# JPRS ID: 10018 USSR REPORT ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

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JPRS L/ 10018
28 September 1981
USSR Re ort
_ p
ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
- cFOUO 10/81)
~
FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORI~JIATION SERVICE
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JPRS L/10018
28 September 1981
U~~R REPORT
ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
- (F'OUO 10/81)
~ CONTENTS
CERTAIN ASPECTS OF GOMPUTER HARD AND SOFT WARE: CONTROL, AUTOMATION, '~ELEMECHANICS,
TELEMETERING, MACHINE DESIGNING AND PLANNING
Electronic Circuit Analysis Algorithms Taking Into Account the
Finite Word Length of Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Results of Investigation of a Number of Electronic Circuit
~ Analysis Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
COMM[JNICATIONS, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, RECEIVERS AND TRANSMITTERS, NEZ~IORKS,
RADIO PHYSICS, DATA TRANSMISSION AND PROCESSING, INFORMATION THEORY
Functional Polynomials in Problems of Statistical Radio Engineering . 20
Dynamics of Complex Measuring Elements of Relay Protection Devices. . 22
Microprocessor Implementation of Digital Signal Processing 24
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automated Design System for Digital Signal Processing Equipment 40
OPTOELECTRONICS, QUASI-OPTICAL DEVICES
Production of Optical Electronic Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
PUBLICATIONS, INCLUDING COLLECTIONS OF ABSTRACTS
Abstracts From Collection 'Digital Signal Processing and Its
APPlication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Control Systems and Operational Communication/Signalling Facilities . 56
Design of Discrete Automation Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5S
- a- [III - USSR - 21E 5&T FOUOJ
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Fundam~ntals of Cotmnunication Structure Design. . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Tntroduction to Contactless Electromechanical Systems of
S tepped-Up Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Long-Distance Radio Communication Transmitting Devices. 66
Measurements in Transient Shorting Mo3es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7~
Noise Factor � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 72
Operating Parameters and Distinctive Features of Application of
Field-Effect Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
?hoton-Coupled Pairs and T~heir Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Pulsed Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Semimetals and Narrow-Zone Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Truss-Type Radio Masts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Use of Metal-Semiconductor Contact in Electronics . . , . . . . . . . $7
Welding and Soldering Processes in Production o� Semiconductor
- Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
-b-
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CERTAIN t~~PECTS OF COMPUTER HARD ADTD SOFT WARE :
CONTROL, AUTOMATION, TEL~"MECHANICS,
TELEMETERING, MACHINE DESIGNING
AND PLANNING
UDC 683..3.06
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ALGORZTE~IS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE k'INITE WORD LE:IGTH
OF COMPUTERS
Kiev IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNYKH ZAVEDENIY: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian. Vol 24,
No 6, Jun 81 (manuscript received ]2 Aug 79, after revision 19 Jun 80) pp 102-104
[Article by :V.G. Levshin]
[Text] Below are presented methods of :educing errors in the numerical analysis
of electronic circuits caused by a cansiderable difference in the parameters of
their components. For the sake of definiteness a system of linear equations is
considered which is tormed according to the nodal potential method:
YU = J,
_ ~ (i)
where Y is the matrix of nodal'conduct~ncss, U is the vector of nodal po-
tentials and J is the vector of discrepancie~ in nodal currents. System (1) is
solved by the LU expansion method [1]. But the majority of results are valid also
for other methods of forming and solving systems of equations describing an elec-
tronic circuit.
The step of the formation o� the system of equations is important for solving
system (1). To demonstrate, let an element with high conductance, g, be included
between nodes r and m(for definiteness r< m). Let us write the elements of
:,iatris Y connected to nodes r and m in the following manne~:
yrr - yrr 1 g' urm - yrm 1
ymr - ymr - g' ymm - ymm ~ Bl '
r
where Yrr' yr ' ymr and y~ represent the respective sums of conductances
without g. ~:tpressions `.or ~.he k-th step of t~ie~LU expansion, when k= r,
can be written in the fallc>wi.ng manner: ur~ = yr~ r; whereb}r
a ~ -k-t 'k-~ ~
rr ~ r g~ u~~ = yrm ' B~ ~~r = yi~ ~ur~~ t ~ ~ ~3~
ymm - ~~mm ~ g~ ~N Z - g)~~9f~ ~ E~ ~~J~m ~ - R~. ~4 ~
1
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If the word length is finite, t~ien already in the formation of matrix Y errors
- will originate, since during addition in (2) the equalization of the orders of the
addends takes place and the low-order bits ~f the lower of the addends are dropped.
With sufficiently high g, the value of y computed according to equation (4)
will prove to equal zero. The error which o~riginates will begin to be felt i~.:
performing the subsequent steps ot the LU expansion.
Calculations with double precision make it possible to avoid these difficulties,
" but then calculation time and the memory required are increased. Let us consider
other methods of organizin g computations which make it possible to reduce the in-
f luence of rounding errors.
,
Let us go from original system (1) to the system of eq_uations: Y'U = J' , where
Y' _{yi i, j~ 1, N} is the modified matri:c of nodal conductances and
J={'. ; i= 1, N} is the modified vector of discrepancies in nodal cur-
rents?1 Each k-th row of matrix Y' equals the sum of the first k rows of matrix
Y, and each k-th element of vector J' equals the sum of the first k elements
of vector J. Here and below N represents the total number of nodes, but with-
out taking into account the reference node.
Let the next element, information on which will be entered in Y' and J' , be
connected between nodes r and m(r < m) and let it be described by conduc-
tance matrix G={g , i, j= r, m} . The current through the leads equals
~ respectiveZy jr an~~ jm . Then gi is entered in Y' in the following
manner: To terms yi' and yim , un~h i= r, m-- 1, are added respectively .
grr and g~ and w3~h i= m, N are added mgl = g + g~ and g2 =
The current of e~.emer.ts j and j is ad~ed respectively to
j igrri =g~r~, . . . , N and ~ k , k = m, . . . , N . .
When one of the nodes for connection of the component is the reference node, the
same algorithm is employed but the number of the node (N + 1) is specified for-
mally.
If the element is a passive two-terminal network, then ~or it gl = 0 and g2 = 0
and these sums do noC distort the respective yi' and yim . For active elements
the organization suggested f or forming matr~x Y~ also has an advantage in cases
when gl and g2 are close to zero.
In matrix Y' formed by means of the above-described method the symmetric ordering
of numbers is also eliminated. In this case, even with fairly high gi , as
when adding to y' , y' ti gi , and the like, the us~e of LU ~x~ansio~_~quations
of type (4) is just~ified.~ TFi~ result of scaling yffi is Y~ + ymr and
an error does nat originate.
With a full matrix the method suggested does not require added memory costs, the
number of multiplication operations does not change and the number of addition
operations is increased but slightly (only during formation). 5ut matrix Y' ,
unlike Y, turns out to be heavily filled and aspmmetric not only in terms of
values but also in terms of the points of distribution of non-zero elements. The
method can be recommended for calculating small circuits, when working with a fu11
matrix, as well as for quasi-block matrixes when processing matrixes of subcir-
cuits.
_ 2 ~
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It is possible to reduce the errors discussed in the case when the sparseness of
the nodal conductance matrix is take~ into account~ From equations (3) to (4)
it is obvious that the scaling of y is much more critical with respect to
_ rounding errors than the scaling of a~l remaining factors, especially in cases
when there is a contribution from symmetric two-terminal networks c~rith high con-
ductance.
For the purpose of taking into account all cases it is suggested ~hat the algo-
rithms for preparing th~ raw data and the LU expansion be revised and that the
equation for scaling y~ be modified:
_ uk _ -k-1 ~ ~k-t -1 uk-1 .L F ~g~
mrr; - ymm T� mk 7km mn+ ~
F~ g~ _~y m k y k k I~ Iy~ 1 T yR k ~~~~!~kk ~ T g~
(5)
The meaning of the symbols and the starting premises ior obtaining equation (5)
are the same as for (2) and (4). The following procedure is sugge~ted for pre-
paring raw data for calculation:
1. An array of numbers of nodes for connecting symmetric two-terminal networks
is formed� IrID(i, j) ; i= i, M; j= 1, 2; M is the number of two-
ter~ainal networks. Furtrermore, IrID(i, 1) < I~ID(i, 2) and array NID is ordered
in terms of the increase in i--the first number of the pair.
Parallel branches are conve~:ted to an equivalent representation by a single
brznch.
3. Array ND(i) , i= 1, N, is formed, in whose i-th cell is written the
number of branches of symmetric two-terminal networks connecting the i-th node of
the circuit with nodes whose numbers are greater than i.
Steps 1 to 3 are performed once before calculation of the circuit. The required
arrays of indicators of the position of non-zero elements are also formed prior
to calculation. Conductance matrih Y is formed by the traditional method.
The conductazicec al1 eie!aents with th~ exCeptioc~ of sym~etric two-terminal
i~etkorks are entered in i~.
A flowchart of the suggested LU espansion algorithn is presented in fig 1. S
and KD are countz~s of the rows of matrix I~ and of the number of two-terminal
networks connected to each k-th node, respectively. The remaining sycnbols are
explained in *_he text. At each k-th step a check is madg of whether the k-th node
is connected wtth oth_r uc~les oy mean~ of a two-terninal_ network. If it is not
con::.~:cted, thsn a:: or~i;:3ry ~~e.F c~ tl.e LU e~_par~sio~~~ is p~r~orn~zd. ui.i.~r:aise
the cor.tributi~n of eacti tac-Cerminal neCwurk is taken into account in the follow--
ing sequence: 1) deter:~ir.r.tion is made af tt~e value Gi - Lra c~nductance of
the two-ter~inal networlc--snd cf r, m(r = k) , the ~2i: ~f nu:nbers o. connection
nodes; 2~ jS ca'.c~~lat Z~~: n: ~1:1o t'~ �Q~-13L10II ~S~ i 3i ' ~~.1'.~ u~ are
calculated according to equations (3) ; 4) the remair.ing eler~c~ ~ c!` :,~atrix U, 2Qk
~
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besides ~k and u are calculated according to e~uation (2) and the other
elements o~-matrix ~ to be scaled, i.e., besides yffi , are scaled.
_ Ki
~ KD=I
, =Dfs!
ND/KJ D~Q m} E MD(s~)
ymm (8)
u'~1 uKK.uRm
~iK uKj,~r~r,y~~ (1)
R
y~J
s=s+~
KD=KD*1
~ QQ ,rs N KD~ND(K1
~
(lpOd aCv
- Figure 1.
Key:
1. Yes 2. Continue calculation
Among the advantages of the organization of computations suggested here must be
numbered a reduction in the number of rounding errors both in the formation of
matrix Y and in the performance of transformations on it. Numbered among its
disadvantages is the complication of the algorithm and the increase in the memory
required as compared with the traditional organization of an LU expansion.
Bibliography
n
1. Berry. R.D. An Optimal Ordering o~ Electronic Circuit Equations �or a
Sparse :~fatrix Solution," IEEE TRANS., 1971, CT-18, No 1, pp 40-50.
COPYRIGHT: "Izvestiya vuzov SSSR - Radioelektronika", 1981.
, 8831
- CSO: 1860/332
4
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UDC 681.3:62~..372.061
RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION OF A NUMBER OF ELECTRONIC CIRC~JIT ANALYSIS PRC)G~S
Kiev IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNYFQi ZAVEDENIY: RA~IOELEKT1t~OFiIKA in Russi~n Vol 24,
No b, Jun 81 (manuscript received 8 Jan 81) pp 27-37
[Article by Yu.N. Barmakov, V.A. Bakhov, V.N. I1'in, N.Yu. Kamneva, V.L. Kogan,
N.P. Levshin, G.P. Mozgovoy, V.G. Ssorin, A.P. Ti.mchenko, V.A. Trud~onoshin,
V.N. Fedoruk, V.T. Fralkin and Ye.A. Chakhmakhsazyan]
[TextJ A description is given of the results of studying a nu~ber nf electronic
circuit ar~alysis programs for YeS [Unified Series] computers, incguding the re-
sults cf calculating the characteristics of various test circuits and the expendi-
ture of machine time in using each program. ~
At the p~ese.nt time an entire series of programs for analyzing electronic circuits
has found estensive application and new programs oriented toward YeS computers
are being developed and put into service.
Characteristics reflected in descriptions of indivi3ual elec'tronic circuit ana-
lysis programs and the information available in utilization instructions do not
make it poss3ble to evaluate the quite important proper~ti~s of these programs re-
lating to the effectiveness of their use for the purpose of analyzing various
types of electronic circuits. These include accuracy in simulation of the static
and dynamic characteristics of various circuits, ex?enditure of machine time,
efficiency, convenience of utilization and the reliability of programs' performance
and the like.
For the purpose of determ~.ning these properties taoth here at home and abroad, a
number of studies have been made which ttave in~,luded the solving of a definite
set of test problems ~na~cing ~t possible tU com~are the characteristics of various
programs [1J. In [2J a comparison is made between the characteristics of the
domestic SPARS program and foreign progxams. Tn this studv the results are given
of an invesr.igation of a number of domesCic programs for the anal~sis and calcula-
tion or elactronic c~rc:uit,, orient~d t~ward YeS coriputers: the e1RG+PS and SPROS
programs [3, 4] developed at ifAI [Mos~cow ~lviation tnstitute imeni Sergo Ordzhoni-
kidze], PAL'~Il [S] ard P~.t~12 developPd ~tt ^~IE'NI [Koscow Insti;.ucn uf F.lectronic:
Machine Building], SP~RS developed at I~PI [Kiev Polytechr~ical Institut~] [6],
the EL:~IS orogram f7J developed a* ;~IFI (Moscow Enoineerinb Phy~::ic:s In:;tituteJ
and the P~B.~f program [8) develo~ed at :~IVTL' [Moscow Higher Technj~~1~ School imeni
N.E. Bauman].
5
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Summary data on the key characteristics of the domestic programs investigated are
presented in table 1.
Table 1. Key Parameters of Programs
_ ' ' ' _r.. ..r.r' '
~ q~y u �9ooo~rm G%. ruPaf~n~otp. noo�u C
1~ 3 9e~no~..ao.�e~a MK
Nto~� ~i~'r~..mc~ p o j J
A~o~u! a Qu~.rar TpoN3u o 20 v'h Q
:.odu� Z o o o i
rporpc~+na 38M ~ _ ~o ~ noo i t o C ti� z Q 3~~
' t L c, o i. i no.ram ~ ~ Q~ Q p tV ~ o a C ~ O 2 3
2) E o F~ ~ s ti
L, a~' ~ p K~ai c~D�~ i~ ~ e o~ o p F
~ /SO . 24)
aponc Ec . . . . . ~sa . . _ - . . . : : s 3~~~~~
cnooc Ec � � - . . zoo � ~ - - - . . . .
nayM~ Ec � � - - - ~ze - - - - � � - - .~OOylA.
nA.~i`f2 EC � � - - - I2B � . . . . . . � - 3ooy.r~.
C/IAPC EC � � � � � 200 � � l'"oxNV ucncueaoEomn~a- � � ,QPA
F.,. ,.~auV. ~.N,G,e~P.,OM �0 2 ~ \
di0d aJuwp u~u Gei.terQoPnre ~
.~n,s~~c Ec . . . . - ~2a ?6 , 6~ ~o , . Qvn
naPM Ec � � - - - ~so � � - - - � I - I � - 200,,.~.
I
Key:
1. Program: AROPS, SPROS, PAUM1, 16. Ebers-Moll ~
PaUM2, SPARS, ELAIS, PAR~`~ 17. ELAIS
2. Computer: YeS 18. Logan
3. Functions performed 19. PAES
4. :~nalysis 20. Metal-insulator semiconductor
5. Static mode 21. Macromodeled integrated circuit
6. Dynamic mode 22. Ability to create models in program-
7. Frequency ming language
8. Sensitivity 23. Limitations on topology of circuits ~
9. Optimizaion 24. 150 nodes
10. Required memory, Kbytes 25. 250 elements
11. Parameters of elements in 26. It is possible to use any models de-
circuits scribed in the input language or
12. Constant called from the library
13. Dependent 27. DRP [dynamic distribution of
- 14. Present in program model storage~
15. Transistor
Of course, the accuracy of machine calculations of the static and dynamic charac-
teristics of electronic circuits depends both on the algorithms nresent in pro-
grams (methods of forming and solving equations for the loops of circuits ana-
lyzed) and their software implementation, and on the accuracy of modeling semi-
conductor and other components o� circuits. For the purpose of a differentiated
discussion of these questions, the first stage of investigation is devoted to
estimating the e~fectiveness of inethods and algorithms present in programs, and
the second to estimating the influence of inethods of modeling individual
6
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components of electronic circuits on the accuracy of calculating their static
and dynamic characteristics.
Beluw are published results relating to the first and only partially to ttte .second
~ stage of investigation. Therefore, the results presented here do not preter ~c~
completeness in the evaluation of programs Y,ut are undoubtedly of definitr~~ inte-
rest.
The programs listed above were investigated by analyzing a group of test circuits
which are described below. However, in the program tor incestigating domestic
programs were also included tests making it possible to reveal the capabilities
- of programs with respect to solving certain practical problems.
In the investigation it was also taken into account that the p~~ogr~ms di.ffer also
in the models of semiconductor components used in them. Some prograa~s (such as
the first variants of the AROPS, SPROS, PAiMl and PARM progrdms) have ~ozal~ one
model of a bipolar transistor--the PAES model. The PALM2 pr~gr:~a~ contains de-
scriptions of three varieties o� models of a bipolar Crar~sis't~r: the Ebers-?~foll
model, a transfer model and the PAES model. In recent time~ a~transf~r model of
a transistor has also been included in the AKOPS and SPROS progra~s. TY:e ELAIS
program includes a model, particular cases of which can be an Ebezs,-~:oll model and
a transfer model. The SP~1RS program makes it possible to use any of the above-
iisted mo3els of semiconductor devices.
_ For the purpose of unifying test problems for various prograans in making calcula-
tions of transistor circuits (presented below in figs 1, 2 and 5), the Ebers-Lloll
model present in the PAUM2 and ELAIS programs was us~d as the b~sis, and a model
used in foreign programs, with constant gain of the tr~ansistor. In anal~zing the
same circuits by means of the AROPS, PARM, SPROS and PAiJ~11 programs, the PAES
model was used with parameters corresponding to the Ebers-Aioll model used. Ex-
amples were calculated by means of the SPARS program ~y using both the PAES model
(in the SPARS (P) columns in the tables presented), and the Ebers-Moll model with
constant gain (che data are presented in the SPARS (E*~1) columns).
The following numerical values of parameters of the Ebers-~foll model are used:
- ! = 0.429�10 10 mA, I = 0.578�10 10 m~,, 2= 1/m~T = 38.3 V 1, Cb = 21 pF,
Cby= 11 pF, T~l = 0.616 ns, T= 0.548 ns, R= 100,000 kSZ, R,, = 100,~00 k~t,
R~e = 0.0002 ~C~2, Rbb = 0.001~ k~, Rkk = 0.0~027 k~, aV = 0.9~ and aI = 0.899.
The tollowin~ numerical values are used for parameters of the PAES model: ITe
= 0.429�10 1~ mA, ITk = 0.584�1Q-11 mA, B,~ = 99, BI= 8.9, m~T = 0.02611 V,
R= 10,000 K, R.k = I0,000 K, Cbe = 21 pF, Cbk = lI pF, 6i.6 ns and Ti =
=z5.43 ns .
In addition, let us note that the data on foreign programs presented in t}1e tables
corre~;~ond to r_he case ~anen the transistors have becn suLstiruted 1-,;~ an l:bers-:foll
model with parameters ccN , Cb` and Cbk speci�ied by tables.
The analysis of the test circuits presented in figs 8, 9 anc 10 and oz investiga-
tions belonging to the second stage was perfor:ned in two var.iants: by using,
respectively, the P~,ES mod~~ for transistors and a more precise ~~ade?_ .lvailable
in a number of programs--the transfer or Ebers-Moll. In this case : goal was
i
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pursued of determining the influence o~ the accuracy of modeling a transistcr
on the results of analyzing the characteristics of these types oz circuits.
Brief descriptions of test problems are presented below--calculation diagrams in
which the parameters of all elements of circuits are indicated. Graphs of input
- and output signals and their parameters are also shown there. Then the :esults
of analyzing circuits by means of the programs mentioned are presented in indivi-
dual tables.
C.eMo / C.e~o Z ~'~eMo 3
1~ - -
+/OB 3 ~ */OB /2B
~ ~ ~ ' 097K 0,97,~ +
le
f~ ~ 10~, i� *~0 Bei.r 01 `Ox Beir
~ ~ B~~ ~ Vel+ J 1MOn
CO,~ ~ 4~~e~ /OOR /n~ - /0 /00 ~8~ 1~~r~ 9~
- 5~ n~
*10B +OB v .
u
6
V, B Y,,,,
~ 0 1 t,nKc
c ~ .Ver ~eit
V01
~ ~ ~j 10~
0 lOMtg t~ t, ~KC 0 0,1 1 t, c
Figure 1.
Key :
1. Circuit 1 7. us
2. V [input voltage] 8. MS2
3. 1~~ 9. uF
4. Output 10. s
5. 1 pF
6. V~kh [output voltage]
Transistor circuits with sharply differing time constants and an inverter are
shown in fig 1(circuits l, 2 and 3). They make it possible to check the ability
of programs to increase their integration step (and at the same time to reduce
the expenditure o~' machine time) under the condition when the inf luence of the
loop with the lowest time constant becomes insignificant and vice-versa. The
results of analyzing these circuits are given in table 2.
Circuits 4 to 8, presented in fig 2, contain inverters, the number of which in
them varies (from one to nine). The results of analyzing three-, f ive- and nine-
stage inverter circuits (circuits 5, 6 and 8) are given in table 3. Dependences
of the expenditure of machine time for the analysis of transient processes in rhe
circuits in fig 2 as a function of the number of inverters in the circuit ara
shown in �ig 3.
8
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Table 2. Results oE Analyzing Inverters in~,Fig 1
1 10) ~ 11) z 3
, llpozPo~na lo . , Vr� , f9a . f,B , lo , ln ~ C > ,;c, ~7 /0. / !0, /1 ~0,15 /0,51 So,O !0,1 /0, /2 /0,15 I~751 - -
~ayrf2 55,0 iQO~ iC, ii ~O,i6 ~0,52 56,0 i0.0 ~0,~ ~O,16 ~0,52 ~1,5 B,56
5) C?~ oC f~71 S5, 5/0, 03 /0,14 /0,15 ~0, 49 S~.S i0. G3 J0, /y 10, l5 I0,49 1f,5 B, 66
6) ~na cc ~.~MI 50.4 ~0, 02 ~U, ~5 ~0, ~4 !O,a7 60, 4 ~0, 02 io,i5 ~o i4 i0,4> >i5 8, 66
~ ~~AAN( 54,3 - /0, ~ 1Q16 /0,38 542 - i0, / IO.OB /~44 /1,5 8,72
8~ n~rH - - - - - S~, 0 i0, 0 i0, ~ i0,1 i0,5~ J1,5 8, 6~
- ASTAO 536 /0,0 /0.i /0,/ I0,4 336 /0,J /0,0 /0,2 /0,6 /!,5 8,65
Su.?~R-SCfFI~~ 53,6 /QO /0,1 /0,1 /0,4 ~36 /0,0 10,1 10,1 /0,4 1/,5 8,67
Key: ~
1. Program 7. ELAIS
2. AROP S 8. PAR'~I
3. SPROS 9. mV
4. PAUM1 10. us
5. SP:'~RS (P) 11. V
6. SP~S (E;~I)
C~exa ~i 1) ~ C.re~o 5 Cxena 6
,108 ~IOB
1U B
~ Berr ab~l
' y~ Bois ,
3 ~ yea, n ~'er
2~ y+/OB +108 r ~/OB
C.~era 7 - JO B
. V, B ~~yf
vB. r-� 5ei,~ 10 V.r
^ S - -
~ ~
~ S~ o .Z ~3 ~ ` M,~~
(7+/O B ts t; .
C.~P~o B ~10 B
t1MJ
~9,~ VZ)
Y
- ~
+~0 B
I ~
Figure 2.
Key:
1. Circuit 4 3. Output
- ?rot~r. *~~e
9
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Table 3. Results of ~naly~zing Inverter Circuits (Fig 2)
1~ j 2 mpr.~~rac~rodNMel 6 3 nv~nuKOC~OaNae) 4 B ~ae6Amu~.ac.+od~,~eJ
. �
l/xzpcnna ~o, tre, fre. ~o, ts, ~r, ~o, Vip~ tte, fre.
d nB MMC MKC MB B MKC NKC MB U NMC nKC
- APO/1C J0.0 34,7 6,41 13,4 34,7 9,9B 6.85 /.3.B 34,7 996 i6B /4,6
� C/'POC 9,99 34,5 6,39 /3,3 34,5 9,9B 6,80 /.3,7 34,5 9,96 7,63 146
~ /IAyMJ !0. 0 35.0 6.48 /3,4 35, 0/0,0 6,BB 13, 8.95, 0 J0, 0 7, 77 14,7
- lIAyMP 10, 0 35, 0 6,45 /3,4 ,35, 0/0.0 6~0 /.3, 8 35, 0/Q 0 7, BO 14, 8
Cr,,ePC r~~ i0, 0 ~4,9 6,a /3,33 34,9 i0.0 6.B2 i3,78 34,9 i0, 0 767 iy 5Q
C~7AP~ l,~M lQ~ 39.9 6.37 13.i,3 39.8 /0,0 o1B /.37,~ 39,8 10,0 %51 14,4
3~~NC ;D.O 34,3 6.36 /3.J3 .i4,3 /0,0 6,80 13.B 3y3 10,0 7,68 /4,6
iiA~M i0.0 .i5.0 0.36 /3.3I 35, J ~0.0 6.79 /3,7,~ 35,4 /0, 0 i, 7 14,6
AST~ A i0, 0 3.5,3 c..35 /3.4 35.3 ~0, 0 6.79 /3,9 35,3 I0, 0 766 /4,7
S~PER'~
LE?i l'; ~Q 0.i5..~ 6,.37 /3.4 .i5..i ,/0, 0 6, 79 /3, 9 35,1 /0, 0 7, 66 I4,T
. ~
- Key: ~
1. Program ~ 3. Five-stage ~
. 2. Three-stage 4. Nine-stage
[Cf. table 2 ~or remaining designations]
1).~OD,~Or7pOTd //OUI. QOPr/PMU C
3AANC(fC 1022)
2)
250 SUPfR-
. SCEP~RE(JBH360)
200 APO~C 3~
/lAyM2 '
C/IPOC EC�l0~)
I50
~APM
!00 Cp,1PC
' ASTAP (IBM�3701
50
. 4). .
3 s ~ k~~~6a~o~KOaoe
Figure 3. �
I~ey :
1. Expenditures of machine time, s 3. AROPS, PAU:~I2, SP:ZOS, Pr1R~~I, SP~RS
2. E,.~1IS (Y'eS-1022) (YeS-1033)
4. Nu~nber of stages
10
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i
~ The nature of the dependence o� an increase in the expenditure o� time ~or the
anal~sis of transient conditions as a functioa of the nur~ber of inverters in the
circuit characterizes the capabilities of the program. The nore slowly the time
required for analysis increases, the more efficient the program and the lower the
cost of solving big problems on the cor~puter.
RC circuits are presented in fig 4. Circuits 9, 10 and 11 have various time con-
stants for individual loops. Their analysis, together with an analysis of circuits
2 and 3, makes it possible to estimate the efficiency of programs from the view-
~ point of expenditures of machine time in solving similar problems. In addition,
' circuits 12 and 13 are included here for estimating the accuracy oz analyzing
~ transient processes. The results of analyzing RC circuits are presented in table
4.
~
o
1) C~eno9 3) Cf.na/0 C.~eno
~ g+ ~ Rnil ~~l'! ~ ~ ~ Ber~ ~ ~H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ B6? ~
+4~ 19 ~OD/ + l~ C,00/ %.S~ QODI * 0,1~ 001~ O.OD/~ ~CYI~~~' IOr~Q C/~.�~ O,G/
67 NR~ ~6l ~ n~Q Vd! iYR~
5
C~PrlO IZ C~PMO I.~ .
, ~~lK ~ ~ ~ ~0/X V p ~QM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~d/X
8?! ~ / U
+ ~ OG/~ 00/ ~ OOJQ 001 ~ QOIQ ~J0'~ ~J3/ P QOl ~;~0/~ 001 ~ J.0/~ 0/
_d ~ , ~ _e~ ~
~ ~
t~ i2 tJ f
Figure 4. ~
Key:
1. Circuit 9 4. Input voltaoe
2. S? 5. uF
3. Output
The circuit of a self-excited oscillator is shown in fig S with an indication of
the circuit's parameter~ and the general appearance of its output characteristic.
The results o� analyzing this circuit are presented in table S.
The circuit in fig 6 consists of a filter c,ri.th a high figure of inerit, whose
transfer runction has two very closely situated complex conjugate poles: Sl, Sl* _
_-O.OOOSQ04 + j1.001207 and S2, S2* _-0.0004996 + j0.999793 . The output
characteristic of such a filter is in the form of a signal made up of two sine
curves, the amp).itude of whos~ envelope diminishes over time, as is shown in
fig 6. The period of oscillat~ons of the output voltage equais b.28 s GrI.th a
duration of the analyzed process of 20,000 s.
' Analysis of tnis circuit requires the selection o� short ir_tegration steps for
the pur~os~ oi: ensuring *_h� required ac~urac~ of determi~ing t`~~ filter's output
characteristic, which involves large eYpenditures o~ machine tine ahen using
i
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implicit numerical r~ethods in the program. The results a.f analyzing this circuit
by means of various programs are reflected in table 5.
Table 4. Results of Analyzing RC Circuits (Fig 4)
2 Liei~00~eiP wOnOpMpNUp ~OlCM/~p/f MU.R~ NOMPMTO. [/pPMPN(~ ~
1) 3~ y ia
/lpvtpaMNo
0,/c Ic 4c O,Ic /c 4c QO/r 0./r 0.4r ~nr 10~r 4pnc ~Hr IOM~ 40n~
.+B .~+8 yB NB nB MB MB nL' nB M~P ~+d MB %0"9 ~+~B nB
PP~ye~mom~+
4 ~ mrnoemuve: � - - - -
w010~ONPTO 95,2 632 98? 94,2 631 9B? .163 Q?4~
5) APO/IC 94,7 630 9B1 93.7 630 99/ 27, 7 543 96H 3.90 I2, 0?40 b 6'� y4.~ �
CAPOf 95.0 632 9B2 93,5 631 9B2 ?ti,3 Sa9 969 S. J> >2 ~?40 i 6 6~~ B,?B
- nAyrf, 95.0 633 9B3 940 632 9B3 ?60 5a5 9~0 � ~ZO ?39 800
nayn~ 936 634 9B~ 9Z,5 633 9B~ 25,5 S4a 97> >~9 fUb ?,?5 b,0a ~6 8.5?
C!!AP( 95,? 632 9B2 94, I 631 981 26,3 545 96b .Y,96 9 14[~ U33< .5 3U 8..~6
.~AANC 95.0 632 992 94,0 632 9B2 26,2 Sa5 968 4,63 17.9 1ou l~ 5.55 B,~6
~ /IAPM 9Y.0 617 979 926 626 979 30.a 539 964 ba ~2.i ?~y ~.7~ 6.75 B.77
- A57AP 95,2 632 .982 93.4 63l 9B? 25,6 545 969 5.3~ ~~.9 740 4.37 5.67 B,3a
SUPER-SCfPT~f 94.8 6.~2 9B2 94, / 631 9B? 25,3 345 96B .153 /l, 9?y0 0. �ti y, 90 6.35
Key:
1. Program 4. Results of theoretical calculation
2. Output voltages at moments 5. Individual programs [cf. table 2J
of time indicated below
3. 0.1 s, mV
Lirnu 14 ydu~
' ~~~vw~?' ? 6/
~ZM ~o~rN ~oe
ooti~~ ~ 4~ ~
_ ' ~
B,?R ISR ~ ~ ~
. Ba~r 5 ) ~
~ ~
~ OO,i r, r=I t,Mc
Figure 5.
Key:
1. Circuit 14 5. Output
2. mH 6. Output voltage
3. uF 7. t, ms
4. V
12
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Table 5. Results o~ Analysis of Circuits (Fit 5, 6 and 7)
2 leNe omo ( uc.S) ~~~emp ~j~vln:~~/~PPuJO~du G~,;ao.-~me~e
- 1) ~ P P P 3~ cuc6 aucJ
/I~otponra V t V )PPMO AU .SC3NURCP.7J Va~f ~ea~
~.piwt r t/ ~ ~ 2 i t2. O,I~~~ OI~o'
S~ B nc b B rc B 7~ atuo�.~r ~u cr.nyner 8
10 ) AP0~9C 6,55 0,92 -4 0, 9B B.24 1l~ 8 ao 20,89 2/, 2B
. C/IPOC 6,55 0,9/9 -7B,B 0,979 B,3 ao
- /IAyNI - - - - . - - - - -
/;A~JM2 6,SB 0, 92 -84 0, 9B6 B, 41 ~v ao 20,9B 20,96
I!7 6,~
6 0, 92 -257, 9 0. 9B B ss oa da 20, 9 21. 3
Cn,aPC f3H~ 6,s6 0,92 -iB6,9 0,9d 8,52
;AANC 6,67 0, 926 0,736 0,981 7, 43 - - - -
/IAPM 6,53 0,89 BSl 0,946 7,6 ' 1? ' ' '
ASTAP - 0,9/ 333,3 0,97 3,34 Nem aa 20,9 2/,3
;UPfr7SCfPIRE 6.55 0,93 -437 0,99 B,SB yem aa 20,9 21,3
. ,
I
I Key~
~ 1. Program Does pulse originate?
2. Oscillator (~ig S) 9. V , V
3. Filter (�ig 6) vykh~,l ms
4. Full-wave rectifier (fig 7) 10. Programs [cf. table 2]
0.1 ms ' ~ 11. Yes
6. m~l 12. No
. 7. Envelope correct?
I LItMD IS
� Bo,,, 3 �/0~,'E! ( )
/ G.~ ;GOI(N ~ ~
. 0~ O,OC1~9991 5) ~ i`~ 56789t�/~c
' r- 2) 3) i~ 4~ ~ o� .2 y~
~
I
~ Figure 6.
I
i
~ Key: .
I 1. Circuit 15 5. Ouput
2, 6. Output volta?e
3. A ~ 7. s
4. F
I The circuit presented in fig 7 is a full-wave rectifier with transformer coupling,
' where M1~ - 0.02475 , M13 = 0.02475 , M23 = 6.1875�10 3 and ~~c=500~t=0 -`1 V.
' 13
~
i
i FOR OFF'iCIAL USE ONLY
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Analysis o~ this circuit requires modeling the trans.~ormer and accuracy in the
analysis of transient characteristics r~rith the detection of a peaky pulse origin-
ating in inductance L~ at moment of time t= 0.268 ms ,~or the detection of
which a rapid shortenin`g of the integration step by several orders of magnitude
is required. The results o� analyzing this circuit are presented in table 5.
� 1) , ~e~a /6 ) ~ Maoe~e auoaa lr~~'
P.10.7 ~0/ 01+ ~OOrR 4~ ~r e,r . B 1iv ''eerr. Ve
Q � L, 6,Zf.�;~ O,IOM ~9 1 92 ~ ~ ~ a0
OI~M II ) ~ ,
. pp s ~ M~OOM . ~ ~ 0?6 0,~5 ~ t,,,c 46 r r~, ? ~
' o;25nrN /n~ ~ 0005 Q15 j O,~SG'S 0 '~I .
_ ~�r 2) 3
0 9 1 ~ - 4 6 0
3~ o,~ OiO~ ~D aM v o~ q25 04 t,~ 11)
Ig �/0'9(r~p38,IV A �
Figure 7. �
Key :
l. s 7. uH
2, g 8. Model of diode
3. Input voltage 9. pF .
4. Circuit 16 10. Output voltage
5. mH 11. ms ~
6. uF ~
In fig 8 is shown the design diagram of a TTL [transistor-transistor logic]
logical gate (Tt , T2 and T3 are three types of series 134 integrated circuit
transistors). A graph of the output signal and of the transient response ana-
lyzed is also presented there.~ Accuracy in obtaining this characteristic and its
a~reement with the eYperimental require nodeling the transistor with definite
precision.
1~ CiPNO ~1 V~ B ~ ~
5)
40K /SK 0,25K 4K 1,SK V,f ~A�,,
T iz 35 \
~
T T 3) 58 + ~ ~
z Z Vaeu T v I
VBf ~ I
2 ) ~ i0~ ~ ~ 6 )
9K ~ 4) ~y 9R ~
~ 0 /0 60 .31X1 950 f,Hc
Figure 8. ~
[Y.ay on `ollowing page]
14
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Key: S, V
1. CircuiC 17
2. Input voltage 6. ns
3. Output voltage
4. pF
In table 6 are presented the results of calculating the output characteristic of a
TTL logical gate when using various models o.f a bipolar transistor obtained by
means of various programs.
Table 6. Results of Analyzing Circuits (Figs 8 to 10)
TTiI (puc.B1 ~yB(puc.91 - Cxeno codnaaeMUa/pr,r10)
1~ 5) Hoae~6 9
~a'p�n~ n'`��N~ yo, yi~ ~Je~ to.+e, tqae. f~a. ?o. T. T~, zs.~~ ~.u,.~. ~,~K.. ~SEMC�
. '/O 3U~ i~ D HC MC MC NC B MC NC B B B B
U
Z) na3C 0,046 .i499 6 B8 353 4B> >525 2e3 27~ 0o?S C,3y5 O,zBy 0,075
~~Ay~~ 'aePCO' 0,1? 3,383 57 /OJ 3/9 463 I,52d 263 2io OOSo QS91 Q275 0069
Mo.+~c
7 /Iri3C - - - - - - 1, 522 273 262
. 3~p~n~ nepea. 0,1/3 3,28 S/ /16 347 SSO 1,497 270 265 - - - -
OAPM ~~A3C 0,04 3,49 44,8 B7 351 I 4B0 ' ' - - -
Note: Calculations with Ebers-?ioll and transfer models were made with parameters
- for the types of transistors indicated in the circuits.
Key: g. PAES
1. Program �
2. PAUM2 9. TTL (fig 8)
3. ?,ROPS 10. GUV [shock-excited oscillator] (fig 9)
_ 4, p~ 11. Coincidence circuit (fig 10)
5. Model of transistor 12. V
6. PAES, Ebers-Moll 13. ns
7. Pc+,ES, transfer
The circuit presented in fig 9 is a shock-excited oscillator which produces steady
oscillations with a practically constant frequency beginning with the instant
of the establishment of input voltage. The parameters of the oscillator`s ~ircuit
and the type of output characteristic are shown in fig 9, where all transistors
are of type 2T324. The results of analyzing this circuit, performed by means of
various programs, are given in table 6.
In fig 10 is presented a coincidence circuit which consists of two practically
- identical halves into two inputs of which signals enter in the form of half waves
of a sine wave, the beginnings of which are slightly shiited relative to one
another with respect to time. In the circuit's output at a definite moment of
time a voltage pulse originates whose parameters are the subject oz study:
~ = 1.5 sin (0.02463t) , Vkh2 = 1.5 sin (0.02463 [t-5]) ; T1 and
vkhl [input 1]
15
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T2 are transistors of type KT324 and R36. The results o,~ calculation of the
parameters of the output sional a~ this circuit are presented in tabl~ 6. Ex-
penditures of machine time for solving the test problems listed above by means of
various programs are presented in table 7. Data obtained ~or two foreign programs
are also presented there for comparison.
1 Cxeno /8 � V~~B
� O,OS/K 7)
- ' 2 ~ 0,392R
3
+ 0,197,~ O.S6~r ,160
se a ~o g~ aavr,~-
_ 0.56K
4~ ~,~R /p~ ~ 9~ ~ T--i--T
0, ' ~ ' lyi
- f ~r3~ /,l,r 2MrrN 0,3?6,r ~s
- �X 430
2KR`N
0 /SO t, nc
- Figure 9.
Key:
l. Circuit 18 6� uH
2. V 7. V
3. Input voltage ns
q, ~ 9. Output voltage
5. uF ~
' l~ Cxena /9 '
5l~ ZK 2K 5/~r
T . SB
3~ S~ 0,7SK T 5) ? 0,75K 0,56K n~ SOM
T O,S6K y e~~ T 0,56K
S/0 0,~6K T 1Bn~0.2K pPK ~B~ n~
� n '
y~~ - 2~ 4~~ l,fK O,IS /y B OIS /,1R 4.3K 2K
2 ~ n~D n ~
r$B
V, B 6) ~ /000 SIK O,BZK .
~er~ n~ T
. Var ~
4,3K /Sn~
~eeu
t, Mc ~ ~ .
rigure 10. .
[Key en following page)
16
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Key:
l. Circuit 19 5. Output voltage
6. V
2' Vvkhl 7, ns
3. S2
4. pF
Table 7. Etpenditures of ~lachine Time for Analyzing Circuits, in Seconds
. - - ~ - - - - -
1~ Hotiepa mrcmc6eix orer~
llpoz ~B,M Z 3 1 4 S 6 7 B 9 IO 1/ 12 ;3 /4 /5 /6 li lB /9
nv
4 puc puc puc. puc puc puc
puc. / 6 puc. 2 P 6 7 .9 /!J
7 :~r r13 -
4~AP0lIC C�10.;.i N/5 17 /7,3 40 8/ 136 /B9 9,B /Z,S /7 1/S /o ~13 - 57 ys _
. ,~.X
Cl/POC ~ S 4, 6 B, 9 B'6,2 69 /10 /dl l7, 6 9.3 /6 211 D,. -
/IA9H1 19 B7 93 93 /BG 32 54S 100 72 ia 70 70 74 - - � � ' '
79 2/ 36
_ �M, 9 )
nayrl2 l4 /6 ~3 ~4 47 94 /6l 3/6 .i6 S 7 S 6 67 l~a ,yy 27 p~
niM 'niX n~!rr�
p--- d B B B 20 36 57 BS 6 B 6 6 5 3S 1J30 /B -
3H d B B 8 22 42 7/ /08
3AANC C-/072 - 9 21 2! //9 100 - 295 l1,2 /5,5 14,2 /49 31,/
/iAPM ~C�lU.i3 ~ lOS - 6,4 23 4S BS /25 6,3 5,6 6.6 7,8 10.6 27 � � 37
ASiAG BM.~i 18 /9 /7 /9 25 34 47 76 16 15 /4 /5 16 /B -/B
SCfP
Rf BM-3" 33 40 35 34 I B1 /36 /60 14B /4 /6 20 /6 /9 331 - l74 - I` I
I~ey : . .
1. Program 6. Fig 1
2. Computer 7. Trans~er
3. YeS-1033 8. PAES
4. Programs [cf. table 2] 9. EM
5. vumbers of test circuits
- The dashes in all tables indicate that the respective test problems of the pro~ram
in question have not been studied and the asterisks in tables 5 and 7 indicate
that the program ~s not able to analy2e these circuits.
As the result of the studies it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that all
tha programs studied are approximately of the same order in terms of accuracy and
effic;ency. This ract is explained by the fact that modeling methods of a single
class--the nodal method (or modifications of it) and implicit methods or integra-
tion--are included in all programs. In spite of this, the studies carried out
make it possible to note several advantages and disadvantages of individual pro-
grams.
From the viewpoint of using the programs for various problems a very important
property is the ef~iciency of utilizing a program--the convenieace o� the input
language, the simplicity o� the procedure of writing an assignment for analyzino
a circuit, and the clear representa~ion of the ir.~ormation put cut by the computer
- in terms of r.hP raw data and r.he results of calculating the char~r~c~ristics of the
17
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circuit analyzed. The language of the EAL~12 prugram can tte mentioned in this
regard. Since the P:1UM2 program at tae same time make.s possible sufficient
accuracy in modeling circuits with relatively r~inor expenditures of machine time,
this makes it possible to recommend it for use in the development and study of
various circuits operating under various conditions, taking into account the
temperature oi the environment and the effect of various external factors.
A very important property of a program is the existence in it of both simple and
more precise models o~ semiconductor components of circuits. This makes it
, possible to select one model or another on the basis of the reQuired accuracy
of obtaining characteristics. From this point of view the PAiJtiIl and P:~R:~i pro-
grams, which contain a single (and simplified) model of a bipolar transistor--the
PAES model, undoubtedly have a serious disadvantage.
A grest advantage of the AROPS and SPROS programs is their ability to optimize
circuits, ~a property by which many programs are not distinguished. among the ad-
vantages of these programs must be mentioned the mildly sloping nature of the
curve reflecting the relationship between expenditures of machine time and the
number of elements in~the circuit analyzed (fig 3), which indicates their oreat
abilities with regard to the analysis of large-scale electronic circuits. Thzse
advantages in combination with a degree of accuracy sufficient for many problems
and relatively slight expenditures of machine time, as well as with the possibili-
ty of performing multivariant calculations and statistical analysis and optimiza-
tion, and the existence in the SPROS program of a macro~odeling subsystem, make
it possible to recommend the AROPS and SPROS programs for use in work relating to
the circuitry design of electronic circuits [4].
Among the positive aspecCs of the SPr1RS program [6] must be mentioned the exist-
ence of a high-level input language, the ability by means of input language faci-
lities of on-line supplementing and correcting of a library o~ models of multi-
terminal components, and procedures tor parametric optimization and static ana-
lysis. '
These factors, as well as sufficiently high accuracy in solving problems with
relatively slignt espenditures of machine time, and the mildly sloping nature of
the curve characterizing the increase in computing costs with an increase in the
number of elements of circuits studied (fig 3), make it possible to conclude that
it is possible to utilize the SPARS program effectively for solving a broad range
of problems originating at the stage of the circuitry design of radio electronic
equipment.
The results obtained in analyzing various types.of circuits by means of a number
of dor,?estic programs are of interest to developers of programs and, in par~icular,
to iisers, since they m2ke it possible to estimate possible degrees of precis~on
and required expenditures of machine time necessary for analyzing various kinds
of circuits and to select the most suitable program for solvino specific problems.
In conclusior, it r~ust be mentioned that a comparative analysis ot different pro-
grams is a rather dif�icult task. An investigation procedure has not been finally
established up to the present time. In subsequent studies special attention must
be paid to improving the investigation procedure with the goal ot developing cri-
teria for estimating the accuracy of modeling and the effectiveness of using
18
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programs Eor analyzing electronic circuits, which is necessar}~ for a more objec-
tive evaluation of the quality of programs studied.
Bibliograph~
1. Blatner, D. "Choosing the Optimum Computer-Aided ~esign ?rogram,"
ELEKTRO,TIKA, No 9, 1976, pp 39-4~.
2. Petrenko, A.I. et al. "Comparison of Circuitry Design Programs on the Basis
of a Set of Test Probleu~s," IZV. WZOU - RADIOELEKTRONIKA, Vol 23, No 6,
1980, pp 5-12.
3. I1'in, V.N. "Osnovy avtomatizatsii skhemotekhnicheskogo proyektirovaniya" ~
[Fundament?:.s of Circuitry Design Automation], Moscow, Energiya, 1979.
4. I1'in, V.N., Kogan, V.L., Kamneva, N.Yu., Popov, V.Z. and Frolkin, V.T.
"Calculation of Optimum Parameters of Electronic Circuits by :~ieans of the
AROPS Combiaed Program," IZV. WZOV - R~DIOELEKTRONIKA, Vol 19, No 6, i97b,
pp 99-108.
5. Gloriozov, ~ e.L. et al. "Vvedeniye v avtomatizatsiyu skhemotekhnicheskogo
proyektiro~aniya" [Introduction to Circuitry Design Automationj, Moscow,
Scvetskoye Radio, 1976.
6. Petrenko, ~,.I. et al. "General Description of the Package of A~plied Programs
for Solving Circuitry Design Programs," ELEKTRONNOYE PROYEKTIROVANIYE, No 2,
Kiev, 1979, pp 96-107.
~rkhangel'skiy, A.Ya. et al. "Basic Algorithms of the ELAIS Program for
analyzino Integrated Circuits," ELEK~R0IWAYA TEKF~INII~A, No 3, 1978.
8. Trudonoshin, V.A., Pivovarova, N.V. and Podgurskiy, V.G. "PAR.~I Prooram tor
Analysis of Electronic Circui[s for YeS Computers," IZV. V[JZOV - RADIOELEK-~
TROI~IKA, Vol 20, *To 6, 1977, pp 119-120.
COPYRIGHT: "Izvestiya vuzov SSSR - Radioelektronika", 1981.
3831
- CSO: 1860/332 . .
1~
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COMMlJNICATIONS, COMMiJNICATION EQUIPMENT, RECEIVERS AND
TRANSMITTERS, NETWORKS, RADIO PHYSICS, DATA TRANSMISSION
AND PROCESSING, INFORMATION THEORY
UDC 612.39.1:519.25
FUNCTIONAL POLYNOMIALS IN PROBLEMS OF STATISTICAL RADIO ENGINEERING
Novosibirsk FUNKTSIONAL'NYYE POLINOMY V ZADACHAKH STATISTICHESKOY RADIOTEKHNIKI
_ in Russian 1981 (signed to press 30 Jan 81) pp�i, 2
- [Annotation and table of contents from book "Functional Polynomials in Problems of
Statistical Radio Engineering", by Valentin Borisovich Kashkin, Institute of Physics
imeni L. V. Kirenskiy, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences,
Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1500 copies]
[Text) The author examines nonlinear inertial transformations of steady random pro-
cesses described by Volterra's funcCional polynomials with an arbitrary number of
terms. He solves problems of the analysis of such transformations, synthesis of op-
- timal nonlinear filters for the discrimination of signals against the background of
interference, optimal nonlinear devices for the detection and discrimination of sig-
nals. Special attention is given to the meChods of realization of the found trans-
formations, including by means of functional electronics.
The book is intended for scientists and specialists in the area of radio engineering.
Figures 36, tables 6, bibliography 91 items.
Contents Page
Foreword 3
Chapter I. Nonlinear Transformations of Strictly Steady Random Processes 5
1. Steady Random Processes and Their Properties 5
2. Transformation of Strictly Steady Random Processes 28
3. Statistical Analysis of Nonlinear Inertial Transformations
- of Steady Random Processes 39
Chapter II. Functional Polynomials in Synthesis Problems of Optimal
Signal Processing Systems 56
1. Optimal Nonlinear Filtration by the Criterium of the Minimum
- Mean Square Error 56
_ 2. Computation of the Characteristics of Nonlinear Filters 70
3. Nonlinear Filtration Under the Conditions of a priori
Indeterminacy 96
4. Detection and Discrimination of Signals Against the Background
of Non-Gaussian Interference 103
20
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Chapter III. Examples of the Realization of Nonlinear Inertial
Transformatiox~s of the UFNS Type 122
1. UFNS-Type Filters in Radio Receiving Equipment 122
2. Uses of Radiospectroscopy Methods in Nonlinear Filtration 125
3. On the Mechanisms of Nonlinear Processing of Signals in
Human and Animal Hearing Organs 135
Bibliography 141
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1981.
- 10,233
CSO: 1860/312
2 .t
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UDC 621.316.925.001.5.
DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX MEASURING ELENiENTS OF RELAY PROTECTION DEVICES
Moscow DINAMIKA SLOZHNYKH IZMERITEL'NYKH ORGANOV RELEYNOY ZASHCHITY in Russian 1981
(signed to press 17 Nov 80) pp 2, 208-9
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Dynamics of Complex Measuring ~lements
of Relay Protection Devices", by Eduard Mendelevich Shneyerson, Energoizdat,
5000 copies, 209 pages]
[Text] The author examines the methods of analysis of the behavior of complex mea- .
suring elements of relay protection devices during short-circuiting in electrical sys-
tems with consideration for transient processes occurring in the primary network,
measuring transformers of current and voltage, and in secondary networka. He dis-
cusses the peculiarities of the behavior of various types of ineasuring elements under
transient conditions and problems of the designing of devices with consideration for
dynamic conditions,
This book is intended for engineers of research and designing organizations working
in the area of relay protection and automation of power systems, as well as for gra-
duate and undergraduate sCudents of vuzes specializing in electric power engineering.
Contents ~ Page
Foreword 3
Chapter 1. Methods of Analysis of the Dynamic Stability of the
Functioning of Relay Measuring Elements 6
1.1. Dynamics Stability of the Functioning of RIO [Relay Measuring
Elements] and Factors Determining It 6
1.2. Methods of Studying the Behavior of RIO During Disturbances
in Electrical Systems 12
Chapter 2. Dynamic Characteristics of RIO During Sinusoidal Disturbances 17
2.1. Statement of the Problem 1~
2.2. Positive and Negative Directions in the Case of Damages in
ES [Electrical Systems] 20
2.3. Compared Values During Sinusoidal Disturbances 22
2.4. Characteristics of RIO in the Case of Symmetric Damages in ES 30
2.5. Characteristics of RIO in the Case of Nonsyrmnetric Damages 42
2.6. Trajectory Method of Reduced Input Vector Z~(t) 45
22
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2,7. Dynamic Pr.operties of Directional RIO with Polarizing Circuits 52
2,8. Suppressing Properties of Filters Under Transient Conditions 67
Chapter 3. Characteristics of the Operation of RIO with Two and More
Values During Nonsinusoidal Input Signals 71
3.1. General Problems of Analysis ~1
3.2. Deviations of RIO Characteristics During Nonsinusoidal
Input Signals 74
3.3. Refinement of the Determination of the Areas of Deviation
of the Operation Characteristics 85
Chapter 4. Analysis of the Dynamic Stability of the Functioning
of Relay Measuring ~lements 96
4.1. Evaluation of the Dynamic Stability of RIO by the Areas of
Deviations in the Characteristics Under Transient Conditions 96
4.2. Effects of the Mode of the Electrical System 101
4.3. Transfer Functions of the Elements of the "Object-RIO" ~
System During Symmetric and Nonsymmetric Damages 109
4.4. Analysis of the RIO Dynamics on the Basis of the Resulting
Transfer Functions of the "Object-RIO" System 126
4.5. Approximate Analysis of RIO Dynamics 132
4.6. Accurate Estimation of the Effects of Frequency Filters 146
4.7. Dynamics of RIO with Frequency Filters in the Case of Zero
Initial Conditions (NNU) 150
4.8. Elements of the Analysis and Synthesis of RIO with Consider-
ation for Their Dynamic Indexes 155
Chapter S. Consideration of the Nonlinearity of the Elements of the
"Object-RIO" System Under Static and Dynamic Conditions 173
5.1, Elements of the "Object-RIO" System with Nonlinear Characteristics 173
5.2. Modes of Current Transformers with Consideration of the
Nonlinearity of Their Characteristics 175
~.3. Characteristics and Coefficients of Transmission of Nonlinear
Elements of SF 195
5.4. Dynamic Characteristics of RIO 198
Bibliography 206
COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, 1981.
10,233
CSO: 1860/311
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UDC 521.372.54
~IICROPROCESSOR II~'LE:`~IENT9TION OF DIGIT~,I, SIGNAL PROCESSING EQUIP:~NT
Kiev IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNYKH ZAVEDE.IIY: RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 24,
No 6, Jun 81 (manuscript received 8 Jan 81) pp 4-15 ~
[~rticle by r1.I. Petrenko and S.A. Bublik]
[Text] ~ survey is given of basic approaches to designing digital signal pro-
cessing equipment utilizing microprocessor sets. It is demonstratad.that the
choice of the structure of the signal processing algorithm is of essential im-
- portance for the implementation of high-efficiency microcomputers. The need to
develop problem-oriented facilities for the automated desi~n of equipment of this
class is substantiated. ~ ~
Successes in integrated electronics in the past decade have created the conditions
f or qua~.itative changes in signal processing equipment with the extensive use of
digital methods [1-~+]. At the present time the attention of developers of digital ~
equipment has been attracted by the appearance of new components in the form of
programmable large-scale integrated circuits called micropr~cessors [5-7]. They
are distinguished by doubtless advantages: low cost, high reiiability and small
size and low power consumption. The changeover from equipment with "hard logic"
to programmable microprocessor systems makes it possible in cer*_air. cases to
shorten development time, to carry out its unification, to make improvement pos-
sible and to employ self-diagnosis.
Digital sig^.al processing equipment is a promising area for the application of
microprocessors (~'s). However, all the same the relatively slow speed of re-
_ sponse of microprocessor components creates difficulties for their use in equip-
~ent operating in real time.
In the present article, using as an example digital filters, ~ahich represent a
widespread type of equipment for the digital processing of signals, a number of
methods uf constructing processing algorithms and hardware suitable for micro-
processor execution are discussed.
A comput~n~ device whose operation is described by a linear difference equation:
n' �
yn = ~1 a;x~_, - ~ b~yn_i ,
;_0 ~=1 �
\1~
24 ~
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where {s } is the input signal, {y~ } is *_he output signal ~nd a, and b.
are coefficients, is usually called a linear ~igital filter (TsF) It is
obvious from (1) that a digital ~ilter essentially completes the transformation
of an input number sequence into an output whose oarameters are assigned coefti-
cients a, and b. . In the frequency region a dioital zilter is described by a
transfer ~ur.ction obtained by means of a z-transior.n of expression (1):
a~ .v
; ~ , ~-i
H (z) _ ~ a;z / , ~ b;.. -
r-i
Digital filters are classified as recursive and nonrecursive. If coefficients
o, do not equal zero (if only one), then such a tilter is called recursive. In
tFi.is case previously computed values of the output signal are used for computing
subsequent ones. If all coeEficients b, equal zero, then the filter is called
nonrecursive. Each reading of the outpu~ signal is computed on the basis of
~1 + 1 previous readings of the input:
n!
yn = ~ ai~n-~ �
t=o
~2)
The trans*er function, H(z) , of a nonrecursive filter takes the :orm of a poly-
~omial with degrees of z 1. Both types of filters make it possible to pro~uce
oracti::illy any assigned characteristic. The choice of a recursive or nonrecur-
sive i~olementation '_s determined by the conditions of the specific application.
It is obvious from espressions (1) and (2) that arithmetic onerations--multipli-
cation, addition and subtraction--are used for the purpose of computing values of
{vn~ . Since real digital computing devices operate c,rith numbers having a rinite
~rec:sion of representation, the precision oF computations of digital filters is
limited. The resulting error in the value of the output signal represents a com-
bination of three components, whose sources are quantization of the input signal,
quant~za~ion of the results of arithmetic operations and quantization of coeffi-
cients. :~t t:~e present time there are matiy determinate and stacisLical r~ethods
of estimatin~ the influence of the etfects of quantization on the characteristics
o~ filters [8, 9]. In implementing digital filters with microprocessors having
a word length o� 3 to 16 bits, iC is necessary to estimate the permissible number
of bits with which tne technical requirements for the digi~al filter are fulfilled.
The required accuracy of the representation of values of tre input si~nal and of
Che r~su'_ts of arit:~met'_c operations (~nultiplication) is determined bv the dyna-
_ n~c r~nne spe~~fie~, 3;id t.ia accurac~ of coefficients by the permissible error of
~~:�Ii~roprocessor implementations of filters, spectrum analyzers and ~he like based
un fast Fourier tran:;fo:-m, ~valsh, etc., algorithms are usually esecuted ait`~
narrewl;~ specia?ized tlardware and are not discus~.=.d here.
7.5
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the transfer function. However, an investigation of the e~fects of quantizati~n
in digital filters is not separable from the specific structure of the computing
algorithm.
Generally the assigned transfer function, H(z) , can be represented by various
structural diagrams [10]. Two familiar structures of second-order recursive
digital filters are presented in fig 1 for the purpose oP illustration.
~Inl rln) f 4 ~ S ulnl 1 /
- } 1:.~~ 4 c, s s c. 9 ~n
,
~ ~ ~ ~ b ~ /
~ ~ ~
} ~ b~ 1 ~ o~ , ~ I., I
I` ~J ' 2 C, ~ s
` � 13 yrnl
- -t~ .
a~ b) c1
Figure 1.
The straightforward canonical structural diagram (fig la) is represented by an
isomozphic signal ~raph (fig lb) and functions according to the following algo-
rithm: ~
For x(n) , where n= 0, 1; 2, execute:
~
1. Enter a~n). 5. ya ~n) = Js ~n)�
2. ul (n) T u_ (n - 1). 6. ys (n~ = Q.,u, (n) a,y: ~n) aa;~~.
3. y= (n) _ (n - 1). 7. Derive ! (n) _ ~!s (n)�
4. u3 (n) b~yl (n) - b,~: (n) ; x(n). 8. Go to step 1.
The ciia~n structure of a Gray-Alarkel digi~al filter (fig lc) operates according
- to the following algorithm:
For s(n) , where n= 0, 1, 2, execute:
1. Ent~r X~n)� uc ~n) = yi ~n) - y: ~n1�
y~ _ ~r ~n)~ 6' ys ~n) = Csyc tn)�
J: ln) = yii ~n - 1). 7. r~e ~n) = u~ (n) ~~s {n?.
Y~ _ ~i= ~n - 1). (n) _ (r) ; us ~n)�
26
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I
~
~
~
~ 9. ue ~n) ys 1- ~s ~n~� 13. u~: ~~tl - u~o (n)�
; ] 0. yq ~n) = C._.~s ~~t)� 14. 1:3 ~r) = C3J7 ~n) ; .C:J~i ~R) Cs~i: ~r).
i ~
; l 1. :l:o ln) = ris (n) ; y, (R), 15. Derive u ln) = u:3 ~n)�
' 12. ui~ ~n) _!!a ~~i) ~ yg (n). 16. Co to s tep 1.
~
I
I
For the purpose of reducing sensitivity to quantization e�fects, high-order filters
are often eYecuted in the form of a cascade'or parallel connection of �irst- and
i second-order elements:
i
~ P P
' H(z) = n H~ (a'l; 1~ (z) = S', N~(z)�
r=i t-~
i Each structural diagram determines the organization of the computing process dif-
; ferently and, consequently, its properties and characteristics, such as potential
parallelism, the required memory capacity, quantization noise, dynamic range, etc.
!
i The implementation of the computing algorithm with microprocessor sets involves
j the design of a microcomputer. It must have the following key functional blocks:
~ a microprocessor for executing arithmetic-logical operations and controlling the
; data processing process in the microcomputer, a read-only memory (ROM) Lor storing
the filter's programs and its coefficients (constants), a random-access memory
(R~.`I) for storing values of the input and output signals and intermediate vari-
ables, an input/output interface for linking with peripherals, a timer (GTI) and
a power supply. In fig 2 is presented a simplified block diagram of a processor
for digital processing of analog signals executed on the basis of a microcomputer
and analog-digital and digital-analog converters.
For effecti~e processing of the signal it is necessary to match the structure of
the computing al~orithm with the architecture and parameters of the microcomputer.
:~a analysis of f~inctioning algorithms constructed for various structural diagrams
~f a digital filter makes it possible to identify three characteristic features
o~ them:
, 1. There is a set oc di~ferent algorithms which are equivaZent to the same trans-
fer function, H(z) , but which difFer in sensitivity to the finite pracision in
the representation of numbers, in the parallelis:n of co^~puta*_ions, in the memory
caoacity reauired, in ~he number or sr_eps, etc. .
- 2. The summing of products and the delay of a variable by one clock period are
tne most typical operations of linear digital filtration aiocLithms.
3. The nunber of input/output operations in ~igital Piltration algorithms is
- relatively low as compared with the number of arithmetic operations.
'L
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i ) Mu~~� ~
~ ~ lTN 2j ) 3BM i
~ `
~ CuCmeNNOa wu,o i
. 15 6 7 ~
~ � ~ 03y Upe
~ n3y ~
~ 6/B ~
~-8,1 .3 -J
s(f) ;n (n v(!)
l1n lA
Figure 2.
Key:
1. Timer 6. T_/0 interface
2. MP 7. ROt4
3. `~iicrocomputer 8. Analog-digital converter
- 4. System line 9. Digital-analog converter
5. RAM ~
Consequentlv, especially high requirements must be imposed on the time for exe-
cution oi the operations of multiplication, suimmation and the transfer of data
between the storage and arithmetic-logic units. For the purpose of taking into
~accouat the specifics of digital filtration algorithms it is necessary to select
a mic~uprocessor wnich ^Fri~^sl for a specific apnlication. A comparative
evaluation of the suitability of microprocessors must be made f~om a combinat.iun
of technical and economic parameters [6]. In solving digital si~nal processing
_ problems the following must be numbered among the decisive parameters: the time
for the esecution of instructions, characterizing the speed of the microprocessor;
rhe presence o� instructions for executing key digital filtration operations (in-
cl~sding ~nultiplication, addition, subtraction, shift, etc.); the number of inter-
nal registers (i.e., the capacity of the fast-access storaoe), dete r.nining the
comput~no capabilities of the MP; the capacity of the addressable storage, deter-
;~inin~ the maximum amouat of information which can be processed; the presence of
a channel for direct access to the storage; the capability of interruption, de-
term~ning the multichanne~ operating mode of the multiprocessor; the presence of
microorojram control, making possible adaptation of the instruction set and of
the structure of instructions to specifics of a specif ic algorithm; and the ex-
istence cf facilities for microprocessor e:tchange for the purpose of implementing
a proc2ssi~~, algorithm possessing internal parallelism.
In addition to the par2meters named, of essential importance for the application
of r~icroprocessors is the number (and presence) of large-scale integrated circuits
from the n~croprocessor set necessary for the i~plementation of a spec~f ic ~aicro-
co~puter, the number of required power supplies and the power consumption, the
28
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presence of facilities for the automation of processing and for debug~ing, and
the cost. .
The structures and parameters of the microprocessors which are widespread at the
present time meet the above-enumerated requirements to an insufficient degree.
Generzl-purpose microprocessors such as the I8080, MC6800, F8, Z80 and I:580 are
suited mainly for the logical processing of data. The esecutien of complicated
2rithmetic operations and computations, such as multiplication, is accomplished
through software, on which much time is spent. For e~ample, the so.ftware imple-
mentation of the oper3tion of the multiplication of two eight-bit numbers with a
general-purpose microprocessor of the MC6800 type takes about 300 us [13]. The
processing of signals in real time requires, as a rule, less time thaa the exe-
cution of arithmetic operations.
There are several methods, and combinations of them, for increasing the efficiency
or processors for digital signal processing which are implemented with micrcp:o�-
- cessor sets: the use of high-speed microprocessors designed on tne basis of
modern technologies, such as TTL [transistor-transistor logic] with Schottky
diodes, integrated injection logic, emitter-coupled logic, etc.; the use of micro-
processors in which complicated arithmetic operations (including multiplication)
- are performed by means of hardware; the multiprocessing of signal processing al-
gorithms and their imple~enCation in multimicroprocessor systems; simplification
of product summation operations; and the development and use of special-purpose
microprocessors oriented toward speeding the execution of basic digital filtration
_ operations. ~
Develooers of higr.-etficiency signal processi.ng systems have traditionally strived
to tise a high-speed el2ment base. During the last decade of the development of
*_he r~u.:roprocessor element base the mastery of new technologies has made it pos-
sib~e to increase its speed by more than an order of magnitude. At the present
time integrated technology has reached the level ot ultralarge-scale integrated
~ c~rcll~LS (ULSIC's) with minimum geometric dimensions of elements on the order af
one micron and a time delay in a gate on the order of a few nanoseconds. In the
opinion or specialists, these parameters are close to the limit for silicon tech-
r.ologv. It is anticipated that the development of new semiconductor tecfinologies
will r,?ake it possible to create devices with subnanosecond speed. Experimental
models of gallium arsenide logical gates with a total delay of 33 ps have already
been produced [11].
But ttla software e:tacution of complicated arithmetic operations, as indicated
above, takes a great deal of time and can be used basically for solving siraple
_ ~iltcring proble~:~s.
An increase in the computing eFficiency of general-purpose r~icrocomputers ef
~ 30- to 100-fold ar,d more zs achieved by adding "mathematical chips"--rnicropro-
cessor large-scale intebrated circuiCs designed f.or per~orming mathematical opera-
tions ox inr_reased complexity~. These LSIC's are prograr.imable 3nd nonprogra:nmable.
The for~er are essentially processor elements with their oc.:, instruction set.
T_he :~m9511 and I8087 models ~~re described in [12J, which perform the operations of
e::L�ractizg t;~e root, raisin~ to a po~~~r, computing logarithmic and trigonometric
funct~ons, etc. ~onprograt^r,iable LSIC's are special-purpose denices and make
29
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possible greater speed. In [12, 13], for e:{ample, a report is oiven on 3- and 24-
bit completely parallel multipliers which form a result in 45 and 200 ns, respec--
tively, and the 24-bit multiplier performs the multiplication o� numbers with
double precision and is suited for use ir} high-order recursive filters.
For the purpose of implementing high-efficiency digital signal processing equipment
it is necessary, as mentioned above, to match carefully the structures of filtra-
tion algorithms with the architectur,e of computing facilities. The most universal
and effective approach is the parallel organization of equipr.?ent and processing
[14]. This approach is based on the employment of potential parallelism intrin-
sicallv characteristic of the structures of algorithms [10].
Obviously, in a filter computation of the output value, y, is perfo r:ned in a
de[inite order. For the purpose of computin g a signal innany node of the signal
graph of a digital filter it is generally necessary to know the values of some
other nodal signals, i.e., for each structure there is its own combination of
order relationships for the calculation of nodal signals which is determined total-
1y by the topology o� transfers. For e:cample, ror the structure represented by
the graph in fig lc the graph for the ordering of computations of nodal signals
is presented in fig 3a, where {c~.} represents the set of nodal signals.which can
be computed simultaneously. It makes it possible to estimate the potential pa"ra-
lellism or the computing algorithm of the structure considered for all ari~hmetic
uperations. Assuming the multiplication operation to be the longest and to be
deciding the totai input of time, it is possible for the purpose of reducing this
input to reveal the possibilities of the parallel execution of the multiplication
of coefficients by nodal values. It is obvious from the graph in fig 3a that of
all 20 transfer branches only 5 implement transfers by means of the multiplication
operation (since the transfer coefficients of the other branches equal + 1). This
makes it possible to construct a graph for the ordering of multiplication opera-
- tions. Such a graph for the structure considered is presented in fig 3b. An ana-
lvsis of it ,nakes it possible to draw the conclusion that the simultaneous multi-
plication of variables can be performed for coefficients C2 and C3 , and also,
in the nest time intarval, for coefficients C and C Consequently, in a
digital tilter having a Gray-Markel structure it is feasible to use two multi-
processors. This makes it possible to reduce the total time for multiplication
operations from t= 5 tine intervals (when using a single microproczssor) to
t= 3. Thus, the value of t= 3 corresponds to the degree of parallelism
*.,rith respect to the multiplication operation intrinsically characteristi~ of the
structure considered.
The potential parallelism relative to arithmetic operations for any co:nputing
al;orithm is determined similarly if a structural diagram corresponding to it
or an isomorphic sio al oraph is constructed.
~n a number of cases the de~ree of parallelism of the algorithm can be addition-
ally increased on accour.t of the use of the conveyer principle of processing--
at:othar aporoach to the multiprocessing of processes [10, 15]. In this case
the indi~idual phases of the total execution cycle relating to different time
intervals are executed simultaneously. The canonical structure of a digital
filter (rig lb) can thus be made totally parallel with respect to the multiplica-
~ion operation un account oi the addition oF added unit delays to the direct
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transier branches, An obvious disadv~ntage ot increas~ng speed b; zhe use of
parallelism is the increase in the amount of equipment.
-fnJf4i1 . ~41j~C, f4J~~ {4.)~ (4rl~C, l sl~ fC~1l Ir..l~~. �1,~1n1 ~ .
4 ~ 5 ~ 6 6~ 9 i ,p ~ ~p ~ l.i
- ~ ~ I I I /
2 I ~ 7 ~ l~~~ CI
~ ,l'~~'/ I ~
~
~ ~ . t- fi' i ~ ' ~ ~
1--~ ~mi) fmz; f^'~~
~ C,
a ) � ~
~ C, ~ C.
b)
Fi~ure 3. ,
The steady reductior. in the cost o~ inteorated ROM's in recent years has made it
pussible ror developers to increase considerably the carryin~ capacity of digital
filters on the basis of e:~ploying tabular algorithmic methods of computing sums
of products [2]. In this case the operat~.on of the multiplication of a sequence
of variables by constant factors is imglemented by the operations ~r the addition
and shift of codes o� an auxiliary vector function, ~y , whose values are computed
beforehand and are stored in the storage.
Let us w~ite difference equation (1) for an element oz a second-order digital
iilter in the form:
f ~
. yn = auXn T a~Xn-~ ~ ayXn-2 - b1tJ~_~ - b-yn_~� ~3~
Let all sigr.als oe limited to a level of + 1, and for their representation le~
an additiunal L-bit code (including the sign bit) with a fi:{ed point be used:
t-~
o U r ~-r
U� _ - Un .
~
~
Then equation (3) can be rewritten in the following manner:
~L-, L-I ' L-1
~ ~ _1_ ( ~ 1 ~ Q-~ ~ Y~_~z-1
U^ - C~ ( ~ X,~2 ""n~ i Ql 1 ~ ~-12 _ ~-1 J ~ -
1~_~ ~ i=1
- L-~ 1.
- ~n-. bl ~ yn-~2-` - 6~ ~ y~_~2 `
!
~_i t-1 ,
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Having defined ~unction v o~ five binar}r arguments as ~~(Uy, U2, U3, U4,.U5) _
= a~UT + alU2 + a2U3 - b~U`` b2TJ5 , this equation can be written in the form:
tr-i
~ r~ o
~n = ~ 2 ~i ~Xn, 'C~n-1' Xn-2' yn-1' ~n-2~ - ~0 Xn-I~ ~'n-2' ~n-1' y~-? ~
i=t �
The value of y is now computed only by means of algebraic addition operations
and shift opera~tions. Vector function ~ for an assigned set of coefficients
a, a , a , b and b takes on 25 = 32 values. They can be computed before-
hand and en~eredlin the form of a table in the microcomputer's ROM. The algo-
rithm ror computing yn in this case has the form:
1. Clear accumulator register.
2. Read out value of w for i= L.
3. Add c~rith conten~s o� accumulator register.
4. Shift contents of accumulator register to right by ane bit (multiplication
by 2 1 ) .
5. Repeat steps ? to 4 for i= L- l, L- 2, 1. ~
6. Read out value of .
7. Subtract value of ~y~ from contents of accumulator.
High-order digital filters can be constructed, as a rule, on the basis of the
cascade and parallel connection of first- and second-order elements.
r1 disadvantage of this approach is the exponential growth in storage volume with an
increase in the number of arguments of function and consequently in access
time. In addition, implementation is complicated considerably if the coefficients
change during the period of operation of the filter.
For increasing the e�ficiency of computations performed in digital filtering,
developers have more than once resorted to different variants of the integral
representation oz the filter`s coefficients and variables. In [16, 17] efficiency
was increased on account of simplification of the multiplication operation in
designing transfer �unctions of the digital filter with coefficients equal to
small whole numbers (including + 1). Characteristic of this trend is complication
of the step of forming the transfer function (PF), since the approximation problem
is able not to have a solution with specific requirements and limitations.
The body of matheu~atics of the arithmetic of residue classes (modular arithmetic)
is used in other developments [18, 19]. Tt makes possible mul*_iprocessing of
algorithms tor the operations of multiplication, addition and subtraction and the
performance of computations with high efficiency~ and precision with multiprocessor
syste~s. The time for the execution of the multiplication operatiom for n-bit
numbers in this case is proportional approximately to n, and not to n2 as in
the tradicional meChod.
~ system of residue class arithmetic is constructed from a series o= modules,
u={;~1, m2, cnL} , wizich are relatively prime. Any whole nu:nber
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V ~[_W~ W] , where w= 1/2(Q - 1,) and Q='~m` , can be unambiguously coded by
a sequence o~ residue classes, vi : v= v~v~..,v~ ,
J _(~vlmodm~ ~n.i ;,~E[~~~1,
. a
tm;-~~~mcd,~i; ~E[-rc~,0].
Arithmetic operations--addition, subtraction and multiplication--are perforned
very simply in this case:
(~h� . . . , ut) (ul, . . . , ~r) _ ((ui -i- z~~);mod ml, . . . , (ur -i- v,) mod m~),
(ul, . . . , ur) - (vl, . . . , v~) _ ((ul - vl) mod ml, . . . , (ur - vT) mod rrir),
(ul, . . . , u~) X . . . ~ z'r) _ ~~ui X mod ml, . . . , (u~ Y. Vr) mod m,).
Since residue class arithmetic operates only with whole numbers and the coeffi-
cients of a digital filter generally cannot be whole numbers, then in the imple-
nentation of a digital filter it is necessary to perform scaling. The values of
coefficie-~ts ai and bi are represented as whole numbers [Sa~] and [Sbi]
and the output signal from each element must be divided by factor S before
being used in the next iteration. For each second-order element this operation
can be written in the form:
S~(n)=[Sao1x(n)-}-[Sal]x(n-1)-I-[Su.riz(n-2)-[ S6i)y~n- 1)-
-[S62]y(n-2); y(n)={S-'[Sy(n)]}. .
- ~4)
It is not difficult to combine the parallel structure of computations.of residue
class arithmetic w~th the Peled-Liu vector multiplication algorithm [2]. If
s(n) and y(n) are interpreted as binary whole numbers, i.e.,
L ~ .
x (n) _ xj 2' ft f (n) _ ~ 2f ,
;=o i-~
then equation (4) c~n he rewritten in the form
L
~ Sy ~n) = ~~i)
~-o
cohere
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~j _ x^-- xr ul-z y~-' .
~ ~ ~
~ ~
~ (At) _ [ Sak ]�L;-k - ~ [ Sbk ly; -k �
k=-0 k=1
For a systen of residue classes assigned by modules ml = 2~ - 1 and m~ = 28 ,
the equation can be represented in the form:
. ~
~n) = I Sy ~n) I:s - ~ ~~'l', ~A~t) I ~
i=~ ~2g
~
y: ~n) = I Sy ~n) I~e_i = I,~,r 2'V'z ~A:t) ~
_8-t
~5)
where
L%-~ /
~1 (A3~) = I~V ~A~~)128-~ ~ ~f j~Ii~ = ~ y,~ 2~ I ~ Y~'2~~.1~=~~g"~\A./~ ~:g~
1=4 'ml
Lt_ ~ '
Y~ (n) _ ~ X:;`'' m;; A;, _ z, . . . , x~1, y; y;1 i .
~
i=a
The residual value of y(n) can be computed on the basis oi the scaling algorithm
presented in [18]:
I y~n) I~e_i = I yl ~n) y. ~n) ~~s-~ �
_ . ~6~
- Co~putations according to equations (5) and {6) can be executed sequentially on a
sin~;le eight-bit microprocessor or, according to (5), can be computed sir~ultan-
eouslv on two independent microprocessors (fig 4), and equation (6) by means of
a modulo-(2~ - 1) processor.
The difficulties which aris~ for developers in using residue class arithmetic for
the implementation o� digital filtering are related primarily to ensuring effec-
tive scaling, especially for recursive digital f ilters, to determinino the sign
oi the result, etc. .
in spite of all the advantages of the methods discussed fnr organizing the e~ecu-
tion oi key digital signal processing operations on general-purpose microcomnuters,
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the best agreement between the structure of aloorithr..s and the structure o~ hard-
ware can be achieved when implementing them with special-purpose microprocessors.
_ Special-purpose microprocessors have smaller overall dimensions and lower cost and
high speed and reliability. They can operate individually or in conjunction with
general-purpose microprocessors. Successes in integrated technology and the in-
- crease in the degree of integration in a semiconductor chip to 20,000 to 30,000
c:omponents has made it possible already today to develop sin~le-chip special-
purpose microprocessors (more accurately, microcomputers) for digital,signal
processing.
n3y Is'~~~I:�
2~ MOQ155
3)
1 ~ Mll lypo~ol ; )
�r.~~
srr, ~un Zr~ 4~ ~~n~
~oQMoa
n0~~me
l13y ~Tlnl'vss
NOQ 256
P1R(6poJp1
i igure 4.
- Kev:
1. Analog-digital converter 4. Main storage
2. `~iodel 25~ ROM S. Digital-analog converter .
3. Microprocessor (8-bit)
In this connection it is interesting to discuss the capabilities and some fe2tures
of one of the first microcomputers of this type, the I2920 [20]. This microcom-
puter can be programmed for digital processing of analog signals in real time for
the perforuiance of filtering, modula~ion, deteccion and the like. It has been
esecuted according to the n-MOS technology on a single chip measuring 39.1 mm`
in area, on which are placed a microprocessor, a reprogracnmable RO:I (RFtOM) , an
analog-digital and digital-an~log converter (fig S).
- The I2920 microcomputer executes a special-purpose instruction set: addition,
subtraction, deternination o� absolute value, copying of data and several logic
operations. Any ins~ructior. is evecuted in '~00 ns. The band of frequencies
which can be processed depends on the time ror execution of the entire program
_ which, in turn, is determin~d by the number of instruc~ions (the maximu~ number of
instructions in the progran is 192 and tne frequenc~~ band in this case equals
0.5 k.'iz) .
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e o 4~ nnsy ~92 ~~oaa,~cFa~PRao 1
l~~t
Ce
o _ - 7~
~ 039 A~y
5 ) nuc,~m~n
40c~n6 ,iorn�Eo ~ .
~ 15 a~po BP01
, ~~s 6 ~
b
O
~ 2 ~ M~+tucmp
~
9
~ - an,..,,,,, $
~ - -
3~ yi~po6.+pauc ~Ar ,
y AOJLRO ~ ^ 1
~ 1~~ ~J
a
o~ B!. NffAM1/U/UPM BNl rllfANAU7M '
o ~oP ~ aun 13 ~ cap, ytu~~rir.v.~~
a
~
~ AMOAOIOEMF 14 ~ A~aoro6d~
11~ Q+od� , 6aioo� j
Figure 5.
I
- Key: ~
1. Instruction storage . 9. Control logic
2. Digita], processor 10. Input multiplexer and analog-digital
3. Analog section converter ~
4. RROM, 192 words, 24 bits 11. Analog inputs
5. RAM, 40 words, 25 bits 12. Digital-analog converter
6. Scaler 13. Output multiplexer, amplifiers
7. ALU, 28 bits 14. Analog outputs
8. Data register .
High efficiency in the processing ot numbers is made possible by the conveyer
architecture of the microcomputer and by an efficient algorithm for multiplying
numbers. In multiplying variables by constants a sequence of addition and sub- ~
traction of variables scaled by a power of two is employed. For example, if
variable y is multiplied by constant b(b = 1.7656 = 21�- 22 + 2 6), then
the product may be written in the form: yb = y21 - y2 2+ y2 6. Scaling is
performed in the range from 2Z to 2 13 and is implemented by an appropriate
shift to the left or right. The multiplication method employed makes it possible .
to reduce the time several~old and requires a small amount of hardware. Arith-
metic operations are perforned c.rith 25-bit numbers, making possible high accuracy
of results. The I2920 microco~puter is fairly simple to program.
The resources of this micrcomputer are sufficient for solving many practical ,
problems. They make possible, for example, the software implementation o~ ?0 .
pairs oz two-terminal recursive ~ilters or a spectrum analyzer for the sound
spectrum.
36
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However, for solving more complicated problems associated, for e:tample, with the
processing o� a flow of digital information from various sources, a digital signal
processing processor is usually esecuted in the form of a multichip configuration
formed rrom a central control unit and peripheral processing modules. The func-
tions oL the control unit are usually performed by a general-purpose multipro-
cesso~' and the modules are essentially special-ourpose processors which perfor~
in.~iividual complete processing procedures based on programs written in the ROM.
~b 1e to serve as an example of hardware of this design is the T~IS 9900 system ot
~aicroprocessor modules for military purposes by Texas Instruments, Inc. [21].
It snould be r~entioned that the development and production o� special-purpose
microprocessor sets and of microcomputers are feasible when they are used in
great volume. The choice o~ the variant of ttie structure of the processing al-
gorithm and of the hardware configuration depend on specific conditions of use.
Development ot the computii:g algorithm is an important step in the complicated and
multistage process of designing microprocessor signal processing systems. De-
cisions made at this stage determine many technical and economic parameters of
the ruture microcomputer. As is obvious from the discussion abuve, it is not
separable from selection of the architecture oi the microcomputer. Creation of
the soEtware, whose cost represents a major portion of the cost of the system,
begins with develop~ent of the algorithm.
The complexity of the problems facing developers of microprocessor systems is
responsible ror the necessity of the extensive application of design automation
equipr~ent at all stages of development. However, the microprocessor design systems
used at the present ti~e are mainly of a problem-invariant nature and are oriented
roward the development and debugging of software and hardware according to a
p~~_~~arz~ algorith:n [22J. Ln cases when aloorithms are considerably complicated
and coasequently have high a priori indefinit~ness of their structure (as, for
e;:~:~:.~~'.e, dioital signal processing algorithms), it is necessary to supplemen~
~hese racilities ~~rith a problem-oriented pa:t designed for the development of an
ootir.,um aloorithm. Ttiis makes it possible to determine its structure and para-
n~:cers ~~nd to reveal errors before writing and debugging the program.
~,s sz exar~ple ~t i~ ~ossibl~ to reter to the packages of applied programs which
are incltided in the so~tkare of the Automated Design of Digital Systems (DISAP)
s�~:sr_e:r [?3]. The D?S~F-~�Pc:OKSI:~IATSIYA [-~~PPRO~I~IATIOti~ PPP [paclcage of applied
proorar~s] makes it possible to solve problens relating to the approsimation ot the
fr2q~iency and time characteristics of digital recursive filters from the transfer
- runctions oi analog prototype rilters. The DISAP-r~`IALIZ [-~,.'~~L`iSIS] PPP is de-
signeC for multivariant frequency-time analysis of computing algorithms with a
librarv or random structure (up to 150 branches and 30 nodes) represented by
i.s~~mo:phic signal graphs.
Bibliography
1. Opoeag~yr., ~.V. and Sha*er, R.V. "Tsitrovaya obrabotka signalev" [Digital
_ Sional Processin~j, `Ioscow, Svyaz', 1979,
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2. Peled, A. and Liu, B. "Tsifrovaya obrabotka signalov" [Digi.tal Signal Pzo-
cessing], Kiev, Vyshcha shkola, 1979.
3. Gol'denberg, L.M., Butyl'skiy, Xu.T. and Polyak, M.N. "Tsifrovyye ustroystva
na integral'nykh skhemakh v tekhnike svyazi" [Digital Equipment Employing
Integrated Circuits in Communications Engineering], Moscow, Svyaz', 1979.
4. Vereshkin, A.Ye. and Katkovnik, V.Ya. "Lineynyye tsifrov.yye fil'try i metody
ikh realizatsii" [Linear Digital Filters and rlethods of Implementing Them],
Moscow, Sovetskoye Radio, 1973. ~
5. Khilburn, Dzh. and Dzhulich, P. "Mikro-EVM i mikroprotsessory" [~Iicrocom- ;
puters and Microprocessors], translated from English, Moscow, Mir, 1979.
6. Prangishvili, I.V. "Mikroprotsessory i mikro-EVLI" [Microprocessors and ~I3.cro-
computers], Moscow, Energiya, 1979.
7. Petrenko, A.I. and Bublik, S.A. "Primeneniye mikroprotsessorov v us�troystvakh .
tsifrovoy fil'tratsii" [Application of rlicroprocessors in Digital Filtering
Equipment], Kiev, Znanyye, 1980.
8. Artyukhov, V.G., Bublik, S.A. and Mikhaylyuk, G.T. "Modeling Digital Filters
. with Variable [Jord Length" in "Avtomatizatsiya proyektirovaniya v.elektronike"
[Design Automation in Electronics], Kiev, Tekhnika, No 16, 1977, pp 62-65.
9. Lanne, A.A. and Shev'~oplyas, G.B. "Noise and Accuracy in the Implementation
of the Characteristics of Digital Filters," ZARUBEZHNAYA RADIOELEKTRONIKA,
No 4, 1974, pp 18-47.
10. Krosh'yer, R. and Oppengeym, A. "Analysis of Linear Digital Circuits,"
TIEER, Vol 63, No 4, 1975, pp 45-61.
11. ~~ulf, G. Electronic Engineering and Technology of the Past Decade--Leading
Topic of the 'Veskon' Conference," ELEKT.RONIKA, No 18, 1979, pp 65-76.
12. Arnol`d, U. "New Chips Performing Complicated Arithmetic Operations,"
ELEKTRONIKA, No 14, 1979, pp 79-81.
13. "'Veskon-78'--Communications E~:~ipment and Microprocessors at Center of
~ttention," ELEKTRONIK~1, No 18, 1978, pp 55-63.
14. Braun, D. and Uayt, D. "Improvement of the Efficiency of Minicomputer
Systems Because of the Parallel Organization of Processing," ELEKTRONI?Cc1,
No 14, 1979, pp 41-47.
15. Frini, S. "Special-Purpose Hardware for Digital Filtering," TIEER, Vol 63, .
:10 4, 1975, pp 108-125. .
38
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16. Bublik, 5.~,. "Design o~ Low- and High-Frequeney Nonrecursive Digital
Filters with Integral Coeificients" in "Avtomatizatsiya prolektirovaniya
v elektronike," Kiev, Tekhnika, No 16, 1977, pp 66-69.
17. Haddad, R.A. "A Class of OrChogonal Nonrecursive Binomial Filters,"
IEEE TRA~vS., ~U-19, Dec 1971, pp 296-304.
18. Jenkins, W.K. "Techniques �or High-Precision Digital Filterino with
Multiple Processors" in "Proceedings of the 20th Midwest Synposium on
Circuits and Systems," Texas, August 1977, pp 58-62.
19. Knut, D. "Iskusstvo programmirovaniya dlya EVM" [Art o� Co~nputer Program-
ning], ~ioscow, Mir, No 1, 1976.
20. i~hoff, :t. and Taunsend, *1. "Single-Chip Microcomputer tor Processing
Signals in Real Time," ELEI~TRONIICa, No 5, 19%9, pp 23-30.
21. Posa, D. "Improving the Speed of Microprocessor Systems by ~Ieans of
Peri~heral Devices," ELEKTRONIKA, No 17, 1979, pp 5-46.
22. Beyli, K. and Kakhl, T. "General=Purpose Equipment for Designino Micro-
systems," ELEKTFOI3IKA, No 18, 1979, pp 24-30.
23. Petr~nko, ~.I., Bublik, S.A., Butakova, L.G. and Shumak~va, L.A. ".Automated
Design System ~or Digital Signal Processing Equipment," IZV. WZOV -
~1DIOELEKTRONIi~, Vol 24, No 6, 1981, pp 96-98.
COPYRIGHT: "Izvestiya vuzov SSSR - Radioelektronika", 1981.
8831
CSO: 1360/33? ~
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UDC 621.372.54.037.372
AUTOMATED DESIGN SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSI`IG EQUIPMENT ~
Kiev IZVESTIYA VYSSHIKH UCHEBNYKH ZAVEDENIY: RAD96E98KTRONI'~. in Russian Vol 24,
No.6, Jun 81 (manuscript received 14 Nov 80) pp
[Article by A.I. Petrenko, S.A. Bublik, L.G. Butakova and L.A. Shumakova]
[Text] Designing digital signal processing equipment (UTsOS) employing large-
scale integrated circuits (LSIC~derable difficultysfor developerslresidesminti-.
stage, iterative process. Consi
finding the optimum hardware implementation of signal processing algorithms under
conditions of the not too high speed of response of elements and short word length
[1, 2], High efficiency and quality in designing UTsOS, the functional complexity
of which is increasing steadily, can be achieved only on the basis of the overall
employment of facilities andfmstecial-furposeaSAPR UTsOS'sn[automatedtdesignfsys-
velopment--by the creation o p P ~
tems for digital signal processing equipment].
The problems to be solved by developers and trends in the development of UTsOS
~ake it possible to formulate the basic rules and requirements for SAPR UTsOS's
as fo~lows:
The direct developer of electronic equipment is the user of problem-oriented
SAPR L"TsOS's.
Packages of applied programs for SAPR UTsOS's must make possible the solution of
a broad range of problems associated with the approximation and analysis of the
characteristics of digital equipment and its structural and parametric organiza-
tion and with the production of design documentation.
Interaction between the developer-user and an SAPR UTsOS is organized on the basis
of a problem-oriented input language the semantics of whose basic syntactical
constructions are based on concepts familiar to a developer of elec*_ronic zquip-
men t .
An SAPR UTsOS is a component of industrial integrated SAPR's [automated design
systems]; the organization o,f its software, hardware and data support is determined
by the general requirements for SAPR's for technical equipment and syste*.ns [3]�
These principles formed the oasis oP the Automated Design System for Digital
Syste~s (DISc~P) under development. The first version of the system consists of
40
' ; OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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two packages of applied programs: the DISAP-APPROKSIMATSI`LA [-APPROXL'~IATION]
PPP [package of appl~ed programs] and the DISAP-ANALIZ [-ANALYSIS] PPP.
The DISAP-APPROKSI`~ft1TSIYA package of applied programs is designed for solving
problems oP approximation of the frequency and time characteristics of digital
f.ilters (Tsr's) based on analog prototype filters. This is accor~plished by
digitization of a given analog transfer function (PF), H(s) , on the basis of
a single z-transform--an algebraic (bilinear or biquadratic) or adjusted--or of
the meChod of invariance of the pulse characteristic [1]. The appropriate frequen-
cy transformation is perf ormed in necessary instances. Taking into account the
extensive use of the algebraic transformation, a speedier algorithm was developed
Lor the package which utilizes the symmetry in the expansion of expressions by
wnich the coefficients of the numerator and denominator of rhe analog transfer
function are multiplied. In these transformations the transfer function is de-
composed into simple fractions by the method of undetermined multipliers. The
modified Hitchcock-Berstow method is used for finding the roots of polynomials,
making it possible on the basis of an optimization procedure to obtain the values
of roots through precise values of coefficients of trinomials.
The result of the package's work is the transfer function, H(z) , o� a recursive
digital filter represented in the form of a cascade or parallel connection of
- elements of the first and second order. Furthermore, its maximum order in a given
version of the system equals 20. The package's programs make it possible also to
calculate frequency and time characteristics, zeros and poles of the digital f il-
ter's transfer function.
A problem-oriented input language with free formats has been developed for the
purpose of organizing efficient interaction between the user and the DISAP system.
ruactionally it is divided into a language for describing the subject of study and
conversion and a language for describing the assignmest for study and conversion.
_ The DIS~P-APPRO?CSI~i~.TSIYA PPP input language represents a subset o.f the language of
tne uISAP system. �
The description of the original transfer function of the analog filter, H(s) ,
in tae input language of the DISAP-t1PPROKSI*~fATSIYr1 package can be represented
both on the basis of coefficients and by means of roots. The language for describ-
ing the assignment makes it possible to present the necessary procedures of the
computing process in terms familiar to a UTsOS development engineer.
The DISaP-:~V?,LIZ package of applied programs is designed for solving a broad range
ot proble:ns originating in the development of structural diagrams of UTsOS, such
as digital filters, phase correctors, etc. The elements of the circuits under
study can be adders, nultipliers and delay elements. For linear and parametric
digital circuits of random form the package's programs make it possible to per-
rorm r~ultivariant studies of characteristics in the frequency and time regions,
to model Qarametric sensitivity, to form circuit functions, to analyze stability;
to study the effects of the quantization of coefficients, the results of arithmetic
operations and values of the input signal; and to estimate the dynamic range, non-
linear distortion and the potential parallelism of structures. These studies can
be performed for steady-state and transient conditions, for conditions of constant
and variable factors and of constant and variable time intervals, in various com-
binations of them. ~
41
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Equations for the mathematical model o~ a digital circuit can be obCained in
various ways. In the DISAP-ANALIZ version under consideration a mathematical
model of a digital circuit of random structure functioning with variable factors
and time intervals is formed on the basis of the method of nodal signals [4].
In matrix form it can be writt~n for the t~me region in the form of a system ot
difference equations, y(n) = f~(n)y(n) + fd(n)y(n-1) + x(n) , where y(n) is
the colunm vector of the values of N internal nodal signals, Y(n) is the colu~.
vector of N external signals, f(n) is the matrix of dinension N X v of
coefficients for the transfer of elements without delay, and f(n) is the matrix
of dimension N X N of coefficients for the transfer of elemen~s with unit delay.
In the case of a linear circuit invariant in terms of shift, matrix elements
f~ and fd do not depend on time. Then, using the z-transform, the mathematical
model of a digital circuit for the frequency region and steady-state conditions
can be writt n in the form of a system of linear algebraic equations: Y~z) _
= f~Y(z) + faY~z)z I + Y(z) .
The advantages of these models are the simplicity of fornation, solution and
modification. In addition, computations performed in keeping with the system of
difference equaCions are adequate for the number and kind of computations and
their sequence in a real unit of equipment, which makes possible the software
modeling of various effects, such as loops of instructions and overflow. The
effects of quantization associated with the truncation and rounding of numbers
can be determined precisely [5] or on the basis of a probabilistic model [4].
The description of the digital circuit to be studied and the assignment for its
study and conversion are entered into the computer in the problem-oriented input
language of the DISAP-ANALIZ PPP, which is a subset of the input language of the
DISr1P system. At the daCa preparation stage the structural diagram of the UTsOS
is represented in the form of an isomorphic signal graph. The elements of the
circuit under study are replaced by branches of the ;raph, for which are indi-
cated the directions of the transfer of signals, connection nodes, identifiers of
the type of branch, transfer coefficients or a set o� parameters, and the order
number of the branch. The package makes it possible to analyze digital circuits
whose equivalent circuits contain up to 150 branches and 80 nodes. The results
of calculations are read out in the form of tables and graphs for an alphanumeric
printer listing.
The DISAP-.APPROKSI?~IATSIY~'1 and DISAP-ANALIZ packages can operate both in combina-
. tion and independently of one another. The DISAP system is constructed according
to the modular principle and has a multiphase structure, which makes it possible
to operate in the overlay mode with a limited memory. Program nodules are written
in FORTRAN-IV and an assembly language. The first version of the system has been
implemented with YeS [Unified Series] computers under the control of a YeS DOS
[disk operating s~stem]. For the purpose of enabling the exchange of inf orma~ion
between individual modules and the storage of the necessary information on magnetic
disks, a data bank has been organized which includes an archive of source data,
a library of input sio als, a library of digital filter structures, libraries of
transfer functions of analog and digital filters, and files for storing inter-
mediate results.
42
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Bibliograptiy
1. Rabiner, L. and Gould, B. "Teoriya i primeneniye tsi.frovoy obrabotki
signalov" [Theor~~ and Application o~ Digital Signal Processing], ;Ioscow,
~Iir, 1978.
2. Petrenko, A.I. and Bublik, S.A. "Primeneniye mikroprotsessorov v ustroys~vakh
tsifrovoy fil'tratsii" [Application of :~Licroprocessors in Digital Filtering
Equipment], Kiev,~Znaniye, 1980. ~
3. Gavrilov, ;I.A. "Integrated ~ystems--a ~Iodern Trend in the Development of
Automated Design Systems," PRIBOFY I SISTEMY UPRr1VLENIYA, No 1, 1979, p 3.
4. Krosh'yer and Oppengeym. "Analiz lineynykh tsifrovykh tsepey" [Ar.alysis of
Linear Digital Circuits], TIIER, Vol 63, No 4, 1975, p 45.
5. Artyukhov, V.G., ~linlik, S.A. and :~ikhaylyuk, G.T. "Modeling Digital Filters
with a Variable Word Length" in "Avtomatizatsiya proyektirovaniya v elek-
tronike" [Design Automation in Electronics], Kiev, Tekhnika, No 16, 1977,
p 62.
COPYRIGHT: "Izvestiya vuzov SSSR - Radioelektronika", 1931.
8831
CSO: 1860/332
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OPTOELECTRONICS, QU~?SI-OPTICAL DEVICES
UDC 681.4.002.2(075.8)
PRODUCTION OF OPTICAL ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENPS
Moscow PROIZVODSTVO OPTIKO-ELEKTRONNYKH PRIBOROV in Russian 1981 (signed to press
27 Aug 80) pp 2, 5-6, 300-303
[Annotation, introduction (excerpts) and table of contents from book "Production of
Optical Electronic Instruments", by Boris Fedorovich Kaledin, Mikhail Dmitriyevich
Mal'tsev and A1'bert Ivanovich Skorokhodov, Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye",
6900 copies, 304 pages]
[Excerpts] This book is intended as a textbook for tekhnikums.
Introduction ~
Rapid growth of optical instrument-making, along with the complication of instruments
and improvement of their quality characteristics, raise a critical problem of improv- ,
ing the technological effectiveness of their design and development of optimal pro-
cesses of manufacturing parts of optical instruments, their assembly, adjustment,
and control. These problems can be solved only by highly skilled specialists posses-
sing a profound theoreCical knowledge and good practical training on the basis of
modern achievements of science and technology.
The production of optical instruments is characterized by high standards and the use
of special technological processes some of which are unique.
The problem of the quality of optical electronic instruments includes a large com-
plex of problems of designing and producCion whose solution depends greatly on con-
tinuous improvement of the technological effectiveness of the designs of instruments
and the use of new advanced technological processes. The quality of technological
processes in all stages of production of optical electronic instruments is determined
greatly by the sensitivity, accuracy, length, and reliability of their work. In
turn, the development of new advanced technological processes contributes to the de-
signing of better instruments with time-stable characteristics and makes it possible
to reduce their overall weight, dimensions and labor input into their manufacturing.
The above requirements presuppose the use of new materials for mechanical and opti-
cal parts, including titanium, beryllium, precious metals, special alloys and brands
of glass. Parts inade of new materials are processed by special technological proces-
ses which differ from the processes of clasaical technology. They are: new methods
of obtaining rational blanks with the use of liquid self-hardening mixtures; machin-
ing complex framework parts with a highly productive equipment integrated sets of
44
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machinery, machines with ChPU [numerical program control] of the "machining centers"-
type; the use of diamond tools for fine grinding. Methods of sizing with electron
and laser beams, ultrasound, and electrochemical treatment are used more and more
widely in the manufacturing of optical instruments. The production of p:~rts wi.tli
aspheric surfaces made of artificially grown crystals, organic fil~iss, etc, is };ruw-
ing.
Another distincrive characteristic of the manufacturing of optical electronic in-
struments is a large volume of adjustment and regulation jobs. The use of supersen-
sitive receivers of radiant energy in the sensitive elements of optical electronic
instruments makes it impossible to perform adjustment operations manually and re-
quires automation of data removal and movement. Control and adjustment benches for
checking modern optical electronic instruments are measuring complexes which are no
less complicated than the instruments themselves.
Electronic parts in optical electronic instruments of the last generation became
more complicated, which is connected with automatic processing and transmission of
information and with the fact that instruments became self-contained. This brought
about considerable changes in the manufacturing technoiogy of radio elements and
electronic units, which led first to the unit method, and then to the functional-as-
sembly or modular method of designing and production. The method of modular design-
ing became possible after the development of advanced methods of printed-circuit
wiring. Micromodular designing and further development of microminiaturization con-
nected with the use and improvement of fundamentally new and advanced technological
- processes on the basis of integrated technology will make it possible to improve con-
- siderably the quality and reliability of optical electronic instruments.
Contents Page
Foreword 3
Introduction 5
Section I
Fundamentals of the Designing of Technological Processes
Chapter 1. Basic Concepts and General Characteristics of Technological
Processes ~
1. Types of Products ~
2. Basic Conecpts of Production and Technological Processes, Types
of Technological Processes 8
3. Types of Production 11
Chapter 2. Technological Effectiveness of Designs of Products 13
1. Some Concepts of the Technological Effectiveness of Designs 13
2. Technological Requirements for Designs of Blanks, Parts,
and Assemblies 14
3. Evaluation of the Technological Effectiveness of Designs 17
Chapter 3. Assurance of Precision in the Processing of Iiistrument Parts 18
1. Some Concepts of Precision in the Processing of Parts 18
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2. Aggregate Error of Processing 19
3. Production Errors 2~
4. Precision Determination Methods 23
S. Concepts of Bases ZS
6. Surface Quality 27
7. Allowances for Processing and Interoperational Dimensions 29
Chapter 4. Content and Principles of the Designing of Technological
Processes 31
1. Technological Preparation of Production 31
2. Procedures of the Designing of Technological Processes 32
- 3. Automation of the Designing of Technological Processes 34
4. Technological Documentation 35
Chapter 5. Technical and Economic Principles of Selecting Technological
Processes 3~
1. Structure of the Practical Time Norm 37
2. Labor Productivity and Means of Increasing It 39 ~
3. Selection of an Optimal Variant of the Technological Process
by Technological Costs 40
Chapter 6. Purposes, Types, and Methods of Designing Devices 42 ;
1. Purposes and Types of Devices 42
2. Placing of Parts in Devices 44
3. Elements of Devices 47
4. Methods of the Designing of Devices 55
Section II
Standard Technological Processes of Manufacturing Common Parts
and Main Assemblies of Optical Electronic Instruments
Chapter 7. Basic Methods of Obtaining Blanks 5~
1. Casting 57
2. Swaging 61
3. Cold Stamping 62
4. Dieless Pressure Shaping 74
S. Manufacturing of Parts by the Powder Metallurgy Method 76
6. Manufacturing Blanks and Parts from Plastics 78
7. Ma.nufacturing Ceramic Articles 83
Chapter 8. Machining of Blanks of Parts on Metal-Cutting Machines 84
_ 1. Machining of Cylindrical, Conical, and Shaped Surfaces of
Shafts and Bushings 84
2. Machining of Casing Parts 88
3. Manufacturing of Threaded Parts 90
4. Toothing Methods and Manufacturing of Gear Wheels 92
5. Machining of Complex Parts on Integrated Sets of Machinery
and in Processing Centers 95.
Chapter 9. Electrophysical and Electrochemical Methods of Sizing 100 .
1, Ultrasound Treatment 100
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103
2. Electrospark Machining 105
3. Anode Mechanical Treatment 107
4. Radial Methods of Treatment 108
5. Electrochemical Methods of Treatment
~ 111
Chapter 10. Protective Coatings 111
1. Metallic Coatings 115
2. Chemical Coatings 116
3. Varnish and Paint Coatings 117
4. Coating Quality Control
119
Chapter 11. Magnetic Circuit Manufacturing Method
1. Classification of Magnetic Circuits by the Design and 119
Technological Characteristics 120
2, ManufacCuring of Shaped Magnetic C~rcuits 121
3. Manufacturing of Laminated Magnetic Circ~iits
4. Special Characteristics of the Manufactur?ng of Tape-Type 123
Magnetic Circuits
125
Chapter 12. ^rocedures of Winding Manufacturing 125
1, Classification of Windingfs by Technological Characteristics 128
2. Materials Used and Their Technological Properties 129
3. Manufacturing of Coi1 Spools ~30
4. Winding Machines 131
5. Procedures of Winding Transformer Coils
Section III
Manufacturing Process of Optical Parts
134
- Chapter 13. Materials for Manufacturing Optical Parts 135
1. Optical G1ass and Its Production
2. Quartz, Technical, and Organic Glass and Glass Ceramics 140
3. Artificial Optical Crystals. Crystal Growing 142
4. New Optical Materials 144
5. Preparation of Drawings of Standard Optical Parts 150
6. Requirements for Optical Parts
Chapter 14. Abrasive and Subsidiary Materials 151
1. Natural and Artificial Abrasive Materials 151
2. Polishing Materials 153
3. Subsidiary Materials 154
Chapter 15. Instruments, Devices, and Machines for Processing 156
Optical Parts 156
1. Instruments 160
2. Devices 161
3. Machines for Processing Optical Parts
163
Chapter 16. Technological Process of Treatment of Optical Parts 163
1. Initial Processes 167
2. Methods of Securing Optical Parts During Their Processing
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3. Grinding and Polishing 169
4. Manufacturing of Standard Optical Parts 170
5. Technological Processes of the Manufacturing of Special
Optical Parts 176
6. New Methods of Manufacturing Optical Parts 181
Chapter 17, Coatings of Optical Parts 183
1. Purposes, Types, and Procedures of Applying Coatings 183
2, Properties and Uses of Coatings 186
- 3. Control Methods 190
Section IV
Technological Processes of Assembly.and Installation
Chapter 18. General Principles of Designing Assembling Processes 192 �
1. Basic Propositions 192
2. Organizational Forms of Assembling 193
3. Methods of Ensuring the Prescribed Precision of Assembling 194
4. Special Characteristics of the Designing of the Technological
Process of Assembling 196
S. Development of Flow Diagrams of Assembling 198
6. Design of Operational Techniques 200
~ Chapter 19. Standard Technological Processes of Assembling 201
1. Preparation of Parts for Assembling 202
2. Assembly of Detachable Connections 203
3. Assembly of Permanent Connections 205
4. Special Characteristics of Connecting Parts Made of Different
Materials 21~
5. Balancing 223
Chapter 20. Assembly of the Opticomechanical Part of Optical
Electronic Instruments 225
1. Requirements for Assembly Units and Connections 225
2, Assembly of Guides for Rectilinear and Rotary Motion 226
3. Assembly of Individu~l Components 228
4. Ass.embly of Objectives and Eyepieces 230
5. Assembly with Automatic Equipment and on Flow Lines 231
Chapter 21. Electrical Wiring Technology 232
1. Technical Requirements and Methods 232
2. Techr.ical Documentation 234
3. Materials Used for Electrical Wiring 235
4. Preparation of Wires and Wire Bundles . 236
5. Techniques of Electrical Connections 238
Chapter 22. Printed Wiring Technology 240
1. Technological Effectiveness of Designs of Printed-Circuit
Units and Cards 240
2. Technological Processes of the Manufacturing of Printed-
Circuit Cards 243
48
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3. Wiring of Discrete Elements 248
4. Multilayered Printed-Circuit Cards 250
Chapter 23. Production Technology of Functional Electronic Assemblies 254
1. Modular Design and Main Directions of Microminiaturization 254 .
2. Manufacturing Process of Micromodules 255
3. Manufacturing Process of Film Microcircuits 25$
4. Manutacturing Process of Solid Circuits 263
Chapter 24. Protection of Optical Electronic Instruments Against
Environmental Effects 265
1. External Factors and Protection Methods 265
2. Materials for Protection and Their Technological Properties 267
3. Technological Processes of Impregnation, Sealing, and Coating 268
4. Hermetic Sealing of Connections and Equipment 270
5. Preservation, Storage, and Packing of Articles 272
Section V
Tuning and Adjustment of Optical Electronic Instruments
Chapter.25. Testing Instruments and Adjustment of Optical Systems 274
1, Basic Testing and Adjusting Instruments 2~4
� 2, Requirements for the Optical Part of Instruments 277
3. Adjustment of Standard Optical Devices 2~~
4. Adjustment of Special Optical Instruments 282
Chapter 26. Tuning of Electronic Assemblies 283
1. Purposes and Special Characteristics of Tuning Jobs 283
2. Electrical Measurements and Adjustments During the Assembly
of Units and Devices 284
3. Measuring Instruments and Equipment 286
4, Accident-Prevention Measures During the Assembly, Installation
and Adjustment of Electronic Equipment 287
Chapter 27. Testing Techniques of Optical Electronic Instruments 288
1. General Concepts of Checking and Types of Instrument Tests 288
2. Mechanical Tests 290
3. .Electrical Tests 293
4. Climatic Tests 294
5. Testing Optical Electronic Instruments in the Process of
Designing and Production � 296
Bibliography 298
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", 1981
10,233 ~
CSO: 1860/310
49
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PUBLICATIONS, INCLUDING COLLECTIONS OF ABSTRACTS
- UDC 621.391
ABSTRACTS FROM COLLECTION 'DIGITAL SIGIIAL PROCESSING AND ITS APPLICATION'
Moscow TSIFROVAYA OBRABOTKA STGNALOV I YEYE PRIMENENIYE in Russian 1981 (signed to
press 28 Jan 81) pp 219-222
UDC 621.391.2
CONVOLUTION OF MULTIVALENT DISCRETE SIGNALS IN A RANDOM BASE
[Abstract of article by Ayzenberg, N. N., and 5emirot, M. S.]
[Text] This article considers�multidimensional signals and spectral conversions
of multidimensional discrete signals. Tt?e authors attempt to prove the theorem of
the convolution of multidimensional s~gnals. It is demonstrated that the convolu-
tions given in th~ article exhaust all convolutions of multivalent discrete signals
for each of which the spectrum of convolution is equal to the product of the spec-
tra. The article has five bibliographic entries.
UDC 621.391.141
GENERALIZED FOURIER-HAAR CONVERSION ON A FINITE ABELIAN GROUP
[Abstract of article by Boyko, L. L.]
[Text] This article considers algorithms for fdst or orthogonal conversions of
the fast Fourier and Haar types from the group theory point of view. The author
demonstrates that the existence of fast algorithms is based on the availability
of an extended composite series in a finite abelian group of a non-prime order.
A broad class of orthogonal nonsymmetrical conversions, a generalized Fourier-
Haar conversion, is defined. Each of this class of conversions has a fast compu-
tational algorithm, and the number of essential operattons depends significantly
on the length of the composite series of the group for the particular conversion.
Particular cases of tfie given class are the conventional discrete Fourier conver-
sion, Walsh, Walsh-Adamar, and Walsh-Pailey conversions, number theory conversions,
the traditional Haar conversiou, and the conversion by Haar k-functions. The
article has 20 bibliographic entries.
50
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UDC 621.391.141
- NLTI~ER THEORY FRENEL CONVERSION AND ITS APPLICATION IN DIGITAL PROCESSING OF
MULTIDIMENTIONAL DATA ARRAYS
[Abstract of article by Givental', A. B., and Krenkel', T. E.]
[Text] This article is devoted to a multidimensional generalization of the
Blyusteyn algorithm, construction of number theory Frenel functions on a finite
commutative group above a commutative ring with unity,and to a description of pos-
sible applications of such functions in digital processing of multidimensional
data arrays. The article has 18 bibliographic entries.
UDC 535.317
SOME QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY OF DISCRETE ORTHOGONAL SIGNAL CONVERSIONS
[Abstract of article by Yaroslavskiy, L. P.J
[Text] This article reviews questions af discrete representation of integral
Fourier and Frenel conversions and the theory of fast al~gorithms of orthogonal
~ conversions. The author introduces shifted discrete Fourier conversions and
discrete Frenel conversians and analyzes their properties. On the basis of the
concept of staged Kronecker matrices,.it is demonstrated how to construct a single
notation of orthogonal matrices that allow factorization to produce weakly filled
matrices. The author formulates factorization theorems, shows the possibilities
of their application with examples, and gives factored representations of matrices
of orthogonal conversions known from the literature. The article has four tables
and 26 bibliographic entries.
UDC 519.240
- SELECTING THE PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF CURVES IN DIGITAL DESCRIPTION AND
PROCESSING OF FLAT FIGURES
[Abstract of article by Nagornov, V. S., and Polyakov, V. G.]
[Text] The article raises the question of seeking for a smoother, in a certain
sense, parametric description (whose spectrum has minimum width) relative to a
closed curve assigned on a surface. It is demonstrated that the criteria of
spectrum widtr are related to its fourth-order moment and lead to the problems of
seeking the lowest proper value (minimum spectrum width) and corresponding func-
tion proper (optimal speed of movement along the curve) of the Shturm-Liuvill
� operator with a periodic coefficient, which is the square of the curve as a func-
tion of arc length. Examples are given of optimizing the parametric representa-
tion and the authors briefly describe the Possibilities of using this procedure.
_ The article has three illustrations and four bibliographic entries.
51
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UDC 621.391.172:621.397
COMPARISON OF LINEAR METHOD OF RESTORING DISTORTED IMAGES
[Abstract of article by Lebedev, D. S., and Milyukova, 0. P.]
[Text] The authors consider the problem of linear reconstruction of distorted
images in the atisence of random noise, where the reconstruction algorithms are
defined by various optimality criteria of the generalized Euclidian distance type.
The article compares restored images for certain distances: the minimum norm
image, the smoothest image, and the image that deviates least on tfie average from
the original. The article has three illustrations and three bibliographic en-
tries. ~
UDC 621.391.172:621:397.681.518.2
SOME METHODS OF DIGITAL PREPARATION OF IMAGES
[Abstract of article by Belikova, T. P.]
� [Text] The article presents data from an experimental test using computers of
these metfiods of preparing images: (a) the method of adaptive amplitude con-
versions (exponential intensification and hyperbolization of the histpgram);
(b) the method of optimal linear filtration and localization of objects in
images. A mammogram of the mammary gland and an aerial photograph of a segment
of the earth's surface were used as objects of study. The author describes the
work of the corresponding algorithms for preparing images. The article con-
siders the possi6ilities of generalization and further elaboration of the methods
of adaptive amplitude conversions. The article has six illustrations, two
- tables, and 13 bibliographic ~ntries.
UDC 6$1.325+621.379
AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF INTERFEROGRAMS ON A DIGITAL COMPUTER
[Abstract of article by Ushakov, A. N.]
[Text] This article considers the question of restoring the phase of an inter-
ferogram recorded on photographic film. The problem was solved by stages:
(~1) correction of nonlinear distortions of the photographic film; (2) filtration
of register noise; (3) filtration of low-frequencq noise; (4) restoration of
the.relative phase value; (5) reconstruction of the absolute phase value. The
article reviews the questions of automatic filtration of register noise for
narrow-band and broad-band interferograms and automatic filtration of low-
frequency noise. The author presents the results of experiments with formula-
tion of interferograms. There is an evaluation of the precision of restoration.
The article has 15 illustrations and 36 bibliographic entries.
52
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FUR ONFIC:IA1. USN: ONI.Y
UDC 681.3.01:687.C151.21
AUTOMATIC MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR MACHINE CUTTING OF CLOTHING -
PRINCIPLES OF OBTAINING AND PROCESSING DATA
[Abstract of article by Aydu, E. A., Nagornov, V. S., and Polyakov, V. G.]
[Text] This article gives a schematic description of the tangential tape method
of ineasuring the human being. This method solves the technical--economic, estfietic,
and psychological problems that have hindered widespread automation of t,h~ process
of ineasuring the human figure for the needs of machine clotfiing design and .
anthropometric studies. The experimental device that accomplishes this method is
then viewed as a specific discrete source of two-dimensional signals whose computer
processing for the purpose of spatial. reconstruction of the human figure neces-
sarily requires two-dimensional procedures of filtration~and interpolation as
well as many other special operations. The article has 12 illustrations and two
bibliographic entries.
UDC 535.317.1+681.141+772.99
MOVIE-TYPE DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC FILM
[Abstract of article by Karnaukhov, V. N., and Merzlyakov, N. S.]
[Text] The article presents experimental results of a computer synth~sis of
movie-type holographir_ film. The object, two evenly colored spheres rotating at a
variable speed aroused an immobile third sphere, was modeled on the computer.
_ For visualization of the full cycle of the apheres 48 movie-type pro~ections of
the ob~ect were synthesized on a surface, corresponding to 48 successive positions
~ of the object in space. Both the horizontal and the vertical parallaxes were
taken into account in transmitting the volume. The frequency of tracking the
angles of approach was variable. The film, which was a composite macro-cine-form
containing 1,152 elementary cine-forms, was secured to a circular metal frame
and illuminated with a laser light ~rith a spherical~wave front. With an im-
mobile observer and rotating film the illuaion arises of smootfi rotation by the
spheres, and the direction of rotation can be clearly tracked. The article has
two illustrations and eight bibliographic entries.
UDC 535.2:317.1
SYNTHESIS OF COLORED HOLOGRAMS ON A DIGITAL COMPUTER �
[Abstract of article by Merzlyakov, N. S.]
[Text) The author proposes a method of synthesizing colored macroholograms on a
digital computer. By contact copying three color-divided synthesized Fourier
holograms recorded on black-white photographic film are transferred in sequence
behind red, green, and blue light filters to the correspondir.g layers of reversed
color film. A three-color laser is used to restore the image. The proposed tech-
nique makes it possible to obtain colored macroholograms that contain up to x6�106
elements. They are also suitable for direct visual observation. The article has
eight bibliographic entries.
53
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UDC 535.317
DIGITAL MODEL OF RECORDING AND RECONSTRUCTING HOLOGRAMS
[Abstract of article by Popova, N. R.]
[Text] The article describes a digital model for recording and reconstructing
Fourier and Frene~ holograms. The author considers the effect of distortion in
the hologram on the quality of reconstruction of diffuse objects. She derives
the characteristics of speckle contrast depending on the limitation of dimensions,
the superimposing of random noise, the limitation of the dynamic range, and
quantization of the hologram, as well as for the case of an unfocused image. The
results obtained may b e used in radio, acoustic, and seismic holography. The
article has 16 illustrations and seven bibliographic entries.
UDC 621.395.44
DIGITAL MODEL OF A COMMUNICATIONS CHANNEL BASED ON A POWER TRANSMISSION LINE
[Abstract of article by Andronov, A. A.]
[Text] This arti.cle considers the set of questions involved in the work of a
high-frequency co~nunications channel for a power transmission line; especially
the basic type of interference in the channel - interference of the corona dis-
charge of the wires. The suthor constructs a digital model of a high-frequency
communications channel for a power transmission line on the basis of the physical
mechanism of formation of interference from the corona and experimental data on
its statistical characteristics. The article analyzes the question of the ade-
quacy of a digital model and a high-frequency channel. It is shown that results
obCained on the digital model correspond to experimental data. The digital model
is used to obtain and analyze various statistical characteristics of the channel.
The article gives results from investigations which permit a deeper study of the
processes taking place in a high-frequency communications channel. The article
has five illustrations and 10 bibliographic entries.
UDC 528.9:681.3:62-506
INVESTIGATION OF THE MUTUAL DEPENDENCE OF MICROPARAMETERS OF THE RELIEF BY THE
STATISTICAL MODELING METHOD
[Abstract of article by Lotov, V. N.]
[Text] This article considers the problem of determining the interrelationship
of the macroparameters of a surface by statistical modeling. These parameters
are the mean local number of horizontals per unit of area, the correlation inter-
val, and the mean quadratic elevation. A normal statistically homogeneous
isotropic random surface with a gaussian correlation function of elevations was
selected as the mathematical model. The statistical digital model was obtained
on the digital computer by two-dimensional sliding summation on a set of nor-
mally distributed pseudorandom numbers. The functional relationship between the
54
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parameters of the reliefs that were studied was found by multifactor regression
analysis. The results can be used to form digital models of real surfaces for
topographical maps: The article has one illustration and eight bibliographic
entries.
UDC 681.142.6:621.397.2
DISPLAY PROCESSOR FOR DIALOG PRQCESSING OF SEMITONE IMAGES
[Abstract of article by Bokshteyn, I. M.]
" [Text] The article gives an analysis of the possibilities of constructing a dis-
play processor and the general requirements for its structure. The author re-
views in detail the primary block of the display processor, the arithmetic unit.
The article enumerates the basic operations which must be performed by the
"fast" and "slow" parts of this unit and discusses the possibilities of building
these blocks. A convenient method of building the device which insures high
speed and provides communication between the display processor and the central
computer is described. The author considers a device designed to control the
work of the display processor and presents certain possibilities for organizing
dialog (interaction) between the operator and the processor. The article has 10
illustrations and nine bibliographic entries.
UDC 621.391.24:681.325.650.21:621.391.25
SPECIALIZED MICROPROCESSORS THAT PERFORM FAST CONVERSIONS
[Abstract of article by Rakoshits, V. S., Kozlov, A. V., Mozhayev, I. A., and
Belyayev, A. A.]
_ [Text] This article analyzes diagrams of fast conversions and the architecture
for constr~cting specialized microprocessors that perform fast conversions. It
is shown that where the f ast conversion is accomplished on a general-purpose
microprocessor there is a scheme of fast conversion that makes it possible to re-
duce the necessary main memory volume in half. During development of the spe-
. cialized microprocessor the choice of its architecture depends significantly on
the problem to be solved by the microprocessor, especially where it is necessary
to search for one or several maximum values of spectrum coefficients. When micro-
processors are developed in the form of large integrated circuits, a circular
structure is preferable for the microprocessor. The article has seven illustra-
tions and 10 bibliographic entries.
COPYRIGHT: Iadatel'stvo "Nauka", 1981
11,176
CSO: 1863/189
55
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UDC 621.394:658.284
CONTROL SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATION/SIGNALLING FACILITIES
Moscow SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA I SREDSTVA OPERATIVNOY SVYAZI I SIGNALIZATSII
in Russian 1981 (signed to press 16 Dec 80) pp 2, 199-200
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Control Systems and Operational
Communication/Signalling Facilities", by Mikhail Andreyevich Belotsvetov,
Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 12,000 copies, 200 pages]
[Text] Annotation -
General principles of organizing industrial enterprise control systems and
automated control and data processing systems are presented. Information is
given about operational communication, signalling and documentary transmission
facilities. One chapter is devoted to modern operation of communication
facilities and the prospects for their development.
The book is intended for technical school students in the "management-aid facilities"
specialty.
Table of Contents
Foreword 3
Section I. Production Control Systems and Production Co~nunications Systems 4
Chapter 1. Principles of Organizing Industrial Enterprise Control 4
1.1. The Concept of Control 4
1.2. Control in Technological and Economic Systems 9
1.3. The Enterprise as an Economic System 11
1.4. Organization of Control at the Enterprise 12
Chapter 2. Automated Control Systems 4
2.1. The Concept of Control Automation 14
2.2. T~pes and Structure of Automated Control Systems 16
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2.3. Functional Subsystems 18
2.4. Support Subsystems 19
Chapter 3. Information in Control Systems 33
3.1. The Concept of Information 33
3.2. Information Media 34
3.3. Information Processing 38
3.4. The Concept of Document Flow 40
Chapter 4. Production Communication Systems 41
4.1. The Concept of Production Communication Systems 41
4.2. Characteristics of Production Cotmnunication Systems 42
4.3. Classification of Production Communication 44
4.4. Efficiency of Production Coimnunication Systems 45
Section II. Communication at Industrial Enterprises 46
Chapter 5. Telephone Communication Systems 46
5.1. Physical Bases of Telephone Communication 46
5.2. Subscriber Telephone Devices and Public-Address Communication 55
5.3. Switching in Telephone and Pt~blic-Adress Communication Systems 64
5.4. Production Telephone Communication 77
5.5. Dispatcher and Director Communication 83
Chapter b. Telegraph and Facimile Communication Systems 94
6.1. Fundamentals of Telegraph and Facimile Communication 94
6.2. Subscriber Telegraph and Facimile Communication Devices 117
6.3. Switching in Telegraph and Facimile Communication Systems 126
Chapter 7. Radio Communication and Industrial Television Systems 129
7.1. Physical Bases of Radio Communication 129
7.2. Radio Sets 131
7.3. Switching in Radio Comanunication Systems 134
7.4. Industrial Television Systems 135
Chapter 8. Data Transmissions in ASU [Automated Control Systems] 137
8.1. Data Transmission Methods in ASU 137
8,2. Data Transmission ~quipment 142
8.3. Terminal Systems 164
Section III. Signalling and Document Transport Systems 170
Chapter 9. Search and Alarm Signalling 170
9.1. Organization of Search and Alarm Signalling at Enterprises 170
9.2. Search and Calling Signalling 170
9.3. Fire Signalling 173
57
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Chapter 10. Time Signalling 174
10.1. Organization of Time Signalling Enterprises 174
10.2. Secondary Electric Clocks 176
10.3. Station Prime Signalling Devices 177
Chapter 11. Document Transport Systems 180
11.1. Document Transport Facilities 180
11.2. Automated Mail 183
Section IV. Prospects for Development of Production Communication and ASU 187
Chapter 12. Prospects for Development of Production Communication Technology 187
12.1. Production Communication Systems and Nationwide
Communication System 187
12.2. Quasi-electronic and Electronic ATS [Automated Telephone Exchanges) 188
- Chapter 13. Areas of Development of ASU 190
References 195
Subject Index 196
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981.
6900
CSO: 1860/301
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UDC 681.527.7.001.2
DESIGN OF DISCRETE AUTOMATION DEVICES
Leningrad BIBLIOTEKA PO AVTOMATIKE: PROYEKTIROVANIYE DISKRETNYKH USTRO~YSTV
AVTOMATIKI in Russian No 613, 1980 (signed to press 13 Oct 80) pp 2, 86-87
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Design ~f Discrete Automation
Devices", by Leonid Fedorovich Auen, deceased, Izdatel'stvo "Energiya",
10,000 copies, 88 pages]
[Text] Annotation
Questions of designing programmed control devices using semiconductor and opto-
electronic elements with a negative dynamic resistance subcircuit are examined.
Achievements in circuitry and ways of creating devices using elements with S-
and lambda-type characteristics are presented. Basic methods of designing
automation elements and devices, and methods for improving their noise tolerance,
are cited. ~
The book is intended for workers in the area of instrument building, automation
and computer technology; it can also be used by students of corresponding
specialties.
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 1. Design of control devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-1. Control device systems and their selection . . . . . . . . . . . 5
? -2. General approach to design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1-3. Formation and compilation of programmed control device
algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Chapter 2. Transistor models of composite switching devices 10
2-1. Thyristor model. . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-2. Analog model of single-junction transistor . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-3. Models of switching devices with lambda-type cl~aracteristic. 12
59
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Chapter 3. Mathemat~cal and logical models of thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3-1. Introductory remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . � � � . . . . . . . 14
3-2. Mathematical models of thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3-3. Logical analog model of thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3-4. Digital model of thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Chapter 4. Control of switched devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4-1. General assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4-2. Pulsed thyristor control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
_ 4-3. Improving noise tolerance of thyristor circuits. 31
4-4. Control pulse delay circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4-5. Phase control of thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter 5. Binary elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5-1. Flip-flops using lambda-diodes and thyristors. . . . . . . . . . 40
S-2. Methodology for designing flip-flops using diode and triode
thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a . . 42
5-3. Flip-flops using cutoff thy~istors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
- 5-4. Methodology of designing flip-flop with cutoff thyristor 47
5-5. Flip-flops with single-,junction transistors. . . . . . . . . . . 48
5-6. Flip-flops with photon-coupled pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5-.7. Switching devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Chapter 6. Counters and adders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6-1. Ring counting circuits using thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6-2. Ring counting circuits using cutoff thyristors 56
6-3. Non-reactive ring shift registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6-4. Reversible pulse counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6-5. Shift register using single-3unction transistors 65
Chapter 7. Storage and logic devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7-1. Storage elements and devices using thyristors and photon-
coupled pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7-2. Implementation of oogic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7-3. Implementation of logic operations with magnetothyristor
elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7-4. Strobing circuits with correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7-5. Power-amplifying pulse followers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Chapter 8. Pulsed functional devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8-1. Clock pulse generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8-2. Monostable multivibrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . � � � 78
8-3. Test-indicating and threshold devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", 1980
6900
- CSO: 1860/288
60
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UDC 654.1
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE DESIGN
Moscow OSNOVY PROYEKTIROVANIYA SOORUZHENIY SVYAZI in Russian 1981 (signed to press
25 Nov 80) pp 2, 169
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Fundamentals of Communication
Structure Design", by Shavkat Galyamovich Galiullin, Leontiy Moiseyevich Gol'dberg,
Ananiy Ivanovich Ovsyannikov, Eduard Vital'yevich Samoylov, Yevgenny Ivanovictt
Stepanov and Feliks Iserovich Shalakhman, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz
12,000 copies, 169 pages]
[Text] Annotation
Basic assumptions concerning the development of plans and cost estimates for
capital construction and singularities of planning communications facilities
are explained; new directions in design work and standard solutions and plans
are described, as are methods for increasing efficiency through studying the
technical and economic justifications for construction requirements and the
justification for decisions taken; fundamental directions in the organization
of design work are cited, as are singularities of technical design of station
structures for wire communication facilities, line structures and line-of-sight
radio relay systems.
The book is intended for students of electrical engineering institutes of
communications.
Table of Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
- Chapter 1. General assumptions concerning development of plans and cost
estimates in capital construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1-1. Design work and its importance as the preparatory state of
construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1-2. Organization of planning matters . . . . . ~ . � � � � � � � � ~
1-3. Feasibility studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Z-4. Order of selecting and approving construction site 12
61
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1-5. Design assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1-6. Design stage. New directions in staging of design work. 17
1-7. Exploratory operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1-8. Contractor design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1-9. Detail design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1-10. Working drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1-11. Use of standard designs and standard design decisions. 24
1-12. Cost estimating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1-13. Economy of deisgn decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1-14. Coordination and approval of designs and cost estimates. 36
Chapter 2. Fundamentals of designing wire communication facility station
. structures � � � � � � � � � � � � ~ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 37
2-1. Line equipment sitop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2-2. Long-distance telephone exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ~
- 2-3. Telegraph and data transmission exchanges and centers. 52
- 2-4. Urban and rural telephone exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2-5. Electrical installations for wire commun.ication enterprises. . 65
Chapter 3. Fundamentals of designing line communication structures 69
3-1. Transmission lines in primary YeASS [unified automated .
communication system] network. Basic design assumptions 69
3-2. City telephone network cable lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84'
3-3. Rural telephone networks cable lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
- 3-4. Overhead communication lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 4. Fundamentals of designing radio relay communications links. 105
4-1. Classification of radio relay links and types of stations. 105
4-2. Laboratory selection and investigation of RRL paths. 107
4-3. Designs for radio relay station structions . . . . . . . . . . 111
4-4. Electrical equipment and power supply for relay relay stations 120
4-5. Design of radio relay links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Chapter 5. Basic assumptions of designing structural part of communication
faci 1 itie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5-1. Basic relevant standard document of Gosstroy USSR regulating
design of structural part of communicati~n facilities. 136
5-2. Classification of structural facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5-3. Basic types and forms of buildings and structures used in
wire communication enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5-4. The role of the task in compiling the structural part of a
plan. Requirements for ventilation, heating, water supply
~ and waste-water disposal system for communication structures . 140
5-5. Development of structural part of plan. Appearance, staging,
basic designs of communication enetrprise buildings. 143
62
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5-6. Basic technical-and-economic indexes of buildings. 149
Methodology for calculating area and volume . . . . . . . . . .
. 5-7. Standard design of communication structures . . . . . . . . . . 149
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Bib liography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981
6900
CSO: 1860/289
63
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UDC 621.314.26+621.3.012
INTRODUCTION TO CONTACTLESS ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF STEPPED-UP FREQUENCY
Kishinev V~IEDENIYE V BESKONTAKTNYYE ELEKTROMEKHANICHESKIYE SISTEMY POVYSHENNOY
CHASTOTY in Russian 1979 (signed to press 4 May 79) pp 2, 136
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Introduction to Contactless
Electromechanical Systems of Stepped-Up Frequency , by Vladimir Ivanovich
Zagryadtskiy, Nikolay Ivanovich Kobylyatskiy, Aleksandr Petrovich Gladkiy,
Aleksey Ivanovich Kramarenko, Viktor Grigor'yevich O1'khovskiy and Vladimir
Grigor'yevich Shevchik, Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa", 1,015 copies, 136 pages]
[Text] Annotation
This monograph examines the basic circuits of a contactless electric drive of
stepped-up frequency which uses recently-developed three-phase static ferromag-
netic frequency multipliers with a rotating magnetic field as the power source.
~ Particular attention is given to systems in which the power of the frequency
multiplier is comparable to tha.t of the electric motor. Elements of the theo.ry
and design of such electric drives are explained, and results of experimental
investigations of systems which use doublers, triplers and cascaded converters
as multipliers are given.
9 system with a magnetothyristor converter of direct current into 3-phase alterna-
ting current and an output transformer with a rotating magnetic field is described.
The book is intended for specialists involved in designing, planning and
operating contactless electric drives of stepped-up frequency. It may also
be useful for students in electromechanical and electric power specialties.
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 1. Overall describtion of multiplier-motor system
Introduction � � � � � � � . . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � . � � � � � � � 5
Section 1. Basic properties and prospects for application of system 9
Section 2. General characterization of starting and stopping system
RlOt01 � . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 12
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Section 3. Voltage equations of 3-phase frequency multiplier 16
Section 4. Longitudinal, transverse and longitudina;.-transverse 26
compensation in multiplier-motor system . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2. Combined operation of frequency multiplier and motor 35
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 1. Determination of multiplier power in system with 35
individual motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 2. Tripler-motor system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Section 3. Doubler-motor system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Section 4. Cascaded multiplier-motor system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Section 5. Examples of calculations in multiplier-motor system 70
Chapter 3. Operation of system with thyristor-magnetic converter of direct
current into ~-phase alternating current
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 1. Operating principle and basic equations for semiconductor 88
portion of TI~ [thyristor magnetic converter] . . . . . . . .
' Section 2. Operating principle and basic equations of output 97
transformer . . . . . . . . . � � � � . � � � � � � � �
Section 3. Elements of de signing TMP in .system with individual motor 115
Section 4. TMP-motor system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
133
Conc lusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bib 1 io graphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa", 1979
6900
CSO: 1860/287
- 65
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UDC 621.396.61.(075.8)
LONG-DISTANCE RADIO COMMUNICATION TRANSMITTING DEVICES
Moscow RADIOPEREDAYUSHCHIYE USTROYSTVA MAGISTRAL'NOY RADIOSVYAZI in Russian 19$0
(signed to press 25 Apr 80) pp 2-3, 175-176
[Annotation, foreword and table of contents from book "Long-Distance Radio
Communication Transmitting Devices", by Semen Ezrovich Gorodetskiy,
Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz 15,000 copies, 176 pages]
[Excerpts] Annotation
Features of the design and construction of modern long-distance radio communication
transmitters are examined in detail. A methodology for measuring their parameters
is presented, and questions of designing and servicing long-distance radio
communication lines are explained.
The book is intended for communication technical training schools teaching
the specialty "radio communication and radio broadcasting".
Foreword
The achievements of science and technology have made it possible in the past
10 years to develop and organize serious production of automated exciters and
transmitters for long-distance radio communication.
In spite of the large number of texts and teaching aids on radio transmitters,
there is no book which gives the technical characteristics or design and circuitry
of new types of high-stability exciters and transmitters for long-distance
radio communication.
The present book attempts to fill this gap. The book also touches upon im-
proving the reliability of transmitting equipment, measuring its parameters,
and the ~echnology of preventive maintenance and rehabilitation, and organizing
the servicing of long-distance radio communication.
The material in the book is selected and arranged so that transmitter design
principles common to all types is examined first, followed by electrical circuits
and designs.
66
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Table of Contents
Page
_ Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 1
General information on exciters, transmitters and construction
of long-distance radio communication lines
- 1,1. Transmitter requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Exciter construction. . . . . . . . . . . . � � � � � . � � � � � � 24
1.3. Radio-frequency amplifier construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. Automatic tuning system [1.10] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.5. Transmitter enable/disable control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.6. Direct current power supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.7. Construction features of power supply circuit for heater of
power oscillator tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.8. Inductance coils, capacitors and resistors used in high-frequency
circuits of transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.9. Increasing transmitter reliability [1.11] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
~ 1.10. Construction of long-distance radio communication lines 44
l.ll. Radio bureau equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1.12. Frequency-division multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
1.13. Brief information on designing long-distance radio communication 49
line and compilation of frequency schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.14. Organication of long-distance radio communication line operation. . 50
1.15. Monitoring quality of operation of long-distance radio communication 52 .
lines at radio bureau and transmitting radio center
1.16. Monitoring/supervisory positions at transmitting radio centers. 52
Chapter 2
"Molniya-2M" transmitter and VO-71 exciter
2.1. Purpose and technical characterisLics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.2. VO-71 exciter of "Molniya-2M" transmitter . . � � � � � ' ' ' ~ ~ ~ 56
2.3. High-frequency circuit of transmitter [1.4] . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. Equipment for automatic adjustment of high-frequency circuit
of transmitter [2.2 ] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.5. Control, blocking and signaling equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.6. Equipment for monitoring power and traveling wave coefficient 69
2.7, Alternating- and direct-current power supply equipment. 71
2.8. Set of filters and switches with feeder lay-out 72
2.9. Transmitter cooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.10. Design of transmitter and placement of modules and components 75
2.11. Remote control of "Molniya-2M' transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Chapter 3
"Purga" transmitter and exciter
3.1. Function and technical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.2. "Purga" exciter . . . . A � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � . � . . . . 81
3.3. High-frequency amplification circuit of transmitter 91
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3.4. Equipment in automatic adjusting system of transmitter high
frequency circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.5� Control, blocking and signaling equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.6. Equipment for monitoring power, traveling wave coefficient and
feeder protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.7. Direct- and alternating-current power supply equipment. 108
3.8. Transmitter cooling equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.9. Design of transmitter and placement of modules and components 109
Chapter 4 ,
"Molniya-3" transmitter and "Dekada-2" exciter
4.1.. Function and technical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.2. "Dekada-2" exciter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.3. Frequency spectrum formation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.4. High-frequency circuit of transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.5. Automatic adjustment system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . �131
4.6. Control, blocking and signaling equipment [2.3] . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.7. Equipment for measuring power, traveling wave coefficient and
feeder protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.8. Direct- and alternating-current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.9. Transmitter air-cooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.10. Transmitter deisgn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.11. Construction features of "Molniya-3" transmitter as compared with ~
"Molniya-2M" and "Purga" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Chapter 5
On-line methods for measuring parameters of long-distance radio
communication transmitters
5.1. Measurement of high-frequency oscillating power . . . . . . . . . . . 151
5.2. Measurement of traveling wave coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.3. Measurement of harmonic radiation power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.4. Determination of specific energy consumption norms. 155
5.5. Measurement of frequency and amplitude response, nonlinear and
linear distortions, noise and background levels and amount of
frequency separation of single-sideband transmitters. . . . . . . . . 155
5.6. Monitoring exciter operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Chapter 6
Preventive maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of long-distance
radio communication transmitters
6.1. Servicing and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
6.2. Rehabilitation of long-distance radio communication transmitters. 163
6.3. Finding and correcting malfunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
6.4. Use of ineasurement (test) equipment during preventive-maintenance ~
inspections and rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
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Chapter 7
Antenna-feeder structures for long-distance radio communication
7.1. Recommendations for choosing antennas fcr shortwave long-distance
radio communication links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
7.2. Measure;nent of parameters of transmitting shortwave antennas
and feeder lines [7.1, 7.2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.3. Switching of transmitting antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z70
7.4. Safety rules in constructing and operating antenna-feeder devices
[1.9] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Appendix 1. Technical specifications of standard long-distan~e radio
communication transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Appendix 2. Condition of high frequency circuit of standard transmitters 173
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz 1980
6900
CSO: 1860/285
69
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UDC 621.317.31:621.317.2
MEASURII~IENTS IN TRANSIENT SHORTING MODES
. Leningrad IZMERENIYA V PEREKHODNYKIi REZHIlKAKH KOROTKOGO ZAMYRANIYA in Russian 1981
(signed to press 18 Nov 80} pp 2, 191-192
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Measurements in Transient Shorting
Modes", by I1'ya Borisovich Bolotin and Lev Zalmanovich Eydel', Izdatel'stvo
"Energiya", 5,000 copies, 192 pages]
[Text] Annotation
This book is devoted to measurements of electrical values during testing of
high-voltage equipment in short-circuited conditions. Examined are methods,
circuits and singularities of ineasuring large currents, high voltages, and electric-
arc power and energy in the steady-state, transient as well as pulse modes. Recom-
mendations are given for the calculation and application of instrumentation.
The present edition looks more closely at measuring short-circuiting transient
currents, as well as special measurements, including testing of current-limiting
equipment, than did the 1973 edition.
,The book is intended for engineers and scientific workers involved in testing
and investigating high-voltage equipment. It may also be useful for students
and graduate students.
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 1. Types of Testing of High-Voltage Equipment in Short-Circuit .
Conditions and Features of Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-1. Types and Modes of Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-2. Features of Measurements During Testing in Short-Circuit Conditions 8
Chapter 2. Measurement of Short-Circuit Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2-1. Measurement Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2-2. Measurement Shunts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2-3. Current Measuring Transformers and Their Operation in Equipment
Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2--4. Air Current Transformers and Their Use for Measuring Short-Circuit
Current and its First Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
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2-5. Gap-Type Current Transformers and Their Operation in Equipment .
Test Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2-6. Other Current Measurements Meathod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2-7. Measurement of Residual Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
~Chapter 3. Voltage Measurement During Switching Tests of High-Voltage
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3-1. Voltage Transformers and Their Operation in Test Mode. 67
3-2. Voltage Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3-3. Operation of Voltage Divider in High-Voltage Equipment Switching
Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
3-4. Measurement of Voltage Distribution Across Circuit Breaker Gaps. . 130
3-5. Measurement of Voltage Recovery Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3-6. Voltage Measurement Using Dividers Included in Multi-Section
H-Type Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Chapter 4. Measurement of Electric-Arc Power and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4-1. Methods and Features of Measuring Power and Energy of
Electric-Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4-2. Measurement of Power and Energy of Electric-Arc Using Hall
Conver ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1S2
- 4-3. Measurement of Magnetic Field and Large Currents Using Hall
Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
_ Chapter 5. Some Special Measurements of Electrical Quantities During
Equi.pment Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5-1. Measurement of Currents and Voltages During Testing of Equipment
with Current-Limiting Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5-2. Measurement of Joule Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
5-3. Measurement of Power Coefficient of Test Circuits. 178
5-4. Measurement of Power Circuit Frequency Deviation During
Equipment Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
- COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", 1981
6900 ~
CSO: 1860/299
71
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UDC 621.396.62:621.391.822
NOISE FACTOR
Moscow KOEFFITSIYENT SHUMA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 20 Nov 80)
pp 2, 110-111
_ [Annotation and table of contents from book "Noise Factor", by Anatoliy
Prokof'yevich Belousov and Yuriy Aronovich Kamenetskiy, Izdatel'stvo "Radio
i svyaz 10,000 copies, 112 pages]
- [Text] Annotation
Methods for practical calculation of the noise parameters of radio receivers and
- elements with consideration of noise from passive objects (clouds, radomes, an-
tennas, feeder circuits, etc.) are presented systematically. Along with an
up-to-date presentation of the theory of noisy four terminal networks, a wave
description is also given which is most convenient for calculations allowing for
scattering parameters. Particular attention is given the minimization of the
noise factor. A number of problems often ignored by specialis*_s are discussed,
e.g., the influence of matching on the noise factor, the difference between actual
and nominal noise factors, etc. The mast important relationships used to cal-
culate noise parameters are given.
The book is intended for specialists involved in developing and operating radio
_ receivers. It may also be useful for students of higher educational institutions
in radio engineering specialities.
Table of Contents
F or ewor d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
- 1. Noise sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1. Nyquist's formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Noise current generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3. Effective temperature of series- and parallel-connected resistors . 8
1.4. Antenna noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.5. Shot noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.6. Negative resistance noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
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2. Noise factor and associated concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
� 2.1. Determination of four-terminal network noise factor. 18
2.2. Mean noise factor and four-terminal network noise band 21
2.3. Nominal gain of four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4. Relationship between actual and nominal gain factors 26
- 2.5. Input noise temperature of four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6. Working noise factor and mean working noise factor 29
2.7. Actual receiver sensitivity and connection with mean working
noise factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3. Noise factor and noise temperature of passive four-terminal network. 32
3.1. A possible formula for calculating noise factor of passive
four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2. Another formula for calculating noise factor of passive
four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3. Operating noise and output temperatures of four-terminal network 38
3.4. Output temperature for special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.5. Operating noise temperature of receiving system under cover. 40 .
3.6. Noise factor of receiving system under cover . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
~ 3.7. Noise factor of crystal-controlled mixer and long feeder
(waveguide) line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4. Calculation of noise factor of cascaded four-terminal networks 43
4.1. Noise factor and noise temperature of two four-terminal networks 43
4.2. Noise factor of several four-terminal tetworks . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.3. Noise factor of superheterodyr_e receiver without image-channel
suppre s s ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.4. Amplifier noise factor (special case) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.5.. Splitting a complex system into four-terminal networks 49
4.6. NoisE factor of arbitrary passive four-tern~inal networks 52
4.7. Nominal gain of arbitrary passive four-terminal networks 55
4.8. About the noise figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.9. Gain and noise factor of four-terminal networks with negative
conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.10. Nominal gain of amplifier with circulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.11. Noise factor of circulator with negative conductivity in one arm 63
4.12. Recalculation of noise current generators of arbitrary
four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 .
4.13. Noise factor of circuit containing passive and active four-
terminal networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.14. Nominal gain of active four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5. Theory of noisy four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.1. Equations describing noisy four-terminal network . . . . . . . . . . 74 .
5.2. ~tao-port noise parameters a~d noise factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.3. Description of noisy four-terminal network by wave parameters. 89
Conventional notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981
6900 73
CSO: 1860/290
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UDC 621.382.323
OPERATING PARAMETERS AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF APPLICATION OF FIELD-EFFECT
TRANSISTORS
Moscow EKSPLUATATSIONNYYE PAR~METRY I OSOBENNOSTI PRIMENENIYA POLEVYI~i.
TRANZISTOROV in Russian 1981 (signed to press 1 Oct 80) pp~2, 64
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Operating Parameters and Distinctive
Features of Application of Field-Effect Transistors", by Dmitriy Vasil'yevich
Igumnov and Igor' Stepanovich Gromov, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 15,000 copies,
64 pa~es]
[Text] Annotation ~
Information about the operating parameters of field-effect transistors and
features of their application in various electronic and communication equipment
circuits is examined.
The volt-ampere characteristics, equivalent circuits and operating parameters
of various types of field-effect transistors are given, as are methods for
building various devices using these transistors. Information~is presented
on the use of MOS-transistors as fvnctional devices.
The book is intended �or engineering and technical workers specializing in the
development of communication equipment.
Table of Contents
Page ~
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Frequently used notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1. Parameters and characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Field-effect transistor with p-n-junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
MOS-transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Varities of field-effect transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
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Chapter 2. Features of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Protecting gate of MOS transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Followers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Pulsed devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~+0
Chapter 3. Functional capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Field-effect transistor in direct gate bias mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Capabilities of MOS transistor as circuit element . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
MOS transistor as electronic device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Bib 1 iography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981
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UDC 621.383
PHOTON-COUPLED PAIRS AND THEIR APPLICATION
- Moscow OPTRONY I IKH PRIMENENIYE in Russian 1981 (signed to press 9 Jan 81)
PP 2-3, 278-279
[Annotation, foreword (excerpts) and table of contents from book "Photon-Coupled
Pairs and Their Application", by Yuriy Romanovich Nosov and Aleksandr Sergeyevich
Sidorov, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 30,000 copies, 280 pages]
[Excerpts] Annotation
The operating principle, physical bases, arrangement and parameters of photon-
coupled pairs and optoelectronic integrated circuits are examined. Construction
and design features o� circuits using photon-coupled pairs are explained. Tech-
nical characteristics of domestic photon-coupled pairs are cited, and 100 actual
. circui~s are examined which illustrate the possibility of the effective application
of photon-coupled pairs in many areas of technology.
The book is intended for a broad group of readers.
Foreword [Excerpts]
Photon-coupled pairs and optronic integrated microcircuit are concepts which
are becoming fa�~iliar to wider groups of specialists in the area of radioelec-
tronics with every passing year. The development of photon-coupled pair techniques
has entered the stage of industrial mass production. Photon-coupled pairs are
being used more and more in electronic equipment.
In connection with this, the authors of the present book consider it useful to
generalize theoretical design and experimental material on the physics, arra~ge-
ment, characteristics and application of photon-coupled pairs. General assumptions
are supported "ny specific data on domestically produced photon-coupled pairs,
and by circuits in which they are actually applied. Materials from domestic as
well as foreign developments in the area of photon-coupled pairs were used in
- preparing the book.
Major engineering collectives without whose participation it would have been
impossible to write this book have contributed to the development of photon-
coupled pair technology.
76
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Table of Contents
Foreword 3
Introduction 4
References 16
Chapter 1. Physical Foundations of Photon-Coupled Pairs (PCP) Technology 18
l.l. Component Base and Arrangement of PCPs 18
1.2. Physics of Energy Conversion in Diode PCP 25
1.3. Diode PCP Theory 38
1.4. Varieties of Active PCP Structures 46
1.5. Problems of Reliability 57
References 65
Chapter 2. Parameters and Characteristics of PCP and Optoelectronic
Integrated Micracircuits 68
_ 2.1. Classification and�System�of�Parameters.of.PCP.Technology�Devices�. 75
2.2. Diode PCPs 82
2.3. Transistor and Thyristor PCPs 90
2.4. Resistor PCPs
2.5. Differential PCPs for Analog Signal Transmission 97
2.6. Optoelectronic Microcircuits and Other PCP-Type Devices 101
References 112
Chapter 3. PCPs as Components in Electronic Devices 115
3.1. Circuit Engineering of PCP Stages 115
3.2. Stabilization of Ll.ectrical Mode of PCPs 130
3.3. Models and Circui~s for Fast Switching of Low-Inertia PCPs 138
3.4. Transient Switching Processes of Diode PCPs 145
References 159
Chapter 4. Digital and Pulsed Optoelectronic Devices 159
4.1: High Speed Optoelectronics Switches 159
4,2. Optoelectroni~ Logic Elements 173
4.3. Electrical Matching of PCPs and Digital Microcircuits 178
4.4. Pulsed Devices with Optical Control 185
4.5~. Devices with Optical Signal Regeneration ,,193
References 201
6~
,
77 ~
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Chapter 5. Analog Optoelectronic Devices 202
5.1. Linear Optoelectronic Amplifiers 202
5.2. Electrical Matching of PCPs with Operaticrnal Amplifiers 215
5.3. High Frequency Qptoelectronic Amplifiers 211
5.4. Analog Optoelectronic Sfaitches 221
References 228
Chapter 6. Areas of Application of PCPs and PCP Microcircuits 229
6.1. Data Transmission 229
6.2. Data Acquisition and Representation 238
6.3. Monitoring Electrical Processes 244
- 6.4. Replacement of Electomechanical Devices 250
6.5. Power Functions 257
6.6. Data Conversion and Storage 260
References 267
Conclusion 269
Subject Index 275
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UDC 621.374
- PULSED DEVICES
Moscow Il~UL'SNYYE USTROYSTVA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 1 Oct 80)
PP 2, 220-222
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Pulsed Devices", by Lev Moiseyevich
Gol'denberg, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 40,000 copies, 224 pages]
[Text] Annotation
Fundamentals of the theory and circuitry of pulsed devices are presented. Pri~ary
attention is given devices using integrated circuits. Considered are the component.
base of pulsed devices, combination and serial devices, methods and circuits for
forming square and other pulses, and functional communication and control devices.
The book is intended for students in higher institutes of learning and radio
engineering departments. It will also be useful for specialists working in the
area ~f pulsed and digital techniques.
Table of Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 1. Linear elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1. Analys:.s of linear elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2. RC-elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Properties of RC-elements. Differentiating circuit.
Integrating circuit. Other applications of RC-elements
1.3. Operational amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 2. Transistor gates and logic elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2 ,1. Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2. Saturated transistor gate-inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Circuit. Transistor models, Statistical modes. Dynamic modes
2.3. Coupling circuits between gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
General information. Resistor-coupled gates. Reducing switching
time. Resistor-transistor logic elements. Saturated direct-
coupled gates. Saturated diode-coupled gates. Diode-transistor
logic elements (DTL)
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2.4. Traiisistor-transistor logic elements (TTL-elements) . . . . . . . . 39
Circuit of elements. Static mode. Static characteristics of
elements. Dynamic characteristics of elements. Alternative
elements and auxiliary circuits.
2.5. Current gates and emitter-coupled logic elements (ESL-elements) 52
Current gate (PT). Circuit and operating principle of ESL-element.
Transfer characteristics. Dynamic characteristics
2.6. Gate circuits with insulated-gate field effect transistors
(IGFET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Characteristics and properties of IGFET. Gates with I~IDP-transistor
in load. Switches with complementary IGFET ("complementary
- structures"), Loading capacity. Logic elements
Chapter 3. Combinations of integrated logi~ elements and discrete
components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . ~ . . . . . 67
3.1. General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.2. Combination of logic elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Combination of single-type logic elements. Combination of
different types of logic elements.
3.3. Combination of integrated logic elements and discrete transistor
gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
TTL element controlling gate with n-p-n transistor. Gate with
n-p-n transistor controlling TTL element. TTL element controlling
gate with p-n-p transistor
3.4. Combination of logic element and resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Connection of resistance to input of element. Connection of
resistance to output of element
3.5. Combination of logic element and capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Connection of capacitance to input of element. Connection of
capacitance to output of element
, 3.6. RC delay elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Delay elements with integrating circuit. Delay elements with
differentiating circuit
~ 3.7 . Integrated timers (IT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
General information. Functional diagram of IT
Chapter 4. Combination and serial devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.1. Combination devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Problem of synthesizing KU [combination device]. Examples of
single-output KU. Examples of KU with several outputs. KU speed
4.2 . Serial devi.ces (finit-e automata) . Fundamental concepts . . . . . . 86
4.3. Flip-flops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
General information. Asynchronous RS flip-flops. RS flip-flops
with discrete components. Synchronous (clocked) RS flip-flops
(RSC flip-flops). D-flip-flops. T-flip-flops with integrated and
discrete components. JK-flip-flops. Flip-flops with IGFET.
Flip-flops with operational amplifiers
4.4. Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
General information. Parallel registers. Serial registers
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4.5. Pulse counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
General information. Binary counters with serial carry.
Binary counters with parallel carry. Non-binary counters
Chapter 5. Pulse shapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.1. Pulse amplitude limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
General information. Diode limiters. Amplifier-limiters
5.2. Voltage comparators and level hold units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Voltage comparators. Dynamic bias. Level hold circuits
5.3. Voltage-drop pulse shapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3hapers with discrete bipolar transistors. Functional diagram
of square-pulse shaper with IS [integrated circuit] and delay
element. Shaper with delay element using integrated logic elements.
Shaper with RC delay elements. Circuit of shaper with RC delay
element using OR-NOT logic elements. Circuit of shaper with
RC delay element using AND-NOT elements. Shaper with shortening
(differentiating) circuit. Reducing edge duration
5.4. Shapers with delay lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Delay lines (LZ). Shaper circuit
5.5. Flip-flop-shapers (asymmetrical flip-flops). . . . . . . . . . . . 130
General information. Flip-flop shaper (Schmitt trigger) with
- discrete components. Flip-flop shaper with integrated expanders,
Flip-flop shaper with logic elements. Flip-flop shaper with
integrated timer
S uare- ulse enerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6. q p g 136
6.1. General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6.2. Monostable multivibrators (ZhMV) with time-assigning
differentiating RC circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
ZhMV with integrated logi~ element. Another ZhMV with integrated
logic elements. Monostable multivibrator with discrete components
6.3. Monostable multivibrators with integrated c~rcuits using delay
elements . . . . . . . . . � . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
- Operating principles. Circuit with delay element nsing logic
elements. Circuit with RC delay elements. Compar~sor. c~ circuits
6.4. Monostable multivibrators with operational amplifiers (OU) 147
6.5. Monostable multivibrators using integrated timers (IT) 150
6.6. Monostable multivibrator producing long pulses . . . . . . . . . . 151
6.7. Astable multivibrators (MV) with time assigning differentiating
circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Multivibrator using integrated logic circuits. Multivibrator
using d~screte components. Integrated analog of discrete MV.
- Adjustable astable MV
6.8. Astable multivibrators using OU [operational amplifiers] 158
6.9. Astable multivibrators using integrated timers . . . . . . . . . . 160
6.10. Stabilization of multivibrator oscillation frequency 161
Destabilizing factors. Multivibrator with delay line.
Crystal-stabilized multivibrators
6.11. Blocking oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
General information. Triggered blocking oscillator mode. Astable
mode of blocking oscillator
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6.12. Synchronized feedback oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
General information. Synchronization of blocking oscillators
Chapter 7. Non-square pulse generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.1. General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.2. Shaping principles and basic parameters of sawtooth voltage
pulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
7.3. Simple sawtooth voltage generator (GPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
7.4. GPN with current stabilizers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Current stabilizer. Classification of GPN with current stabilizer.
Generator with separate current stabilizer. Compensation GPN
with positive feedback. Compensation GPN with negative feedback.
Sawtooth voltage generators with operational amplifiers
7.5. Monostable and astable multivibrators with linear capacitor
discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Monostable multivibrators. Astable multivibrators. Sawtooth
voltage generator with integrated timers (IT)
7.6. Sawtooth current pulse generators (GPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Principles of shaping sawtooth current pulses. GPT circuit
7.7. Function generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Functional diagram. Structure of TsAP [digital-analog converter]. ~
~ Structure of ATsP [analog-digital converter]. Digital signal I
conversion I
Chapter 8. Functional devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . 201
_ 8.1. Pulse selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
General information. Amplitude selectors (AS). Time
selectors (VS). Pulse-length selectors (DS).
8.2. Devices for adjustable pulse time delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
General information. Formation of quantized delays
8.3. Pulse distributors and multiplexers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
8.4. Analog voltage-level-to-time-interval converters and analog
voltage-level-to-pulse-number converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981.
6900
CS~: 1860/292
- 82
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SEMIMETALS AND NARROW-ZONE SEMICONDUCTORS
Kishinev POLUMETALLY I UZKOZONNYYE POLUPROVODNIKI in Russian 1979
(signed to press 14 Feb 79) pp 2, 218-219
[Annotation and table of contents f?-om book "Semimetals and Narrow-Zone '
Semiconductors", edited by S. I. Radautsan, academician, MSSR Academy of Sciences;
D. V. Gipu and A. M. Andriyesh, corresponding members of MSSR Academy of Sciences;
candidates of physical and mathematical sciences S. D. Shutov (editor-in-chief),
E. K. Arushanov (deputy editor-in-chief), and senior engineer I. M. Golban
(secretary), Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa", 760 copies, 220 pages]
~
[Text] Annotation
The electrcphysical properties of bismuth and bismuth-based alloys, solid
solutions of lead chalcogenites (Pbl_XSnXTe, Pb Te - Sb) and other complex narrow-
zone semiconductors are examined during various external effects over a broad
temperature interval. Effective methods are developed for ~~alculating the
kinetic parameters of charged carriers in such substances. Singularities of
the anisotropy of transfer phenomena and the influence of crystal size in the
quasi-uniform case are studied.
This collection is intended for scientific workers, engineers, graduate school
instructors, graduate students and students in physical and technical areas.
Table of Contents
D. V. Gipu. Crystalline and zone structure of bismuth, antimony and
bismuth-antimony alloys (review) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I. I. t'inchuk. Kinetic coefficients in degenerate semiconductors and
semir~~.etals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Ya. I. Kerner, A. I. Makeychik, F. M. Muntyanu. Structure of angular
relationships of magnetic resistance of BiSb alloys during
various localization of energy extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
P. P. Bodyul, I. M. Golban, Ye. F. Molosh-~ik. Calculation of kinetic
parameters of compensated bismuth alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
I. M. Golban. Calculation of kinetic parameters of charged carri~rs
in bismuth based on galvanomagnetic phenomena in waak ~uagnetic
fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
83
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D. F. Migley. Phenomenological analysis of kinetic coefficients in 95
crystals of type Pbl_XSnXTe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . .
B. F. Migley. Calculation of anisotropy of transfer phenomena in 110
, Pbl_XS~ Te monocrystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N. S. Popovicfi, A. V. Chebanovskiy, V. K. Shura. Electrical and
thermoelectric properties of T1Sb1_XBiXTe2 alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 145
S. D. Rayevskiy. Purification of tellurium by zone melting and 149
sublimation of impurities . . . . . . . � � � � � � � ' ' ' ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 153
S. D. Rayevskiy. Solubility of antimony in lead telluride.
V. I. Ivanov-Omskiy, Ye. I. Georgitse, A. A. Mal'kova..Free-carrier
absorption in alloys of solid solutions of inercury telluride with 158
cadmium telluride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . � . � � �
E. K. Arushanov, A. V. Lashkul, A. N. Nateprov. Cadmium phosphide alloyed 162
with copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S. I. Radautsan, E. K. Arushanov, V. I. Pruglo. Sensitivity and detection 168
capability of thermal radiation receivers based on CdSb
V. V. Tsurkan, V. G. Veselago, S. I. Radautsan, V. Ye. Tezlevan.
- Electrical and magnetic properties of monocrystals of ferro- 174
magnetic spinels of SuyCr2Se4_ZBrX which have a defecit of copper
B. G. Dushchak, A. I. Kasiyan, A. G. Cheban. Gigantic conductivities 181
in unidimensional molecular chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. F. Garabazhiu. Quantum dimensional effect in thin superconducting 190
fiber,s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa", 1979
6900
CSO: 1860/291
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UDC 624:621.396
TRUSS-TYPE RADIO MASTS
Moscow SHPRENGEL'NYYE RADIOMACHTY in Russian 1981 (signed to press 26 Dec 80)
pp 2, 175
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Truss-Type Radio Masts", by
Anatoliy Alekseyevich Voyevodin, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 5,700 copies,
176 pages]
[Text] Annotation
- Presented are the theory and methodology for calculating, as well as the fun-
damentals of designing, truss-type radio masts used as dipoles and supports for
antennas of various types. The results of experimental investigation are given.
Features of construction and operation truss-type masts are examined.
The book is intended for engineering and technical workers involved in designing
construction and operating antenna-mast communication structures.
Table of Contents
Foreword 3
Introduction 4
Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Calculating Prestressed Systems 14
1.1. Preliminary Information 14
- 1.2. Methods of Investigating a PN [prestressed] Truss Beam 16
1.3. Frame Method 17
1.4. Transverse Deformations of Flexible Ligament 32
1.5. Cross-Braced Beam with Ztao Bands 46
1.6. Deformation of PN Truss Beam. Deformation Compatibility
Equations 56
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Chapter 2. Stability of Prestressed Truss-Type Member 61
2.1. General Information 61
2.2. Methods of Investigating Stability of PN Truss-Z`ype Member 62
2.3. Investigation of Stability Using Articulated-Chain Method 63
2.4. Calculation of Stability of PN Truss-Type Member Using
Engesser-Timoshenko Method 68
2.5. Investigation of Stability Using Integration of Center-Pole
Elastic Line Equation 73
Chapter 3. Principles of Designing PN Truss-Type Member for Minimum Weight 83
3.1. General Information 83
3.2. Calculation of Two-Panel Truss-'n~pe Member for Minimum Weight 84
Chapter 4. Design of Truss-Type Radio Masts 87
4.1. General Information 87
4.2. Initial Data for Design 94
4.3. Calculation and Design of Individual Truss-T~pe Radio Mast
Components 95
4.4. Design of Truss-Type Radio Masts 112
4.5. Designing Truss-Type Radio Mast Suspension 125
Chapter 5. Construction of Truss-1~pe Radio Masts 131
5.1. General Information 131
5.2. Problems of Organizing Construction 133 ~
5.3. Suspension of Truss-Type Radio Masts 152
- 5.4. Safety Practice Requirements During Construction .159
Chapter 6. Operation of Truss-Type Radio Masts 160
Conclusion 165
References 172
COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 1981
6900
CSO: 1860/300
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~
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~
; ;
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~
t
3
i
~
~
~
UDC 621.382
~
s USE OF METAL-SEMICONDUCTaR CONTACT IN ELECTRONICS .
~ Moscow PRIMENENIYE KONTAKTA METALL-POLUPRpVODNIK V ELEKTRONIItE in Russian 1981
- (signed to press 24 Oct 80) pp 2, 302-30G
[Annotation and table of contents from book "Use of Metal-Semiconductor Junction
in Electronics", by Kamil' Akhmetovich Valiyev, Yuriy Ivanovich Pashintsev and
Garri Vasil'yevich Petrov, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz"', 8,000 copies, 304 pages]
[Text] Annotation ~
The rectifying contac~ metal-semiconductor called a Schottky diode or barrier,
is examined. The use of Schottky diodes and field-effect transistors with a
Schottky gate in various electronic devices is examined.
The book is intended for specialists involved in developing integrated circuits
using devices with Schottky barriers. It may also be useful for teachers,
graduate students and students in senior courses at corresponding higher
institutes of learning.
Table of Contents
i Foreword � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � r � � � � 3
~ Chapter 1. Metal-semiconductor contact with Schottky barrier. 5
General Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
_ 1.1. Volt-ampere characteristics of inetal-semiconductor contact 5
1.2. Equivalent circuits of Schottky diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3. Surface states of inetal-semiconductor contact. . . . . . . . . . 19
1.4. Noise in Schottky diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5. Structures of Schottky diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Chapter 2. Minority carriexs in Schottky diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.1. Characteristics of Schottk~ diodes in stationary mode. 33
2.2. Transient processes in Schottky diodes disregarding dynamics of
boundary of space charge region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.3. Transient processes in Schottky diodes consideri:~g dynamics of
boundary of space-charge region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.4. Influence of minority carriers on frequency response of Schottky
diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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Chapter 3. Metal-semiconductor contact with Schottky barrier in discrete
devices and IS [integrated circuit] elements . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1. Bipolar transistors with Schottky collector. . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.2. Semiconductor devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ , . . . ~ ~ ~ . y5
. 3.3. Microstrip lines . . . . . . . . , , . , ~ , . . . , ~ , ~ ~ . , 79
3.4. Determination of parameter8 of semiconductors and semiconductor
- deViCeS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8~
3.5. Determination of faults. . . . . . . . . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ . 84
Chapter 4. Sybrid integrated circuits of diode mixers in microwave range. . 84
4.1. Standard hybrid integrated circuit (GIS) of diode mixers and
their characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.2. Analysis of operation of Schottky diode in nonlinear mode in
microwave range. . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . . . ~ , . . ~ . . . . . . 88
4.3. Design of diode-local oscillator matching circuits 92
4.4. Methods of analyzing diode mixer parameters.~. 96
4.5. Balanced and dual-balanced mixer GIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.6. GIS for mixers in whi~h image frequency signal is suppressed 105
Chapter 5. Field-effect transistors with Schottky gate. . . . . . . . . . 111 .
5.1. Operating principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
- 5.2. Static characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
- 5.3. Equivalent circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . 119
5.4. Optimization of material parameters and topological dimensioi~s . 125
5.5. Amplifying properties of PTSh [Schottky FET] . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.6. 3mpulse response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.7. Noise characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.8. Effect of inemory in PTSh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.9. Type of field-effect transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Chapter 6. GIS for amplifiers, oscillators and mixers using field-effect
_ transistors with Schottky gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.1. Amplifiers using field-effect transistors with Schottky gate 141
6.2. Oscillators using field-effect transistors with Schottky gate. . 165
- 6.3. Mixers using field-effect transistors with Schottky gate 169
Chapter 7. Integrated pulses and logic devices using elements with
Schottky control electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1
_ 7.1. Integrated pulsed and logic devices using space-charge effect
with Schottky control electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1
7.2. Subnanosecond-band integrated circuit using field-effect
- transistors with Schottky gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
7.3. Operating features af field-effect transistors with Schottky
gate in pulsed devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
. 7.4. High-efficiency subnanosecond-ban~3 large integrated circuit
using field-effect transistors with Schattky gate. 192
8B
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Chapter 8. Injection transit-time diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
8.1. Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
8.2. Operating principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.3. Static characteristics. . . . . . � � � � � . . � . . . . . . . . 203
g.4. Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . � � � 207
8.5. Injection transit-time diode noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.6. Comparison of M-n-p and p-n-p IPD [injection transit-time diode]. 214
8.7. Structures of IPD based on GaAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Chapter 9. Models of devices with metal-semiconductor contact based on .
numerical solution of transfer equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
9.1. Principles of constructing numerical models . . . . . . . . . . . 215
9.2. ~ao-dimensional model of field-effect transistor with Schottky
gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Chapter 10. Radiat'__on resistance of semiconductor elements with Schottky
barrier and devices using these elements [1-15]. . . . . . . . . 231
10.1. Effect of radiation on characteristics of Schottky diodes. 231
10.2. Effect of radiation on characteristics of injection transit-
time diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
10.3. Comparison of microwave-range semiconductor devices with
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
respect to radiation stability 248
Chapter 11. Technology of fzbricating semiconductor devices with Schottky
' barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
11.1. Technology of fabricating field-effect transistors with
Schottky gate. . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
11.2. Technology of fabricating in~ection transit-time diodes. 271
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . 274
~ _
SL1bJ2Ct Index � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � . � � � � ~ � � � � � � � � � �
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- . 6900
CSO: 1860/286
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UDC 669:621.315.592:5'+-16
WELDING AND SOLDERING PROCESSES IN PRODUCTION OF SII~CONDUCTOR DEVICES
Moscow PROTSESSY SVARKI I PAYKI V PROIZVODSTVE POLUPROVODNIKOVYKii PRIBOROV
in Russian 1981 (signed to press 4 Dec 80) pp 2-5, 222-223
[Annotation, foreword (excerpts) and table of contents from book "Welding and
Soldering Processes in Production of Semiconductor Devices", by Adam
Ignat'yevich Mazur, Valentin Pavlovich Alekhin and Minas Khachaturovich
Shorshorov, Izdatel'stvo "Radio i svyaz 10,000 copies, 224 pages]
[Excerpts] Annotation ~
The mechanism and kinetics of solid-phase interaction between different metals
and between metals and semiconductors are examined, as are processes of welding
and soldering in various technical installation operations in the production
of semiconductor devices. The basic regularities of contact microplastic defor-
mation of the subsurface layers of semiconductor and metal materials are given,
and methods are shown for localizing, intensifying and controlling deformation
with application to optimizing technological processes of solid-phase joining of
materials in electronic practice.
The book is intended for engineering-technical and scientific workers involved
in developing and producing semiconductor devices, It may also be useful for
students and teachers of technical higher institutes of learning.
129 figures, 22 tabies, 290 bibliographic references.
Foreword
The increasing rates at which semiconductor devices are being produced require
that the wiring process be automated. The labor involved in wiring operations
(creating internal interconnections by means of welding, soldering, etc.) is on
the average between 50 and 60 percent of all of the labor involved in fabricating
various types of devices. Furthermore, failures associated with wiring operations
comprise up to 70 percent of all instrument malfunctions. Reducing the level
of connection failures and guaranteeing their quality would make it possible to
increase the cutput of good devices sharply and to eliminate a number of labor-
intensive test and monitoring operations, which would reduce the overall labor
intensity of fabr~.cating devices and would create the objective prerequisites for
automating assembl.y.operations.
90
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_ The creation of scientific foundations for solid-phase welding of different
materials, and the development and introduction in the electronic industry of new
methods for obtaining connections with stable quality and methods of controlling
and speeding up existing processes have allowed these to be used to the fullesC
extent in producing new technical articles. The present book is devoted to
examining these matters.
The first section considers the physical foundations of the processes by which
_ unbreakable connections are formed in ~he production of semiconductor devices.
Although the literature contains works devoted to this question, it has becane
necassary to systematize and analyze critically the experimental results in this
area because principally new results have recently been obtained which allow the
mechanism and kinetics of solid-phase interaction to be examined more fully,
particularly the physical essence of the activation stage in the formation of
a connection.
The treatment of the activation stage of interaction presented in Chapter 1 is
based on conceptions of the thermoactivated nature of the process in a field of
applied voltages. The approach does not require the obligatory presence of active
centers in the form of dislocations on the contact surface of the harder of the
materials to be joined, and allows a broader and physically better founded ex-
position of the fundamental criteria and principles for selecting optimal welding-
mode parameters in order to obtain a uniformly strong connection and to provide
minimum distortion of the initial physical and mechani~al properties of the
materials. Considerations of the role of the temperature-time factor and of point
defects in the mechanism and kinetics of solid-phase interaction develop the con-
ceptions of this matter which were developed earlier by M. Kh. Shorshorv and
Yu. L. Krasulin.
Existing conceptions about the kinetics of the formation of connections are
developed in Chapters 2 and 3 from analogous positions. In analyzing the kinetics
of the interaction of a traditional metal-semiconductor pair, the main accent in
Chapter 2 is on studying the basic regularities of the body interaction stage of
the materials, which has undeservedly been neglected even though it is actually
impossible to obtain a solid connection without this stage. Chapter 3 examines
the structural and kinetic regularities of contact microplastic deformation and
the formation of connections as applied to a metal-metal system, which also have
_ not yet been studied sufficiently.
Matters which are new in principle and have practically not been touched upon
in the welding literature are presented in Chapters 2 and 4. These are devoted
to investigating the basic physical regularities of plastic deformation and
destruction of subsurface layers of semiconducting and metallic materials, and
to developing methods for localizing, intensifying and controlling the process
of contact microplastic deformation in order to optimize technological processes
of solid-phase connection of materials. Optimization takes into consideration
~ the requirement for realizing two contradictory trends.
~ 91
i ~
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On the one hand, in order to realize successfully all three stages of solid-phase
interaction and to form a solid connection, the kinetics of microplastic deformation
near the free surface of the solid body must be intensified as much as possible.
On the other hand, in order to reduce the depth and degree of damage of thin
subsurface layers by structural defects and internal residual stresses, which
have a significant effect on the electrophysical properties of semiconductor
devices, the microplastic deformation in them must be localized and limited as
much as possible. Chapter 4 presents practical recommendations for optimal modes
of solid-state connection of materials, and criteria for their selection. Active
methods are developed for monitoring the quality of connections directly in the
process of obtaining ohmic contacts by a number of kinetic parameters of the
process, and for programming the application of external load and carrying out
the welding process according to a special assigned cycle in order to step up the
setting kinetics.
High reliability of semiconductor devices is determined to a significant extent
_ by the sophistication of the technology used in different stages of creating
the device, as well as by the quality of the initial materials. In this connection,
the second section of the book is devoted to examining specific technological
processes and equipment for welding and soldering in the fabrication of semicon-
ductor instruments.
Table of Contents
Foreword 3
Section 1. Physical Foundations of Processes by Which Permanent Connections
are Formed in Semiconductor Device Production
Chapter 1. Mechanism and Kinetics o~ Formation of Solid-Phase Connection 6
1.1. Development of Conceptions of Interaction Between Materials
in Solid-Phase 6
1.2. Three Stages in Process of Formation of Solid-Phase Connection 9
1.3. Influence of Temperature, Interaction Time and Stresses on
Kinetics of Formation of Solid Welded Connection 15
Chapter 2. Metal-Semiconductor Interaction in Solid-Phase Connection
Processes 32
2.1. Regularities of Microplastic Deformation of Subsurface Layers
- of Metallic and Semiconductor Crystals 32
2.2. 1`ypes of Permanent Connections in Constructions of Semiconductor
Devices and Basic Methods of Obtaining Them .........9............ 35
2.3. Basic Regularities of Solid-Phase Metal-Semiconductor
Interaction
Chapter 3. Interaction of Metals in Making Permanent Connections 58
3.1. Regularities of Contact Plastic Deformation at Interfact of
Unlike Metals Being Joined 58
3.2. Features of Rinetics of Formation of Permanent Connections of
Unlike in Solid Phase 67
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Chapter 4. Development of Methods for Localizing, Intensifying and
Controlling Contact Microplastic Deformation During Solid-
Phase Welding 72
4.1. Regularities of Contact Microplastic Deformation With Liquid-
and-Solid-Phase Technology of Obtaining Otunic Contacts 72
4.2. Principles of Selecting Optimal Welding-Mode Parameters 78
- 4.3. Programmed Application of External Load as Method for a
Stepping Up Setting and Limiting Deformation of Welded
Materials in Contact Gone ~2
4.4. Selection of Optimal Criteria for Tracking and Controlling 97
Kineti~s of Process of Forming Welded Connection
Section II. Technology and Equipment for Welding and Soldering Sem3conductor
Devices 102
Chapter 5. Fastening Crystals to Chassis
, 102
5.1. Characterization of the Process
5,2. Connection of Lower-Power Transistor Crystals a~nd Integrated
Circuits 106
Mounting Devices in Chassis 113
Chapter 6.
113
6.1. Mounting Methods 120
6.2. Thermal Compression Welding Installation Technology
, 124
6.3. Ultrasonic Welding Installation Technology 142
6.4. Features of Sealing Semiconductor Devices
Chapter 7. Quality Control and Controlling Process of Formation of
Permanent Connections of Semiconductor Devices 145
7.1. Types of Malfunctions of Connections and Finished Devices 145
150
7.2. Methods for Finding Causes of Malfunc tions 156
7.3. Selecting Control Parameters
7.4. Structure for System for Controlling Signal Using Computer
160
and ASU [Automatic Control System] Software
Chapter 8. Technological Equipment for Welding and S~ldering Semiconductor
� 164
Devices
8.1. Functional Diagrams of Technological Assembly Equipment and
Principles of Planning Basic Units 164
171
8.2, Equipment for Fastening Crystals to Chassis 175
~ 8.3. Equipment for Installing Devices in Chassis
Appendix 1. Mathematical Formulation of Problem of Stabilizing Signal
Shape 200
- Ap~endix 2. Approximating f(t, P) Based on Methods of Ma.thematical 2~2
Statistics
Bibliography 204
220
Subject Index
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