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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONi.Y _ JPRS L/ 10012 25 S~ptember 1981 ~ V\/orldwide Re ort p ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ~ (FOUO 5/81) - FB~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from fereign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources ~ are transcribed or reprinr,ed, with the original phrasing and - other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- - mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are _ enclosed in parentheses. Words or names prQCeded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within. the body of an i.tem originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. - The contents of this publicatir,~~ in no way represent the poli- _ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATIGiv BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404050062-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10012 25 September 1981 WORLDWIDE REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL ~UALITY (FOUO 5/81) CONTENTS ASIA .7APAN Nitrogen Oxide Emission C ontrols for Diesels To Require 13 Percent Cut - (JAPAN TIMES, 30 May 81) 1 EAST EUROPE CZECHOSLOVAKIA High-Quality Industrial Duat Filter Developed (Jiri Albrecht-; TECHNICKY TYDENNIK, No 16, 1981) 3 NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA SAUDI ARABIA Briefs Desalination Plan t 8 - a - [III - WW - ].39 FOUO] Fl1R l1FFf!'i ~ TCF l11VT V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JAPAN i1ITROGEN OXIDE E~IISSION CONTROLS FOR DIESELS TO REQUIRE 13 PERCENT CUT Tokyo J~?PAIV TIrfES in English 30 r:ay 81 p 2 ~Text~ The Environment :1~ency Large truck~ and buses ~~�ith a decided Frida~� to introduce a ~.:i~terent [}~pe ~f diesel en~ine new emission control standard ~~~ill be subject to tlie 1983 in 19R3 tu reduce N Ox con- controlstandards. _ ' centratlons in exhaust tumes ps a result, all types of trom large diesel engine trucks gasolinc and diesel automobiles and buses by 1:; percent (rom K�ill be subjec[ to the \Ox the present le~�els. emission control standards in The agency als~ decided to 199i, the agency said. , introduce a ne~~� noise control 7'he first noise control standard alsu in 19R.; to reduce standr.rd ~cas announced Cor noise le~~els ui trucks and passenger cars in September microbuces u�ith a load last ~~ear for enforcement from capacit~~ of 3 to ~ tons by three ne~t vear. phons. ~tost oi the large trucks and The agenc~~ said permissible buses ha~~e a diesei engine that le~~els of \Os concentration in is driven by directl~~ injec[ing e~haust fumes trom la?�ge fuel into the combustion diesel engine trucks and bu~e. chamber. and ne~.s noi~e Ic~~els of the !t has been considered dif- trucks and microbuses �~ould ~e ficult to reduce ~Ox con- announced in au;ust alter centration in exhausl gas from consultations ~~�ith the 1'rans� such trucks and bu~cs. sport Jiinistry. tio�~ever, the F.n~~ironment !~Ox emission control ;tand- .q~enc~!'s ad~~isory~ bod~� hns ards tor aulo exhaust :umes reccnlly come up ~~~ith a repm�t w~ere tirst inlroduced in 197:,. that i! has become technicall~: Passenaer cars are no�~ feasible to reduce \Ox subject to the 19~R ~Ox emissions [rom these vehicles em:ssion control standard5. n}~ 1:; percent by intrnducing a Trucks. micr~buses, ~~nd other ne�~ eombustion chamb~r a~;d gawline en~ine automohiles as impro~�ing air irtakn, e~haust ~ccll as a ccrtain t~~pc oi dic~el enaine ~~chicles arc nrn~r suhjcrl and [u~l injection s~~st~~m:. to the 1J~1 and i0;~ cnntrol .lapan's automohilr o~~~ner- ~:~:~rci~. ship ~ti�as:;; mi!lion as ~~i the erd ~ - ~ FnR (1FH TrT ~ * ~�c~ nrif v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 rvrt uCrLl.1r~L Uoc, U(VLI or aiarch ts~u. Plan to Cut NOx Ot this [igure. 9U-i,UUO buscs and trucks, slightly less than'.5 The Cabine[ Frida~� derided percent, ha~�e direct injection ~n a plan to reform part ot the diesel engines. :~ir Pollution I.a~c in nrder to Hou~ever, according to an restric[ aggre~a~e amounts of estimate made b}� the agency on nitrogen oxide~ i\Qx ~ b~~ the basis of a sur~~e;: in Toky~o areas. and three adjacen[ prelecture:, [:nder the plan the oo~~ern- such truchs and tw~es ac- ment is to carr~~ out, a per- counted fur _�O.i percent of Ihe missible le~~el of \0~ is set ior - total \Ox emissions. each area and each factor~~ is Therefore, much expectation required to cooperate in has been placed on the reduc- restricting the concentration of I~Ox for the arca. tion of auto \Ox emissions ;~t presen[, each plant is - through the introducifon of \Ox requested not to discharge ti0x control star.aards ~or such above a i~en allou~able Ie~~el. trucks anr buses. ~ C;nder the planned noise .according to the leQi~la[i~~e contrni standards, trucks and P?an. ttie total amount cor.trol microbuses �~ith a loading s}�stem ~~~ill be applied to the �~ards of Tok~~o, Jlusashino. ca~acit}� of 2 to ~ tons are 1[itaka, Chotu, Flo~~a and required ro reduce c;ieir noise output by thrce phons Knmae ('foh}~o1, ~'okohama, in1923. Ka~~�asaki. 1'oko~uka However. small ~�ehicles ~hanaga~ea Pretecturei, wefghing less than 3.a tons, Osaka, Sakai. To~�onaka. Suita. which are more numerous than Izumiotsu. Jloriguchi Itirakala, the medium-si2e automobiles, 1'ao, \e~~agawa. ~Iatsubara, 1re to he exempted Crom the Dailo, Kadoma, Settsu, 1JP3 control stanciards because Takaishi, Higashi-Osaka,. of technical di[ticulties in Shijona~vate, and Katano reducing their noise output. t Osaka Prefecture~. COPYRIGHT : THE JAP~1V TIMES 1981 CSO: 5000/!+530 _ 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CZECHOSL(ZVARIA HIGH-QUALITY INDUSTRIAL DUST FILTER DEVELOPED Prague TECI~TICKY TYDENNIK in Czech No 16, 1981 p 9 [Article by Eng Jiri Albrecht, CSc: "An Imgorr~r Stride Toward Prot-ectior_ of the Atmosphere"] ~TextJ Particulate matter fro~ a wide variety of industrial sources is increasingly ~ - polluting the environment, causing considerable harm. Separating equipment which varies widely in effectiveness is used to trap it. Accordingly, industrial filters based on intermittent trapping of the particulate matter on f.ilter fabric and re- moval of the dust layer from it are coming to the fore. The main advantage of in- dustrial f ilters is their excellent separating ability: while mechan.ical (cyclone) separators allow hundreds of milligrams of particulate matter per cubic meter of air to pass and electrical filters at their best pass 50 to 100 mg/m3, industrial filters purify the air to 10 to 50 mg/m3. Industrial filter research and development is concentrated in the Research Inst.itute of Air Engineering in Prague. While before 1970 the development of ~ndustrial ~ filtration was backward, in recent years it has had much success. The institute has completed develepment of the Finet standard series of modern filter fabrics, working together with the Wool Research Institute in Brno, and has put it into . series production at Nitop Mimon. At the same time, the institutes have completed development and started production of the FKA industrial filter, which decreases the output concentration to 20 mg/m3. This has concluded the f irst comprehensive stage in the long-term plan for development of industrial filtration, bringing Czecho- slovakia to the level of advanced foreign producers of filtration equipment. What About Fine Dust? Research and development have also aimed at a radical decrease in~. particulate matter in industrial filters and at capturing so-called "fine particles." The institute ha.s accomplished the state plan assignment "High-Eff iciency Filtration for Industrial Purposes (1.977-19801," aimed at deyelopin.g a new high-effi~iency f ilter whi~h would gi~re o�tp�it concentrati.on~ below t mb~m3 thrnughout the of the filter fabric. It i~ well known tha_t ~i~e F~ner wo~~en filter texr.,ilPs make i.t pc~ssible to decrease outp~~t concentrations. B�t we kn~w from exp?rience rhat in ac*ual operatiem, even ~,*hen they use woven f ilter fa~rics, domestic and fore3gn f ilters have ou~put con- 3 FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004400050462-4 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY centrations on the order of 10 to 50 mg/m3. Before work began o~a the assignmeut, all of the factors affecting the output concentration were identified: the quality of the filter fabric, its sha.p~e, the regeneration method used on the dust-covered fabric, the reliability of the attachment of �ilter textiles under operating condi- tions, the design of the sepa.rat3ng baffles between the clean and dirty sides of the f, and the reinforcement of the fabric. All of these factors were analyzed in detail and the f indings were used to design the FKB f ilter. For high-eff iciency f il.tration, ttee new textile Finet-PES-4/NZ (produced by Nitop Mimon), which fully meets all requirements and demonstrated satisfactory characteristics in tests using Spongelit test dust, was developed. The experience gained in monitoring the operation of the earlier FKA filter was used in the design of the FKB. Two Possibilities for Regeneration During development, a bag-type f ilter insert of new design with a filter surface of 25 mm made from one piece of filter f~.taric 23 meters long was tested. The ease of producing these liners and the minimum length of the connection eliminate the danger of high leakage which frequency occurred in hose-type connections. The baffle wall between the clean and dust-covered side of the filter is manufactured 3n such a way that leaks are prevented in the production process. Tighteness of the filter textiles within the f ilter during replacement and operation is an especially im- portant matter. For example, changing the f ilter hoses in earlier f ilters is ex- tremely toilsome, and the quality of the work depends only on the care with which it is performed. Experience shows that individual hoses are often incorrectly clamped. The clamping of the FKB f ilters is different from that used in the FKA. The new so-called "two circuit" clamping makes 3ncorrect fastening 3mpossible even by unskilled personnel. The FKB is regenerated by reverse blawing either with air from the surroundings of the filter or with purif ied air from the blower output. - The filter has the same design for both methods,~and output and connecting parts are added. The positive-draft part of th~: air-engineering equipment may be opera�ted in tHe case of FKB filters regenerate~ with purif ied air, by using a separate blowback fan. The institute devoted particular attention to reinforcing filter fabrics to make them keep their shape. A synthetic reinfor~ement usable at ai~ temperatures up to - 90� C which is being prepared will considerably decreas~ overall labor inputs re- quired by the f ilter. During the development process, four FF:B 4/100 f ilters were also produced. The first has been in use in the laboratory of the Research Institute of Air Engineering in Prague as part of its measuri.ig line. The measurements obtained using Spongelit test dust ~n an PKB filter fitted with the high-efficiency Finet-PES-4/NZ fabiic surprised everyone participating in the assignment. Such low output concentrations (in the thousandths of a milligram per cubic meter) had not been expected even in extremes of optimism these e:ccellent f ilter characteristics had to be tested in industry. It was decided to �nstall f ilters at Solo Susice, which planned to return the purified air to tY^e working area, at Kovohute Mnisek (whers the dust that had to be separated was extrer.~ely f3ne), and at the Zemedelsky Agricultural Purchase and Supply Enterprise r~ilin. ~ ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400050062-4 ~OR OFFI~IAL US~: ONLY g Excellent Operating Results At Solo Susice the dust is exhausted from lines where Sololit boards are sanded. The grinding dust is one of the finest and most clinging types of dust. Measure- ments were made during 1979 and 1980 at filter speeds of 4 cm/sec and 5.2 cm/sec. The average output concentration for 44 measurements was O.OQ65 mg/m3 and the average pressure losses 682 Pa (filtration speed 4 cm/sec) and 979 Pa (5.2 cm/sec). The experiments showed that the FKB filter could be used in the wood--processing industry when the purified air was to be returned to the work area. Energy savings in a single winter period amount to 15 percent of the purchase price of the f il~er, " so that the users recoup their investment is less than 7 years. - The FKB filter has been in use at Kovohute Mnisek since 1979 to trap parkiculate matter from an electric arc furnace used in the production of silicon. The dust is extremely f ine, with an average particle size of 0.29 micrometers, and with 85 percent of the particles smaller than 0.5 micrometers. A filter from the French Prat-Daniel company is in use there. The FKB filter is now in operation under the same load (filtration speed 1 cm/sec) and is coruiected to the duct between the cooler and the Prat-Daniel f ilter. In December 1979 the F'KB was connected to the automstic unit con~rolling the Prat-Daniel filter and has since been operating simultaneously with it. By the end of 1980 it had been in operation for 5,400 hours and 22 measur~ments had been made. The average output concentration was 0.049 mg/m3 and the average pressure loss 2.414 Pa. Comparison with the output concentra- tion from the Prat-Daniel f ilter, which ranges from 20 to 60 mg/m3, indicates un- ambiguously the quality of our filter. The fourth FKB filter was produced and installed by workers in the shops of the Agriculr.ural Purchase and Supply Enterprise in Prague (KUD [Kra~ Maintenance Shop] Uhlirske Janovice) in accordance with documentation that was furnished. In this case, the effect on filter quality, i.e. on its high eff iciency, resulting from manufacture by different producer was studied. This FKB 4/100 f ilter using Finet-VL/POP f ilter fabric was installed in the grinding compound production area ~f the Agricultural Purchase and Supply Enterprise plant in Milin, and since December 1979 has been separating particulate matter from transport routes and equipment for the production of fodder mixtu~es (two-shift operation). By the end of last year it ha.d been in operation for more than 400 hours; the average output concentration was 0.031 mb/m3 and the pressure loss was 956 Pa (f iltration speed 2.1 cm/sec). Production in a Repair and Maintenance Shop FKB filters have been tested in facilities where the dust to be separated varied _ widely in character and f3neness. The summary value of all output concentration measurements is 0.026 mg/m3. There were no malfunctions, and with the exception of the collection mechanisms th~ filter requires no maintenance, and its production entails no subsupply other than the electric motors that drive it. Any ordinarily equipped shop can produce it. A lifetime of at least 15,000 operating hours is expected for the bag-type f ilter liners. f,. complete set of technical specif ications, including a description of the f ilter, - the range of uses, performance characteristics, weight, pr;~ci.pal dimensions and ~~onnector dimen~i~ns, installation jnstructions, and electrical control design sug- gestions and circuits, has been developed. A complete set of drawings and produc- tion documentation f~r the type series is available. But the greatest problem is 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY - production of zhe filters. to its operating plan~, by 1984 ZWZ [Air Engineering Equipment Plants] Milevsko is to produce eight F:tB filters. Many enter- prlses wlzich urgencly need them will be producing them in their own shops accordin.~ to the institu~e's documentation. Thus a new high-efficiency industrial filter which returns air to the surround~ngs with a much lower than usual impurity content has been prepared. The output con-- centratiion far below 1 nnb/m3 places our FKB at the top of current industrial filtpr development worldwide. We imow of no producer abroad who offers a filter with com- parable characteristics. The high-ef~iciency FKB industrial filter is an iunportant success of Czechoslovak ~ research and development. Its use will radically limit particulate matter in many industrial operations and thus will decrease the harm done to the natural surround- ings and human health by industrial discharges. ~ 6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , , '9 _ .-i�-- --�--D . ~ 4 t � - ~ ~ . ~I ~ ~:T' _ I I I; I I ~ I'~ ~ il i 1 1~ I Y� I ~r }.};..i'I-~i~-} '.~,.~~i~~i ; ~r~~ I I I ~ ~i'~ i ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~~~i~ki~+~,il ~ii~ t , i ;;u~ 5 ~I;~~.;~~ . 1 a k~ � � w-:r ?r nN ~ r - - . ~ l_r ~ 3 ' 2 ~ ~ 7 ~ ~ I , 1 ~ _c-- ~l.-�.~-_ i-a ~ D ~ _ ; . o , p ~ ~ ~ ~ I ' '.Ll . _ ~p". ' ' Sch~n:a uysokoGl'inn~ho prdmysiou~ho ~tit~u FKB: skNf~l ifit~u 1, ustupnt dti - 2, ~fitrnMst kapsovd ulotka - 3, unltl~nf uyzlu! - 9, un~~~t uyz~ut - 5, t~snlc! 1tS~a - 6, ustupnt komora 7, ~Iltral'nt komora - 8, ufjstupni komo- ra~ - 9, ~e,qeneratnl za?tzenf - 10, ufjstupnt dff - I1, proplachouact pofru� bt - 12, uentlldtor - 13. The high-efficiency FKB industrial filter. Key: 1. Filter housing . 8. Filter chamber 2. Inlet section 9. Outlet chamber 3. Bag-type filter liner 10. Regeneration equipment 4. Inner reinforcement 11. Output section 5. Outer reinforcement 12. Blowback duct 6. Sealing bar 13. Blower 7. Inlet chamber 8480 CSO: 5000/3022 7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004400050462-4 t , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ; SAL'DI ARABIA BRIEFS DESALINATION PLANT--Nagoya, 22 May (JIJI PRESS)--Ishikawakima-Harima Heavy Ind~s- tries, Ltd (INI) will ship 1.5 units of sea water desalination facilities, w~i~h have been recently completed at itsAichi plant in Chita, to Saudi Arabia next Tuesday. It earlier landed a 53-billion-yen (about $265 million) order far a total of 10 units from Saline Water Conversion Corp of the des~~rt kingdom. The equipment with multistage flash distillation process is capable of d+esalt~~g 23,600 tcns of sea water a day. The remaining 8.5 units will be f~.nished by February next year. These facilities will constitute part of the world'~ largest sea water desa~ination plant to supply industrial and drinking water to a huge industrial complex (the second phase) now under construction at A1 Jubayl. [Text] [Tokyo JIJI in English 1409 GMT 22 May 81 OW] CSO: 5000 END 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050062-4