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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054449-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/9999 - 21 September 1981 ~ USSR Re ort _ p POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 24/81) FB~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATIUN SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 NOTE . JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency - transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the origiaal phrasing and other characteristics retained. = Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are su~plied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as ~Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following t:~?e last Line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was ~ processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or e~tracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Uther unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given Ly source . The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRQDUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL' USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050049-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY - JPRS L/9999 21 September 1981 - . USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICaL AFFAIRS (r~ovo 2~/si) CONTENTS ~ iNTERNATIONAI, Sympo~ium on National, International Interests in Revc~utionary Process (I. K. Patin; VOPROSY FII~OSOFII, No 5, 1981) 1 REGIONAL Ukrainian Minister of Education on Russian-Language Teaching (M. V. Fomenko; RUSSKIY YAZYK I ISTERATURA V SHKOI,AH UkSSR, Jul-Aug 81) 9 Better Managing Azerbaijan'S Economy ~ (S. M. Kasumov; NARODNOYE KHOZYAYSTVO AZERBAYDZHANA, Feb 81) 14 - Kazal~s Approach 7 Milliun in 1979 Census, Growth Slows (Maqash Tatimov; BILIM ZHANE ENGBEK, Apr 81) .............o... 21 - a - [III - USSR - 35 FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTERNATIONAI, SYMPOSIUM ON NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS IN REVOLUTIONARY PROCESS rioscow VOPROSY FILOSOFII in Russian No 5,1981 (signed to press 6 May 81) pp 159-164 [Article by I. K. Pantin: "International and National in the Contemporary Revolution- ary Process"] [Text] An all-union symposium entitled "The International and National in the Con- temporary Revolutionary Process" was heid in Kiev in October 1980, organized by the Scientific Council on Problems of the World Revolutionary Process uf the CPSU Cen- ~ tral Committee Academy of Social Sr_iences ~ointly with the Higher Party School of the Ukrainian Communist Party Ce:~tral Committee. Sclentific iaorkers and faculty members at higher instituti~ns in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma- Ata, Frunze, Sverdlovsk, Kazan', Rostov-na-Donu and other cities took part in the . symposium. Openin~ the symposium, I. P. Glushchenko (K~ev), rector of the Higher Party School of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee, commented that in our era an era of Lransition from capitalism to socialism particular importance is assumed by aiialysis of Marxist-Leninist criteria of proletarian internationalism, elabora- tion of problems pertaining to the correlation between socialist internationalism of the worker c1a~s and general democratic solidarity, succession and new elements in the development of international solidarity of Communists. I. P. Glushchenko em- phasized that the international and national aspects of building genuine socialism, - the correlation of the interests of the nations of the socialist community and other revolutionary currents of the present day, and analysis of the interaction of international and nat3onal factors in the national liberation movement, plus many other elements should also become the ob~ect of thorough investigation. Yu. A. Krasin linked the complexity of the problem at hand first and foremost with the diversity of today's world an~ correspondingly with the diversity of develop- ment of the revolutionary process. Ttte vagaries of stratification of different eras and systems engender in mam~ countries a combination of features of economics, politics, culture, and ideology which is unusual f.rom t;he standpoint of traditional- ly established theoretical concepts. tt sometimes happens that superstructure categories, especially in the sphere oi ideology, including the internationalist consciousness of progressive elements whi~h lead the revolutionary movement in their countries,do not have an adequate basis in the economic conditions and social _ structure of the given society. This applies first of all to developing countries which have thrown off the colonial yoke but wY~ich axe far from liberat~on from . 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY socioeconomic and cultural backwardness. On the other hand, the experience of socialist countries and the ideas of Marxism-Leninism exert immense influence on the course of contemporary history, which affects not only the character of evolving revolutionary processes but also the very content of internationalism. In other words, together with the development and expansion of the revolutionary process and its diversification, the very principles of internationalism are also developing, their sphere of action is broadening, and tlie very concept of inter- nationalism is being filled with new historical experience. In our time the worker class is not only representative of the living forces of na- eional development but also the bearer of internationalist consciousness and the ' international struggle. These aspects of the ideological and political entity of the proletariat are organically interlinked and constitute a dialectical unity. But in unity of this kind there is always a leading aspect internationalism. Em- bodied in internationalism arethe root class interests and socialist aims of the workers of all countries and nations. The international element constitutes the content of the revolutionary process, which evolves in specific national form, ttirough the prism of statehood-national differences and through the struggle of. classes on national soil. It makes it possible to perceive the limited nature of any national experience and consistently to implement the revolutionary policy of ~ the worker class. Thus the international element in the revolutionary process constitutes not simply an addition to the national peculiarities and characteristics of the liberation movement in a given country but rather something which in each iiistorical era defines the ideals, goals and principal tasks of the revolutionary - struggle of the entire international proletariat. Discussion of problems at the symposium focused on two questions: how should one define dialectical unity of the international and national in the contemporary revol.uti.onary process, and what are the most optimal forms of coordination of the . activity of revolutionary forces in present-day conditions? I -j The participants in the discussion revealed in the course of the debate two ap- ~ proaches to viewing unity of the international and the national. On the one hand, the view was expressed that absolute priority in practical activities should not be given to either aspect it is a matter not of priority but of degree, of skillfiil combination of the ini:ernational and the national. Exaggeration of inter- national factors is fraught with the danger of disengagement from local, national problems and loss of the ability to express in full measure the aspirations of a country's toiling masses. Overrating national factors brings the threat of loss of international perspective, parochialism, provincialism and nationalism. On the other hand some defended the view that the thesis of "dialectical unity," "har- monious combination," and "interdependence of two elements" the international . - and national, by no means eliminates the question of just what is paramount and determining in this unity, in this combination, and what is determined, what is the mectianism of dialectical unity. There do not exist two series of independent tasks international and national which must be combined. There exists only one, indivisible (or divisible only in a scientific abstraction) series of goals and aims these are the aims and goals of the international strategy of the worker class, which actually exists only as a specific system of national strategies of revolutionary struggle. . 2 FOR OFFCC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFI~'[AL USE ONLY On the second question the majority of symposium participants agreed that interna- tional solidarity of the worker class is inconceivable without siifficiently broad coordination of actions of the revolutionary forces in the various countries. The f orm of coordination of the activities of Communist parties international con- ferences found by practical experience of recent decades, is fully in conformity with the principle of combining unity and independence. Conference this is a clearly expressed striving toward unity and actions; common problems of world development are discussed at conferences, as well as interpretation of the prin- cipal trends in the class struggle in contemporary society, and analysis of the specific features of the revolutionary process in separate regions. Here each party genuinely participates in international activity exchanging ~.nformation with _ others and making their contribution to the common treasure house of Marxist thought, comprehending and interpreting the amassed eXperience and know-how of struggle. Without violating the principle of the independence of parties, conferences help strengthen their unity. ~ G. G. Vodolazov stated the question of the necessity in the contemporary :.�ra of examining and formulating revolutionary "national strategy" from the viewpoint and through the prism of the international tasks of the world revolutionary process, taking into account the place occupied by a given country in the system of interna- tional relations and conflicts. With the establishment as a result of the victorious October Revolutian of tine world's first socialist country, the task of defending the USSR became the principal task of the revolutionaries of all countries. For the revolutionaries of other countries it was not something alien to the national interests of their countries. On the contrary, they were clearly aware that defense, preservation and expansion of the attained bridgehead constituted conditions for the victory of the worker class within their own countries. Correspondingly, Lenin's appeal to subor- dinate all the activities of Russia's working people and the Bolshevik Party to the defense and consolidation of Soviet rule was by no means an expression of some purely national-Russian task. This was the international duty of the revolutionaries of Russia. Precisely from such an "international-socialist point of view" was . "preservation of this republic, which has already commenced the socialist revolu- tion;' "higher than all else" for Russian revolutionaries. Application of the Marxist-Leninist internationalist principle to a concrete t~istorical situation is no easy thing. It is not easy, for example, to determirie the central elements of the world revolutionary movement and to specify the forms of relationship to them of other national detachments of the worker class. To this we must add that elaboration of a correct national strategy does not boil down to considering only the main element of the system; it also includes determination of other factors, perhaps not the central, not the main factors, but nevertheless im- portant and essential. Comprehension and interpretation of the "common international task" (V. I. Lenin) and elaboration of a national path toward its accomplishment this is the essential commencement of implementation of international strategy. But nevertheless, it is only the beginning. This national path proper is inconceivable without a link to the struggle of the revolutionary forces of other countries. And this is what determines such a vital feature of proletarian internationalism as direct coordina- _ tion of the actions of the national detachments of the revolutionary movement and 3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054049-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY their joint elaboration of a common line of strategy. The fundamental necessity of coordination by no means predetermines the concrete forms of its implementation. It is important only that any form of international actions be both a f~rm of unity, which does not violate the sovereignty of parties, and a form of indepenc~ence of parties which d~es no*. destroy unity. M. I. Basmanov brought up the question of the correlation betwe~n proletarian inter- nationalism and general democratic solidarity. This question per se is not new. There were manifestations of general democratic solidarity as early as the 19th century, alongside actions of proletarian solidarity carried out within the frame- work of the Union of Communists and the First International. In the 20th century we have seen the growth of the general democratic content in proletarian international- ism on the one hand and~of the revolutionary antiimperialist element in general , democratic solidarity on the other. Considerin~ this historical trend, some people are beginning to speak of the "obsolescence" of proletarian internationalism. . Proletarian internatianalism, however, emphasized M. I. Basmanov, has never been something hard or predetermined. It became enriched and improved together with the development of the revolutionary process. Developing and enriching its content, proletarian internationaiism always remained an organic component part of the ideology and politics precisely of the worker class, an effective means of its cohesion and unification as forward detachment of the liberation struggle of the workers against capitalism. General democratic solidarity is a slogan of the social forces of different political and ideological orientation. The aims and tasks of tllese forces may differ substantially from the aims and tasks of the worker class, ~~~id may sometimes even oppose them. In connection with this, rejection of i~roletarian internationalism would weaken the entire revolutionary movement both ~i~oletarian and general democratic. The nonelucidation or immaturity of internationalism, in the opinion of V. S. ~ Rakhmanin (Voronezh), is a sociopsychological indicator of inadequate development of the class independence of the proletariat within the structure of a national community, evidence that it either has not yet found itself and its class position in the conditions of its own country, or has temporarily weakened that position. The national element (in motives of struggle, social positions and orientations), if it was formed and developing on a mature class foundation, is not in conflict with - the international element. Lack of agreement and conflict occur wherever either the national (replaced by nationalism) or the international (replaced by bourgeois cosmopolitanism) is distorted. Statements by V. F. Shelike (Frunze), G. B. Khan (Alma-Ata) and others stressed the importance of correct determination of proZetarian internationalism An integral descr.iption of proletarian internationalism should include three major elements: determination of the concrete historical bearer or subject of proletarian in- ternationalism (proletarian revolutionaries, proletarian parties, socialist states of different countries); determination of international relations and methods of ' - their transformation into a new Communist type of relations between peoples; analysis of the material conditions which have caused the genesis and development of proletarian internationalism. R. Ya. Yevzerov drew attention to aggravation of the national question in the countries of developed capitalism. Although in present-day conditions that specific feature of the worker movement in Western Europe, depending on the conditions of a given country, is manifested to a lesser degree than in the middle of the 19th century that specific feature which enabled F. Engels to consider England a ~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY country primarily of strikes, in contrast to France, a country chiefly of uprisings the distinctive features of the individual national complexes are extremely tangible. Realization of the intensifying trends of the international-general in the labor movement of jJestern Europe is possible only within the framework of and through these complexes. But that is not the only point. There is taking place today in the rountries of Western Europe a dialectical process of intensification both of international and national tendencies, and the nat~.onal question is becoming aggravated. Yu. M. Chernetsovsk~y (Leningrad) noted the conflictive nature of unity of the in- - ternational and the national in the contemporary revolutionary process. While the principle is firm and stable, the arrangement and placement of accents in the cor- relation between the international and the national in the struggie of the worker class and its parties can vary from one moment in history to another. Priority - should remain with the international component, without which the Communist movement will cease to exist as an international force. The same can be said about interna- tional ~olidarity. The internationalism of the world worker movement, emphasized I. K. Pantin, is not a sum of the separate, individual national worker movements. There exist common tasks of struggle, directions and prospects of actions, closely linked with the character of the historical period in which we live. They should be in the field of view of the entire worker movement and all Communist parties, and there should exist a unity of opinions, and today actions as well, regarding these basic prob- lems of the movement. Under present-day conditions the struggle against the danger of thermonuclear war is becoming the most important of these tasks. P. Togliatti put it most precisely and aptly in one of this last writings: The history of mankind is today taking on a new "dimension" which it never had in the past. Peace, which was always viewed as a good thing, is today becoming sumething ~ more than in the past: it is becoming essential if man does not want to destroy him- self. Naturally d~tente and a course of foreign policy corresponding to d~tente proceed from objective conditions, in parti.cular from parity of nuclear arms of the socialist and capitalist countries, and the enormous destructive force of modern arms. Such an intexpretation of the objective foundation of the policy of peaceful coexistence, however, should not lead to passivity. The task facing the entire worke-r and Communist movement consists in unifying all the forces of progress, reason and democracy in the struggle against imperialism which, with its reckless actions, is placing the world on the brink of global nuclear catastrophe. In the opinion of I. T. Nazarenko and B. B. Irmukhanov (Alma-Ata), the necess~ty of strengthening the international components in the worker movement and in the class struggle of the proletariat of the capitalist countries is objectively dictated by the specific features of operation of the economic laws of capitalism at the con- temporary stage in its development, in particular by strengthening of the economic might of the transnational corporations (TNC). Experience indicates that interna- - tional monopoly capital has failed to hold the class struggle within national boundaries, and it is assuming an international character to an ever increasing degree. This is attested in particular by such new forms of struggle of the proletariat as ~.nternational strikes directed against TNC. At the beginning of ~ the 1970's, for example, the strike of British workers employed by the transnational monopoly Ford Motors was supported by this corporation's workers in 19 countries. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440400050049-9 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At the sam.a time the struggle against the international monopolies poses the question of improviiig the strategy and tactics, the forms and methods of this struggle. . B. M. Leybzon stated that the twilight of capitalism is leading to the freeing of genuine national interests from under the aegis of the bourgeoisie. The worker _ class is becoming, not at once but to an increasingly greater degree, the spmkes- _ m a n of national interests, is rising to the status of national class, and ~is becoming constituted "as a nation" (Marx). The demands advan.ced by the Communist ' parties of the capitalist countries attest t~o their high degree of national responsibility. At the same time the enormous diversity of conditions under which Communists must operate and the necessity to take national uaiiqueness into account create the objective soil for exaggerating the national component in the struggle and even to place the national in opposition to the international. Proletarian internaticnalism, noted D. P. Pritsker. (Leningrad), of course undergoes certain changes with time, just as all societal phenomena its forms and _ iiianifestations differ in different eras; but this statement does not give grounds to reject the term "proletarian internationalism" or justify a c.omplete revision of its content. Of course it is essential to manifest internation~l solida.rity not - only with the proletariat of all the countries of the world but also with its allies in tlle struggle against imperialism, for peace and social progress. One s'~ould not . forget, however, that the worker class is the leading force, the le,ader of the revolutionary process, that the worker class alone is capable of unitin~ and leading _ :ill the oppressed and exploited. ~E course it is necessary to take national features into account, stated I. A. Shteynman (Daugavpils), in devising and implementing the strategy aiad tactics of the Communist Party of a given country. But there are no grounds far exaggerating the i.mportance of national peculiarities. National character is only a different combination oi traits which repeat in different nations. In addition, some features are not so much of a national character as they are connected with th~~ specific features of the contemporary era and with strengthening internation:alization of so-. - cietal relations on an international scale. Communists should saberly assess that ~aspect of national features which is connected with the national character of a~ - given people, avoiding nihilism in this matter, but also avoiding the opposite~ extreme. Discussing the correlation of international and national as~pe~cts in building social- ism, N. N. Tselishchev (Sverdlovsk) formulated what in his apinion is the principal conflict within the world socialist system between the tendency toward interna- tionalization of all aspects of societal affairs in tk~e soc~alist countries and the, different levels of their economic and sociopolitical development. This conflict is resolved as a result of equalizing the levels of econoraic, political and cultural development of these countries and presupposes ~bservance of such principles of proletarian internationalism as proletarian solidarity, revolutionary nature, unity of international and national interests, equa~.ity and independence of national detachments of the worker class, and equality and sove;.eignty of peoples and na- tions. A. A. Valuyskiy (Kiev) described the gener~l principles and national features of participation by the working people of tkie socialist countries in management of 6 FOR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400054049-9 FOR OF~'[CIAL USE ONLY material production. He stated that exaggeration of the general principles, mak3:ng a fetish of them, and mechanical copying of the experience of other countries are fraught with the danger of dogmatism and narrow sectarianism. In like manner exaggeration of the importance of the national-particular inevitably leads to absolutization of the national experience and to the creation of systems of manage- ment to which a universal character is artificially ascribed. In the opinion of V. S. Budkin (Kiev)! P. D. Koval' (Kiev), and others, integration processes within the framework of the world socialist community strengthen the role and significance of ineasures at the international level. There has taken place as a result of integration processes an equalization of the levels of economic develop- ment of the European CEMA member natior_s which is unprecedi.nted in the history of the world economy. At the same time there is today a growing need for increasing- ly fuller consideration of the national econamic interests of each socialist country. This consideration presupposes determination of the economic effectiveness of in- tegration measures and ascertainment of the economic gain from ~heir implementation. The unique nature of the tasks of Communists in the Eastern countries, according to Yu. N. Gavrilov, is determined by the fact that the process of development of cor- responding soc.iopolitical forces is at different phases of the initial stage of for- - mation in those countries. The proletariat in colonial and dPpendent countries elaborates its political consciousness as part of a unified oppressed people suf- fering under the burden of a foreign yoke. This circumstance impeded recognition by the proletariat of the fact that its class interests were different from the interests of other social groups and strata. Preservation by the monopolies of elements of a patriarchal system, retention of the interpersonal nature of relations between entrepreneur and employee, a deep racial-ethnic split within the population, ' etc all this determines the complex, zigzag path of development af revolutionary consciousness of the working people in these countries. Revolutionaries must return again and again to problems which, it would seem, had been thoroughly resolved in other regions at preceding stages of the liheration movement. G. N. Oleynichenko (Kiev) stated his conviction that intergovernmental relations ~ between socialist countries and liberated countries of socialist orientation stand at a higher level in their social essence than relations between socialist and capitalist nations. The principles of independence, equality and mutually ad- vantageous cooperation are combined in these relations with antiimperailist solidari- ty, Uased on a community of interests, with the socialist countries supporting the liberated nations in the area of foreign policy. All this enables one to state that proletarian internationalism is enriching its content, today being manifested as an alliance of the three great revolutionary forces of the present day the com- munity of socialist nations, the worker class of the capitalist world, and the national liberation movement. I~. M. Tsagolov pointed to the importance of a historical approach to such a phenomenon as the nationalism of an oppressed nation. Unquestionably under certain conditions, at a certain stage of the national liberation movement, it may contain progressive elements. The charge of nationalism, howeveY, is limited by the his- torical framework of the struggle for national independence. When problems of struggle for social liberation are placed on the agenda, the inability of national- ism.eo aclvance a constructive program is immediately revealed. The ideology of nationalism is replaced by revolutionary patriotism, which contains elements of 7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFIClAL USE ONLY internationalism. G. A. Usov discussed the difficulties which the ideology of proletarian internationalism in developing covntries encounters. He emphasized that in the struggle against the ideology of communism imperialism is irccreasing~.y counting on nationalism and nationalistic prejudices. Summarizing the discussion, Yu. A. Krasin stated that the Communist move~ent is presently at a historical stage where agreements on all matters cannot b~e advanced as a preliminary condition for unified actions and initiatives. Elabora~ion ce,� unified positions and views in the world Communist movement is a process in wl~ich conflicts are also sometimes revealed. The present ideological situation is characterized not by the unyielding unity of a monolith but by a flexible di:alecti- cal system of views and positions which differ in s~;ecific items and which are developing on the ~oundation of a unity of the root principles of Marxism-Lenfr?ism. Ttie symposium, in whii:h social scientists of various areas of specializ~tion took part, once again revealed the complexity of the problems of the cor~temporary ~evcalu- _ tionary process. It was emphasized particularly forcefully at the 26th CP~54J Cmngress that the urgency of these problems demands close attention by investig~t~o~,~ and should stimulate further theoretical work on them. CUPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo PRAVDA, VOPROSY F~LOSOFII 3024 CSO: 1807/142 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL UKitAINIAN MINISTER OF IDUCATION ON RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE TEACHING Kiev RUSSKIY YAZYK I LITERATURA V SHKOLAKH UkSSRin Russian No 4, Jul-Aug 81 pp 3-10 [Article by M.V~ Fomenka, minister of education ~f the Ukrainian SSR: "The Study and Teaching of Russian--On a Qualitatively New Level!"] [ExcerptsJ In the system of ineasures to enhance the quality and efficiency of the teaching-educational process in the repub Iic's schools a big place is assigned the study and teaching of Ukrainian and Russian and literature. The i~proved programs in these sub3ects set the standard of the educational process which ma.kes it possible to enhance the literacy and improve the literary education of the schoolchildren. Questions of an improvement in the teaching of Ukrainian language and Iiterature were the sub3ect of extensive discussion at the Eighth Ukrainian ~7riters Congress and were examined at the repu;,lic Writers Union lOth Plenum and ~ by the board of the Ukrainian SSR Ministry of Education, and this December it is planned to hold a republic conference devoted to the problems of an increase in the efficiency of the teaching of Ukrainian language and literature in the republic's schools. The widespread use of Russian as a means of the inter-nation co~m?unication of the USSR peoples has led to the universal development of b ilingualism, which mutually enriches the languages and is positively reflected in the intensive development of all languages of the socialist nations. With the development of national-Russian bilingualism Russian has become an inexhaustible source of the enrichment and de- _ vel~pment of the languages of the peoples of our country and the purveyor and guard- ian not only of the culture of the Russian peopie but also of the socialist multi- national culture of the entire Soviet people. _ '1'hanks to its closeness to the Ukrainian language and the long, steadq tradition . of its use in the Ukraine, Russian, alongside Ukrainian, currently embraces all ~ spheres of the republic's economic, political and cultural l~.fe. It is loved, known and studied with a tremendous will by pupils and students in the schools and vocational-technical schools, tekhnikums and VUZ's. Outstanding Ukrainian and Russian writers and public figures have al~aays stressed the kinship of the Russian and Ukrainian peoples and languages and the mutual - sympathy and respect. Indicative in this respect are the words of the great Ukrainian writer I. Franko, polemicizing with Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists: "We love the great Russian people and wish them well in all things and we love and 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY study their Russian language and read in this language probably no less and, possibly, more than you.... And Russian writers, great beacons in the realm of the spirit, we know and love...and we consider ourselves at one with the best sons of the Rus- sian people."* "The republic's schools devote great attention to questions of the increased quality~ of the pupils' knowledge of Russian language and literature and an improvement in their teaching procedure. An improvement in the quality of the programs and text- books pertaining to these sub~ects will undoubtedly ezer t a positive influence on the solution of th~ese questions. However, the standard of the teaching of Russian language and literature in the school depends primarily on the teacher and his train- ing and constant replenishmen~ of knowledge in the improvement and self-education system and the literature teacher's active use of progressive pedagogical experience and scientific achievements. This demands a considerable improve~nt in the quality of the training of Russian language and literature teachers in the republic's uni- versities and pedagogical institutes, which, in turn, is conditioned by three prin- - cipal factors: first, the availability of highly qualified lecturer personnel in the pedagogical institutes and universities; second, the correct organization of the ~ educational process and its provision with the necessary materials and equipment; and, third, an improvement in the system of the selection of applicants for the Russian ~ language and literature departments of the WZ philological faculties and also prim- ary class faculties of the pedagogical institutes and pedagogical schools. _ These problems were at the center of the attention of participants in a republic scientific-practical conference held in the Poltava Pedagogical In~titute imeni V.G. t~orolenko (December 1980). A reinforcement of more than 2,000 young Russian language and literature teacher- specialists is sent annually to the republic's schools from the universities a~d pedagogical institutes. In addition, the republic's WZ's render the fra~ernal union republics assistance in the training of Russian philology specialists. Some 2,500 such specialists have been trained in recent years for the Uzbek and Razakh SSR's. The educational Ievel of the Russ3.~n language and literature teachers has risen con-~ siderably. Whereas in 197I some 85 p~~cent of teachers of this speciality had higher education and approximately 92 ger~ent in 1976, now 96.2 percent of Russian languages - teachers of general educational schools ha~re higher education, and the rest are studying by correspondence. Measures are being implemented to strengthen the Russian language departments of = the pedagogical institutes with highly qualified research-lecturer personnel, 138 ~ lecturers of which have aca~emic degrees and titles. A number of Russian language departments have been approved as base departments: tho se of the Kiev, L'vov, Odessa and Donetsk universities and the Kiev, Zaporozh`pe and Voroshilovgrad ~edago- gical institutes. For assisting in the work of the Rus sian language and literature departments the UkSSR Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education has " *I. Franko, "Soch. v 10-ti t." [Works in 10 Volumes], vol 10, Moscow, 1959, p 257. 10 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054449-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY established scientific-methods commissions made up of leading specialists of the republic's universities and pedagogical institutes. The number of lecturers is increasing and a young reinforcement from the ranks ~ of graduate students, the best university graduates and practicing teachers is ar- riving in connection with the division of the academic student groups into subgroups which is being introduced in the pedagogical WZ's for the purpose of the better study of Russian in the Russian language ~epartments. It is essential to provide for their subsequent scientific-methods growth, in which an important part should be played by the mentorship of experienced lecturers and the extensive use of study leave for the preparation or completion of theses for candidate's degree and quali- fication apprenticeship. Despite the increased number of doctors of sciences, pro- fessors, candidates of sciences and assistant professor-literaturQ teachers, provision is made for courses given by specialists with a digloma. in far from a11 pedagogical institutes. We cannot be reconciled to the fact that as a consequence of a decline in the level of teaching in certain padagogical institutes some future Russian _ language and literature teachers are acquiring indifferent knowledge in the sub3ect and mastering teaching methods inadequately. There are also increased demands made of practical and laboratory classes in Russian language. A quest for new forms of such classes, the elaboration of refined methods for each subject and the clear-cut target use of available technical and audiovisual facilities are essential. The Iaboratory and practical classes should be geared to the assimilation of the syllabus material studied 3n the WZ, with unfailing regard for the school course. The purpose of practical training in Russian language is to orient the student from the first years of tuition in the WZ toward the practical, day-to-day work of the teacher. We ought in this respect to introduce more actively - the experience of the Russian Langu~ge Department of the Voronezh and other pedago- gical institutes, where such an approach to practical training has been developed. It is important to inculcate in the students a vision of social principles in the - devel~pment of modern Russian and the re�lection in the language of the de~relopment of Soviet society. For the purpose of strengthening methodological training it is essential to practice m~ore extensively the introduction of special courses and spe- cial seminars in whose syllabus a central place should be assigned such problems as ?anguage and the ideological struggle, the Russian language and Soviet society, V.I. Lenin on language, the language and style of V.I. Lenin's works, Leninist na- tionality-linguistic policy in the USSR,.the language of L.I. Brezhnev's works "Malaya zemlya" [The Small Land], "Vozrozhdeniye" [Recovery] and "Tselina" [Virgin Land] and language and scientific-technical progress. Student scientific-theoretical conferences, experience of which has be2n accumulated in the Kiev and Nezhin pedago- gical institutes and Chernovtsy University, are effective in this respect. It is _ necessary to considerably broaden in the pedagogical institutes the sc.ientific re- search work of the students of the philologq faculties. A weak link in the scientific-methods work of the republic's Russian language depart- ments is their inadequate ties to the schools. It is in far from all pedagogical institutes that the progressive experience of the work of high school te~chers is studied and collated, joint scientific-methods work is performed or aids for the schools are prepared in conjunction with the teachers. It is essential to strengthen the practical aspect of the training of literature teachers for work in the school. 11 FOR OFFI~CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY There is big potential here in an increase in the role of the students' teacher- training practice and in the enlistment therein and in the presentation of inethods courses of the best Russian language and literature teachers. A check of the work of the pedagogicai institutes has shown, unfortunately, that there are still frequent instances of the presentation of inethods courses and the 1ea.dership of teacher- training practice being entrusted to lecturers who have not worked in the school. It is i.acessary to attentively study and introduce in the practice of teachers' training the experience of the selection of students and the work on increasing the pedagogical expertise of futur.e teachers which has ~been accumulated in the Poltava and other pedagogical institutes. The progressive experience of work of such li.terature teachers as T.A. Ryzhik (Sevastopol'), L.S. Dubyanskaya (Zaporozh'ye), Z.S. Zhuravleva (Konstantinovka) and L.P. Bozhko (city of Artemovsk of Voroshilovgradskaya Oblast), the primarq class teacher R.V. Marenyuk (Novaya Kakhovka) and many others is well known and widely supported in the republic. Collections from the work experience of Russian language and literature teachers have been published, and the subscription "Russian Language and Literature Teacher's Library" is being produced. Some 65 syllabus works on Russian literature in an edition of more than 8 million copies were published 3n the "School Library" series in the 10th Five-Year Plan, and 83 such books in an overall edition of 12.5 million copies will be published in the llth Five-Year Plan. The network of schools with extended study of Russian language and literature has raidened, and there has been an increase in the number of elective courses in these .7ubjects and linguistic and literary groups. Competitions for the best essay and t`~e best recital and Russian language olympiads are practiced extensively. Russian language and literature study rooms provided with linguaphone apparatus, reCOrdings uf readings and audiovisual facilities have been set up in 99 percent of high and 84 percent of ~grade schools. At the same time there are still shortcomings and unsolved questions in the work to improve the study and teaching of Russian language and literature. Tn certain schools the lessons in these subjects ar~ conducted at a low methods level and due attention - is not paid to the cultivation of practical abilities and skills in the pupils. Some pupils, particularly of the rural schools of Vinnitskaya, Vol}mskaya and Zakarpatskaya oblasts have shown inadequate literacy. The UkSSR Ministry of Education proposes the implementation of a number of addi- tional measures for the purpose of doing away with the said and other shortcomings in the study of Russian. In particular, great attention will be paid to a rise in the level of qualifications of the teachers of language and literature and also of primary classes at the universities, pedagogical institutes and oblast teacher-improvement institutes and to each literature teacher assimilating modern methods of tuition and progressive teaching experience. By 1982 the "Radyans'ka shkola" Publishers will complete the publication of a set of teaching methods literature for Russian textoboks. Special readers are being prepared for pupils of grades 1-6 where the languag~s of tuition are Ukrainian, Hungarian, Moldavian and Polish. Concise explanatory school dictionaries (Russian- Ukrainian, Ukrainian-Russian, Russian-Hungarian, Russian-Moldavian and Russian- Polish) will also be published. Special attention will be paid to the revision of 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440400050049-9 FOR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY existing and compilation of new (experimental) Russian language textbooks. The philology teachers and authors of textbooks are confronted with the~task of getting away from the complicated wording of certain rules of grammar and concepts and pay- ing more attention to the development of a clear and consistent system of the cul- tivation of the abilities and skills of the spoken and written language. ' This year's August conferences will extensively discuss the points and conclusions of the documents of the 26th party congress, which have enriched in ideological- theoretical fashion the content of *_he entire teaching-educationa.l process an,d eac~ academic subject. The teachers will exchange experience and outline the paths and forms of use of the material of the congress in lessons and in extramuxal work. The attention of Russian language and literature teachers in schools where Molda- vian, Hungarian and Polish are the languages of tuition should be focused on fos- tering the pupils' span of interest in Russian international education by means of language,~and it would be useful to study questions of the development of the need for the reading of books in Russian at home, bearing in mind that Russian has be- come the connecting link of the Soviet state and the people of the whole world and is the voice of peace and progress. Finally, a discussion with Russian philologq teachers of the conscious choice of the forms and methods of language tuition and of sensitive individual work both with those making inadequate progress and the most gifted is essential. The valuable exchange of opinions could prompt the formulation at the conferences of the question of the employment of lectures, seminars, home study, academic debate and so forth at lessons in the senior classes. The main thing is, obviously, that the August conferences be held in a businesslike, concerned atmosphere and be an important test stage of the readiness of the Russian language and literature teachers for the new academic year. COPYRIGHT: "Russkiq yazyk i literatura v shkolakh UkSSR", 1981 8850 CSO: 1800/666 13 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL BETTER MANAGING AZERBAIJAN'S ECONOMY Baku NARODNOYE KHOZYAYSTVO AZERBAYDZHANA in Russian No 2, Feb 81 pp 11-16 /Article by S. M. Kasumov, head of the division of the Scientific Research Insti- tute of Economics of the Azerbai3an SSR State Planning Committee: "Ways of Im~ proving the Organizational Structure of Management of Azerbaijan's National Econ- o~~~~ /Text/ At the present stage in the development of the Soviet economy, when the scale of all national economic ~ectors increases in every possible way and intra- sectorial and intraeconomic relations expand, an improvement in management as one of the main factors in an increase in production eff iciency becomes especially. urgent. The decrees of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers "On Some Measures for the Further ImprovPment in I~dustrial Management" and "On Im- proving Planning and Strengthening the Influence of the Economic Mechanism on In- creasing Production Eff iciency and Work Quality" played an important role in the further improvement in the organizational structure of management of our economic development. ~ In accordance with these decrees sectorial ministries engaged in extensive work on the development of long-term plans envisaging a new structure of management, orga- nization of new production and industrial associations and intensification of pro- ~ duction concentration. ~ In the country's industry at the beginning of I978 there were 3,875 production and scientific production associations cqncentrating 17,122 production units and inde- pendent industrial enterprises, which made it possible to reduce the number of en- ~ terprises of the primary link by a factor of 2.5. The proportion of these asso- ciations in the total industry in terms of the volume of sold output comprised 46.4 percent. The economic effect from the improvement in the structurs of sec- tors as a whole in 1976-1980 exceeded 17 billion rubles. Such an advanced form of economic management was widely developed in Azerbaijan. Dozens of production associations and complexes were established and a tendency toward an elimination of many links in management and a reduction in the number of weak and unprofitable production facilities began to appear in a number of sec- torial ministries. 14 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The organizational and structural shifts that occurred on this plane opened up wide opportunities for a more efficient maneuvering of production, lahor and fi- - nancial resources, intensified the use of economic levers of production management and contributed to an increase in the effic~iency of final national economic resulCs. At the same time, parallelism, duplication and a lack of departmental coordination are tolerated in the organizational structures of management in many national e- conomic sectors and the existence of a significant number of small independent en- - terprises an~i organizations makes the organizational structure of management un- wieldy, hampers the coordination of their activity and holds back the rates of._in- troduction of the achievements of scientific and technical progress into production and of the development of automated control systems. The presently existing shortcomings in the organizational structure of management in individual ministries and departments make it necessary to concentrate attention on some aspects of its further improvement. First of all, it should be taken into consideration that simplicity and efficiency of construction are characteristic of a rational structure of management. Every body should have clearly outlined functions not interwoven with the functians of other bodies. It is well known that,~ if fewer instances participate in the solution of specific problems, the solution becomes more efficient, ensuring the transmission of infor- mation from the periphery to the center and back so that no changes can take place locally during that period. In this connection the organizational structure of management should have the smallest number of stages. A profoundly thought-ou t development of sectorial production associations contrib- utes to the solution of a large number of problems. The sectorial production association as a state economic producfiion organization is based on the principl e of unity of sectorial affiliation of united enterprises, in connection with which the presently existing sectorial structures of management are sub~ected to an analysis and various reorganizations. For example, Baku pe- . troleum refining plants are now being reconstructed fundamentally, which in the very near future will make it possible to concentrate all petroleum refining at two plants--the New Baku Petroleum Refining Plant imeni Vladimir.I1'ich and the Baku Petroleum Refining Plant imeni 22 S'yezda KPSS--and to remove the Baku Pe- troleum Refining Plant imeni Karayev from service. Furthermore, with the commis- sioning of the production of EP-300 at the Sumgait Synthetic Rubber Plant the Baku Neftegas Plant is subjec t to liquidation. Such a reconstruction should reduce the number of technological installations by more than one-half. The Administration of Transcaucasian Petroleum Pipelines established at the base of the subdivisions of the production-commodity office of the republic's Ministry of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry and of the office of the Baku- Batumi petroleum pipeline of the Azerbai3an Main Administration for the Supply and Marketing of Petroleum and Petroleum Products with its subordination to th~ Min- istry o~ Petroleum Industry at present does not ensure the fulfillment of the i5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY functions entrusted to it. Furthermore, taking into consideration the fact that about 60 percent of the total volume of presently refined petroleum willbe supplied by the Ministry of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry, the advisability of the matter of transfer of the Administration of Transcaucasian Main Petroleum Pipelines to the direct subordination of the Azerbai3an SSR Ministry of Petroleum � Refining and Petrochemical Industry should be examined. Taking into account the similarity of technological processes and close relations of cooperation, as well as the need to overcome the lack of departmental coordi- nation and to refine sectorial and territorial management in order to implement a unified technological policy in the republic for developing and improving the over- all processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, it is r.ecessary to include the natural gas plant, the Baku Tire Plant and the A2erbaijan SSR Ministry of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry. This proposal for an improvement in the organizational structure of management is not a mechanical merging of different enterprises. The advantage of a single sub- ordination of enterprises connected by common Cechnology is confirmed by the long- ~ term practice of the Ukrainian SSR Main Administration of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry, where the enterprises of the petroleum ref inin~, petrochem-' ical, tire and industrial rubber sectors of industry are concentrated. By analogy with industry production associations are also estabiished in other _ sectors, for example, in agriculture, construction and so forth. Agrarian-industrial complexes, which include enterprises for the growing and proc- - essing of agricultural products, are becoming widespread. At present the repub- lic's agricultural sector is managed according to two- and three-link systems (70 units, according to a two-link system and 1,200 units, according to a, three-link system). A total of 88 interfarm enterprises and organizations of various production spe- cializations, of which 13 were organized in 1978, functioned in the system of the Ministry of Agriculture as of 1980. The increase in the scale of agricultural production, provision of an intensive regime of its development and compTication of economic relations require the coordinated efforts of many sectors and economic regions and include the i~plementation of a whole system of various measures,which . brings about the formation of an advanced, new form of management. ~ In this connection the agrarian-production administration established in Z977 un- der the executive committee of the Bardinskiy Rayon Soviet of People's Deputies as a single body of economic management of kolkhozes, sovkhozes and interfarm and other agricultural enterprises is of great practical interest. ~ *The basic conclusions on the establishment of various associations presented in the report of the Scientific Research Institute of Economics of the Azerbai~an SSR State Planning Committee in 1976-1980 "Scientific Principles of Improvement in the Management of the National Economy of the Azerbaijan SSR" are reflecCed here and hereinafter. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFILtAL USE ONLY For the purpose of eliminating the lack of departmental coordination and parallel- i~m in work, provision is made for the consolidation of rural construction organi- zations in the republic. _ At present the construction of pro~ects in rural areas is carried out by the Min- istry of Rural Construction, by the Sovkhozvinstroy Trust of the State Committee for Viticulture and Winemaking, by the Sovkhozstroy Trust of Azplodoovoshchprom, by three mobile mechanized columns of the State Committee for Production and Tech- nical Provision of Agricultur.e and by the organizations of Glavsovkhozkolkhozstroy. To eliminate parallelism in rural construction and to ensure an overall develop- ment of the material and technical base according to a unified plan and a full u- tilization of the existing pool of machines and mechanisms, it is advisable to u- nite the indicated construction subdivisions and organizations in the system of the Azerbaijan SSR Ministry of Rural Construction. ~ The solution of this.problem under the conditians of Azerbaijan would make it pos- sible to equally provide kolkhoz construction projects with reinforced concrete structures, parts and ozher materials manufactured by the enterprises of the Min- istry of Rural Construction, especially as Azerbai~an's Glavmezhkolkhozstroy does not fully meet its need for these products and receives more than 40,000 cubic me- ters of reinforced concrete structures from the enterprises of the Ministry of Ru- - ral Construction and Glavazmeliovodstroy. In this :,ase a favorable possibility for managing the development of material and technical supply for state and interkolkhoz organizations would be created. It noted that the proposal for the unification of interkolkhoz and state rural construction organizations was reflected in Georgia. There with the consent of the councils of rayon interkolkhoz organizations it was decided to include Gruzmezhkolkhozstroy in the republic's Ministry of Rural Construction. There is a similar situation with housing construction, in which 17 ministries and departments are engaged. At the same time, the organizations of Glavbakstroy and of the republic's Ministry of Industrial Construction account for up to 70 percent of the total volume of construction. It is considered advisable to establi~h the _ Ministry of Residential Housing Construction at their base. Organizations for installation and special construction work also require an elim- ination of the lack of departmental coordination and parallelism. Horizontal- and vertical-type associations are distinguished by the nature of in- ternal cooperation and structural links. ~ Horizontal-type associations are established in the presence of a large number of technologically allied enterprises, when conditions are created for the centrali- zation of managerial functions and the development of article and item speciali- - zation ~f all the links forming part of an association. The merging of enter- prises for the production of souvenirs and articles of popular art industries in - the structure of Zakataly, Shemakha, Sheki and Ismailly industrial combines and of the pottery ware shop of the Geokchay Industrial Combine at the base of the 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Baku Souvenir-Art Factory (head factory) of the Ministry of Local Industry can serve as an example of_ a horizontal-type association. At the same time, this as- sociation will make it possible to abolish the Administration of Art Industry of the Azerbai~an SSR Ministry of Local Industry as an intermediate link. This ty~e of association is also characteristic of the production associations planned for establishment in the system of the Ministry of Local Ir.dustry for the production of carpets and carpet articles of Azerkhalch consisting of 15 carpet weaving fac- tories and shops and for the production of inetal products with a head enterprise, that is, the Udzhary Metal Products Plant, which will include the Lyaki Zinc-Plated Ware, the Khosrovskiy Bed Plant and the Barda Affiliate of the Metallokul'tbyt Plant of the system of the republic's Ministry of Local Industry. Vertical-type associations consist of organizations and enterprises carrying out individual stages in the general production process. Agrarian-industrial com- plexes, as well as scientific production associations, can be included in this ~ group. The establishment of associations is a complex process, during which the unity and timing of the production cycle, proportionality of capacities and efficient cooper- ation of all the links of the complex should be observed. _ The i.ntegration of individual independent enterprises under the aegis of one man= aged body cannot be considered a production association, because this type of . measure cannot produce an effect. In the republic's f ootwear industry in 1974 the Baku Footwear Production Associa- tion was established at the base of footwear factories No 3 and No 4. However, the Baku Footwear Production Association was unable to realize the advantages of the advanced form of management in connection with the fact that it was estab- lished as a mechanical combination of previously independent enterprises, but with a deprivation of their legal right. Only a centralization of manager3al services without a change in the production and technical base, structure and specialization of the united enterprises occurred there. The practical experience of the country's footwear industry shows that the great- est economic effect is attained when an association is established on the basis of intensification of specialization and increase in production concentration. Subsequently, in order to most fully utilize the advantages of centralized mana- _ gement and increase production efficiency in the sector, 3t is ad~isable to ex- pand the framework of the presently existing Baku Footwear Production Association for the purpose of establishing the Republic Azohuv' Production Association en- compassing all Baku factories and later on to provide for the merging of the Ste- panakert Footwear Factory with it. It should be noted that the presently existing associations have great potentials for the further improvement in management on.the basis of an elimination of divi- sions duplicating each other, rise in the level of centralization, regulatian of the table of organization and specif ication of the off icial functions of the man- agerial personnel. For example, the Soyuzneftemash All-Union Production Associa- tion needs the centralization of a number of services, which are still scattered 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY throughout plants. All the links of this association have their own small divi- sions of capital construction. The centralization of this service would promote an accelerated reconstruction of the plants of the industrial association. An analysis of the technical and economic level of the enterprises of the Soyuz- nef All-Union Production Association shows that the auxiliary praduction of most plants continues to remain at the previous level. The achie~~ements of science and technology are not fully utilized in industrial processes and thair introduc- tion is needed in most cases. ~ The task is to further improve the specialization of production subdivisions and on this basis to raise the technical level of production. . In connection k�ith the significant change in the structure of inedium-level manage- ment links the structure of management also changes throughout a sector. The num- ber of management links and units is reduced. For example, it is considered that in the system of the Azerbaijan SSR Ministry of Housing and Municipal Services the 93 presently existing organizations in the Baku Housing Administration (Rayon Hous- ing Administration, Housing Operation Office and Repair and Construction Adminis- tration) through consolidation should be reduced to 14 and in the city of Sumgait the 17 existing organizations, to 7. In connection with the above-~tated it should be noted that an improvement in the organizational structure contributes to the emergence of the problem of determina- tion of the functions of sectorial ministries. At the same time, a sectorial orga- nization of public production should imply the totality of production of a given sector and a certain system of management with economic, legal and arganizational methods inherent in it.Z The demand of the sectorial organization of public production for the provision of a planned development of every industrial sector, detection and.establishment of the necessary intrasectorial and intersectorial proportions, development and reali- zation of a unified technical policy in industrial sectors, prompt introduction of improved scientific and technological achievements, s~lution of problems connected . with the distribution and efficient utilization of capital investments and with the training of cadres of specialists, introduction of advanced methods of organi- zation of labor and production and so forth is realized by means of secCorial man- agement. In this connection it is advisable to transfer all laundries for general use and bath houses from the ~urisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Municipal Services to that of the Ministry of Dome~tic Services for the'Public and,'at the same time, to establish the production associations Rhimchistka /Dry Cleanin~/; Krasheniye i Stirka Bel'ya /Dyeing and Washing of Linen7 and Bannoye Khozyaystvo /Bath Facil- ities/ with all the repair and warehouse bases. 1. "Problemy Nauchnoy Organizatsii Upravleniya Sotsialisticheskoy Promyshlenno- st'~u" /Problems of Scientific Organization of Management of the SACialist Indus- trY/, Moscow, 1968. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044400050049-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Furthermore, it should be noted that the analysis conducted in various ministries showed that the republic's Ministry of Local Industry and the Ministry of Social Security, duplicating the production of the Ministry of Light Industry, manufac- ture footwear and sewn and knitted articles. At the same time, their volumes com- prise from 9.3 to 15.3 percent of the total voiume of output of these articles. For example, whereas the Azerbaijan SSR Ministry of Light Industry manufactures ~ 92.6 percent of the footwear, the Ministry of Social Security, only 0.4 percent and the Ministry of Local Industry, up to 5 percent of the total volume. Whereas - th~e plan for sewn articles (in full value) of the Mi.nistry of Light Industry com- prises 65 percent, of the Ministry of Local Industry, about 14 percent and of the Ministry of Social Security, or_ly 0.3 percent of the total volume. There is a similar situation with the output of knitted outerwear and underwear. Taking the above-stated into consideration and for purposes of specialization and concentration of production, elimination of duplication and improvement i.n the ~ quality of output, it is advisable to transfer enterprises for the production of footwear and knitted and sewn articles from the system of the Ministry of Social Security and the Ministry of Local Industry to the jurisdiction of the Azerbaijan SSR Ministry of Light Industry in accordance with the established procedure. Of course, such production concentration will require the solution of the techni- cal, technological and scientific problems st~mm3ng from it, for which the organi- zation in the republic of a scientif ic research institute of textile indus.try at _ the base of the presently existing Central Scientific Research Laboratory of Tex- tile and Knitwear Industry is proposed. COPYRIGHT: NARODNOYE KHOZYAYSTVO AZERBAYDZHAPIA, 1981 11,439 ~ CSO: 1800/824 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLV REGIONAL - KAZAKHS APPROACH 7 MILLION IN 1979 CENSUS, GROWTH SLOWS Alma-Ata BILIM ZHANE ENGBEK in Kazakh No 4, Apr 81 pp 28-30 /Article by demographer Maqash Tatimov, senior research worker at the Philosophy and Law Institute of the KaSSR Academy of Sciences: "Kazakh Population Distribution and Growth"~ ~ext7 /The party central committee has worked out a useful demographic policy in accordance with the instructions of the 25th Party Congress and is devoting special attention to carrying it out and to the difficult issue of a future popu- ~ lation balance./ Lin boldface7 From Comrade L.I. Brezhnev's report to the 26th CPSU Congress. The results of the 1979 All-Union Census will form the foundation of this demographic program. During the next few years the systematized, summary figures from the large amount of raw census data will be published as individual volumes. This rich and carefully processed census data will have very great significance for research. The first census returns have just been issued by the Politizdat Press as individual brochures and volumes. The bulk of the data, however, is being~published in the journal VESTNIK STATISTIKI, the organ of the USSR Central Statistical Office, starting with No 5, 1980. These official census returns show that all the peoples of the Soviet Union, among them the Kazakhs, are enjoying total prosperity. We will let the fi~gures speak for themselves. ~ The rapid growth of the Kazakhs can be seen from the most recent Soviet censuses alone. In 1939 there were 3,101,000 Kazakhs, in 1959 3,622,000 in 1970 5,299,000 and in 1979 6,556,000. Our people has grown more than 2.1 times in 40 years in spite of heavy losses during th~ horrible Second World War. The growth, however, has not been uniform if looked at in terms of 10 year periods. Thus growth was practically non- existent during the difficult 1940s; it reached 20 percent ~uring the '50s, radically increased to 40 perc~nt during the '60s and fell off to 27 percent in the '70s. During the 1980s the growth rate will fall somewhat, to about 23-25 percent, and will begin to decline rlrastically during the next decades. The Kazakhs will remain, however, like other neighboring peoples of Central Asia, among the ranks of rapidly increasing. 21 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL1' populations. According to the results of the 1979 All-L'nion Census Kazakhs number 6,556,442. Of the total, 80.7 percent lived in the KaSSR and 19.3 percent in other union republics. Table one shows the number of Kazakhs by repu:lic. One large group of Kazakhs (736,700) lives in continguous Central Asian areas but some 530,400 live in the RSFSR and in other r^~ublics (see Table 1). The numbers of small groupings of Kazakhs in republics, oblasts and regions rather distant from the KaSSR grew considerably in the 1979 census as canpared to the 1970 census. Most were romprised of students studying outside the republic, persons in military service, tourists and workers on assignment. On the other hand, the large numbers of Kazakhs settled in rayon continguous to the KaSSR tended t~ be drawn back into the KaSSR. The major stimulus for this was the ppening of new educational insti- tutions, construction projects, industries and mines. This process is likely to con- tinue in the future. The creation of new oblasts and rayons within the republic and the growth of many new cities and the expansi~n of new sovkhozes will guarantee that this is the case. Table 1. Numbers af Kazakhs by Republic Republic Number Percent KaSSR 5,289,394 80.7 UzSSR 620,136 9.5 RSFSR 518,060 7.0 TuSSR 79,539 1.2 ~ - KiSSR 27,442 0.4 TaSSR 9,606 0.1 UkSSR 9,171 0.1 - BSSR 1,355 . 0.02 AzSSR 1,010 0.02. , GSSR 820 0.01 LiSSR 567 0.01 _ MSSR 533 0:01 La~SR 447 0.01 ESSR 226 0.003 ~ ArSSR 199 0.003 Soviet Union 6,556,442 100.000 Las published~ The Kazakhs are unevenly distributed in the KaSSR. They are concentrated in the southern oblasts in particular. Thus Chimkentskaya oblast is conspicuous for the number of Kazakhs living there. The number of indigenous people in the eastern and western oblasts of the KaSSR are also large. Numbers of Kazakhs are, however, much smaller in northern and central oblasts. Numbers of indigenous people are very small in the _ newly created oblasts of Turgayskaya, Mangyshlakskaya and Dzhezkazganskaya while numbers of migrants residing there continue to grow. The growth rates of the last two - oblasts, for example, exceeded 30 percent taken alone, during the nine year period ~s published7. Regional differences in Kazakh natural growth rates are noticeable compared to previous years. This is, above all, a reflection of limitations of family sizes. The rate of population growth in Chimkentskaya oblast was 2.3 times greater than in Kustanayskaya oblast. The increased rate of growth of the Kazakh population in the capital of Alma-Ata is a clear reflection of a growing concentration of Kazakh young pcople in the large cities. 22 FOR OFF[CIAL U$E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLI~' Table 2. Numbers of Kazakhs by KaSSR Administrative Unit, Rates of Growth and Kazakhs as a Percentage of Total Administrative Unit Population Numbers in Growth Rate Perc~nt of Total Administrative Unit Thousands 1970-1979 poPulation - Chimkentskaya 797.8 31.3 51.0 Kzyl-ordinskaya oblast 428.0 24.4 75.6 Dzhambulskaya oblast 410.4 26.8 44.1 Semipalatinskaya oblast 371.2 19.4 48.0 Aktyubinskaya oblast 328.4 25.5 52.1 Alma-ata oblast 319.6 22.1 37.6 Taldy-Kurganskaya oblast 305.3 21.2 46.1 Uralskaya oblast ~ 301.1 19.3 51.5 Guryevskaya oblast 281.5 26.1* 76.1 Eastern Kazakhistan oblast 223.3 14.0 25.4 Pavlodarskaya oblast 216.1 23�5 26'8 Dzhezkazganskaya oblast 184.3 27.0* 41.0 Karaganda oblast 181.5 27.0* 14.5 Tselinograd oblast 16~�8 19�~ 2~'~ Kokchetavskaya oblast 161.8 21.1 26.3 Kustanayskaya oblast 156.2 13.5 16.6 Alma-Ata City 147.9 67.7 16.4 Mangyshlakskaya oblast 111.9 26.1* 44.3 Turgayskaya oblast 99.5 38.4 36.8 Northern Kazakhstan oblast 99.3 14.8 16.7 KaSSR 5,289.3 2~.5 36.0 What do the census data on numbers of Kazakhs settled on the territories of union republics and growth rates mean? They mean that there are Kazakhs in all of the areas bordering Kazakhstan and, as we have seen, there are three rather large co:~- centrations of Kazakh settlement outside the KaSSR, namely the Tashkent area with 300,000 (my calculations), the lower estuary of the Amu-darya with 280,000 and the area around the mouth of the Edil with more than 220,000. Kazakhs also live in the oblasts of Orynbor and Omsk, which border the KaSSR on the north, and in the oblasts of Bukhara and Dzhizak, which border the republic on the south. Some administrative units have not been included in our tables since information on them has not yet been made available separately in published 1979 census returns. Numbers of Kazakhs enumerated in them 10 years ago, in the 1970 census, may be taken as minimums: Chelyabi oblast, 27,600, Novosibir' oblast, 12,200, Kuibyshev oblast, 10,400, Sverdlov oblast, 4,200, the City of Moscow, 4,200,Moscow oblast, 4,000 Primor kray, 2,200, Khabarov region, 1,700, Chita oblast, 1,600. All belong to the RSFSR. - Likewise there were 15,200 Kazakhs in Tashkent city, 6,100 in Samarkand oblast, 4,700 in Frunze city, 2,200 in Surkhandarinskaya oblast and 1,300 in Leninabad oblast in Central Asia. *Gur'ev, Mangyshlakskaya, Karaganda and Dzhezkazganskaya oblasts were created during the intercensal period. Growth rates are given here for comparative purposes. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-0085QRQ0040Q050049-9 FOR OFFIC'IAt. USN: ONL.Y ~'ablr-. iv~mbers of Kazakhs in Union Republics and Growth Rates Numbers in Growth Rate Aoministrative Unit Thousands 1970-1979 I. UzSSR 620.1 30.2 1. Karakalpak~kaya ASSR 243.9 31.1 2. Tashkent oblast 208.0 26.6 3. Bukhara oblast 70.2 36.6 - 4. Dzhizak~kaya oblast 35.5 38.01 ~ 5. Syr-darya oblast 17.7 38.01 . - 6. Khorezm oblast 11.2 25.6 = II. RSFSR 518.1 8�4 1. Astrakhan 107.0 10.6 2. Orynbor oblast 98.6 5.2 3. ~ar.atov 63.2 10.4 ~ 4. Omsk oblast 61.2 16.1 ~ 5. Volgogr~3d oblasc. 34.9 10.7 - 6. K:irganskaya eblast 14.0 11.4 7. Altay kray 10.8 -13.82 8. Ta.~li-Altay Aut. oblast 8.7 20.5 9. Kalmyk ASSR 6.1 -13.72 III. TurkmenSSR 79.5 16.0 1. Krasnovodsk oblast 26.5 34.11 2. Tashauz obl~ast 25.2 5.4 3. Mary oblast 15.3 7�1 4. Sharzhy oblast 6�2 8�8 5. Ashkhabad oblast 4.4 34.21 IV~ KirghizSSR 27.4 24.0 1. Frunze oblast 20.0 32.0 _ 2. Is~yk-Kul'skaya oblast ' S�3 22�5 V. TaSSR 9.6 15.7 VI. UkSSR 7.2 -5.12 _ All Union Republics 1,267.1 19.1 Table 4. Numbers and Growth Rates, 1970-1979, of Kazakhs by Region Numbers As Percent Growth Natural In Of Total Rate Increase Reqio~ Thousands Population 1970-1979 1970-1979 Difference I. Southern Kazakhstan 2,409.0 44.0 29.0 25.0 +4.0 II. Western Kazakhstan 1,023.4 56.0 23.7 22.0 +1.7 III. Fastern Kazakhstan 810.6 33.0 18.7 21.6 -3.7 IV. Central Asia 736.7 28.1 32.0 -3.9 V. Northern Kazakhstan 595.1 20.0 17.3 20.0 -2.7 VI. RSFSR 530.3 8.0 16.0 -8.0 VII. Central K~zakhstan 465.3 24.0 29.3 23.0 +6.3 L s publishec~J Growth rates of Syr-darya, Dzhizakskaya, Ashkhabad and Krasnovodsk oblast, which were created during the intercensal peric~d are given for comparison. lNegative growth rates are indicated by 24 FOR OFF[CIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL1' Growth rates for Kazakhs in union republics vary. This is, first of all, a reflection of large natural increase rates and their stability and,. secondly, declining rates of natural increase and increasing out-migration. Thus numbers of Kazakhs decreased in the Altay region, for example, and in the Kalmyk ASSR and the UkSSR and increasQd in the oblasts of Dzhizak, Bukhara and Krasnovodsk and in the Karakalpakskaya ASSR. Oblasts in the last two tables are arranged into seven geographical areas. The total is largest for south~rn Kazakhstan; the percentage of total population constituted by - the Kazakhs is highest .for western Kazakhstan; the observed or actual rate of growth is highest for central Kazakhstan, and the rate of increase is highest in Central Asia. The rate of natural increase is two times highe r there, for example, than the rate of natural increase for Kazakhs in the RSFSR. Three of the seven regions are receiving migrants, but out-migrants are more numerous than in-migrants in fo~~r. There is Kazakh migration from all areas to southern Kazakhstan, but migration to western Kazakhstan is from the RSFSR and Central Asia and to central Kaaakhstan from western, northern and southern oblasts. Numbers of Kazakhs in the Soviet Union will reach 7,OOp,000 by September, 1981. How- ever, if Kazakhs living in foreign countries are included, the number of Kazakhs reacbes 8,000,000. Of these nearly 1,000,000 live in the Chinese People's Republic, more than 90,000 in the Mongolian People's Republic, 40,000 in Afghanistan and 25,000 in Turkey and in other western and eastern countries. Numbers of Kazakhs will reach 8,400,000 in the 1979 All-Union Census and 10,000,00 by the year 2000. COPYRIGHT: "Bilim zhane engbek," 1981 11433 CsO: 1810/603 END 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050049-9