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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10021 29 September 1 ~81 U SS R Re ort p POLITiCAI AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUC~ 25/81) Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATi~~~ SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editnr:al reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Proce ssing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate h ow the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extrac ted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonet ically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Wor3s or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetica 1 notes within the body of an _ item originate with the source. Times within 3.tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of th e U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI,ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HERE IN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RE STRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 ` FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS Z/10021 29 September 1981 USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS ~ (FOUO 25/81) CONTENTS REGIONAL AzSSR Academy of Sciences Scientific Research Development (VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR, May 81) 1 Shevaxdnadze Struggle With Negative Elements (Eduard Amvros'yevich Shevardnadze; VOPROSY FILOSOFII, Jun 81) 11 - a- LIII - USSR - 35 FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL AzSSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES SCIENTIFI~ RESEARCH DEYELOPMENT = Mosco~r VESTNIK AKADF~NIiI NAUK SSSR in Russian No 5~ May 81 pp 3-il ~Article: "Basic Trends and Prospects for Development of Scientific Research by the AzSSR Academy of Sciences'J ~TextJ. The Az.SSR~Academy of aciences is th9 country's major scientific center. Guided by the documents and decisions of the CPSU Con~res$es concerning the devel- opment of Soviet science~ technology~ and culture, and by the directives and reco- mendations of the republic's executive organs~ they have carried out a great deal of work on further developing basic researeh~ increasing the effectiveness and qua- lity of scientiflc studies, strengthening and improving the ties between science ' and production. The taasic i:rends and prospects for the development of scientific research by this republic's academy were discussed at one of the sessions of the ~ Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. - Delivering the report at this session of the Presidiwn was the president of the ~1zSSR Academy~ corresponding member of the U5SR Academy ~f Sciences, G. B. Abdul- layev. . The rapporteur dwelt on the successes achieved. by the AzSSR in the developnent of economics and science. Functioning at present in Azerbaijan are more than 100 sci- entific research institutesi more than 22~000 scientific workers~.axe employed here, including approximately 1,000 doctors of science and 8,000 candidates of science. _ This republic's VUZ's have an enrolLnent of .more than 100,000 students. Created in January 194~.5, the AzSSR Academy of Sciences includes 30 scientific in- stitutions; amon~ them are 25 institutes as well as a network of design bureaus and experimental plants. Working in the Academy's institutions are more than 12,000 persons, including 270 doctors of science and more than 1,800 candidates of science. About 600 graduate students are enrolled. in graduate work at the academy; 11r,p graduate student interns of the aca.demy are undergoing training at scien- tific institutions in Mosco~, Leningrad, Kiev~ and other scientific centers. The annual budget of the AzSSR comprises approximately 40.6 million rubles, including 20 million for pro jects in accord.ance with economic agreeqnents. The principal problems confronting the Academy have derived from the tasks as~ signed by the 25th C1'~U Congress and the 29th Congress of the Communist Party of Azerba;jan. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 ' FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY Of the 550 topics which were being worked on in 1979~ 377 Were of Al1-Union im- - portance. They were very carefully examined in the USSR Academy of Sciences and were appraved by the USSR 5tate Committee for Science and Technology. During the last few years the Aca,demy's institutions have carried out important basic and ap- plied research studies in the fields of astronomy, mechanics~ electronics, and other physical and mathematical sciences, geological-geographical and biological research, along with important projects in the areas of the agricultural sciences, social sciences, economics, and culture. Also being developed axe such new scien- = tific trends as the neurophysiology of the brain, molecular genetics~ and molecu- - lax biology. Broad prospects are opening up for the development of chemical re- search and the study of natural resources. Basic research is being conducted in the sphere of the social sciences~ linked with the radical changes in all spheres of Azerbaijan's life. Speaking at the ceremonial session~ devoted to awarding the Order of Lenin to Ba- ku~ the general secretary of the CPSU CC and chairman ~f the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet~ Comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted the following: " Azerbaijan is not only a region of oil derr~cks. A1so developed here are machine building, chemical~ electri.:al-engineering~ electronics~ and radio-engineering industries, along ~~ith non-ferrous metallurgy and other sectors." This has become possible, - to a considerable extent~ thanks to the achievements of science in the republic. During the past 10 years many developments by the AzSSR Academy of Sciences have been introduced into the national economy. The over-all economic effect from such - introductions has exceeded 510 million rubles. During this same period the Acade- my's scientists acquire~ 1.100 authorship certificates for inventions; moreover~ on 57 of them 200 patents have been obtained in 34 of the world's countries. - Three licenses have been sold (in the United Sta.tes~ Italy~ and Bulgaria). An in- crease in the effectiveness of NIR ~scient~fic research workJ and OKR ~experimen- ta1 design work,J has been facilitated by the creation of new scientific and produc- tion associations Frithin the body of the Academy of Sciences. The annual ~rolume uf operations has reached 15 mi~lion rubles. The Aca.demy is the leading a.nd coordinating organization in the country with re- spect to reseaxch on selenium and tellurium and instrwnents based. on them, as well as with respect to magnetic semiconductors~ developing medical therme -electric ~pparatus~ and synthetic naphthenic acids. Institutions of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences actively participate in internation- a1 scientic cooperation among the socialist countries. Joint projects are being carried out on 14 topics. It is coordinating the sub-satellite range studies which are being con~ucted in the socialist countries on the problem of studying the Earth from outer space. ~ G. B. Abdullayev further enumerated certain very important reseaxch trends be~ng carried out at the Academy. One such trend is the physics and technology of crys- tals. Obtaining semiconductors~ st~dying theix properties~ utilizing and creating new transducers has attracted the attention of a laxge group of the republic's ~ physicists and chemists. A great deal of attention is being c3evoted to the study of selenium--the only polymeric semiconductor in the Mendeleyev Table which plays an important role in the vital activities of plant and animal organisms. In con- junction with their colleagues from the Institute of Biology of the USSR Academy 2 FO1R OFFICIAL i VLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 NOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y of Sciences~ Azerbaijan's biologists have succeeded in establishing the selective inhibitory effect of selenium on the activity of RNK ~ribonucleic acidJ-polymerase- 1 in isol4ted nuclei. 1 The basic research studies which have been conducted have a11oY~ed us to work out a technology for obtainin~ ne:� layered~ including anisotropic, semiconductors, based on selenium and tellurium, by means of a xell-taxgeted synthesis of crystals and their groups with the prescribed properties and to create a series of new transducers. At present they have succeeded in obtaining monocrystals with rigorously parallel natu- ral surfaces. These monocrystals 3urnish an interesting object for studying the tu- - nneling of current carriers and for the creation of new transducers. We have dis- ~overed previously unobserved effects, which have a~lorred us to create and put into industrial production ne~: decoders~ modulators of laser radiation~ memor~r elements, receivers and sources of coherent radiation~ as well as micro-coolers for receivers of ir~fra-red re:~iiation. Projects axe being activel.y carried out in the field of inetallurgy. Ne~r types of economic steel alloys are being created and put i;~~o production. A new method has been developed for ~otaining iron powder at temperatures below 1000� C. Such rela- tively low temperatures allow us to avoid adherence and~ thanks to the convection of natural gas~ we can obtain a good quality of powders. This method is utilized for the manufacture of parts for refrigerators and air conditi~ners. The Academy's chemists are ~,~orking on the creation of the scientific foundations of the comprehensive refining of petroleum and rarr materials, on creating effective ca- talysts for the processes of oil refining and petrochemistry~ and for obtaining the products of "small-scale" che~istry. The Academy's organic metallurgists have F~orked aut a method for imposing on the surfaces of ine~als and ceramics coatings made of si.ich refractory metals as tungsten~ by means of the thennal disintegration of these metals' organic compounds. By using low-temperature, electro-chemical me- thods, they have succpeded in setting up production, under ordinary conditi:ons, of pure arsenic, tellurium~ selenium, rhenium, and their compounds. Of great importance for oil extractiori and refining and environmental protection is the cr,emical reagent "Azerbaijan-4," which was created at the Academy; it is de~-' _ signed to pur~fy h~ater from oil and to soften it. In a concentration of 25 g~m3 this reagent allows us to reduce the ail content in polluted water from 100 to 3 g per liter. The reagent is pumped into an oil stratum in order to increase the oil yield and to avert pollution of the environment by ai'l., Another modification of the reagent~allows us to reduce water hardness from 5.5 g of ~ salts per liter to 1 mg per liter. The technology has been developed and introduced for utilizing the reagent in purifying drill-tiell water and seawater. In particu- lar~ we have succeeded in oil refineries in creating a circulating water supply and in bringing seawater up to conditions good enough to be used in thern?al eleci:ric power stations. Research has been expanded, directed at utilizing new types of energy~ including studies in the use of hydrogen energy engineering~ utilizing solar energy~ and wind power. Already at pre"sent in the ~aspian Sea units are in operation~ converting solar and wind energy into electric power. By m~ans of utilizing sol~,r energy we have succeeded, in narticular, in preventing corrosion on marine stY-uctures. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 FOR OFF[CIAL t1SE ON[,Y One of the traditional trends of basic research at the republic's Academy of Sci- ~ ences is the study of the geological structure of ~the Earth's crust~ the role of depth processes in the f~rmation and distribu~ion of minerals. The geologists have provided a new~ scientifically grounded forecast estimate of the oil and gas re- _ sources on the republic's territory, and they discavered. the zones with the great- est accumulation of hydrocaxbons. Large-scale, geomorphological and ~andform maps of Azerbaijan have been compiled, as rrell as maps of the qua.ternary dpposits and the dissemination of radioactive elements in the ploughed layer of the soils. 'rlith regard to the Biological Sciences Department the principal future trend is re- search on the la?�rs of formation and deve].opment of Azerbaijan's flora, the appear- ance of valuable plants and their introduction into cultivation, the study of the - problems of the physiology~ biochemistry, biophysics, and genetics of plants as the theoretical basis of agriculiure~ working out the theoretical fundamentals of the heredity and mutability of plants and animal organisms. The Academy's scientists have evolVed new ancl productive species of plants~ hard and soft ~rheats, cotton plants~ and mulberry trees. A new~ high-yield soft wheat has been created ar.d aciopted to grow within this republic. A new, fat- - and-milk-pro~xucing breed of Caucasian buffalo has been created and introduced fox livestock raising. The biochemistry of Kzerbaijan's flora is under active study. In particular, there has been a successful introduction into ophthalmological practice of the use of saf- - fron for improving the activity of the organs of vision in cases of the disea~e of . dystrophy. The technology has been vrorked out for obtaining a number of biologically _ activemedicinal compounds derived from the ~~raste products from pr~cessing meat and fish, and their production has been set up. This is all the more important inasmuch as certain compour.ds up to now have been successfully obtained only from Caspian sturgeon--the fish in other regions evidently has other biochemical characteristics. - The Academy's social scientists are conducting saork along three principal lines: ~~orking out general theoretical and methodological problems of social sciences, as well as the urgent problems of building communism; Azerbaijanian and Caucasian stu- dies as a~rhole; and the study of the history~ culture~ and economy of the countries and peoples of the Near and Middle East. . G. B. Abdullayev further~ informed ttie session that, with the aid of tkie USSR Aca.demy of Sciences~ construction has begun on a sclentific-research vessel with a displace- ment of 1,130 tons. And he emphasized the need to speed up work on solving fuel- ~nd-energy problems~ on utilizing the latest methods of discovering, extracting~ and refining oil and gas from deep deposits, on making use of the energy of the Sun and the wind, on developing hydrogen-energy engineering. ~ lielivering a co-report was a vlce-president of the USSR Academy o~' Science~, Academi- cian Yu. A. Ovchinnikov, who headed up a commission of scientists, acquainting them- selves with the work of,the AzSSR ticademy of Sciences. ~ After mentioning the successes achieved in the development of Azerbaijan's economy, Yu. A. Ovchir.nikav noted that the development of science in this republic corresponds to the high growth rate of its economy. Azerbaijan's scientists occupy good posi- tions in many fields of phy~ics, especially solid-�sta~e phystcs; chemistry is ~ ~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE QN9.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY traditionally strong here~ particulaxly petrochemistry; renowned far beyond the bor- ders of Azerbaijan are the works of Azerbaijanian biologists connected with the ~.e- velopment of inedicine and agriculture; the achievements of scientists working in the field ~f Earth sciences are considerable. The rapporteur also noted the broad com- plex of projects being conducted in the area of the social sciences. The AzSSR Aca- demy of 5ciences, Yu. A. Ovchinnikov continued, is a scientific center compaxable in scale w3.~th the Fdr Eastern or Urals Centers of the US5R Academy of Sciences. It is . natural that it should be called upon to make a very serious contribution to scien- tific and technical progress. ~ One of the most important characteristics of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences is the presence of numerous design bureaus and experimental centers within its institutes= ~ this allows a sharp acceleration in introducing scientific achievements into prac- tice. A particular strong experimental-design center exists in institutes engaged in the study of chemistry and chemical technology; great possibilities for creating _ such a center also exist and are already being.utilized in the field of physics. Si- milax institutions are being cr~eated and have already begun to operate successfully ~ at biological institutes. ~ - ~ - This aspect of the AzSSR Academy of 5ciences' work is paxticularly important at pre- sent inasmuch as the small-series production of equipment and the low-tonnage output ~f various chemical cempounds has taken on special significance these days. In par- ticular, the Commission recommended that the AzSSR Acad.emy of Sciences concentrate special at+.ention on the output of items of the so-called small-scale chemistry-- ~ prociucts of lor,-tonnage chemical production. Tnese principally comprise substancss such as additives, stabilizers~ inhibitors~ compounds for agriculture~ pesticides, , biologically and physiologically active substances for medicine. There exists a ge- nuine possibility for creating in Azerbaijan an important center for producing such products for the entire Soviet Union. Subsequently Yu. A. Ovchinnikov drrelt on the shortcomings in the work of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences~ noting, first of a11, the prevalence of petty topics~ the lack of coordination bet~reen the operaticnal profile of certain sub-divisions to the pro- file of the institutF~s which include these sub-divisions, as well as the low number of ~ndividual laboratories~ in~luding those working on extremely important problems. There should be a strengthening of the ties between Azerbaijan's scieitific institu- tions with.the institutes of the USSR ~cademy of Sciences; in the new trends of re- search it would be feas~ble to train laxge groups of young scientists simultaneously in the country's leading scientific centers. A top-priority task is strengihening the Academy's links with the republic's VUZ's--these links determine the possibili- ties for the progress of science and its future. Then Yu. A. Ovchinnikov informed the session about the achievem~nts of the~AzSSR Aca- _ demy of Sciences in developing specific fields of science. The reoublic's scientists have had censiderable successes in developing the complex of biological sciences. One of the country's foremost centers in the field of soil science and agrochemistry has been formed herei important res�.l+.s have been attained in the asea of plant and animal genetics, particulaxly in solving the problems of remote hybridization~ in physiology and 3r. certain other branches of biolagy. Yu.-A. Ovchinnikov emphasized, however, that new trends in biology must be intensively de- veloped. There are possibilf.ties far this. In particular~ importa::~ projects are 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400054071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY being conducted in the 'r4~lecular Biology Department of the Institute of Physics, It is high time that we should convert this department into an independent insti- . tute of physical-chemical biology, rrhich could become an important center f~r de- = vel~ping new trends in biology. Yu. A; Ovchinnikov not~d the work of the Design Bureau of Biological Machine Building, which functions ~:ithin this department~ whe~e models have been created of quite simple-to-produce instz~uments which are fully ca- pable of replacing analogous instruments being imported from abroad.. In Yu. A. ~v- chinnikov's opinion, it would be feasible to request the A~zS~R Academy of Sciences to expand their work in the field of biological machine bui~..ding and to speciallze in the output of certain types of equipment~ bringing them up to the level of world standards, in order to guarantee that scientific institutions throughout our ent,ire country be supplied with this equipment~ and, perhaps, even to begin exporting it. Under Azerbaijan's conditions great importance has been assumed by the development of a complex of social sciences, most of all, the study of the history and culture of the peoples of the Middle East~ as well as the socioeconomic pro~esses taking place in this region. It is also necessary to expand economic resear~h, u~ing u~- to-date techniques and ta strengthen the printing centers of institutions engaged in - studying the social sciences. In conclusion, the rapporteur gave high marks to the work of the AzSSR Aca,clemy of Sciences and noted that it has genuine possibilities for gaining a tru~,y leading po- sjtion in many important branches of scientific development. H number of questions !~ere then put to the rapporteurs. ~ In ariswering a question from the presidettt of the USSR Aca.demy of Sciences~ Academi- cian A. P. Aleksandrov concerning the scope of the introduction of ~,pplied projects into production, Yu. A. Ovchinnikov noted that at the AzSSR AGademy of Sciences more scientific results are being introduced than at most of the other xepublic-level academies. According to this indicator, the AzSSR does not fa11 beh3.nd the Acade- mies of 5ciences of the Ukrainian SSR or the Belorussian SSR--~d ir.his is a high le- vel o~' introduction. Hor:ever, we have not managed to obtain, da~a on tMe economic effect rrith regard to many things i+hich have been introduced~ sinCe suf'f~ciently se- rious economic analyses and appraisals have not been con~ucted in the A~SSR ticademy of Sciences. In answer to a question by A. P. Aleksandrov concerning the development and use of substances to increase the extraction of oil from strata~ G. B. Abdullayev infoxmed - the sessfon that intensive work was being conducted within the AzSSR on creating ac- tive reagents, based on surface-active substances obtained from the waste products ' of oil refining and other chemical production facilities. By utilizing these re- agents under laboratory conditions, we have succesded in raising oil ou~put by 20 percent. A decision has been adopted to utilize these substances under industrial . conditions. A. F. Aleksandrov remarked on the importance of this work both for the xepublic and for the country as a whole, and he recommendc~d. that these substances be~ txied out both at the deposit sites and in other r~gions of the country. Academician M. A. St.yrikovich stressed t!-.e importance of the projects of the Baku school of hydrodynamics on exploiting camplex deposits of oil and gas condensate in 6 FOR OFF'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ a natural system, i. e., in a system with reduced gressure. At the AzSSR AcadeII:y ~ of Sciences progxams and calcuZations have been drawn up for developing complex de- posits in Western Siberia, r+hich at present cannot be developed by traditional methods. Academician A. A. Bayev posed a question concerning the prospects for converting the Department of Molecular Biology of the Institute of Physics of the Az5SR Academy of 5ciences into an independent institute. G. B. Abdullayev infonned the session tttat - during the last fet~ years tha material and staff potential of the department had be- - come significantly stronger, and the rresidium of the Az55R intended to submit a pe- tition to organize an independent institute~ based on ~his department. Academ3cian N. M. Zhavoronkov expressed an interest in the quality of oil additives which have been developed in the academy's institutes. G. B. Abc~ullayev infn~ed the session that the additives being produced on the ba.sis of the ~cademy's devel- opment axe enjoying great demand. The effectiveness of their utilization has grown considerablyr during the last few years in connection with improvement in the puri- fication of the oils~ inasmuch as the capability of these latter to accept additives depends on the purity of the oils. In opening up the discussion of the reports, Academician-Secretary of the General Biology Depaxtment of the USSR Academy of Sciences~ Aca.demician M. S. Gilyarov na- ted the great achievements of the AzSSR Acadea?y of Sciences in working out problems of soil science. Research which is new in principle is being conducted there. In particulax~ corresponding member of the USSR Academy of 5ciences V. R. Volobuyev has developed a system of evaluating the mathemat~c�..~ ~haracteristics of the inter- related factors of soil formation. Especially interesting are recent studies on the energy engineering of soils; these a11ow us 'o characterize the various types of Azerbaijan's soils with the utilization of pr~cise methods. These results axe being widely used in the national economy. Research is being conducted on a rela- tively high level in the classic fields of biology; however, it is feasible to ex- - pand these studies,.particularly in the field of zoology, and, above all, that of entomology. The work in mycology which is being conductect in this republic is ~xtremely impor- tanti it is being headed up by Academician of the AzSSR V. I. U1'yanishchev, who has been awarded.the Len1n Prize for these.projects. ':here has been very good organization of projects for the study of plant cover; these studies, ho~jever~ could be considerably more prociuctivP if the institutes conducting them were better equipped. As regards the training of large groups of speciallsts from Azerbaijan at the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences~ at the present time~ h1. S. Gilyarov emphasized that do not have the right conditions~ nor~ above all, the places, fcr such a program. Academician-5ecretary of the Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics~ and the Che- mistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Academician A. A. Bayev~ joined in the high marks which M. S. Gi'lyarov had given te the research on soil science and agro- chemistry which is being conducted in Azerbaijan. The waakness af biological re~ search in the AzSSR Academy of Sciences is the lack Kithin the sy~tem of biologi- ea1 institutions of institutes of a physi~cal-ehemical type. at the Institute of Physics, however~ there is an operational se~tor of molecular biology in which a successfully operating group has already �aken shape and i.~portaY,+ resul+,s obtained~ in particular, models of instruments h1v~ b~~en creat.ed. 7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY A. A. Bayev remarked further on the work of the microbiology section, which is studying primarily the micro-organisms which axe destroying petroleum and petro- leum products. These projects are important both for environmental protection~ for the s~ruggle against its pollution by petroleum and petroleum product~,~ as x~esl as to avert the spoilage of the petroleum pro3ucts themselves. Furthermc+r~e, A. A. � Bayev emphasized the importance for present-day biology of the projects bcing ~con- ducted in the AzSSR in the field of "small-scale" chemistxy, the creation and ~ro- duction of small-series equipment. Academician-Secretary of Physical Chemistry and thP Technology of Non-Organic Ma- terials, Academician N. M. Zhawronkov noted the general high level of the wark~ of the chemical-type institutes of the AzSSR~ including projects with regaa~c~ i~ti th,~e theoretical problems of chemical technology as well as the creation and outgut of add~.tives ~:o lubricating materials. Trese projects must be continued ar~d de.vel~oped because, despite the successes which have been achieved, in our country, du~ to the shortage of additives and their insufficiently high quality~ ~he eacpenditur~e of lubricating oils in internal-combustion engines is still too gxea~. T~ae improve- ment of additives and organizing their production is one of the principa7. tasks con- fronting Azerbaijan's chemists. Academician-Secretary of the General Physics and Astronomy Department, Acad,emician A. M. Prokhorov, aticarded high marks to the condition of physics reseaxch in the Az- SSR~ above all, in the field of semiconductor physics and solid-state physics. He - remarked on the good connections which exist between this department's institutes and the institutions of the AzSSR, and he expressed the de~ire that t3~ese links be developed even further. In the name of Academ~.cian R. Z. Sagde,yev~ Frho could not take Part in the session, A. M. Prokhorov expressed a~reat deal of satisfaction with the cooperation with the institutions of the AzSSR Acac~emy of Sciences rrith J regard. to the creation a.nd operation of the automated infornnation center with its s~,tellite link. Academician-Secretary of the Department of General and Technical Chemistry, Acade- mician N. M. E~??anuel'~ proposed to support the initiative of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences in creating scientific-production associations in the field of "small- scale" chemistry. He noted the insufficient attention being paid by the produc- . tion organizations t~ the chemical methods of increasing the petroleum yield from - a stratum and the feasibility of creating~ on the basis of the AzSSR Academy o~ Sci- ences, a center to engage in the development and coordination of appropriate projects. In concluding tre discussion~ the secretary of the CP of Azerbaijan CC, K. M. Ba- girov, expressed great gratitude and recognition for the attention to the de~relop- ment of Azerbaijanian science on the part of the USSR Academy of Sciences.~ Having mentioned the economic successes achieved by this republic during the lOth Five- Year Plan~ he underscored the important contribution made by science to the devel- opment of Azerbaijan's economy. Thus, from 1971 through 1979 the scientific insti- tutions of this republic's Academy of Sciences introdu~ed into the national econo- ~ my projects with an anticipated economic effe~t exceeding by a factor of 15 the in- dicators for the nreceding 10 years. K. N. Bagirov noted that the C~mmunist Paxty CC and the Azerbaijanian government have exhibited constant attention to the acti- vities of the Hcademy, concerned th~anselves with strengthening the material and technical base of science~ improving th~ co~aprehensive a.dministration of scienti- fic research~ plannic~g-design and experimen~ral-industxial organizations, improving 8 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400050071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the everyday conditions of staff inembers, and, in turn, they expect from the repub- lic's scientists even more strengthening of basic research~ further deepening of ~ the study of the socioeconomic and political aspects of th~ scientifie and techni- cal revolution, increasing the ,ffectiveness and quality of scientific developments, improving the training of high~.y skilled personnel, more extensive introduction of achievements into the national economy, and perfecting the ties between science and - production. ~ In the name of the Communist Paxty of Azerbai jan CC K. rI. Bagirov expressed confi- dence that the discussion of the activities of the AzSSR Academy of 5ciences by the Presidium of the USSR academy of Sciences will facilitate the solution of those re- sponsible tasks which the Communist Party has assigned to Soviet science and, in pasticular, to the AzSSR Academy of Sciences. In conclusion, the president of the U~SR Academy of Sciences, Academician A. P. Aleksandrov noted those serious achievements which have been attained by the AzSSR - Academy of Sciencesin many substantial trends of scientific research; an4 he pro- posed the approval of the basic directions of its activities, as well as wishing . new successes for the AzSSR Academy of Sciences. In its adopted decree the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences notes the suc- cesses of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences in developing many axeas of research. In this republic a major scientific schaol has been created. in the field of functional ana,lysis and its applications~ new, comglex semiconductors have been developed, as xell as semiconductor compounds and their structures; a sub-sattelite information- measuring system has also been cyeated. The technology has been rrorked out ior high-strength, economical steel alloys which do not contain any deficit admix~cares; also developed is the theory and technology of the process of obtaining multi-lay- ered, reinforced shells, and this has allowed us to work out designs for high- strength~ flexible hoses for the oil and ~as industry, as well as the technological principles for the comprehensive processing of alunites and the accompanying petro- - lewn i�:aters~ highly effective reagents for purifying natural, drilling h~aters and the industrial wastes from petroproducts, a highly effective ~.rocess for obtaining - aromatic ~itriles by the oxidizing ammonolysis of hydrocarbons and a catalyst for producing them; all of these are o~' great importance for the national economy. Production has been set up of individual types of especially pure materials wHich are in short supply; a new~ highly productive system has been proposed with a mov- ing stream of a catalyst for the highly exothermic processestof obtaining ethylene oxide, formal.dehyde~ maleic and phthalic anhydrides, and allyl chloride. In the field of Earth sciences an estimate has been conducted of the forecast re- sources of oil and gas, maps have been drawn up of prospective oil-and-gas-bearing areas~ recommendations have been formulated for exploratory drilling~ a new classi- fication scheme has been tiror~Ced out for the productive magmatite formations ,~f the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, and experimental models have been created of the mo- bile information-measuring "Nature" co:nplex for gathering meteo- and geophysical _ data. In the field of the biological sciences research has been conducted on dra~ring, up an inventory of Azerbaijan's flora and plar_t introduction; processes have been de- veloped for obtaining valuable products from plant resources; measures have been recommended for protecting the forests~ incr~asing tk:e capacity of ~~inter pastures, 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY on preserving and reproducing rare and disappearing species of animals~ increasing the biological productivity of the Caspian Sea~ developing fishing~ on the biologi- ~ cal methods of combatting plant pests and animal parasites; important results have - been obtained in studying the organization and regulation of the complex-reflex~ visceral, and somato-sensorial functions of human and animal organisms; a new com- pound has been introduced into production for preventing blood clot~ting--protomin- ' sulphate; the follot�ring neH~ directions of soil science have been developed: soil ecology, the energy engineering of soil fermation; the principles of humus forma- tion and the saline regime of soils have been studied; land-improvement measures have been recommended for combatting their salinization. In the field of the so- cial sciences a cycle of projects have been casried out on the history of Azerbai- jan's F~orking class~ and a number of basic works have been published. - At the sar,ie time, a number of shortcomi.ngs have been noted in the Academy' ~ work; a lack of conformity between the work of the individual institutes and the basic~ trends ~.hich have been approved for them, a multipl3city of topics and a dispersal of staff inembers~ insufficient concentration of forces and funds on solving the most important problems, and insufficient participation in All-Union problems. TherE is excessive slowness in using the results of exploring for Plesozoic petro- leum~ in studying plant resources, and in projects for creating production lines l~ithout waste Froducts. Work ~rith regard to the biological study of the Caspian ; Sea has been too t~eakly developed. There is insuffiently activity in developing i the problems of socioeconomic forecasting and the comprehensive utilization of the , republic's productive forces, too little use has been made of mathematical-economic ~ methods and computer technology; also being developed too slorrly are problems of the republic's history~ problems of the socioeconomi.c development of the countries of the Tiear and Diiddle r~ast~ and the role of ideological currents in the national- liberation struggle. Insufficient use is being made of the possibility of attaching . scientific staff inembers of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences to the scientific insti- tutions of the U55R Academy of Sciences in order to increase their skills. The Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has decreed the follo~:ing: to approve the scientific and scientific-organizational activities of the AzSSR Aca- demy of Sciences, d.irected at developing the republic's science, economy, and culture; to approve the principal trends of scientific research at the institutions of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences; to recommend to the Presidium of the AzSSR Academy of Sciences that it bring the structure of individual scientific institutions and sub-divisions in line with their basic directions of scientific research~ to activate the work of the repub- _ lic-level Council on Coordinating Scientific Reseaxch in the fields of the natural and social sciences~ and to adopt measures to improve the training of highly skilled. scientific staff inembers, particularly with regaxd to specialties which axe in short supply, at the leading institutes of the USSR. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka"~ "Vest.nik Akademii nauk SSSR"~ 1981 238~ cso: 1800/619 lo - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 f'OR O[~l~ECIAL I~SE O~l.l' , REGIONAL SHEVARDNADZE STRUGGLE WITH NEGATIVE ELEMENTS Moscow VOPROSY FILOSOFII in Russian No 6, Jun 81 pp 3-19 [Article by Eduard Amvros'yevich Shevardnadze,first secretary of the Georgian CP CC and candidate for memUership in the CPSU Central Committee: "The Establishment of the Leninist Principles of Socialist Humanism"] [Excerpts] The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia and the subsequent declaration of Soviet rule in Georgia gave the population of our ~ republic boundless social prospects. Comrade L. I. Brezhnev described this very well when he spoke at the ceremonies in Tbilisi: "Georgia's lot in the past had - been difficult. For centuries it was izvaded by foreign conquerors who devastated - the country. But generations of y~Lr ancestors were as solid as the rock of the Caucasus. They defended their independence and created and preserved their own, in many respects unique, national culture. Georgia's voluntary unification with - Russia and its centuries-old friendship with the great Russian people played a beneficial role in this."3 Later, L. I. Brezhnev stressed: "Socialism brought Georgia real freedom and awakened the deep-seated creative strength of its people."4 , The freedom-loving spirit of the people took shape and was tempered in the struggle for independence, for national and human dignity, a struggle the Gaorgian people ' had to wage throughout its centuries-old history, first against Greek colonizers and the legions of the Roman Empire, then against Mongol and Arab conquerors, and finally against the shah's Iran and the sultan's Turkey. This spirit was reflected in a unique culture, in colorful folk traditions, in ancient schools of philosophy in literature and art and in roman~ic poetry which extolled love, friendship and fraternity so beautifully and expressed complete faith in the omnipotence of virtue and humanism. ~ History had almost never indulged us with its favors, and it was only after the Georgian people had thrown in their lot with Russia that they finally, in the words of the famous Georgian writer and public spokesman I. Chavchavadze, received their long-awaited peace and tranquility, and along with this the necessary condi- tions for development. As Comrade L. I. Brezhnev said, "our ancestors made the right choice 20G years ago. The friendly ties uniting the Russian and Georgian people have gr~wn and have become much stronger during Georgia's six socialist decades."5 After the October Revolution, Soviet Russia, in spite of the chaos created by the civil war and foreign intervention, fovnd enough strength to help the outlying districts of the country consolidate Soviar rule and quickly put socialist reforms in motion. Georgia is a quite convincing example of this. Once an agrarian 11 FOR OI~F(CIAL USE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 ?~c~it c~i~rtc~i,u. [~~r: c~`t.~~ . region with many remnants of feudalism and extremely weak industry, it became a developed industrial-agrarian republic during the years of Soviet rule. The 26th Congress of the Communist Party of Georgia was held in our republic in January. It summed up the results of the republic party organization's activity in - the last 5 years and outlined the prospects for the republic'.s socioeconomic and cultural development. On the whole, we are pleased with these results, and the prospects fill us with optimism and a sense of security. They reaffirm the funda- mental advantages of real socialism. No socioeconomic system but socialism could have ensured such rapid development in all spheres of republic life. It only be- came possible after the October Revolution and the Soviet regime had put an end to exploitation and national oppression, had made the multimillion-strong laboring masses masters of their own fate and builders of a new civilization and had strengthened the fraternal friendship and mutual assistance of Soviet peoples. From the very first days of Soviet rule, as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev said at the 26th CPSU Congress, the economic and social policy of our party "was aimed at raising the level of development in the former outlying districts of Russia up to the level of the nation's center as quickly as possible. And this was accomplished. Close cooperation by all of the country's nationalities and, above all, the self- less help of the Russian people played an exceptionally important role here."9 In the subsequent implementation of's policy on nationalirty we see conclusive ~ evidence of socialist humanism. , I II i The moral education of the individual is of primary significance in the mature socialist society. The enhancement of the material well-being of the working public can lead to lapses into the philistine, consumer mentality and morality - unless it is accompanied by moral and spiritual growth. Our own sad experience ~ has convinced us of this. Not long ago, symptoms of a consumer mentality, philistinism, acquisitive tenden- cies and a heartless, bureaucratic attitude toward the needs of the working people and their interests began to be displayed in our republic as a result of the ob- vious relaxation of party and state discipline and the decline of personal re- I sponsibility. There we:e more frequent incidents involving the theft of socialist property, bribery, opportunisr.! and other negative behavior, fundamentally contrary ~ to the principles of the socialist way of life. ~ Of course, this first had a negative effect on social production growth. By the beginning of the 1970's Georgia's rate of economic development was one of the lowest in the country. The damages suffered in the moral sphere were equally seriotis. The minds of some people were infected by the dangerouc microbe of ego- tism, individualism, cynicism and nihilism, leading to the disturtion of social ~ values and attitudes. All of this naturally alarmed communists and all con- scientious workers with a vital interest in the flourishing of Saviet Georgia. The time finally arrived when the situation could not be tolerated any longer. The famous CPSU Central Committee decree "On the Organizational and Political Work of the Tbilisi Gorkom of the Communist Fartq of Georgia ~or the Implementation of 24th CPSU Congress Decisions," adopted in. ~'ebruary 1972, marked the beginning of a purposeful, consistent and uricompromising struggle against all types of negative behavior and deviations from the standards az communist morality in the republic. _ 12 ~OR OFF'IC[AL USE Ol~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400400050071-4 ~OR OPF!CIAL f1SE ON[.1' The Georgian party organization received a specific program of action, and this program became the basis of intense effort to strengthen the party's guiding role, reestablish Leninist standards of party, public an3 social life, create a healthy moral and p~ycholo gical climate in the republic and thereby ensure dramatic economic growth. _ Subsequent decrees of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers in regard to the Georgian SSR were also of great help to us in this work. Our party organization cannor. remember any other time of such intensive cuncern and atten- tion on the part of the p arty, government and union organs. Since the time of the ' publication of the decree on the Tbilisi party gorkom, fundamental resolutions were passed by the CPSU Central Committee on the Georgian party organization and by the ~PSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers on the Abkhazskaya ASSR and on measures for the further development of the republic economy and the accelerated development of republic agriculture. Backed up by effective support, republic communists took a principled stand, dis- J closing shortcomings and errors in the administration of economic and social processes and fighting even more resolutely against everything inhibiting the republic's development and impeding our advancement. Today we can confidently say that the main result of those years was that we essentially won the battle for the human being, for the disc losure of his most human qualities, the best qualities of his spirit, and elevated the consciousness of all working people. This turned out to be an extremely complex process. We had to learn to fight for each member of society and find new ways and means of cultivating intolerance for shortcomings and giving p eople a sense of civic responsibility an~ personal invo3ve- ment in public affairs. Our experience in this area reaffirmed the aci:uracy of the Marxist premise that the p ublic mentality does not keep up wirh everyday life, that it is easier to change peogle's way of life than their way of thinking, and that th:ts is a slow and lengthy process. We were convinced of the accuracy of this premise literally at each step. It turned out that it was much easier to overcome . economic retardation than to combat individualism, egotism and other deviations, from the standards of communist morality. The intensity of the struggle against behavior contrary to socialism in the eco- nomic, moral and psychological spheres, a struggle which began when the decree on the Tbi.lisi gorkom was pas sed, grows with each year in the republic. The need to firmly establish the Sovie t way of life is a constant matter of concern to party organizations, all party committees, soviet, economic, trade-union and Komsomol organs and other public o rganizations. It is from this vantage point that we assess the results of our efforts to eliminate traces of petty bourgeois, philis- tine thinking from the pub lic mind. On the whole, our success es in this area are unquestionable and, as L. I. Brezhnev put it, the republic party organization has "waged a principled and uncompromising _ struggle against negative phenomena and for the reinforcement of party and state discipline and a correct p ersonnel policy."12 Whereas acquisitive tendencies were once regarded as a neglect ed and serious illness, we can now say with pleasure that the measures we have taken have done much to localize the seat of infection. But this illness is far from cured and we must continue combating iL-. We are full.y determined to perform all of this work even more consistently and purposefully, guided by L. T. Brezhnev's instruction that "the constant effort ;nust be con- ' tinued so that the moral atmosphere in Georbi.a wi11 be as pt~re as yrn~r n~ountain air.'~13 1J FOR UFF'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 FOR UI~I~[C7AL L'SE: ONLI' It is becoming increasingly obvious that it is not enough to regard these devia- tions simply as remnants of the past or to assume that negative phenomena contrary to the Soviet way of life and our societq are simply the "birthmarks of capital- ism" and will fade away by themselves. We must also remember that remnants of the past are still present in the public consciousness and will continue to exist for a long time. We feel that some of the problems we encounter in our daily work, particularly the important problem of the correlation between the growing needs of people and the possibility of their satisfaction, require thorough scientific analysis by academics and by practical workers, with the participation.of the entire society. _ Some people have expressed the opinion that wages are slowly but surely losing their significance as a motivating factor in the Soviet individual's labor activi- ty. Citing sociological research findings, they conclude that wages are no longer the chief motive for the labor of Soviet people and that the role of finanr_ial incentives in the structure of behavioral motives is systematically being reduced, making way for such factors as recognition of the social significance of labor and satisfaction with the content of labor. The constant rise of factors connected with moral and social prestige in the _ motivational sphere, encouraging individuals to find creative work, is certainly unquestionable. This is a general trend and it is relatively simple to trace. An analysis of the hierarchy of motives determining the individual's attitude toward his field of employment, conducted by the Council on Public Opinion of the Georgian CP CC, conFirms the conclusions of Soviet sociologists regarding the increased importance.of sociocultural incentives in the overall structure of be- havioral motives. However, it is too soon to conclude that financial incentives, particularly wages, are playing a less important role. This is not only contrary to the facts but is also totally inconsistent with the policy of our party and government to rai~~e the average wage. And in general, we wonder if the correlation between financial and maral incentives is really this simple and if 'it is correct to say that wages have no moral bearing on the matt~r. As a d~.rect expression of the individual's economic interests, wages in our country, - at least at present, represent one of the principal ways of combining his personal interests with the interests of the entire society, and we must strive for the unconditional observance of the socialist principle of distribution "from everyone accorciing to their abilities and to everyone according to their labor." Our ob- jective, consequently, consists in ensuring that the volinne of socially useful labor expended remains the chief yardstick of benefits received. This labor must be the only source of prosperity for all members of society. This calls for a great deal of planning because this principle affects more than just the sphere of distribution. Apparently, it also determines the effectiveness of labor indoc- trination and the cultivatio~ of a communist attitude toward labor. "The chief criterion of distribution in the socialist society can only be labor-- its quantity and quality," Comrade L. I. Brezhnev stressed: "Unfortunately, this is not always the case. All types of excessivE egalitarianism, cases in which people collect wages essentially just fc.r showing up at work and not for tangible results, and the issuance of undeserved bonuses all have an extremely harmful effect on production indicators and on ti?e public mind."15 11+ 1~OR UFFrClAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 ~ . ' r�ou oi~FICIAL USE. o~i.~~ ' This means that we must do more than just iYifiuence persons with a petty bourgeois mentality with the aid of administrative and legal penalties, and coercive meas- ures when necessary. There is no question that this is an important aspect of the matter. But something else is equally important--the "humanization of condi- . tions," the placement of inembers of society Lnder conditions which exclude the possibility of any return to obsolete social behavioral stereotypes. We must constantly strive to ensure not only the absolute growth of wages, but also an increase in the purchasing power of the ruble and the better satisfaction ' of consumer demand. We must put all of our energy and resources to work to in- crease the real income of the population, and this will depend largely on local initiative, on the efforts of individuals and local administrative bodies and on their ability to mobilize the hidden reserves of the socialist economy. At the same time, we must thoroughly analyze the reasor.s for the survival of the acquisitive mentality, Without a solid scientific analysis of commercial produc- tion and the marketing sphere it would be difficult to plan the struggle against these tendencies. Unfortunately, our scientific community has not been overly eager to tackle these problems. But the party teaches us not to avoid critical matters, not to be afraid of "difficult quesr_ions" and to answer them boldly. ' III There is also another side to the struggle against nega~ive phenomena and it is directly related to the individual's morals, his social aims, his views on life _ and his system of values, all of which guide his actions. Experience has cor- roborated V. I. Lenin's idea that "changing the form of government is not a. dif- _ ficult matter..., but changing the fundamental conditions of economic life and combating the habits that have been cultivated for hundreds and thousands of , years in the petty owner is a matter which will require many years of persistent organizational work even after the exploitative classes have been completely overthrown."16 ; The habits that took root over centuries of slavery, feudalism and capitalism, habits that have become the closest thing to instincts, are extremely tenacious. , The struggle against these habits and traditions is a struggle of sociali~st aware- ness against the bourgeois-anarchistic lack of control engendered by petty owner- ship ambifions. Communism will become invincible, as V. I. Lenin correctly believed, when the victory over petty bourgeois habits and economic practices, ~ over egotism, inertia and dissipation is cons~lidated, when conscious socialist -i discipline is established and the standards of communist--that is, collectivist-- ' morality replace the rule inherited from the old world that "each person must take care of himself and let God take care of the rest." "Communism," he wrote, "begins ' when average workers, performing difficult labor, make a selfless~effort to in- crease the productivity of labor and preserve each pound of bread, coai, iron and other products furnished not to the workers themselves and not to those 'close' to them, but to the more `distant'--that is, to the entire society."17 The petty ownership ambitions that are inconsistent with this social an~l moral goal are extremely dangerous to society. But the}~ are much more dangerous to the moral health of the individual. The greed and cupidity engendered by the possessive mentality cripple people, deform them and corrupt their spirit. The :Lndividual is inevitably alienated from society, and, as we know, the individual cannot reach ~5 ! FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400450071-4 FOR OFFICIAL L1SF. ONI.1' his full potential outside the societg. This means that the struggle against theGe phenomena is being waged primarily on behalf of the individual, on behalf of his spiritual insgiration and moral splendor. The improvement of all ideological and political indoctrination work is of primary significance here. The Georgian CP CC is confidently r.eorganizing this work in accordance.with the natural development of ?ife and the current stage of _ our social progress--that is, in line with the requirements of the 26th CPSU - Congress and the well-known party Central Committee decree on ideological matters. This approach is the only correct one today because the increasingly important role " of the subjective factors stems from the very nature of sociali~m. Spcialism is a product of conscious creation by the masses. Whereas antagonistic forms of social organization were upheld with discipline by the stick and starvation, the social- ist society presupposes the existence of conscious discipline in the working public; it is made strong, as.V. I. Lenin said, by the mass consciousness. The - high spiritual requirements of the Soviet people, their rising educational 1eve1, their general erudition, awareness and culture demand that everything connected - with ideology and indoctrination be totally devoid of cliches, familiar refrains _ and propaganda formulas that have been voiced so often that they have lost their impact. We know have an extremely wide range of ineans of informing the masses of party aims, heightening our ideological effect on them and solving many problems - in ideological and political indoctrination. It is important to use all of these means skillfully. - This is why the ideological sphere is precisely the ob~ect of such close attention by the Georgian CP'CC at present. It is in this sphere that many problems are now being solved in the struggle against the negative phenomena discussed ~ above. We are striving to direct this work into fundamental channels and to 1ay a solid scientific foundation for it. This is attested to, for example, by the all-union applied science conference held in Tbilisi in 1976 to discuss aspects - of Lenin's policy on nationality and the internationalist indoctrination of the working public. As Comrade L. I. Brezhnev has remarked, evea ir~ the mature social- ist society the dynamics of its multinational state's development can give rise _ to many problems requiring quick party action. Our experience has proved that the regular discuss:ion of these matters helps in making the right decisions in dif- ficult situations. It was with good reason that L. I. Brezhnev said at the fes- tivities in Tbilisi that "an atmosphere of truly international friendship reigns in Soviet Georgia."18 On the initiative of the of the Georgian CP CC, an~applied science conference was also organized to discuss ways of overcoming acquisitive tendencies and establish- ing the principles of the socialist way of life. The academics, party and soviet workers, trade=union activists and j ournalists who attended the conference dis- cussed extremely crucial matters concerning our entire society. Undertakings of this kind, which are now organized in the republic regularly, are given extensive coverage in the press, in our sociopolitical and literary ~ournals and on tele- ~ ~vision and radio. This proves, in particular, that the ideological role of the mass media has been . . noticeably augmented in recent years. They have done much to improve the moral and psychological climate in the rep ublic and they energetically and creatively . support the Central Committee in the implementatioz~ of its major policy lines. ~6 hOCt UFF'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 rc~u c~i~t~t~~~ni. t ~~F: ~,~i.~' , . i However, if we assess the work of the mass media from a highly exacting stand- point, we cannot say that they have completely over.come their tendency to be too - glib and superficial, and sometimes their lack of objectivity keeps the party from assessing certain facets of our life correctly. But after all, any defect in their ; work is particularly unacceptable because each of their statements generally has ~ considerable public repercussions. I i The comprehensive approach to the resolution of ideological problems calls for a persistent search for new methods and forms of work that would heighten the degree ~ to which the individual is influenced by propaganda during the proc~ss of communist ~ indoctrination. For example, a council for the coordination of work in the further i development of interethnic relations and the international indoctrination of the ~ working public functions within the Georgian CP CC for the more thorough -i and competent resolution of ethnic problems. The council was of great help in ; the preparations for the 60th anniversary of Soviet Georgia, its communist party and its autonomous units. We expected to also play an importar.t role in the prepa- ~ rations for the bicentennial of the Georgian Treaty, the historical document which ' securely fastened the bonds of friendship and fraternity uniting the Russian and Georgian people, which we will ~elebrate in 1983. One of the noteworthy forms we have used is the activity of the Council on Public Opinion, established within the Central Committee in 1975 and mentioned previously in this article. On the basis of sociological polls, the council has worked out ~ many useful recommendations that have helped us to find the best solution to a I number of problems. i ~ The popularization of new, socialist customs and rituals is assigned an important place in our ideologica~ work. Abundant experience has been accumulated and is i being put to active use in overcoming some conservative traditions and customs ~ that are incempatible with the socialist way of life. Morals and customs alien i to our present way of life are being combated according to plan on the basis of a decree adopted a few years ago by the Georgian CP CC "On Measures to Inten- j sify the Struggle Against Harmful Traditions and Customs." New, socialist festivi- ' ties are being offered in their place. For example, the Tbilisoba holiday has i only been celebrated twice but it has already won universal recogn=tion. It symbolizes the ideals of friendship and fraternity, strong humanitarianism and internationalism. Many traditional folk holidays have begun to sparkle with new ~ colors: Such holidays as Alaverdoba,Sliuamtoba and others have been freed of their religious trappings and have become a reliable part of our arsenal of indoc- trinational means. Therefore, our experience has proved that success is possible even in what I would call a delicate sphere if we take purposeful action. The socialist way of life, in addition to all of its other merits, encourages us to constantly look to the future and perform today's work with a view to tomorrow. It is for the sake of the future that we live and work and it is best personified by our splendid youth. The party is greatly concerned about the indoctrination of the y~,_r.ger generation and the development of youth's moral char.acteristics. In recent years much has been done in 'the republic to raise t-he ~ev~l of indoctrina- tion work with youth and cultivate active commitment and the skills of political fighters in each boy and each girl. We are persistently overcoming the harmful effect the negative phenomena of the recent past had on some of our youths. Com- munists in the republic always support the initiative of the youn~ wholeheartedly 1`~. wOR UMFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 1~OR O1~l~ICIAL [ISI~: (atil.l' . and give them a more important role to play in the resolution of urgent govern- _ mental, political, economic anu social problems. Regular progress reports of the students are widely disseminated to the workers of their neighborhoods and to labor collectives. Now the republic party organization`s work to overcome negative phenomena and establish the principles of strong hu:nanism is entering a new stage. This is possible because most people in the republic have regained their faith in high social and ethical ideals and values and the feeling that they are the mast~rs of their land and of their faith. People have learned through their own experience that only conscientious labor can be used to measure human dignity and the social _ prestige of the individual in our society. The heig::tened labor and social activi- - ty of c~mmunists and non-party members in the republic has been accompanied by the~ :.onstant reinforcement of ~he ideological, political, moral and psychological _ unity of the class, kolkhoz peasantry and people's intelligentsia. There is an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect between various social groups and strata, between ordinary workers and administrative personnel. Literature and art in our society reflect the interests of the people and popular- ize the high ideals of humanism, thereby performing their basic social function of cultivating communist morality. Understandably, the republic party organization is backed up by the creative intelligentsia, which is fully aware of its responsibility to establish high moral and ethical values. The 26th Congress of the Communist Party of Georgia had a serious discussion about the development of literature and the arts and the augmentation of their role in communist con- struction. It is particularly significant that even when negative behavior was widespread, the best representatives of our science, literature and art did not betray their calling and their public duty and vigorously withstood the pressure exerted by the philistine and acquisitive mentality. Now that we are striving to completely overcome all of these phenomena, the scientific and creative intel- ligentsia is naturally a reliable help to the Georgian CP CC and all party committees. It is also significant, however, that many social scientists are not involved in the implementation of party plans for indoctrination. The criticizing remarks voiced by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev in the accountability report of the Central Com- mittee to the 26th CPSU Congress, when he correctly chastised our philosophers for "frequently preferr~i~g to prove what has already been proved instead of interpret- ing new phenomena, applies directly to many of these social scientists. This is - party due to their isolation, which gives rise to the study of unimportant matters and the loss of contact with applied s.cience and real problems. A comprehensive ~ program for the development of the social sciences in the 1980's is now being - dz up to eliminate shortcomings in the republic. It will become the basis for un. ~ effort and coor~iinated research into the social sciences, fundamental asp~_ s of Mar~.;ist-Leninist theory and ideological and indoctrinational work. - We still have much to do to equalize the developmental levels of spiritual culture~ in urban and rural areas and create all of the necessary conditions for the eleva- tion of cultural standards in our rural villages, particularly in alpine regions. This will require a great deal of effort from all of us--party and soviet wor}cers, economic personnel and representatives of science, literature and the arts. We still have several problems in this area, however. Some of them are conne:cted with undesirable sociodemographic and sociopsychological consequences of urbaniza- tion, which, in turn, is an unavoidab~e result of the continuous industriali;.ation 18 FOR OFFiC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 FOR OFFICIAL USF. UrLI' of the republic. The incr~asing density of the population in the cities and the - exodus from rural areas, especially in the mountains, are giving rise to many complex economic ar.d social problems. Of course, it would be absolutely wrong to stop developing the industrial base for this region. Obviously, the solution does not consist in reduced rates of industrialization, but in the more efficient dis- - tribution of productive forces with a view not only to purely economic factors, biit also to the consequences of social, demographic, cultural and ecological factors. We~must, and the party demands that we do, strive to preserve all of the positive features of urban and rural life. In our republic one of the signifi- cant factors in the attainment of this fundamental socialist ob~ective is the - expansion o� the network of large industrial enterprises in rural locations, which will help us to avoid many of the complex social problems connected with the rural population's migration to the cities. The eradication of social boundaries b~tween cities and the rural countryside certainly cannot be interpreted as the absorption of rural areas by cities, as complete urbanization. We must raise the economic, social and cultural standard of living in rural areas up to the urban level, preserve all of the valuable aspects of rural life and enrich urban life with them. In this connection, the actual alienation of prominent members of our intelligentsia from their native rural villages is naturally disturbing. After all, it is no secret that only a ~ few nature-lovers constantly stay in touch with the rural countryside, and this - certainly has a negative effect on the rural cultural level. Evidently, we must search for the best ways of ensuring actual participation in rural cultural life by members of the scientific and creative intelligentsia. The development of mature socialism's political system is moving closer and closer to the top of our Leninist party's list of strategic priorities. In our day, the viability and appeal of socialism depend largely on the capacity of the political system for improvement and for the further disclosure of its highly democratic and humanist content. In the final ana~ysis, this is the avenue our nationwide state must and will take to reach the stage of communist self-government. FOOTNOTES � 3. L. I. Brezhnev, "Speech at the Festive Meeting Commemorating the 60th An- niversary of the Georgian SSR and the Communist Party of Georgia," Tbilisi, 1981, p 3. 4. Ibid., p 4. 5. "Happy Anniversary," PRAVDA, 24 May 1981. 9. "Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS" [Materials of the 26th CPSU Congress], Moscow, 1981, p 55. 12. L. I. Brezhnev, Op. cit., p 6'. 13. Ibid. ~ 15. "Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS," p 59. 19 FUR UFF'ICIAL USE O1~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4 rOR OFFICIAL USF. ON[.Y 16. V. I. Lenin, "P~lnoye sobraniye sbchineniy" [Complete Collected Works], Vol 39, p 121. ~ ' 17. Ibid., p 22. ~ 18. L. I. Brezhenv, Op. cit., p 5. 21. "Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS," p 78. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo TsK KPSS "Pravda", "Voprosy filosofii", 1981. 8588 CSO: 1800/649 ~D 20 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400050071-4