chairman of COMASPO LPolitical Affairs Corrmiittee] of the FFAA [Armed Forces], was in charge of "dialoguing" with the traditional political parties--Lhe Blanco and the Colorado--before the plebiscite; he was un~uccessful. - He said that there are political, economic and social reasons for the results and that there had been "errors camnitted" mostly fY~om lack of political experience or a self-confidence that did not respond to reality. He pointed out the expediency of renewing the dial.ogue with those parties although, he stated, "the problem is we do not lmow who their leaders are." Shortly after, the mil.itary apparently learned who those leaders were in the inter- ior of the country and the Junta of General Officers commissioned Raimundez to ini- tiate contacts with the appointed Blanco and Colorado leaders. The internal division in the army (more due to form than content and to personal ambitions) tha.t came out again as a resul.t of the failure of the plebiscite wa.s apparently reconciled with one of the first official decisions--the end of the mandate of "President" Aparicio Mendez and his replacement next 1 September. This announcement was made by General Queirolo who quickly emphasized that the change in the presidency will not mean a substantial change in the political and economic conduct of the country, according to him, has ha.d very good results in the past 8 years Although the appointment will be made by the Junta of General Officers and then be ratified by the CoLU1ci1 of the Nation (made up by the legislative body appointed to replace the parliamentarians e~ected in 1971 and the general officers of the FFAA), Queirolo indicated that the date of that coun~il meeting to elect a new pre- sident has not been set yet. In other words, the military still has not come to an agreement. Referring to the new program of "political opening," the army chief continued to state that "it is still very general, without specific definition." Raimundez ad- mitted that a new plan is being studied but without a definite timetable. Although the result of the talks and consultations between the head of COMASPO and the lead- ers of the traditional parties has not been officially revealed, it was learned that they presented,bases for beginning an openir~ to Raimundez. These must be submitted to the consideration of the generals, admirals and brigadiers in the Junta of General Officers in order to draw up a new political plan. The points presented by the Blancos and Colorados included the need to restore freedom of information, the convocation of a c;onstitutional assembly, the reestab- lishment of union and political activities and the end of political bans. - As to the new presidential candidate, speculations abound sin~e there are several aspirants for that, position, including (~ueirol.o hi.mself . The names of some civi- lians and active and retired military have been tossed around, inclu~ing one of the Zubia brothers who would be loaked at fav~rably by Brazil. 10 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Until now, the retirements from ~he FFAA announced by the mi.n~.ster of defense, Walter Ravena, been according to plan: in April the commander in chief of the navy, Vice Adm Hugo Marquez, replaced by Vice Adm Rodolfo Invidio; and in May Lt Gen Raul Bendahan, commander of the air force, replaced by Brig Gen Jose D. Cardoso. There were other unforeseen changes that showed that the fights and di- vision within the FFAA have not disappeared but continue to flourish. One example was the dismi.ssal of General Ballestrino fY~om his position as director of the Army School of Arms and Services; he was retired and is now a~cused of questionably ac- tions. A Court of Military Honor has been formed to try him. Captain Nader was arrested, not for being a lmown torturer but for participating in an operation to turn over the command of the navy to another officer. Seven police chiefs, includ- ing the one in the capital, were retired. Diplomatic duties were taken away from Julio Cesar Vadora, former commander in chief of the army and then ambassador to Paraguay, and Brigadier Perez Caldas, former commander of the air force and then ambassador to the United States, among others. This political cadre is directly involved in the unity of the groups, organizations and representatives of the Uruguayan political parties abroad and their greater ef- fectiveness, due to that unity, in insti~;atir~ the concrete action of international solidarity. It press~es the Uruguayan dictatorship to carry out its touted open- . ing, end the repression and torture and release all political ~nd union prisoners. This action ha.s been reinforced by the devastating defeat of the regime in the No- vember which more than 54 percent of the people rejected the mili- tary's timetable. Another thirig that pressures the regime is the disastrous economic situation and the discontent it generates. Shocking Situation; "Leave Their Souls in the Earth" The conflicts with Lhe rural organizations that pushed out Juan Carlos Cassou, minister of agricu~tur~ and fishi.~g, in January 1981 worsened with the last Rural- ist Assembly where it was stated that the beneficiaries of the critical situation in agriculture are mainly the large banks mostly tied to capital which col- lect interest of up to 80 percent. CY~iticism increased at subsequent livestock meetings because of the increasir~g indebtedness of the sector and the lack of gov- ernment measures facing the recorded low in the price of farms. The fishing sector is still affected by a market depression ag~avated by ~azil's suspension of imports _ and the stagnation of purchases by European countries. Meat and wool are the two principal sectors that bring in foreign currency. The Uruguayan Farmers Confederation's disag~eement with an off.icial economic policy that does not permit them to meet production cos'ts in spite of abundant crops and that caused the peasant exodus to the t~ban belts of poverty also came to light. The small farmers are h~mt the most, of course, so their representative stated that it was urgent to prevent that "after leaving their souls in the earth, they end up leaving their bones in the cities." Other industries like the grape and wine in- dustry are mortally threatened because of the treaty with Argentina. All farm pro- duction is threatened by the invasion of products fY~om abroad. Footwear and leather articles are threatened by the massive cl.osing of factories and tanneries with the subsequent unemployment of thousands of workers. The latest and most serious con- frontation with the Rural Federation is approaching with this year's congress of that organization which includes the main producers in the country. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 The seethi.~;g of the masses who suffer the blows of the incessant and en- demic increases in the cost of livi7g which, according to the always conservative offiCial statistics, reached 42.82 percent i.n 1980 food and affected most, can be added to the mobilization of these sectors. The astronomic increase in rent at the end of 19~--78�61 P~'cent--greatly sLm- passed the general rate of price increases and created a shocking situation for thousands of Uruguayan fa~.i.lies when evictions began in the middle of last Fel~u- ary. According to the Ministry of Economy and Finance, 33,000 families have been evicted. Inflation continues to rise with increases in al.i. public services, transpor'tation rates, fuels--ir~ludir~g kerosene used by the poor to couk--and medical insurance. The 11-percent wage i.ncrease meant only a new decrease in the real wage, reabsorbed by increased prices of essential goods. It suffices to say tha.t the est~mated minimum living wage for a typical family (couple with two children) is 7,500 pesos but the fixed mi.nimum wage is 1,385 pesos a month, five times lower. Meanwhile, the denationalization process of all state industrial and commercial enterprises a~celerates under the pretext that they need to be subsidized. The _ policy of freedom of imports worsened the deficit in the trade balance which is almost triple that of the past fiscal year. Nevertheless, General Queirolo stated clearly that the Uruguayan military regime has no intention of changing its economic poli~y which is, without doubt, another "time bomb" for the dictatorship. It , continuation is directly related to the labor repression tha.t has not managed to paralyze the action of the wcrkers in spite of its l~utality. A delegation of the ILO came to Montevideo at the beginnirag of the year to learn about the situa- tion. It met with Carlos Alberto Maesso, minister oF labor, with the government CGTU [General Confederation of Uruguayan Workers] which the regime futilely used to try to replace the outlawed CNT [National Convention of Workersl, the lcrue re- presentative of the Uruguayan werkers, and with leaders of other organizations. On that occ~sion, Maesso stated that the bill on professional associations ~m itten - by his ministry would be submitted to the Council of State. Its lmown provisions were strongly criticized as an attack against union fY~eedom. Actually, that law only legalizes the repression by the government and the manage- ment which fire en masse the workers elected by the masses to represent them in the enterprise parity committees or those who merely agree to be part of the union movement. The ILO has had the Uruguayan case on its agenda sin~e the 1973 coup d'etat be- - cause of the flagrant violation of international labor legislation. Uruguayan com- munist leader Enrique Rodriguez indicated recently that as the annual meeting of that orgar~ization in Geneva approaches, the regime has h~mried to vote in the union - law, after eliminating the seven most reactionary and antiworker articles. It wants to present it there and try to demonstrate that it is answering worker de- mands. Nevertheless, the ILO made imp~tar~ stipulations: it demanded the release of union prisoners, denounced the lack of guarantees in trials and demanded the return of the locals to the unions and the recognition af the legal. personage of the Uruguayan Bankers Association. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040400050033-6 FOR OFFICItiL, USE ONLY Carry Out the Papular Will In this context, the Group of the CDU [Democratic Con~ergence in Uruguay] met in Mexico City to discuss the results of the Nwember plebiscite and adopt decisions based on that event which it called the most important victory of the Uruguayan peo- , ple in its 7 years of struggle against the dictatorship. This victory aroused the support of all the political groups from the traditional to the militant left. The CDU was formed in April 1g80 by a group of important people from different Uru- guayan democratic groups--political, social and religious--to work with all the de- mocratic governments, organizations and forces in the world tha.t have sol,idarity with the efforts of the Uruguayan people to regain their freedom. It has redoubled its international work since the plebiscite in order to pressure the Uruguayan dic- tatorship to recognize the popular will expressed by a majority at the ballot boxes. As a result of the meeting in Mexico, the CDU issued a prcnouncement called "Carry Out the Popular Will." In this, it analyzed the of the national and popu- re jection of the ~lrugu~.yan military's plans which ended the regime's attempts to build a facade of institutionalization to overcome the crisis of their internal and international loss of Five concrete proposals complement the pronour~cement: the immediate dismissal of Aparicio Mendez; reestablishment of individual freedoms, union freedom, freedom to meet, freedom of association, freedom of expression and fY~eedom of thought as well as greater economic and social justice; im~diate release of all political and union prisoners, especially Gen Liber Seregni, and abolition of all bans; canplete freedom of operation for political parties; and conv~;ation of elections for a constitu- tional assembly or some other suitable action which implies the dominating partici- pation of the people, the original and essential holders of na.tional soverei.gnty. A few days later, Juan Ferreira, president oF the CDU, declared in Washington that - one of the decisions at the meeting was to laurLCh a diplomatic oFfensive against the continuation of the military government in Uruguay when the UN Human Rights Commission met in Geneva--where the dictatorship was again condemned. Delegates would be sent to Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, the United Kingdom, the FRG and France. This offensive began with a su~ccessful tour threugh the Etmopean countries where the main democratic political forces agreed to help reestablish de- mocracy in Uruguay. This support was confirmed at the first anniversary of the CDU, celebrated a few days ago in Mexico, which an impressive number of distin- guished celebrities from Europe, Latin America and the United States attended. International Solidarity; Human Rights The isolation of the Uruguayan dictatorship has intensified. There are important international events that show solidarity with the cause of the Uruguayan people, a solidarity that challenges the regime and has saved valua.ble lives, pulling them out of the underr,,x~rld of jails and concentration camps, persecution, torture and slow annihilation or death. The many acts and statements by the international comnunity in the last months in- cluded: the formation in Washington of the Committee for Democracy and Human Rights in Uruguay which unites different groups and celebrities from Mexico, Panama, 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 - Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, the United States, Costa ~Rica, Brazil, COPi'AL [Conference of Latin American Political Partie~] and Bolivia (represented by its constitutional vice president, Jaime Paz Zamora). An Italian delegation visited Montevideo: Gen Nino Pasti, senator and former chief of staff of the Italian Air Force; Gilberto Bonalumi, deputy of the Christian Democrat Party and vice president of the Chamber of D2puties; and Pietro Lezzi, vice president of the Social Democratic Group of the European Parliament. They relayed to the Uru- guayan authorities the concern of all the Italian and European political forces for ' the fate of the political prisoners, especially: Gen Liber Seregni, president of the Broad Front; mathematician Jose Luis Massera; Jaime Perez, former deputy and distinguished communist leader; and Lilian Celiberto (kidnaped by a Uruguayan com- mando in Brazil). They told them that there w~uld be no "char~ge in image" abroad unless effective measures to restore human ri.ghts and release all political pri- soners are adopted. There are also campaigns to obtain the freedom of the hostages of the regime, thP Tupamaro prisoners with Raul Ser~dic at the head, pressuring the dicLa~orship ta at least carry out its "threat" to put them on public trial and thus be able to pro- tect them. They also demand the freedom of Gerardo Gatti of the Party for the Vic- tory of the People (missing), Hector Rodriguez of the GAU [Groups for Unified Ac- tionJ and Rodriguez BE:letti of the 26 March Movement. - At a time when the military dictatorship, cornered by its own contradictions, is new formulas but also i.ncreasing repression, ending more lives with tor- ~ ture, the campaign of international solidarity with the fi.ght of ~he Uruguayan peo- ple becomes even more important. COPYRIGHT: BOHFMIA 1g81 7717 CSO: 3010/1664 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COUNTRY SECTION ~A ~ INCREASE IN ADVANCED SCIENCE DEGREES NOTED Havana BOHF~vIIA in SPanish 26 Jun 81 pp 90-93 [Report on interview with engineer Fernando Vecino Al.egret, minister of higher edu- cation and chairman of National Committee for Scientific Degrees, and Carlos Peni- che Cwas, secretary, by H. Nunez Lemus in Havana; date not speci.fied] [Text] It was not easy to get an interview with engineer Fernando Vecino Alegret, chairman of the CNGC [National Co~nni.ttee f~ Scientific Degrees] an~ ~~~~er of higher education. When we arrived at his office on Calle 23, he was not alone. A young man about 30 years old was with him, looking at some documents. The minister ~ introduced him to us and then asked us to wait a minute. _ The young man was Carlos Peniche Govas, candidate for doctor of science and secre- tary of the co~ai.ttee. The objective of the interv~.ew was to explain certain de- tails about the wnrk of the co~ai.ttee, especially the 135 professionals who wexe recently granted doctor of science degrees, the established step of candidate. We met when they were through the documents. ~ The minister asked us: "Is there any reason Peni.che can't participate in the in- terview? He has worked hard on all the work of the comrni.ttee and hs is sure he can contribute." ~ We did not have any reason so we asked the first question. "Engineer, ca1 r,he degrees granted recently to the 135 professionals be considered 'honorary' degrees?" Vecino Alegret st~red at us as if he were trying to find some disparaging tone in the question. He seemed to convince him.self that there was not. . However, we felt obliged to explain ourselves. Although our public does not IQww much about the matter, it is, nevertheless, a little confusing that all the con- ventional steps have not been fulfilled. It is inevitable that the public is in- clined to believe that the degrees were merely given to honor a g~owing ntmiber of citizens. There is the much better known precedent of grantin~ academic distinc- tions to people merely because of their distinguished positions in public life, even to semi-illiterate officials as happened in the past. 15 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054433-6 The minister I.istened to us carefully. He answered: "It would be very easy to give a negative answer to your question but this would not solve the problem. Why don't we start at the begi.nni.r~?" "At the beginning?" we asked. "Yes, the creation of the coam~i.ttee and everything related to the careful selection work carried out wer a long period of before g~anting those 135 doctorates ~ of science." Scientific Degrees, National Education System He began: "Before getting into this topic, it would be appropriate to explain the place of scienti.fic degrees and their objectives within the National Educa~ion Systeca.. "The process of construction of socialism in our country is carried out within the fran~ec~rork of a revolution demands increased skill from . our university professionals and the continual improvement and up-dating of their lmowledge of their areas. That is the reason for the two-sided development of post- graduate education: professional education systems and the scientific degx~ee systan. "The first is massive and is aimed at all professionals; it is done through courses, studies and postgraduate training as well as specialization programs. The scienti- fic degree system is directed basically at the cadres that are going ~o carry out researcn, development or scientific-pedagogical activities, thus assuri.r~g the train- ing of higher level cadres." "Do all univexsity graduates benefit fY~an this system?" "No, not all. The scientific degree system is selective; it not only looks at pro- - fessional and academic abilities but also the political and ideological conditions of the graduate." "A very important clarification," we noted. "The system, establ.ished by Law 1281 of 2"3cember 1974, establishes two degrees: candidate for doctor of science and doct~ of scierlce. The first is granted to univPrsity graduates who satisfy the requirements and evaluations of the established program and defend, before an appropriate board, a thesis that shows theoretical and practical mastery of a certain field and contributes to its development. The second deg~ee is given to the candidates who later do hi.ghly specialized work; it requires a thesis, and its defense, which contributes to that particular branch of lmowledge." We insisted: "This last step has not been carried out in the case of the 135 new doctors of science." "Don't j~unp ahead," su~gested engineer Vecino Alegret. "We will com~e to that." ' He continued: 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "The law created the CNGC, an autonanous entity which Decree Law 37 of 7 April 1980 authorizes to and empowpx qualified ixLSti.tutions and boards to is- sue the corresponding degrees, direct the validation proced~es and validaf,e the scientific degrees of postgraduates who have received deg~ses abroad or in Cuba fran foreign institutions. The minister of higher education, the position that I presently hold, heads this comnittee." "What is the make-up of the co~nittee?" : "The CNGC is composed of of recognized prestige in their spheres grouped in the followin~ bran~hes: n~tural science, social and humanistic science, technical science, agricult~al scier~e, biomedical science, economic scier~ce, peda- gogic scier~e and military science. They study the theses, form the boards and submit their conclusions to the exscutive Gour~cil of the commi.ttee. - "The executive coun~il consists of the chairman of the co~nittee--in this case, me-- the vice chairman--Dr Jose A. Presno Albarran, a distinguished scientist who re- cently died in the exercise of his duties--and the secretary, Peniche. The coun- cil, in addition to the direc~ors of the sections, is the superior~ organ of the CNGC. According to the provisional regulation in effect, the mentioned committee, the autho~rized institutions, the scientifirc deg~ee cou~n.i.ttees of those institutions and the degree boards participate in granting the degrees." "A sufficiently sieve," we again noted. Ways to Obtain Degrees The bill estab].ishes three ways to become a candida~e: fulltime, when the aspirant - devotes all his time to the w~ork plan with a maximum oF 4 years' d~ation; parttiine, when the aspirant does the work without giving up his regular occupations which can last up to 6 years; and the free system referring to ~eople involved in production or services who do a scientific project tha.t satisfies the requirements for the degree. In all cases, it is normally required to be a gradua'te of higher education for more than 2 years. There are ewceptions for~ students who have brilliantly com- pleted a priority specialty." . - Peniche interrupted: "Other requirexnents are: to obtain an average grade in the pregraduate specialty of at least~ w points; be 35 or under for fulltime; be pro- posed by the organism where one works; lmow a foreign language--Russian, French, English or German; and pass an entrar~ce exami.nation. Also it is very ~.mportant to have the political-ideological conditions demanded of a scientific cadre for the development of oi.m revolution: prestige, of responsibility toward work, honesty, political maturity, exemplariness, etc. All this is comple~ed by an exam- ination in three subjects: Marxist-Leninist philosophy, the f~eign lar~guage and the corresponding specialty in the thesis, all befare the thesis is defended....In crder to defend the degree of doctcr of scier~ce, it is an indispensable requirement ~o have the deg~ee as candidate." I insisted: "Which has been forgotten in the case of the 135 ~ofessionals re- cently granted that degree." The mini.ster~Yiairman intervened: 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050033-6 i "Let's get to that. In order to tea~h advar~ed stages in the training of higher- level specialists, it is necessary to have scientific personnel with the indispen- sable qualifications to pror~ote the scientific deg~ee system. This led to a pro- cess called direct grants in which the conunittee g~ants de~ees to a~oup of fa- mous professionals for their distinguished scientific work,~innovations and dis- coveries or great contributions in training cadres. This process is done only once, as happened in other socialist countries, and is determined by two principal reasons: to recognize the work, dedication and results of a lifetime in a field of lmowle~;e of those cadres whose contributions to the development of their spe- cialties and professions and loyalty to the party and the government are unques- tioned; and to create a critical mass capable of guaranteeing the s~ibsequent devel- opment of all the work of granting scientific degrees in the country. This is the concrete case of the 135 new doctors of science. Does that take care of your questi~n?" "In general, yes," I adriitted. The minister added: "This means that they are not persons outside the scienti.fic discipline in which they obtained their de~r ee--as frequently happens with 'honor- ary' degrees--but real specialists with a well-earned ri.ght to bear the title. Their academic records were subjected to strict analysis before being proposed to the ccmr~uttee." Equivalencies and Validations There are two matters that should be explained in the system of validation of sci- entific degrees obtained by Cubans a~oad. This has two sides: degrees obtained in socialist countries and those received from universities in countries outside CFd`1A . We asked: "Are the scienti.fic degrees granted by socialist countries equivalent?" Peniche answered: "Not in all cases. We have, for example, the cases of the GDR, Poland and Romania which do not have candidates. The equivalent to our degree of candidate is a doc- tor in a branch of science in the GDR, a doctor of science in Hungary [as pub- lished] and a doctor in Romania. In t he others, the nomenclature and level are the same. Your question is good because even the candidates themselves are some- times ignorant of these equivalents. A little while ago, we had the case of a com- - rade who openly disagreed with the validation of his doctorate to a candidate." "What about the capitalist universities?" "Well, that is another thing. They have a degree that could be equivalent to a candidate but not in all cases. This is the Ph.D. (philosophical doctor [as pub- lished]) which in some universities is the sams as o~ candidate, but not in - others. There are no agreements on this; an aspirant for validation must pass ex- aminations and submit his thesis to the CNGC. I am talking abou~ something I lmow very well sin~e I personally obtained a Ph.D. in England and had to do this before receiving revalidation as candidate." I again took the offensive. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450033-6 I stated: "One thing that is a little confusing to nie is the no:iienclature of candi- date in many socialist countries, including Cuba. In gen~al, a cancidate is an aspirant to obtain or reach something...." Peniche interrupted me: "Nevertheless, it is not an undefined intermediate step. A candidate, as understood wi~hin the system, is an a~complished scienti,st, whether or not he becomes a doctor." Vecino Alegret interrupted: "All these questions about nomer~clatt~e are being stu- _ died by the conunittee in order to get rid of errors and false interpretations. When we offer technical aid to countries outside CEMA, we are even obliged on many occa- sions to explain the scientific level of our candidates." Candidate Doctors? One aspect of the mentioned nomenclat~me which also tends to con~�use the public is the case of inedical graduates when they become aspirants or candidates to become doctors. The niinister stated: "These doctars are a real ex~eption. Along with veterinari- ans, they are the only uni.versity graduates who graduate with the title of doctor. Like the graduates of othPr professions at that level, they only have degrees, medical degrees in this case. The exception of the title of doctor has continued for them because it obeys an old tradition that identified the title with the pra~- tice of inedicine. No graduate of our universities, includin~g doctors, has a doc- torate. I believe that, in the future, all the abwe must be carefully studied in order to el.iminate mistakes and contradictions." I formulated my last question: "~iinister, you said that the process of grantirag scientific degrees--in this case the doctorate--would be done only once. Is it possible that that decision will be reconsidered in the future?" "I don't think so but it would be risky to say absolutely no. I can say that a number of records of cadres are beir~ carefully studied with the objective of granting them the degree of candidate as was done with the doctors. As in the pre- vious case, the selection will be very strict but will not exclude anyone with suf- ficient merit to receive that degree." The interview ended. 4Jhile engineer Vecino Alegret was saying goodbye to us, he had an amused and satisfied smile. He extended his hand and asked: "Do you think it is possible that someone can now confuse the new doctor of ~cience with the traditional 'honorary' doctors?" We admitted: "iJo, obviously they are not 'honorary' doctors but distir~uished 9ci- entists who have been academically granted a title that they already had by right ~ which no one dare dispute." 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050033-6 New Doctors of Scien~e Aoricult~mal Science Carlos Puentes Garcia Scier~e in Art Argeliers Leon Perez ' FY~anciscc Prat Puig , Biol.ogical Science Dario Guitart Manday Abelardo Moreno Bonilla Salvador de la Torre Callejas Ec onomic Sc ienc e Carlos Rafael Rodriguez ftodri~g~ez Philological Science Vicentina Antuna Tavio . Angel Augier Proenza Roberto Fernandez Retamar Nicolas Guillen Batista (~aziella Pogolotti Jacobson ~ Jose A. Portuondo Valdor ~ Philosophical Scier~e Gaspar Jorge Garcia Gallo Geographic Science Pedro E. Cana.s Abril Sara E. Isalgue Isalgue Antonio Nunez Jimenez Historical Scien~e Sergio Aguirre Carreras Jose Luciano Franco Ferran Calixta R. Guiteras Holmes Julio Le Riverend ~usone 1~1anue1 Moreno FY~aginals Hortensia Pichardo Vinals Lionel Soto Prieto ~nesto Tabio Palrna Pelegrin Torr�as de la Luz Salvador Vilaseca Forne Legal Scier~ce Miguel A. D'Estefano Pisani - Blas Roca Calderio 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ~~ledicaJ. Scier~ce Jaim.e Alemany Plartorel Celestino Alvarez La jor~chere Luis Alvarez Vallas Leopoldo Araujo Bernal Eladio Blanco Rabasa Llaene Borbolla Vacher Israel Borra jero i lartinez Abelardo Buch Lopez Jose A. Bustamante 0'Leary Emilio Camayd Zogbe Ramon Casanova Arzola Daniel Cordoniu Pruna FY~an~isco Conde Otero Armando Cordova Castro Jose F. Corral Al~nonte Raul Dorticos Torr ado Roberto Douglas Pedroso Horacio Escobar Lopez Jose Estrada Gonzalez Ubaldo.Farnot Cardoso Guillermo Fernandez Hernandez-Baquero ~ancisco Fernandez Soler Helenio Ferrer Garcia oscar Garcia Fernandez - Alejandro uarcia Gutierrez Sexgio Garcia-Marruz Badia ArtLmo Garcia Mendoza Jorge Eugenio Gavilondo Gonzalez Armando Gomez Hechevarria Alfredo Gomez Sampera Noel Gonzalez Jimenez Enrique Hechevarria Vaillant Alberto Hernandez Canero Abdo Hernandez Gonzalez - Fidel Iliza.steaui Dupuy Jose Jordan Rodriguez Francisco Lancis Sar~hez Jose Lopez Sanchez Raymundo Llanio Navarro Ignacio Macias Castro Oscar Mateo de Acosta Fernandez Zoilo Mar~iiello Vidaurreta Wer~eslao [~lartinez Garcia Julio Martinez Paez Joroe B. McCook Martinez Vicente Osorio Acosta Antonio Palacin Aranda Gilberto Pardo Gomez Joaquin Pascual Gispert Rafael Pedraza Rodriguez Rolando Pereiras Costa 21 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 i~ledical Science (continued) Cesar Perez Duany Abdon Pires Rodriguez Ricardo Portill.a Sanchez Eliseo Prado Gonzalez Salvador del Rio Madueno Adolfo Rodriguez de la Vega Ruben Rodriguez Gavalda AdalbPxto Rodriouez Lopez Luis Rodriguez Rivera Serafin Ruiz de Sarate Bartolome Sagaro Delgado Antonio San Martin iKarichal Eugenio Selman-Houssein Abdo Federico Sotolongo Guerra Arnaldo Te jeiro Fernandez Ernesto de la Torre P~lonte jo Wilfredo Torres Yribar Eugenio Torroella Martinez-Fortun Eugenio Torroella Mata Santiaoo Valdes Nartin Pedro Valdes Vivo Orlando Valias Perez Oscar Zanetti Vila Pedago~ical Sc ience Rosa M. Angulo Diaz-Canel Adol~'ina Cossio Estt~o NIax Fi.gueroa Arau jo Julio Lopez Renduelles Joaquin i~elgarejo Rodriguez Juan Mier Febles � Maria del Rosario Novoa Luis Chemical Science Ruth Dayal Henriquez Rodriguez _ Sociological Science Raul Gutierrez Serrano Soc iologic al [ as published ] Sc ier~c e Raul Roa Garcia Technical Science Miguel A. Abalo Macias Manuel Aguilera Barciela . Ar~gel Alvarez Ponte Faustino S. Esteva Sirven Emilio Fernandez Conde Mario 0. Fleites Diaz Manuel 0. Garcia Fernandez Edoardo Gonzalez Alonso Mario Gonzalez Sedeno 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050033-6 Technical Science (continued) Jorge Guerra Deben Vent~,ma Herrera Juver Maximiliano Isoba Garcia Pedro Luis Torres Joaquin Marinello Marinello Jose P~i. del Portillo Vazquez Antonio L. Quintana Simonetti - Octavio Raices Vidal Tirso V. Saenz Sarichez Miguel A. Urrutia Alvarez Jose A. Valladares Timoneda Veterinarian Science Ciro Perez 'IY~oncoso Osvaldo N. Rodriguez Hernandez COPYRIGHT : BOHII"IIA 1981 7717 CSO: 3010/1664 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 - a COUNTRY SECTION CUBA RESEARCH DONE ON SUGARCANE RUST PROBLEMS Havana BOHEMI~1 ~..n Spanish 5 Jun 8I pp 34-35 [Article by Andres Rodriguez] - [Text] Ileana Sandoval, a young.graduate in biolagical sciences, has specialized in the study of the rust disease in sugarcane. In this connection, we recently heard her present a report which aroused the interest of the participants in the meeting of high-level experts convoked by the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Sugar Exporting Countries (GEPLACEA). ~ Many participants agreed on the rigorous standards of the report presented by this - expert, who.graduated in 1974 and has twice been awarded the Forgers of the Future = Medal. She has also participated in training courses in India and Poland. But it would seem that the final chapter has not been written on this fungus disease whi~h has affected the phytosanitary picture on our continent. For example, there are some who laElieve that other methods of combating rust should be used instead of ~ relying exclusively on the traditional procedure of introducing resistant varieties. What is the opinion of Ileana Sandoval about this? "The best means of combating rust is replacement with varieties resistant to this disease. It is true that fungicides haWe been used, but in smne cases they only - partially control the effects, whereas in others, they have not done so in efficient fashion." ~ We spoke previously of the changes in the regional phytosanitary picture caused by _ rust. In the specific case of Cuba, what is the current reaction of our main com- mercial and precommercial varieties to the presence of this pathological factor? _ "As is known," Ileana Sandoval answered, "the most vulnerable variety is Barbados - 4362, which is now being destroyed throughout the country. We also have two other vulnerable varieties, Mayari 54129 and 5514. Where our two main varieties at present (Jaronu 6U-5 and Cuba 87-51) are concerned, the former is moderately resistant while the latter has proven highly resistant." And so for now we said farewell to this young graduate who has dedicated heraelf, with her youthful passion, to deciphering the secrets of rust. COPYRIGHT: BOHEMIA 1981 - 5157 CSO: 5400/7_164 - 24 FOR OFFICIAL.USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440400050033-6 PUR ONFIC'IAI, l15l~; ONL.Y COUNTRY SECTION SURINAME 'ANTI-IMPERIALIST FRONT' SUPPORTS GRENADA PA260222 Paramaribo PRELA in English to PRELA Havana 2230 GMT 25 Aug 81 [Text] Paramaribo, 25 August (PL)--A Grenada's Foreign Minister Unison Whiteman sper.t a day in Suriname to inform the government and the people here about the serious threat of a military invasion from the United States against Grenada. Purpose of his visit was seeking solidarity with the revolutionary government and the Grenadian people in their struggle against imperialism. At a press conference this afternoon Mr Whiteman gave information on Grenada and the possibilities of an American military invasion. At this conference Suriname's Minister of Police Laurence Neede read a statement from his government in which the concern and the possibilities of such an invasion was shared with the Grenada Government. The statement expressed Suriname's solidarity with the government and the people of Grenada and called any foreign interference in the internal affairs of Caribbean nations unacceptable. The state- ment ended with saying that superpowers must not threaten the Caribbean countries nor by their military nor by any other powers they possess. At the press conference were also pr8sent representatives from the different organisations who participate in the anti-imperialist front which is being formed in Suriname. This front gave out a statement 'in the name of the commander of the national army, leader of the Front in formation'. Following is the text of the Front's statement: 1. Taking into account that the North American Government with the arrival of Reagan has stepped up its aggression against the revolutionary governments in the world and in particular in Latin America and the Caribbean; 2. Taking into account that they unmistakenly have continuously uttered threats towards the revolutionary governments of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada; 3. Taking into account the continuous reports with relation to military exercises = in the Caribbean with the object to bring back to power the so-called legal regime which is said to be overthrown by "rebels"; 4. Taking into account the continuous North American attempts to mobilize the contra-revolutionary elements with the purpose to create an atmosphere of terror, insecurity and destabilisation on the island; 5. Taking into account the cowardly economic boycott from the side of North American imperialism against the people of Grenada; 25 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6 rV~c v~c vivi,~ 6. Taking into account ~hat the struggle of the Grenadian people for national liberation and elevation is a part of the worldwide sturggle against imperialism; 7. Taking into account that the peoples of Suriname and Grenada are confronted by Che same enemy; We all forcefully condemn all attempts of Yankee imperialism to undermine with the help of aggression and military intervention the Grenadian revolution while completely overlooking the right of the Grenadian people to self-determination. We declare our solidarity with the struggle of the people and the government of Grenada to end once and for all the economic, political and cultural submission of their country to the North American imperialism. Conclusions: --We want to start a mass campaign for information and discussion about the revolu-~ tionary struggle in Grenada via television, radio, press and organisations of womeri, farmers, youth and students, etc. --National, international as well as diplomatic objection to above mentioned attempts of North American side [as received]. --We want to stress the importance to the policy center and *_he government of Suriname of giving clear instructions to Suriname's minister of foreign affairs to express the aforesaid viewpoints, especially during his speech for the General Assembly of the United Nations. CSO: 3025/1027 E~ 26 _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050033-6