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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFI('iA[. USI~: ON1.1' JPRS L/ 10017 28 September 1981 I~SSR Re ort p CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY CFOUO 22/81 ~ i Fg'$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050067-9 NOTE JPRS ~~�'lications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or rPprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclo~ed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each it_em, or following the last Zine of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. ilnfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are , enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear ir. the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as ~ given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450067-9 FOR OFF[~'IAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10017 28 September 1981 ; USSR REPORT ~ CYBERNETICS, .COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY (FOUO 22/s1) CONTENTS HARDWARE - Building Video Terminals for On-Line Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Optical-Fiber Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Graph Plotters With Linear Electric Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 External Memory With Random Access t~ an Automated Control System. 12 Raising Reliabili.ty o~ Semiconductor Read-Only Memory. 18 Mass External Storage With Sequential Access in an Autanated Control System ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 System for Automatic Monitoring of a Data Transmission Device. 22 Industrial Mini-Robots of Modular Construction With Discrete Pneumatic Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 = Manipulator With Pneumoacoustic Sensor of External Information 30 Probe Manipulators for Investigation of Semiconductor Materi.als and Structures on Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 New Models of YeS Computers. . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Date Teleprocessing System Hardware Combination. . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Aspects of the Employment of Peripherals in Automated Design c~f Integrated Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Programmer for Microprocessor Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 - a- [III - USSR - 21.C S&T FOUO] c~o n~~~* r rcF nrri v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 � FOR OFF[CIA1. USE ONLY Multimachine and Multiprocessor Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 YeS 9004 Key-to-Tape Data Entry Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SS MICROCOMPUTERS Software and Basic Applications of 'Elektronika S5' Microcomputers. . 63 SOFTtJARE Text Editor With Developed System of Commands for YeS OS. 120 Tools for Modeling Real-Time Systems for the 'E1'brus' Multi~rocessor Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Realization of PASCAL Language for 'E1'brus' Multiproces,sor Computer Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Abstracts From the Journal 'AROGRAMMING', May-June I981 . 131 Microprocessor System Developer's Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Briefs Reli3bility of On-Board Systems 140 APPLICATIONS . Providing Information for Scientific Research on Complex Problem of 'Power Engineering' by Data Base Teleaccess. . . . . . . . . 141 Using Microcomputers in Pum~ Station Control System for Main 0i1 Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Organization of Computer-Instrument Interaction in Systems for Automation of Scientific Research With Variable Structure 150 ~ Computerized Vibration Test Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 ~Jsing Computers in Major Construction Organizations . . . . . . . . . 156 Automation of Mult-i-Pass Sheet-Metal ~t~-~ping Using Industrial Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 , Using Computers in Power Systems: From Experience of ~onbass Power System. . � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Automated Power Control System With Third-Generation Computers. 170 Economic Effectiveness of Power System Automated Control System I72 -b- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY PUBLICATIONS Abstracts From Journal 'AliTOt4ATIC CONTROL AND COMPUTER SCIENCE' ~ May-June 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . , . 176 Distribution of Reg;,laz Message Flows in Information Systems. 180 Computerized Automatic Teaching Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Control Systems Design Automation . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Control Systems Design Automation in Organizations of the USSR Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education. 19~ Some Evaluations of Efficiency of Parallel Computations 198 -c- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY HARDWARE BUILDING VIDEO TERMINALS FOR ON-LIPdE INT~RACTION - Moscow PRIBORY I SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA in Russian Na 5, May 81 pp 7-8 " [Article by V. A. Stryuchenko: "Characteristic Features of the Building of Video Terminals for On-Line Interaction"] [Text] Video terminals providing remote man-machine interaction permit on-line exchange of different types of information in teleprocessing systems. This interaction is in the natu~ce of an informational conversation since it involves the operations of receiving, .storing, retrieving, displaying, processing and transmitting information. Systems analysis of the structural organization of remote video terminal equipment and of their operating algorithms with respect to functional characteristics has made it possible to distinguish the inter-related functional parts in the structure of this equipment as broken down into data display, data input and preparation (editing) and ~iata exchange (Figure 1). Simultaneous operation of these inter-related control cir- cuts with the participation of the human operator characterizes the functioning of video terminal equipment. In the stage of video-terminal design this structural division facilitates the dev~lop- ment of requirements for individual units and assemblies and the algorithms involved in the functioning of video terminals and permits classification of video terminal hard- - ware. Data display - this is the process of converting information from digital form into screen displays or the documentation of data for presentation to the operator in visual form and then the processing of this data. Data is presented in the form of either text or graphic displays. Of great importance in this regard are the principle of image formation, image formats, the methods employed to extract individual fragments and image quality. After visual perce~tion of the information generated and making his decisions the operator inputs and prepares data by means of a variety of input de- - vices: keyboard, light pen etc. The speed of this information-processing channel, that is, the poss~bility offered of on-line data editin~ and input, to a great extent deter- - mines the capacity of the entire interactive subsystem. The data exchange process in- cludes the conversion of information for transmission via communication links, execution of exchange algorithms and conversational procedures and is governed by the rate at wr:ich data is received and transmitted and by the interaction of the video terminal with other teleprocessing system hardware. Some of the control processes in videu termir~al systems are cyclical in nature and oc- cur without operator participation, the regeneration of a display on screen, for exam~- ple, nr mode synchronization, computer-initiated message output or diagnostic checks. 1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 NOR OFFICIAI. USF., ONLY Video terminals may be categorized with respect to their functional characteristics as f oll.ows : , image - by type of display (screen), method of image formation and form of information . presentation; � clata input and preparation - by degree of sophistication of input and editing functiotts and by control procedure; data exchange - by type of conversation, exchange procedure and rate of data transmis- s ion . Efficient on-line interaction in conversational systems requires attention to the im- provement of the functional ct;aracteristics of video terminal equipment. For one thing, video terminals with CRT, now mos~ widely used, do not provide best-quality screen images, the possibility of improving which is governed by the need to improve a number of parameters: to reduce raster distortion and image instability (static and dynamic) due to external factors, improve the accuracy of the ' --OdMen addressing of image elements, brightness, _ ~ (~OHNbIMU (1 r.____~ clarity (focusing) and to eliminate interframe ~ :/npQB/lCnuP~2~ ; x~ flicker. Degradation of these parameters may ~ b~ shorten the period of time an operator can work ~ z ~ ~ with the screen and result in a sharp drop in t H�du- ~ Y~ operator productivity. ! ~ ,o~~~A \ ~~~4) (7) E I 3~ `~Onr.nomo'p, B6od upedarc ~ ~ The need to regenerate images on a CRT screen ~ mupoAonur ~ ~ ~ arid establish the required frame frequency to ~~~~~,m, "(5~ ~g~ m I insure a stable imagE dictate the use of com- . plex control algorithms to coordinate the par- � allel operation of display, i/o and editing Figure 1. 1- data exchange; channels, which creates ~quipment redundancy, _ 2- control; 3- image; 4- the use, for example, of multilevel storage in - display; 5- print; 6- oper- the system and of high-speed parallel algorithms ator; 7- input and editing; in control. Figure 2, for example, shows how 8- data input and preparation. the operational cycle of a video terminal is complicated if it insures image stability in all modes (Figure 2b) as compared with the realization of successive cycles of video-terminal operation with interrupt;.on of the CRT screen display dsring the time required for data exchange (Figure 2a). - The above-mentioned are still to a large degree characteristic of character-graphi.c video terminals, with the de.velopment of which are al~so associated prot~lems wi_h pro- viding output to the screen of mixed information wir'.~ the use of raster and vector (or coordinate) imaging methods for editing graphic information. These problems are con- nected primarily with the coordination of the time characteristics of image regenera- tion and other operational modes. One of the promising directions toward solution of these problems is tr~ creation of a video-terminal display channel using gas-discharge (plasma) displays (GDD). A matrix imaging system, which provides good accuracy, stability and illumination characteristics along with adeqiiate resolution capability, permits generation of high-quality character- graphic images ~n plane plasma display screens. The table below presents comparative characteristics of GDD and CRT. The use of ac GDD in video terminals permits establish- - ment of combined information transmission and editing modes (exploiting the GDD's abil- ity to store information without regeneration), simplification of control and display algorithms and lower speed req~iirements on output units synthesizing images on the screen. This in turn permits reduction of inemory capacity to that required for imagE 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY editing. The small size and weight of the GDD permits convenient installat3on~at the operator's work position. Video terminals with plasma screens have virtually no analog~~Components; x~~yRO~:;q all control~ functions, including dis- ~l_ ~~o~r~~~-.�' ~ 1~J' play, are executed by digital compo- � is1 r~:, ap- Neix Jampam pecypco4 (4 CyMMapNeie (y s ) ( 6 ) ~ampamei pecyp coB ~o B6tdeHUe annapainHOu npeBeimoam ~aOoNNbir ? ~oddcp,rrKU BnA mpoKma c MaKCUNaneNanu Jampa- ~ 5 ~ maMU pecypcoB Hem(No) ~uKCOquA npotpaMMHO-annapomHOZo po~Bener+ux B cucmeMe; pa~padomKU omd~naNeix mrxNUVecKUx mpedaBaNU~3 Na annapamH a r~ npatpaMMNyw peanu~ar~ulo mpaKmaB oaM~Na ~ Figure 4.15. Process of Working Out Hardware-Software Compatibilities in DCPT Systems Key: (1) Development of Algorithms; (2) Singling Out Algorithms of Exchange Channels from Algorithms of System Work; (3) Selection (Specification) of Variations of Realizing Exchange Channels, ~ Evaluation Programming; (4) Estimates of Expenditure of Resources for Eacfi Channel, Determination of Total Resource Expenditures; (S) Do Total Resource Expenditures~ Exceed Assigned Expenditures?; (6) Introduction of Hardware Support for Channel with Maximum Resource Expenditures; (7) Establishing the Software-Ha.rdware Breakdown in the System, Working Out Particular Technical Specifications for Hardware and Software Realization of Exchange Channel. The questions of designing the hardwar~ part of the article are the basic spe- - cialization of those development workers to whom this book is addressed, and therefore are not considered here. 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040400050067-9 FOR UFF(C:fAL USF: ONLY ,t>3`~~?: Programming and Debugging. Figure 4.16 (tielow) describes the jobs involved in this stage. After development of the algoritfims of system functioning and preliminary coort~i- nation of the fiardware-software breakdown of functions the specific software is programmed in machine language, assembler language, or the high-level language witfi which tfie microcomputer is equipped. It can be stated with confidence that it is wise for tfie developers of the specific microcomputer software when formu- lating problems witfi a volume of more than 1,000 words to program in autocode, not machine code. The convenience of modifying programs during debugging with these volumes of work will repay expenditures for additional (compared to study of the system of commands) incorporation of facilities for automation programming. Po~podomKa pudnvux cxen, y~ov- 1 r /'a~padom~~`b~ ~ NeHUecxeM~~o-npozQRMHHblXCO- pnAnvu~c f.xCM, 7/1RI[lCHU!l,KOB!/pOSONtllQPOCSMX ~ anznpumnaB, pa~pabomKa u om- i~pnr./+a~rnu~PnNUe noBKa npotpaaa-unumamopoQ ~ ~ (a ~i~ eNer~H~~ oa~moNOeKu i , ~ ~ IpnNCnAqun, aSmur~anNan on?- � ~ 7 OmnuJKU (C~ ~ o~ naBKaanrdennNnrxnporpuMN, n npuzpanN caoan- ~ a~ xonnnrKCNan omnoBKa zP9n~~ Sk~ - a ~ ~ yeneBe~x npotpnroa c ucnonaso E rqnro Kpocc-cpedcinB ~ F ~ ep~NUPH/J/IOEpQMM UMOOi~I(U(1 ~ ~ OivewNrr~ odcmoHUBKu ~ ( e ~ ANanu~ npasaneriotmu Be~dopa ~ p_,~' oI cxeroHO-npozponnnaxcotnume- a l~mpndomna E ~ Nuu u BpeneHHe~x napanempoB(1 ~ e naKemn Ha d9yxna- OmpadomKO ema ~ nnznpumaoB paQame~ cucmenbr, unr.wrro Kor+nneKCe Na MuKpo-3BM ~ nnBenuPoBaHUe Bpeannxeix ycnn- a o I Bf/A,f ( 0 dNl/XMOU/IfNHOMKOM/l/1PAY'E' b p~ Z Z~ a 4 ( 4~ Onn~mHaA~tl~ a~ npp~tpKa ycmouvuPnr.mupa6mm~i F n~~~~rnNnH e~ ~Krnnyam0yua E ~ ont.o umna4 0 ean~ Nerx ycnnBunx ~ ~r.cnnqanra~p~.N Nn Ha OJSI c, ea p,19 unu /lAJ9 Z ~ cpe e~ ~m~ �t o ~ ~ S ~ /ipoOepKU ~ravtcmBa yeneBozo/10 PudomaBcepr~u- I npu aNOZOKpomNenucnone~o0a- ~ Hnri unnupamqpe Na ~ Huu 0 peaneNeix yc~aBuex~n ~ nd~i f f Figure 4.16. Work to Program and Debug Target Algorithms of Systems for Control, Processing, and Trans- missfon of Data. Key: (a) Two-Step Design Procedure; (b) Development of Working Circuits, Programming; (c) Debugging Program Using Cross-Facilities; (d) Development of Model on Two-Machine Complex; (e) Experimental Operation on ROM Memory; (f) Work in Series-Produced Apparatus on ROM Memory; (g) Development of i�iodel on Microcomputer; [Key continued next page] - si ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Key to Figure 4.16 continued] (h) Experimental Operation on Main Memory or Semipermanent Memory; (i) One--Step Design Procedure; (j) Development of Working Circuits, Specification of Hardware--Software Compatibilities, Coding Speci.tic Algorithms, Development and Debugging of Programs tfiat Simulate the F,xternal Situation; (k) Translation, Autonomous Debugging of Specific Programs, Comprehensive Debugging of Groups of Specific Programs Using Programs To Simulate the External Situation; (1) Analysis of the Selection of Hardware-Software Compatibilities and Time Parameters of the Algorithms of System Work, Modeling Under Real Conditions (in a Two-Machine Complex); (m) Test of the Work Stability of Algorithms in Real Environmental Con- ditions; (n) Check of the Quality of Specific Software with Multiple Use Under Real Conditions. The next stage of design is debugging specific software with cross-facilities - for automating program development (see Figure 4.17 below). These design facili- ties make it possible: - 1. To develop programs parallel with devising the hardware framework of tfie system and its coupling with the microcomputer in a model of the object or a prototype of it. ~ 2. To use the significant (compared to microcomputer) resoL~rces of general-purpose or large control computers,above all the memory and external units, for automatic running of a large nun,ber of detiugging variations, varied documentation of results, accumu- lation and storage of libraries of programs, and other jobs for which these computers are well-equipped in terms of hardware and software capabilities. � - 3. To model the external situation using programs realized on the machine being used and connected to the specific programs of the microcomputer through the modeling program of the system of commands; this approach can be used not only in the stage of _ designing the concrete hardware on the basis of a microcom- puter, ~ut also in the process of research or predesign work to choc;:e tFie work algorithm of the hardware, optimize pro- ~ posed hardware-software compatibilities, and determine ade- - quate quantitative characteristics of the specific software. This is especially important during the development of hard- ware with new technical characteristics or based on new working principles (the po,sibility of an investigation using such facilities is substantially higher than the possibility of reproducing the same results on the debugging stand). 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ 1 HQ yHf/BCpCO/16NOU .~BM yNlI~PPCQAbNOA.1BM yCXQ~NbI!! pllKC/n /1pOtQONM 15 Tp aNCnAyun 9 /7epmnneHma ~ 21 ~ . JarpylKa ~ ~ /Iep~aROpmei ~ 2 2 ~ . /lpotoHN omna~ovNax U KOHOlQO/lbNNX O~iUN~- po8cncr?orysro MI1CK 1. Na dByxaamuNNOM KoN~eeKCe ( 2>'1HOLOq//01liNCA Mf/Kp0-.9BM- !BM N120 M220 (N6000, EC 19Nf M~ IpQNCAAI(tlA Jnzpy~Ka ~14~ ~3~J yd MNOtonnamNOnrouKpn-3BM npO20NAlOR7~0d04Nb/X /1 NCXOdNbI 9cmpau� KoNmponnNnix npunepoB meKCm cmeo " c nonott~ao NIICIY (ecau nporparn qy~em MuKpa- 3BM teA~u eederaa nprBOapamt~rMaa uK 3BM Tp pNC/lAl,UA 6 omnadnu Ha giar9epean~- (1 S, 1~ Jazpy~,ra (19 ) HOtl 3BMJ /IpOt 0//b/ OT/1Qd04NbX KoNmponeHeix npunepos /IONA/716 /IOMR/776 ~~C/1U N~aO/AO n~aBOp![- nuK BM Hu BM mensHOU omna Ku Na yNU- ycxoBaeia P- MuKpa-3BM ~ atpcnneNOU 3BMJ ' meKCm 7 /I~pOZONb1A'ON/J- /IPOLONbIAfOM/I/ICA"CN6/X y5~ ~ APRCNnIX ~ q,~UNfQOs /1QOIpGMNO aepnB ~ 13 , ~JIHKy!/OH00lNbk !IC/1D!lJ70NtlA ~ ~ ~ CmONOd m- ~yNKyuONa~lb- . HMP UCnAI/n0//UA 4. Na OaNO/7/l0/77H0!% Nare ~ CmaNBopm- '~4~uKpo-3BM NuKpo-9BM Neie 83+, R pynem ~ 12 r1UKp0-3BrN' ifuepa-3BM ~ /lynem MuK a 3BM HuKpo-3BM p " 3a'rpy~Ka 2 (16 ~ ycm oucmBo /lonnme ~ oroNei ~ P ycm oucmBo 1 Tenemarin yuK 3BM �K ynneKCHaix ymeRCinu~15~ HNrpopMayun cBa~u (1 ~gA~�r1 npunepoB dna~aKa~a codaeKmoh . codanrmD,~7' E ~18 ~ ~,yHA'f/flOHOAb- n~IpOMMAI 6HC ll3ll k Nat ucna.~na- NUA NaKemobaeKma OdeeKm o ycm odc Bp (nbaeKm)~ 1 no,rrmoduKma) c~n~a ~10 11 C o aeKm a Figure 4.17. Multilevel System for Debugging Specific Software of Equipment Based on a Family of Widely Used Microcomputers Key: (1) On a General--Purpose Computer; (2) On a Two~Machine Complex (Multiboard Microcomputer and M220 Computer); . (3) On a Multiboard Microcomputer; (4) On a Single-Board Microcomputer; (5) Magnetic Core Storage; (6) Communications Device; ' (7) Microcomputer Memory; (8) Standard Microcomputer Peripheral Units; (9) General-Purpose Computer -r Translation, Loading, Running,Debugging and Monitoring Examples Us~ing the Modeltng Program of the Command System; ~ (~0) Device for Communication witfi the Object; (11) Model of the Object (Object); (12) Microcomputer Console; (13) Microcomputer Running Comprehensive Examples, Functional Testing; [Key continued next page] 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Key to Figure 4.17 continued] (14) M220 (M6000, YeS Computer) Translation, Loading, Running~Debugging and Monitoring Examples Using a Modeling Program of the System of Commands (If Preliminary Debugging on tYie General-Purpose Computer Was Not Done); (15) Inttial Text of the Program; (16) Information for Ordering ROM LSIC's; (17) Otiject; (18) Teletype; (19) Microcomputer - Translation, Loading, Running Debugging and Monitor- ing Examples (If Preliminary Debugging on a General-Purpose Computer Was Not Done, Running Comprehensive Examples, Functional Testin~); (20) Microcomputer - Loading, Running Comprehensive Exa.mples, Functional Testing. For microcomputer-based systems with specific software and a volume of 1-lOK words, precluding this stage and employing one-stage designing leads to a great increase in the time required to work out the model on the microcomputer (2'-3') and to a possible loss in time with two-stage designing. This occurs chiefly for two reasons. In the first place, when developers use one-stage designing of specific software in the period of working out the model on the microcomputer, they have to work with "raw" programs for an extended time. Because interaction with the hardware occupies a significant volume of software in control systems o~ this class, it becomes difficult to assess the causes of incorrect work: mistakes in algo- rithms or programs, mistakes in (or failure to observe) the hardware-software compatibilities adopted, and incompletely developed hardware. In addition to the ordinary technical difficulties associated with the search for causes of incorrect system work, natural psychological protilems of interaction among spe- cialists in programming and electronics in all stages of design, which de- - termine how quickly a control system based on computers is set up, become more complex. The availability of check variants of specific software developed by means of cross-facilities and simulation programs accelerates the search for the area of the errors by simplifying interaction between programmers and the hard- ware developers. Hardware test programs developed on the basis of algorithms coordinated with the hardware developers can also serve this purpose. In the second place, the time for development of the model, which is restricted to concrete periods, and is partially spent s.olving the problems mentioned above during one-stage design, narrows the range of testing, which increases the num- ber of unidentified errors and the likelihood that the microcomputer ROM memory in series-produced hardware will have to be adjusted. But when the volume of specific software is within the range of 1K words, these solutions are possible where stage 2'--3' is conducted carefully and there is ex- perimental operation of the apparatus or device on main memory or semiperma.nent ROM memory (4') for an extended time in sufficient volume. 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Unfortunately, it is not possible to give a precise time evaluation of such work because of the large variety of types of equipment, the conditions of con- ducting stages 2'-3' and 4', the qualification:c of developers, and otfier organi- zational and technical matters that affect the time and quality of developmerit work. At the same time, experience with these developments on a number of microcomputer-based devices and equipment shows that under fairly favorable con- ditions the developers of devices and equipment who spend 10~14 months on the first stage of design of microcomputer-based systems can complete the work if the volume of specific software is not greater than 1K words. Furthermore, it is possible to use either two-stage or one-stage designing of the specific sof tware . Examples of such projects that were conducted in periods of time close to those indicated are the development of the spectrophotometer based on a single-board microcomputer with two-stage design of specific programs and the development of a general-purpose digital regulator with one-stage design of specific programs. These and numerous other developments, inc luding the development of a software user station, demonstrated that the labor-intensiveness of designing 1K words of a multipurpose microcomputer using the indicated facilities (stages 1-4 [4']) takes 10-17 person-montlis. This figure is reduced by one-fifth to one-half when designing Che following types of microcomp uter-based apparatus; this is the re- sult of experience with the use of its hardware and software facilities, the debugging system, and institution of a clearcut procedure in the design process. Comprehensive debugging. The decisive stage in the preparation of specific soft- ware from the standpoint of high-quality work by series-produced microcomputer- based equipment is working out programs on the microcomputer along with hardware framing within the model or experimental equipment (see Figure 4.17 above). This stage provides the final test of whether the ideology of constructing specific programs and the selection of hardware-sof tware compatibilities were correct and also refines the principal time characteristics of microcomputer work within the equipment. When describing this stage it is advisable to compare hardware and software facilities for doing it. These facilities include: a microcomputer equipped with resident facilities for - automating program development (a translator from autcode, ? loader, and software- hardware support for monitoring program codes); and, a two-machine "microcomputer - M220" (or M6000 or Y.eS computer) complex with cross-facilities for automating program development (translator from autocode, loader, and modeling program of the set of commands). There are two advantages to using only a microcomputer interlinked with a model of the object or an experimental prototyp e: the ausence of expenditures for setting up a.two-machine complex and putting the appropriate software on it; the speed with which work tiegins on the model, wfiich is determined entirely by the time required to deliver the appropriate microcomputer and connect it to the framing hardware. For enterprises whose technical policy is moving toward de- velopment of microcomputer-based apparatus, devices, and control systems, however, this way is acceptable only for initial development using microcomputers and only within the restrictions mentioned above. ~ 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The only ~ay to achieve the maximum degree o~ reliability in delaugging specific .nierocomputer software in a fairly limited time is to use a two-inachine complex that combines elaborate fiardware typical of general-purpose computers (fast input-output units and external memory) with the functioning of real micro- computer processors and input-output units together with a model of the object. The cros-s-facilities put on the "old" computer of a two--machine complex provide fast and optimal modification of the programs of specific software during the process of tfieir testing and correction within a two~machine complex. These fa- cilities can also be used for cross--debugging of programs during the design of specific software. But as practice has demonstrated, enterprises that are de- veloping several types of microcomputer-based articles begin to use such a complex almost continuously for conducting particular stages of hardware de- bugging: interlinking the microcomputer of the complex with the model of the object or the experimental unit; debugging modeling programs in the real-time scale of the external situation; testing the work of specific software and func- tional testing of the model (experimental unit) to make the decision on experi- mental operation of the articles using ROM memory or main memory (or semi- permanent ROM memory). Therefore, in those cases where it is possible to use cross-facilities for auto- mating the development df specific software on a general-purpose computer that is not part of the two-machine complex, it is always advisable to do so to re- duce the time of stages l, 2, and 3 of development of the microcomputer-based articles. - Tn completing our description of this stage, we must note that its final phase is functional .testing. This term is used to describe a new process in the de- sign of apparatus, devices, and control systems. Its appearance resulted from the fact that in the construction of microcomputer-based articles most of the functions or the main ones are accomplished by program techniques, while the re- mainder can be done only by hardware framing whose proportion will steadily diminish as the speed of multichip microcomputers increases and the practice of designing single-chip microcomputers is introduced. Therefore, testing programs that realize the working algorithms of the article before they are repreduced on the ItOM memory, the regular medium, is becoming a distinct and essential part of the process of designing specific software, and the nature of execution of the hardware framing at this moment no longer plays a significant part (the only important thing is that it have complete functional correspondence to the planned future realization). Moreover, the testing of specific software, and of the article or a model of it in practice, should be done by those programs and methodologies which must be used for stand testing of experimental units of the article (on ROM memory, main memory, or semipermanent ROM memory with specific software). In view of its completeness from the functional standpoint and a certain condi- tional quality from the standpoint of the framing and using auxiliary debugging facilities (of the two-machine complex), such testing is called functional te~t- ing (as distinguished from ~esting experimental units, where the form of hardware ~ and software is determined by existing standards). 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . t . Following the results~of functional testing conducted on the model after its de- velopment (3 or 4, 2~-3') a decision is made on transmitting information on the specific sroftware for tfie manufacture of microcomputers with ROM memory for~~ex- perimental operation and/or stand testing of the microcomputer--liased articles~or preparation of an article for conducting these stages witfi storage of information in the main memory or semipermanent ROM memory of the microcomputer. Stage 3 usually concludes with transmission of information for tFie fabrication of ROM, LSIC's because the facilities for conducting this stage insure high reliability in the specific software. At the same time, the results of functional testing - conducted upon completion of the work and stage 2'-3' do not always testify to the possibility of fabricating ROM LSIC's, and require experimental operation on such an information medium as the main memory or semipermanent ROM memory for a more detailed check of the article in different work regimes. The care taken in preparing specific software using all debugging facilities be- comes an even more important factor when single-chip general-purpose micro- computers built into the equipment are used. The correction of specific software in multichip m~crocomputers requires redesigning of replaceable layers and the replacement of all or several ROM LSIC's,which are just one of the functional ele- ments of the mi=rocomputer. When a single-chip microcomputer is used the analo- gous correction process is a more complex "surgical" operation with all the conditions of fragmentation of design of particular elements of thi~s chir. In conclusion, several deductions can be made. 1. The use of cross-facilities for automating programming is not only a tech- nique to improve the reliability of programs, but also a way to reduce the design time for microcomputer-based articles by combining stages of the develop- ment of specific software with other stages of article deoign. 2. The debugging of an article using a two-machine "microcomputer - general purpose computer" complex (with a large control computer) insures high--quality specific software in series-produced equipment, beginning with the first models. 3. The importance of using all facilities for debugging specific software in- creases with the use of single-chip computers in apparatus, instruments, and systems [29).. Chapter S. Key Trends in the Application of Elektronika S5 Series Microcomputers 5.1. Principles of the Use of Microcomputers At the present time, two gradually diverging trends are observed in microcomputer engineering. The first trend, which is represented by the RDR--11/03, Elektronika~60, and Elektronika-NTs computers has been called tlie "microminicomputer" trend. These machines are characterized by an endeavor to make maximum use of the opportunities presented by a high level of LSIC integration to increase computing capacities, microcomputer memory volume, and the speed of the input-output channels. - 87 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY The second trend typically uses a growing degree of LSIC integration to cre-- ate functionally complete computer configurations with a minimum number of func- tional modules or LSIC*s. This trend developed with the appearance of single- board microcomputers and functional modules for them. Singlerchip micro- computers are a logical extension of this trend. - It is very important to choose the correct family of mtcrocomputers when be- ginning to design an instrument, aggregate, or system based on microcomputers. In this cbnnection all applications of microcomputers can be classified in the following four groups: 1. The microcomputer is used in a particular system in place of a minicom- puter employed (or planned for use) earlier. The chief advantage of the micro- computer in this case is its very low cost and high degree of series production, which makes it possible to use a control computer in places where this was prac- tically impossible before owing to economic considerations or the impossibility of obtaining the required number of machines. Thus, it can be said that the ~ microcomputer is a means to setting up inexpensive and large-scale automated systems for industrial processes and other systems of similar functional design. It is important here that the microcomputers have sufficiently elaborate periph- eral units. This group of applications is characteristic of the Elektronika-60, Elektronika-NTs, and Elektronika-SS-02(O1) microcomputers. It should be ob- served !hat the relatively low speed of the latter does not limit its applica- tion in many cases because long years of experience with setting up automated control systems for industrial processes have demonstrated that the speed of the ninicomputers included in them, machines such as the Elektronika-100 and Elektronika-K200 is far from fully utilized. 2. The microcomputer is used as a computer built into a particular device or instrument, and the computing capability of the machine is a.i~ important charac- teristic while no additional functions related to controlling ;~quipment work are assigned to the machine. The ElPktronika SS-12(11) microcompu`er can be used as a computing unit if its speed and main memory volume are adequate in the spe- cific case. But this application is not typical for this microcomputer; it is more characteristic for the LSI-11 single--board microcomputer of the DEC company [30], which has fairly high speed and comparatively large main memory volume, but requires the use of additional equipment to organize interaction with the - controlled equipment. 3. The microcomputer is used as a supervisor, a built--in block to control a machine tool, aggregate, ar instrument. Such applicationQ usually produce the greatest advantage from the standpoint of reducing the labor-intensiveness of fabrication and cost of the equipment, improving its reliability, and giving it new qualities in fast processing of ineasurement results, convenience of operator work, and the like. The most important quality of the microcomputer for this group of applications is maximum functional compl.eteness in a minimum configura- tion. In this respect, the cingle-board and single-chip models of the Elektronika S5 family of microcomputers are superior to other microcomputers because, as has already been observed, they have on one board (one chip) not only a processor and main memory, but also parallel interface circuits to 32 inputs and 32 ouiputs, interrupt circuits, timers, and main memory. It would take at least four boards to realize such a configuration from, for example, LSI~11 modules. 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i, - , ~rn . , 4. The microcomputers are used within a hierarchical system of computing fa- cilities, in decentralized systems. We know that decentralization of this type is a way to increase the flexi~~l;*_y ar_~ vfitalitv of a system, while the low cost of microcomputers fi as eliminated the main ob.stacle to setting up such systems.'~it ie necessary to decide which level of the hierarchy is determining when selecting the family of microcomputers to construct such a hierarchy. Thus, if it is necessary for tfi e hierarchy to have minicomputers witti large computing capabilities and an elaborate system of magnetic tape and disk external memory, but�the lowest element of the hierarchy is not too critical with respect to volume and cost of the microcomputer included in it, preference should be given to machines such as tlie Elektronika-60, which is compatible with the SM-3, SM-4, and Elektronika 100/ 16I minicomputers. By contrast, if the principal objective of the hierarchical system is to achieve maximum economy in data control and processing at the lower level and the re- quirements for speed and volume of processing informa.tion at the second level of the hierarchy are not too great, preference should be given to the series of signed for setting up small configurations. The Elektronika-SS family of micro- computers makes it possible to construct such systems. For example, the Elektronika SS single-board or single-chip microcomputers can operate as super- visors in equipment, and the Elektronika S5-02 machine can control a group of equipment and, if nece3sary, be lin~ed by telephone and telegraph channels with a general-purpose computer located at a significant distance away. ~ 5.2. Survey of Mic--ocomputer Applications In beginning our review of the basic applications of Elektronika-S5 micro- computers in different sectors of the national economy we propose the following procedure to the reader. We will try to identify the distinctive functions given to microcomputers which are fairly general in character and, with some modifica- tion, occur in many applications. Let us review some "characteristic functions" of microcomputers. 1. Replacement of rigid logic with program logic. This is one of the most ob- vious ways to use microcomputers. It basically involves building equipment based on microcomputers that generally coincides in functions with series- produced equipment with and low levels of circuit integration, discrete electronic components, relays,.or mechanical elements. 2. Building control elements for automatic regulation systems. The application of digital control machines in servo-systems has long had a solid theoretical basis. Thanks to their low cost and high degree of series production, micro- computers provide a technical basis for constructing this type of servo-3nechanism. 3. Constructing digital automation circuits. As a general-purpose programmable ~ element with main memory and the capability of working in real time, the micro- computer makes it possible to realize almost any logical expression where parameters coming from outside and ongoing time may operate as variables. 89 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The possibility of realizing functions (,2~ and (_3) stmultaneously by means of microcomputers is also extremely important. 4. Providing interaction with the operator. The inclusion of a microcomputer in a particular piece of equipment, measuring devtce, machine tool, or data transmission unit makes it possible to give this equipment means of communica- tion that only large computer-based systems formerly fiad: representation of in- formation in tfie most convenient and visible form; monitoring the correctness of operator actions; suggesting the order of actions, and so on. This provtdes such a substantial increase in the productivity and error-free quality of operator work that in many cases it will be the primary, and even sole, function of the microcomputer that is built into the equipment. " 5. Interface organization. This function is assigned to a microcomputer built into equipment that is capable of working with a particular collective-use line. In this case the system of conductors, the set of service signals, and the time chart of data exchange for such a collective-use line differ significantly for different fields of engineering. Examples of such standard collective-use lines are the Camac standard [31], the JEE-4gg-75 instrument interface, and various communications interfaces. 6. Conversion of information during its transmission (reception) through commu- nications channels. This microcomputer function may amount specifically to introducing (removing) noise-proof c~ding during the transmission (or receipt) of inessages, carrying out a procedure to compress information to increase the carrying capacity of the communications channel, organize transmission of vari- able parts of formalized messages, and the like. r 7. Decentralization of computations and contral. Without touching on the gen- eral problem of organizing multimachine complexes based on microcomputers, we will simply observe that the small size and low cost of microcomputers make it possible to bring the machine very close to the source of information and con- trol object, and ultimately to build microcomputers into them. Together with functions (S) and (6) this is one of the ways to save expenditures on communi- cations lines, and improve the flexibility, rearrangeability, and vitality of' DCPT systems. The functions reviewed above do not comprise all functions that are presently given to microcomputers, to say nothing of those that will be in the future. The very same functions may be realized in different equipment by software or by functional modules that supplement the capabilities of a single-board micro- computer. Some of these functions may be realized on circuits with a medium de- gree of integration because microcomputers do not have adequate speed. Finally, when realizing certain functions they may all be done by one microcomputer or a particular machine may be assigned for each function, even if there is no prob- lem with speed, composition of inemory, and input-output devices. The choice of the particular engtneering solution is a very important part~of the process of de- signing microcomputer-based equipment. 90 FOR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050067-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400050067-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Let us consider how these problems Grere solved in building a number of instru- ments and systems based on Elektronika SS microcomputers. 5.3. Data Transmission Equipment . This class of equipment is characterized by extensive use of third--generation electronic components. Therefore, the basic problems facing this equipment are reducing the la~or-intensiveness of manufacture, raising reliability, improving capability for series production, and reducing size and power consumption; these can be solved well by using the microcomputer as the principal component. The programmed user station based on the Elektronika S5-O1(02) microcomputer is a characteristic example of building such equipment [14, 32] (see Figure 5.1 below). + . ~ . rs j a?rr F ~ > ~�r' "'~:.t f3 ~~=3 a~Y o~ `,�~ >,,~G~~~ q~~a~ H v~ cd O ~ N~r1 ~r1 b t~ ctl tn ~ ~J t~ q r-1 r-I N rl fA ~-1 �rl cd U rl GJ H N O! ~E bA G) tC N t) Ul .C 41 r-I 1-~ ~ Cr' .C N 7 C1 ~~.C .L" i-I Ul .C r-I .C �rl A~ D cn cd q al a.i 17 A rr ~v ~ a A~+~ a,.~ ~ ~ _ p GJ N I a ~+a~ w o w w i o a~ o o u-~ i�~ s~ w c~ ~ o 0 0o w~v 3 D, ~n w o ~ ~n o ~,C � o~+ w I N ~ q r-I o cd ~�n I�^ o Cl ~ o�rl P Cl 'J+ .a tA C) 41 W ,~i, Gl O c~ R! ~ �rl tA Ol 1.r ~ 4J N N L N N G. 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