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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10165 4 December 1981 Translation IN THE FOCUS OF TIAIIE By Abikoam ~amuylovich lstigin FBIS FOREICN ~ROADCAS'T INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 NOTE JPRS nublications contain information primarily from foreign - newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts._ Materials from fareign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and - other characteristics retained. ~ Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicator.s such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes ~~ithin the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- c ies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVE~NING OWNERSHIP OF ' MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUI:.E THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OYLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 ~'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10165 - 4 December 1981 _ IN THE FOCUS OF TIME Leningrad~V FOCU5E VREMENI in Russian 1976 (signed to press 7 Dec 76) pp 1- 210 [Book "In the Focus of Time" by Abikoam Samuylovich Istigin, Izdatel'stvo Lenizdat, 2,500 copies, 210 pages~ Contents Annotation i , What is IAMO? 1 . My Fzrst Interview, with Digressivns 5 A Tour 'Phrough the Engineering Building 15 The birth of ur~ique telescopes 17 Interview in the SKB of microscopy.......~ 22 On the trail of the magic ruby 23 The great grandsons of Fotokor 25 Those who saddled the rainbow 27 The Firm Conducts Research 32 Fomenko, "who can do everything" 32 Man and miracle gratings 41 Working Guards 48 Ivanov's personal matter To be first 52 Towards Maximum Precision 56 Family treasures fsl The generous life of Valentin Petukhov~���������������~�������~~�~��� 6~ Optics is their family matter 73 Kostygov Universities 84 The Diploma of the Shop Chief 95 - NOT /Scientific Organization of Labor/ at the Firm 100 Focal Point of. Communist Education 1~2_. Young Communists 127 - - a - [I - USSR - 0 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ON~.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A Dor~k Whiah Has a Thousand Authors 131 IAMO During the lOth Five-Year Plan 143 ' - b - ? APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ANNOTATION The world's largest and most improved optical telescope that per- mits Soviet scientists ta look into the far stellar worlds of the universe became operational on the eve of the 25th CPSU Congress in Stavropol'skiy Kray, not far from Stanitsa Zelenchuk. Th.i s unusual complex was developed with the assistance of the collective of the Leninqrad Optical-Mechanical Association imeni V. I. Lenin. Telescopes are only one of the types of products produced by IAMO. - Optical equipment with the mark of this association is widely ~known in our country and abroad. TY;~ book of Leningrad journalist A. S. Istiqin "In the Focus of Time" is devoted to the collective of Leninqrad optical special- ists--its workers and foremen, scientists and desiqners, organizers and production managers. - The new labor advance of the collective of Leningrad optical spe- ctali5ts to implement the historical decisions of the 25th CPSU Conqress and to fulfill the tasks of the lOth Five-Year Plan--a five-year plan of efficiency and quality--ahead of schedule is shown in the book, consisting of document excerpts written clearly and convincinqly. The hook is intended for the mass reader. - i _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE OHLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY WHAT I S LOMO ? Leninqrad V FOCUSE VREMENI in Russian 1976 (signed to press 7 Dec 76) pp 1-210 - [Book "In the Focus of Time", by Abikoam Samuylovich Istigin, Izdatel'stvo Lenizdat, ~ 2,500 copies, 210 pages] [Text] ~uring the days when this book was being prepared for press, far from Len- in Stavropol'skiy Kray, there OCCIlY'r@3 an event which was judged to become ~ an extraordinart benchmark in the knowledqe of the universe. On a mountain over- grown with trees, 2,000 or more meters above sea level, not far from Stanitsa .Zelenchukskaya, a gigantic thousand-ton dome seemingly light-transparent and weight- less from afar, flashed with silver. '~his was the tower of the world's largest and most modern optical telescope BTA.. People aimed its "eye" at one of the stars which no c~ther telescope was capable of look�ng at. Here at the astrophysical observatory scientists have already been able to obtain the first pictures of stars 10 million times weaker than those that thP human eye is capable of seeing. M~ozeover, this nRw telescope permitted people, due to its special optical devices, to look at stars right sids up rather than upside down. The light collected in thE abyss of the uni*aerse by the bowl of the main six-meter - mirror, is directed toward the observer and a distant mysterious star floating in the cosmic ocean suddenly becomes quite close. , In February 1976, on the eve of the 25th CPSU Cos~gress, the BTA telescope was turned over for operation after intensivz and careful testing. Soviet science was armed with an unusual astrophysical complex that carries an information flow about the universe. Four letters--LOMO--are clearly visible on the telescope--the result of the enor- mous labor of scientists, designers and foremen. These letters are the Leningrad ~~ptical-Mechanical Association imeni V. I. Lenin. It was here that the BTA was developed. The joyful news arrive3 at LOMO. General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Comrade Leonid Il'ich Brezhnev heartily c~ngratulated all the workers of the firm with their important labor achievement. 1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE Ol`l~,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR QFFiCIAL USE ONLY "Scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, co]lectives and crgan- izations that participated in developm~nt and putting into operation the world's largest astronomical telescope: ~ Dear Comradesl I heartily conqratulate you with your remarkable labor success--with putting the caorld's largest optical telescope into operation with main mirror six meters in diameter at the Astrophysical Observatory, USSR Academy of Sciences. Development of the unique telescope is an important advance of Soviet science ar~d technology. Soviet scientists have now gair_ed the opportunity of developing their - scientific search even more widely and of penetratinq more deeply into the secrets - of the universe and of making a new contribution to the human storehouse of knowledge. Puttin~ the largest astrophysical complex into operation is the result of the joint creative activity of many scientists and design collectives~ industrial enterprises and orqanizational and political work of party, trade-union and IGomsomol organiza- tions. This is a good example of successful implementation of the plans of the communist party ar.d the Soviet government for development ~f science and new con- vinc~ng proof of the sc.ientific and ~echnical progress of our motherland, the crea- tive enthusiasm of the Soviet people and the labor successes greet the 25th CPSU Congress. I wish you dear ccmrades new achievements in the glory of our great socialist motherland." Several days passed and the joy~ul excitement still persisted with regard to such~a high evaluation of the labor of the creators of the unusual telescope, as it was newly discussed from the tribunal of the 25th CPSU Congress. In his concluding , speech at t!~e Congress, Leonid I1'ich Brezhnev proudly enumerated the high points of the victory of Soviet science, technology and industry, also named the BTA tele- scope ~ith the mark LOMO. I~oMO is one of the production associations created in 1962 in the city on the Neva River at the initiative of the Leningrad Oblast and municipal committees of the CPSU that laid the basis for concentration and specialization of Leningrad industry. TPns of Leninqrad companies have been organized since then, without even talking about the hundreds of associations that have arisen throughout the country. Their successful work again and again confirms the correctness and fruitfulness of the course taken by the party to create production and industrial associa~ions. This idea was also emphasized at the 25th Party Congress in the official report of General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee ~;?mrade Leonid Il'ich Brezhnev; "Now when extensive experience has been accumulated and when the directions in which we must move forward have been better denoted, we can and should acceler.ate r~adjustment of the economic mechanism." *Brezhnev, L. I., "Otchet Tsen~ral'noqo Komiteta KPSS i ocherednyye zadachi partii v oblasti vnutrenney i~m,eshney politiki" [Official Report of tAZe CPSU Central Com- mittee and Routine Tasks of the Party in the Field of Internal and Foreign Polic;~), !~loscow, Politizdat, 1976, 70 pages. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE I~NI,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The word "IAMO" can now be read on thousands and thousands of different optical devices and apgaratus khat meet modern requirements of the scientific and technical revolution. The mark "IAMO" is on the fiuorescent biological microscope that makes it possible to look at the finest details of a living cell, to discover its secret and thus to supplement the arsenal of scientists with a new weapon in the strugqle for human health. The m,ark "IAMO" is on the first Soviet telephoto lenses for color television equip- , ment, on movie cameras and movie projectors and on black-white and cnlor cameras. _ The mark "IAMO" is on modern studio and portable tage recorders and a number of devices for the most rapid spectral analyses of inetals, alloys and oils. The mark "LOMO" is on miracle machines capable of renewing into new form old, but valuable mov�~e films on which it would seem time has left an irreversible impres- - sion: warped film and scratches. It was these machines made at the company that helped to restore to life the leq~ ~ endary film "The Battleship 'Potemkin'," which is now again making victorious voy- ages an the screens of many of the world's countries. Timeless movie documents = that recorded the explr~its of heroes of five-year plans and World Flar II, have - been regenerated fo~ future generations. The mark "LOMO" is on miniature devices which weigh grams and which can be placed ir. a r.iatchbox and on those which weiqh many h~mdreds of tnns. The company now produces more than 600 names of the most complex devices. It has approximately 20,000 customers. LOMO has participated with unfailing ~uccess in many international exhibitions and fairs. LOMO now delivers products to more than - 100 countries of the world. The most prom~nent scientists from the most diverse institutes--the State Optical Institute, the Botanical Institute, the Scientific Research Institute of Polymer- izatio~n Plastics, the Physicotechnical Institute, the Main Astronomical Observatory and many others--cooperate closely with the firtn. _ There is nothing remarkable in this. The products of LOMO themselves are designed to advance science and technoloqy in th2 most diverse fields. and it ~s now not simply a production association. The firm has become a unique school of experi- ence in modern organization of socialist production and management and a laboratory of scientific and technical progress in an entire sector of industry. LOMO, having joined thousands of communists, is a school of universal and mass education of leading, widely educated and ideologically hardened workers. The Leninqrad Opti- cal-Mechanical Association was awarded the rank of collective of communist labor in 1971, the first in Leninqrad. It bears three Orders of Lenin on its banner. At the end of December 1971 the Leninqrad Optical-Mechanical Association was vis- ited by General Secretary of the CPSU Central Conm~ittee L. I. Brezhnev. Leonid _ I1'ich became acquainted with the experi~~nce nf orqanization of labor and 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY production management. He viewed the products which the associatiun produces. He talkerl with w~orkers and engineers. He was interested in how the complex plans for economic and social development are being fulfilled here and how the everday and living conditions of the workers and specialists are and what their wages are and what is beinq done ~o d~velop new recreation areas and sanitorium-resort treatment of the firm's workers. In thinking about this book, the author did not pose the task of relating the firm's history. He was interested primarily in how it is today. The affair~ of a mul?ti~ thousand collectivE, its concerns, dreams and ideas, the good chanqes in the fate of the firm's workers during the lOth Five-Year Plan an3 the conditions under which they liye and work now. This book is the result of direct impressions from "travelling" through the firm and from meetings with its people--from rank and file workers, engineers, research- ers and designers up to the managers of the association. The impressio~s, reports and interviews made up the contents of this book. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE 1.1?'dLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FIRST INTERVIEW, WITH DIGRES~SIONS One can see buildings on different streets of Vyborq that are cr4wned with the same luminous emblem: a spire with a small ship on the point and letters near its base. If one looks a little more closely, one can easily note that the spire with the small ship on the point is nothing more than the letter L and together with the letters below you can easily recognize the familiar word "IAMO." Regardless of what the enterprises that became Qart of the firm were called before, they all b~ar the name of the association itself. Unlike other associations, there is no main enterprise here. The Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Association is a - unified and inseparable economic organism. It short, it is a company! My first.interview is with the general director of LOMO, Hero of Socialist Labor Mikhail Panfilovich Panfilov. To meet him, I head for old Chugunnaya. Ulitsa where my eye is immediately caught by a remarkably liqht and airy building similar to a gigantic bird that has spread its flexible white wings for vigorous flight. All the management services of the firm, includinq the office of the general direc- tor, are located here. The director is sparing in his words. His time is calculated in minutes and not only is he an important economic manager. Many of his responsibilities are along social and party lines, not even mentioninq the fact that Mikhail Panfilovich is a deputy to the USSR Supreme Soviet and was elected a deleqate to the 23rd and 25th Party Congresses. He has been awarded the state prize for par~icipation in devel- opment of the first Soviet firms. Preparing for the first interview, I wanted to find out a little more about the man who has been constantiy on the captain's bridge of LOMU for almost 25 years. Mikhayl Panfilovich himself does not lik~ to talk about himself. But if one can express it so, the main years of his life have passed here at this enterprise and they have an excellent knowledge ~f his biography here. And the biography is a simple one: in the 1930s he was a lathe operator at a Bal- tic plant. At the same time he was a student at the workers' hiqh school. He was later a technician-machine tool builder. But he was soon attracted by a sect,or only beqinning to make its first serious steps. Opticsl Ansi Panfilov crossed the threshold of GOMZ--tne State Optical-Mechaaical Plant. Binoculars, movie cameras and eyeglasses were made at this enterprise a~~er the 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE O~ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL U~E 4NLY Great October Socialist Revolution. They took up ma.king cameras. People of the older generation remember them--black conps of accordians with tY~e inscription "Fotokor." During the years of the First Five-Year Plan the enthusiasts of GOMZ overtook the renown German company Zeis only in their most daring dreams. It would still be a long time until this happened in practice. They did not have enough specialists. - The Zeis Company demanded gold for the most inconsequential consultati~ons. The GOMZ workers then decided to organize manufacture of the products independently. At the same time, at the end of the 1930s, M. P. Panfilov also came to GOMZ. He worked in the department of the chief technician. At the same time he studied at the Leninqra~3 institu~e of Precision Mechanics and Optics. The younq technician . participated in development of new optical devices created ~y ,pro~minent scientists: S. I. Vavilov, V. P. Linnik, I. V. Grebenshchikov and N. N. Kachalov. GOMZ had - already organized manufacture not only of still came~as, but of portable film pro- _ jectors and soon began to d~evelop telescopes. The young engineer was full of daring plans and thoughts. When panfilov was desiqnated tt:e chief technician of GOMZ, the plant was working in ar. Qnemy-besieged city. He was soon elected secretazy of the party committee. The enterprise collective had to resolve a difficult problem--production of weapons f~r the front had to be organized quickly in the destroyed workshops, on the re- mains of equipment, without experienced specialists who had been eva~uated to the rear. And they did organize it! But in the 1944 war year, a group of GOMZ engine~rs, including Mi]chail Eanfilovich, unexpectedly presented to the Main Board of weights and Measures an u~~usual model of a clearly peacetime product--optical calipers that permit one to make measure- ments with precision up to a tenth of a micron. Soon Panfilov, a man of solid and decisive' character who lived through all the grief, joy and tests of the war years toqether with the plant collectiva, became the chief engineer and then the director of the enterprise. . Director's experience made it possible for him to gain a wider view of many prob- lems of organization of labor and production manaqement. He carefully studied ~ problems of economics an~ began to think about a numb~r of phenomena which it had been a custom at that time to regard as "natural" phenomena. Why, let us say, does some washer or bolt made at one plant cost a kopeck and that ma3e at another cost 10 or 20 times as much? Why must the same articles be made at different ~lants? Why are they satisfied with long obsole~cent equipment at many enterprises in the age of automation and electronics? Why is everythinq "our own" at plants of the same type producir:g products of the same type: our own design office, our own casting, stamping, repair and tool shops? Lots of money was wasted because of the fact that each manager wanted to have "his own garden," be it small or be it poor. But still it was his. 6 FqR OFFICIAL U5E aNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY And one qot the idea how many people, deviaes and equipment could be freed up if enterprises of the same type were combined and were specialized and if production was placed on a wide base and the freed resources were used to improve the e�fi- ciency and profi~ability of production. Thus the idea gradually ripened of creating a production associatian, for example, optical-mechanical firms in which enterprises of the same type would be combi.ned. Of course, the idea of creatinq production associations at that time, the very be- ginninq of the 1960s, excited many mariaqers, scientists and party workers. 2t was born in time by the need to solve thu5e problems for which the framework of previ- ous methods of ~rganization and management of production became even more closely related. 'I'his was especially true at those larqe industrial centers such as Ler.ingrad . . And of course, this problem whose time had come was discussed thoroughly and r~- peatedly in the Leningrad party obkom. The party obkom carried out important work, attempting primarily to convince manaqers of the need ta restructure production management according to the modern level and to prove the prospects which would be opened up for production associations. On the instructions of the CPSU obkom, Panfilov prepared a report to assemble the most active members of the Leningrad garty arganization. He sat for long hours behind his desk on which lay the plans, layouts and economic analyses. These were convincinq, thoroughly thouqht-out substantiations and argu- ments in favor of creating associations which should become the most important di- rection for dev~lopment, concentration and specialization of production. Panfilov's report at the meetinq of the most active members was heard with inter- e~t and ar~used many conversations and debates. But the most important thinq: the ;deas and specific proposals on organization of firms waa warmly approved. It was decided as a result, at the suqgestion of the Leninqrad obkom of the CPSU and economic bodies, to create nine sector production associations. This was in October 1962. They contained 43 industrial enterprises and 14 scientific rssearch- planning-desiqn and production organizations. The main criterion for association of enterprises was the homogeneity of the product produced and the technological identity of production. There were already approximately 100 production and scientific-production associa- tions in Leningrad by the beginninq of the lOth Five-Year Plan. But LOMO was one of the first. And Mikhail Panfilovich Panfilov headed it. And now, after this nec~ssary digression, let us return ~o his office. it is late in the day. It is unusually quiet after the workinq day. Unwillinyly reca?ling those distant "first stEps" of the firm, Mikhail Panfilo~vic~ Qa~s: "This was a very difficult time and very complex in ~11 respec:ts. Restructuring was bequn in all aspects. The restructurinq was both organi.zational and psycholoq- ical. Where was it sir~plest, let us say, to break cbwn old walls and to build in 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL ~JSE ONLY their place new ones and where was it best to break obsolete habits, traditions and concepts and to change the views of man toward his position and role under new - conditions." "What we didn't encounte r at the beginning of the trip, not even mentioning the dif�� fi~ulties which arose in solving fundamental problems related to the biY*.h of the firm: changing the management structure, reconstruction which would premit rapid specialization of shops and section~s, complex mechanizat~on and automation of pro- duction processes, int roduction of progressive forms of organization of labor and much more." "Inevitably 'conflict situations' arose here and there--after all we were dealinq primarily with geople and their characters and attitudes had to be dealt with." - "Many questions had to be resolvQd urgently. They had to be solved together with the party organization that combined many hundreds of communists." "The party organizati~ns helped to work out a management structure which would per- mit the most efficient use of the cr~ative capal~ilities of each worker, having clearly defined his position und~r the new production conditi~ns. The party com- mittee thoughtfully assisted the manaqement of the firm in selection and placing of personnel in all the decisive sections. An entire army of agitators and ~ropagan- = dists explained the prospects and advantages o f association in the shops, sections and in all subdivisions. They did everything s o that people would rapidly feel them- selves members of one larqe family--the name of which was LOM~." "And of course, matters were not limited only to 'discussions about the future.' The party committee and trade-union orqanization helped to solve the most essential problems related to si gnificant improvem~nt of livinq con~itions fram the first days of creation of the firm. For examp le, a cafeteria with large dining hall was constructed on the ter ritory of the former Kinap orqanization. A branch of a poly- clinic and a library were opened and a comfortable movie hall was equipped." "All this was very impor`~ant. And people became convinced--the fir�n had no 'suck- ers' and what an individual plant was incapab le of, the assaciation w~ds quite capa- ble of." "Moving forward, it sho uld be said that ~he fi rst steps in this direction were the beginning of an extremely important campaign prompted by the party organization of the firm, which largely determined the future of the firm: develap complex plans for socioeconomic deve lopment for each five-year plan, compiled with the participa- ~ tion of thousands of associatien workers. These plans encompassed all aspec*s of ' the firm's activity, including economic, engineering, technology, improvement of groduction and management, personnel traininq and improvement of working conditions, eve ryday life, recreatio~ and waqes." "The firm's cost-accountinq funds formed with regard to conversion to the new sys- tem of planning and economic stimulation of production, became the firm base of this planatng. We are still talking about plans for the social development of LOMO. The main ~o p i c of our conversation is now methods of production efficiency and quality and everything to which special significance was given at the 25th Party Congress. And mu ch of the firm's expe r ience is especially inst ructive today." S FOR OFFIC[~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Efficiency," Panfilov formulates his idea, "is the ratio of a useful result to the expenditures for achieving it if one talks in general terms. Efficiency is always concrete. We reconstructed production which made it possible not only to improve working conditions to the maximum but to introduce specialization on wide scales. The result is that two rubles of additional output of commercial products are achieved for aach ruble of capital investments." "Yes,produation efficiency became the firm's slogan from the very beginning of its creation. And then its most important source became specialization and concentration." "This was not as simple to accomplish. Specialists carefully worked out numerous _ versions of the future plan of specialization and cooperation. Detailed ~alcula- tions and analyses of each version were made. Oaly those which firmly supported the economic effect and increased product quality and production volumes were adopted. One link pulled another behind. Specialization made it possible to con- centrate manufacture of homogeneous parts, assemblies and articles in the shops and to concentrate homogeneous or similar production processes." _ "Here are thQ materials of different reports. Figures, figures. what do they say? Imagine an enormous, multicomplex plant, from month to month, from year to year, an increasing voliune of output which becomes ever more complex on which ever higher requirements are placed. And you will learn that an enterprise, coping successful- _ ly with all these problems, r~duces by one third the nomenclature of scare matexials consumed: It requires one-half or less fewer tools and accessories. This saved it =our million rubles during one year alone." _ "How did everything begin? From the rear." "Every army commander knows that the beginning of victory is to support the relia- bility of the rear forces." "We began with this prerequisite at IAMO. 'L'he rear forces were the auxiliary ser- vices. The repair and machine shops were the first to be reorganized. They exist at every plant. It seemed that you couldn't get along without them. And now they - have disappeared. But a single larqe major metal cuttinq equipment repair shop - was created. Specialization was introduced in the sections. And again the suffo- cating figures: old, uncoordinated shops could repair 250-270 machine tools during a year. But a single nea! shop could repair 450 machine toolsl It could be even greater but there is as yet no need for it." "Imagine: one repair service alone after reorganization freed 1,500 square meters of production area and hundreds of machine tools. It was possible to use immedi~- ately with the highest output 100 qualified workers and approximately 20 engineers. "And one more detail: the concentration of equipment of the same type and intro- duction of mass production technology reduced the total cost of repair by more than one third. Three tool. shops were made into one. But whereas 'a little bit of everything' was done in each one previously, each one has its own, strictly defined profile: one produces only dies, the other produces molds and press molds exclusively and the third produces measuring cutting tools. 9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Large shops appeared on the freed areas. For example a tool and die or an automa- ton or let us say a plastics shop. They were all supplied to tihe maximum with mod- ern equipment. "And as many optical shops remained as there were before. But these are quite dif- ferent shops with new planning and new, modern equipment and ths main thing, with their own specialization. "The galvanic coating shop was renovated. The w~orkers said that they previously had to unload the al;cali baths by hand. The workers show me with satisfaction how ~ _ seven automatic lines program control now operate here ~hat have replaced - people in dangerous operations. One person controls all the qa~vanic processes from a special console. "It is curious to look at the work logs of many LOMO workers who control complex machinery. For many the word operator, enqineer and adjuster has been placed after - the words multiskilled worker, rigger, loader or farmer." "The higher the degree of inechanization and automation, the fewer the needs for people engaged in heavy physical labor. Approximately 2,000 workers in the asso- ciation have been released from heavy labor. They have been trained at the train- ing kombinat and have attaiiied new specialities which the firm now needs. "The first decade of operation of LOMO convincingly demonstrated the correctness of the main direction toward which the Leningrad obkom of the CPSU oriented the firm: concentration, specialization and complex mechanization. However, this is insufficient for production efficiency. A principally new system of centralized management is required. "Former plants were converted anew into territorial plants headed by a chief in- volved in current operational management. But soon, as specialization was develop- ed, cooperation between territorial plants increase3 sharply and contacts became more complicated. A natural need developed in the new restructuring ~f management, but not by the principle o~ texritorial disposition but by production "occupations": optical, sound engineering equipment, optoelectronic devices, optical preparation and tool. - "The plant chiefs are involved only in operational supervision of individual groups of shops similar in profile by means of dispatcher equipment. "The general director manages ~he association. Functional directors and assistants to the general director earry out ma.nagement work. The following duties are dis- tributed among them: director for production and economics, technical director, _ director for constructi.on and r~construction and so on. The main accounts department and the department of technical contrul and the depart- ment of scientific organization of production, labor and management are directly subordinate to the general director. .In cooperation with scientific research in- stitu~es and higher educational instizutions, this department works out scientifi- cally based forms of organizing pro~uction and management and is involved in me- - thodical problems of production planning and accoun~ing. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY A council of directors, which exercises activity under the supervision of the gen- eral director, has also been created in the association. It includes the functional directors, managers of leading departments and repreeentativ~~ of party and trade- union orqanizations. The council discusses pmblems of production and technical activity. The principles of unanimity with broad participation of the community and thus com- bined in discussion of fundamental problems of the economic life of the association and production management. Colleageal discussion ef the mcast important problems makes it possible to work out solutians with regard to collective experience. This structure helped to overcome parallellism and duplication in work, to elimin- ate approximately 30 departments of form plant administrations and to free a sig- nificant number of highly qualified workers. Part of them was transferred directly to production and part was transferred to new departments, without which develop- ~ ment of future problems of LOMO and problems of scientific organization of produc- tion, labox and management is now impossible. - Thus, without increasing the total number of personnel, a department of specializa- tion and reconstructioY~, a deoartment of automation and mechanization, a computer center, a department of scientiffc organization of production, labor and management and a department for planning technical preparation of production were created. A - special, permanently acting department where architects, planners and artists work, was orqanized. Psychologists, physioloqists and medical workers were recruited to improve production. Everything was done to create the most favorable working con- ditions for people in the shops, laboratories and departments. The style of efficiency penetrates all spheres of production life. Only strict - and s~~stantiated calculation is taken into account. ~ And although the firm has qrown rich rapidly and has gained control of millions, accounting is still done in rubles and kopecks. Tru~e, once the xinancial bodies almost accuse the general director of being wasteful. And here Z should again make a deviation. Here is a brief episode related to me in - the central design office. = Once the firm turned over several expensive cameras to the photoamateur section of - the Palace of Culture. And then began: from what, why and from whom did this generosity come? This was no one's personal property. But there was a calculation here and a lonq-range aim. The fact is that that at one time one of the new cameras, reqardless of how the desiqners worked on it, did not find the expected demand among buyers. For some reason they didn't like it and for some reason it didn't suit them, despite a number ~f advantages over previous models. The firm experienced specific losses. - It was then decided to turn over several cameras to experienced amateurs. To turn them over, but only with the condition that they send in their comments: what didn't they in these cameras and how should they be impraved? After all, even the most talented desiqner cannot always foresee and take into account 11 FOR ~DFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY everything that an amateur photographer would like and what he notices when work- ing with the camera every day under the most different conditions. ~'he hopes were justified. The ama~eur photographers sen*_ detailed letters to the firm. They contained many sensible remarks and valuable suggestions and advice. Results were felt very rapidly. The designers and technicians studied and learned ~ from the remarks and suggestions of the amateur photographers. And quite recently the unprofitable camera gained popularity and brought s?n~ll profits ta the fixm. They taught and learned to :nanage skills at all levels. They learned to economize both great and small. Take, for example, redesign. Everyone understands that you can't get along without considerable capital investments when shops must be rear- ranged, equipment must be rearranged or changed and new continuous-flow conveyor must be developed. But expenditures differ. Of course, it was simplest to turn the order to contrac- tors: But they demanded too much money. And also they did not promise to do it rapidly. They decided it was expensive and disadvantageous. They had to get along through their own efforts. Yes, this cost collosal efforts and stress to the entire collective. Moreover, - they were able to carry out an unprecedented reconstruction. And current work was not stopped in a sinqle shop or in a single section. Production output contiraued at the former rate, strictly according to plan. This was not easy. The party, trade-union and ICc~msomol organizations managed ~o _ mobilize people and to explain to them the importance and urgency of the problem and the significance of reconstruction for the fate of the entire collective of the firm. Al1 work on reconstruction proceeded strictly according to schedule~ Pfien necessary, construction worker~ willingly assisted production workers. Much was done on days of mass subbotniks. The firm was transformed and became a modern enterprise meeting all requirements of technical progress as a result o: reconstruction. Automatics, mechanization - and introduction of advance technology opened new horizons for an increase of pro- duction efficiency. It was made even morP profitable. Profits increased ~ontinuously due to the rapid growth of labor productivity and the quality of articles, the demand for which ~ncreased every day. The LOMO mark became ever more popular both in the Soviet Union and abroa.d. Creation of a central design office where first-class specialists were assembled. primarily assisted in this. They had at their disposal an experimental and pt�oduc- tion base equipped with the latest technology and their own experimental shop in the engir.eering building. Each designer began to be responsible for development _ of a device, beginning from the idea and draft to serial production. More and more optical devices were produced at the worldwide engineering level. _ :~Iore and more foreign countries expressed the intention of purchasing LOMO - products . 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIA[. USE ONLY Once, durin~ the fir~t years when the firm was established, D. Rockefeller came to LOMO while a guest in our co:uitry. Panfilov was showing the famed mul~imillionaire around the enterprise. They were walking alonq the carefully washed asphalt of the plant yard, buried in flowers and greenery, beside we11-dressed qlass and concrete buildings. They looked into the shops where machine t~ols, automatic and conveyor lines and electronic devices were reflected in tihe polished floors exactly as in a mirror. People were working quietly, without concentration, withou~ the least fuss. Panfilov proudly noted that the firm made an impression on the guest. When they returned to Mikhayl Panfilovhch's office, R,~ckefeller said: "Mr. Panvilov, I am prepared to invest money in such a business. I can offer credit." "You are very kind," answered Panfilov. And with a smile he asked: "And under what conditions?" "As is customary in the United States: 8-10 percent of annual profits. Inciden- tally, we could concede somewhat to your firm." And he heard this answer: "Thank ~~ou. But the state takes only 3 percent from us. So that you understand yourself." , "what then," said the multimillionaire, "I was happy to make the acquaintance of a business person. Thiizk it over. About the profits." ~ When I reminded him of this, Panfilov laughed. "Yes, profit is an important indicator under our conditions," says M. P. Panfilov, "These are new millions from our own fund fer technical re-equipping of production. t�Soreover, this is also a realistic base for us so as ta force out universally and finally laborious manual operations. The profits were spent on apartments for workers, an preser~ation of health and on services for the firm's employees. And all this is an important weapon against such a scourge as personnel turnover." The problem of turnover here at .LOMO long ceased to be an acute problem. It is remarkable what a normal life, good working conditions and excellent prospects for - creative growth of all workers and especially for advancement o� youth will accomplish. - It is no accident that almost all enqineerinq and technical personnel in the asso- ciation were qu.ite recently machine tool operators, installers, grinders and metal workers. Who better than they can know the specifics of production? Therefore, the qeneral _ director together with the party committee advances to management positions pri- marily those within the firm, that is those who have grown u~ at IAMO and who know 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the fine points of their duties, who are concerned about the firm and who i;se their _ experience and theoretical knowledge skillfully. The possibility of conducting such a personnel policy specifically determines the long term aspects of socio~ economic planning. Hundreds of workers attain secondary engineering and higher education, besides general education, without leaving the pay of the firm. A valuable beginning, ~iversally supported by the party and trade-wnion organiza- tions of LOMO--brigades that service a sinqle piece of equipment but on different shifts are paid at the same rate--was widely developed during the Ninth Five-Year plan. These briqades turn over machine tools "on the rim" to each other without readjustment. And the result is 30 minutes saved by each worker during a single shift alone. And there is collective responsibi~ity for *_he quality of each article. - The nature and content of the labor of workers outside the brigades were also changed. Joining occupations were developed both main and auxiliary workers. For example, the func~ions of lubricators and saddle makers were turned over to equipment repair an d servicing metal workers and many loaders mastered the occupation of electric- arc welder. "When you write about the internal affairs of the firm," noted Panfilov, "do not embellish anything. We still liave many difficulties and many unresolved problems. For example, take equipment. There is still not enouqh ne4v equipment for all en- terprises. Here is just one example. A small plant that manufactures dividing heads was attached to us. We converted this plant to a shop but equipped it with new unit machine tools and organized a production line. And the shop immediately began to produce 2.5 times more products than when it was a plant. How many people were releasedl Generally, in one way 4r another, our firm, like others, lives and operates and increases capacity. There can now be no doubt of any kind: a produc- tion association completely justifies itself and the future of our entire industry is in such firms. 'I'heir developmznt is in the interests of the state." ' One cannot enumerate nar retail all the terms which ensured the success of the firm during the Ninth Five-Year Plan and tne confident entry into the lOth Five- - Year Plan in a single interview, even the most extensive interview. ' But as a popular saying goes, "It is better to see once than to hear it a hundred _ t ime s . " So let us complete our "journey" through LOMO. Let us visit together in the shops, laboratories and design offices, everywhere where a continuous, constant struggle is unde n,ray to solve the main task of the lOth Fi�~e-Year Plan--a five-year plan of high labor efficiency and a five-year plan of quality. - 14 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A TOUR THROUGH THE ENGINEERING BUILDING When the conatruction materials almcst a kilometer lonq appeared on Chugunnaya Ulitsa and when the tower cranes appeared above them, many thought arid quessed: what will be built here? New shops? This is something unfamiliar. Moreover, an enormous, long building four stories high with reflecting windows from floor to ceiling soon began to sparkle with the whiteness of walls and be~ame filled with sunlight, while fluorescent ].amps could be seen inside at dusk, with an even, soft blui~h glow. New residents--scientists, engineers, designers and researchers from the different plants that had become part of the firm join~d together for the first time joined together under a single roof--appeared in it. They looked with ' amazement_at the enormous light rooms where everythinq was ready for them: from weil-appointed furniture to portable computers, special transparent grids for draw- ing printed-circuit cards and hundreds of other necessary accessories which will be required in calcul.ations, research and design. If a large meetii~g must bF held, a complex design must be discussed or opinions must be exchanged, there is a vast conference hall. The new engineering building contains modern apparatus and the latest equipment: domestic, imported and "our own" made at the firm itself. And alongside is a spe- cial experimental shop. Here they can embody in metal any idea of a designer. They can make an existinq mockup of any assembly o~ of an entire device and can check the value of an idea or the accuracy of practice rather than theoretically. All the design services of formerly separately existing enterprises were included in the TsKB [Central desiqn office]. But the work is now arranged by a new princi- ple--clear specialization. SpQCialization in each direction of instrument building. Specialization in qeneral engineering problems. Maximum elimination of any inter- mediate links 3n management. A vertical structure has been developed here. It appears thusly: engineer-re- searcher--designer--chief of specialized design office--chief of central design _ office. And immediately the n~snber of managers in this subdivision was :.sduced by almost one halfl And one can say that operativeness in solution of many problems was doubled. . 15 _ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Every design office sp~cialized by direction is totally responsible from beginning to end for a hiqh technical level of a future device. Whether it is the design office of astronomical instruments or spectral devices, movie equipment or measur- _ ing equ~pment, video recording and so on, it contains not only design groups but specialized laboratories required for complex engineering solutions. Incidentally, the number of desiqn gzoups contained in special design offices is in _ no way constant. It may also vary if the nature of devices which are being devel- . oped at a given time varies. With all the narrow specialization of these instrument SIB [Specialize~ design of- ficeJ, they also have common enqineering problems: engineering calculations, cal- culations of optical systems, reliability, esthetics~ and packing. Spe- - cialized general engineering subdivisions also solve these problems. For example, the engineering calculation design office, the artistic design office, reliability - laboratory and packaging and packing design office. Moreover, although the name of the l.atter desi~n office sounds very dull and prosaic, it performs the most im- portant work. It develops beautiful, elegant packing and packaging for all the association's products according to the specifications of the instrument SKB. Development of this design office made it possible ta standardize packinq crates, packaginq and even individual components of their preparation--to introduce a uni- fied system of drawings and to introduce new, inexpensive and reliable materials for manufacture of packaging: cardboard, styrofoam and plastics. As a result cases of breakage of instruments were reduced sharply and labor productivity in ~ design of packaging and manufacture of it was qreatly increased. A department appeared which services designers with all auxilia~-y work in techni- cal documentation. Photostats are manufactured here and an enqineering archive is maintained. Electrography is used here for rapid copying of any drawings and docu- ments are microfilmed here. All these and other auxiliary subdivisions have one goal--to free to the max~.mum - the time of de~igners direetly involvod in development of devices for creativity. Before starting our voyage through the firm's design offices, I came to the chief engineer of the TsKB Viktor Alekseyevich Zverev--a young scientist. In the recent past he was a graduate of the Leningrad Znstitute of Precision Mechanics and Optics and is now a candidate of technical sciences. Zverev and the TsKB are responsible for the technical level of products produced by the firm in all directions of de- velopment of. ins~.rument building and they determine the main direction of scien- tific research work at the firm. ~ Viktor Alekseyevich is enthusiastic about his work and recruitis knowledgeable peo- ple and specialists in many fields of science and technology who are related or y can be related to development cf modern optics. "We are convinced," says Zverev, "that the most qualified specialists and scien- tists should creat~ new equipment primarily there where it is being directly devel- oped. The deve].opment of science is dependent to a large degree even more so on 16 rOR OFFICIAL [ 1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OFF1C[AL USE ONLY the equipment which our firm develops. The 25th CPSU Conqress," he continued, "emphasized with special :orce the importance of rapid introduction of the advances - of s~ient~fic and technical progress i.rlto groduction. And we at IAMO have already - felt the contradictions when one organization is responsible only for working out drawinqs or developing a pr~~totype of an articl~ and another is responsible only for industrial production of them. As a result soil is created for irresponsibil- ity and lack of accoun~ability." , - Under conditions of the firm, it is immediately impartant that all designers be responsible for the qua2ity of any device with the LOMO mark at literally all sta- ges of development. This principle is especially important now when we have entered a five-year plan of quality and our main task is to brinq the firm's entire production up to the level of the best foreign models. This is a difficult task but we are now up to it. The lOth Five-Year Plan opens up t.he broadest field for creativity: one labors, - takes risks, tests and looks bravely into the future. I saw haw this slogan is accomplished in practice, having visited many design of- fices and research laboratories of the firm. Th~ Birth of Unique Telescopes I cross the threshold of the desiqn office. Externally this looks like any design - office. It is quiet and there are people at their desks. The most complex instru- ments such as a qiant reflecto r telescope are bo;n here. The firm did not let down the expectations of astronomers who believed that "they can do everything" ~t LOMO. Scientists at the Byurakansk, Crimean, Zslenchuk and other observatories have already received unique telescopes. And a nutnber of the most valuable discoveries have already been made with them. The Soviet interplanetary station Venera-7 was launched into the universe and rushed *_oward the stars and it was recorded by the Crimean telescope when it was a distance of 160,000-170,000 kilometers from the earth. The positions of the station itself were precisely and sequentially recorded on film. The Crimean telescope has a"b rother" at Byurakan. It turns out that the "broth- ers" are in no way twins. This is the tradition at LOMO: the next instrument of the same type should be improved. - Pnd now the Byura)can telescope already has considerable advantages: the optical circuit was modified and the capability of simultaneous s~etting of three different light-detecting devices was provided if necessary. This is very important in re- search. For example, replacin g the spectrograph with a camera requires 30-4Q min- utes in the Crimean telescQpe. In the Byurakan telescope it is sufficient only to _ rotate a diagonal mirror. This requires 2-3 minutes. Both telescopes have photoguides (an automatic star-tracking system). But the Byurakan telescope ha$ a remote device that permi.ts one to see a celestial object 17 FOR OFFIfIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY on a screen, to control all systems from a single central station and moreover, guiding accuracy is considerably higher. And, finally, there is the well-known BTA with six-meter n?irror which was discussed at the 25th CPSU Congress. _ Putting these devices into operation has alane advanced the USSR to first place in Europe in the number of operating telescopes that meet the most modern requirements of science and technology. Chief designer Bagrat IConstantinovich Ioannisiani was awarded the Lenin Prize for developmen~ of domestic telescopes and a numbez of other astrophysical de vices. I am talking with Baqrat Konstantinovich at his desk. The idea of developing the - largest telescope with which astronomer scientists obtained much of the most valu- able data and m~de unique investigations of distant stellar systems and intergal- lactic nebula which could not be "reached" previously because no one had a detailed astronomical instrument to cover the distance of mi.llions of light years, was first ' born here. And now it exists and was developed at IAMO. This is the largest, most powerful and most all-seeing eye on the planet. This unique telescope was con- structed over a period of 15 years under the direct supervision and with the par- ticipation of general director of LOMO M. P. Panfilov. Bagrat Kvnstantinovich talks simply about things of enormous significance and is _ slightly ironic about himself. "How and why did I become a designer? Simply because there was nothing else I could do," His life's path began at Leningrad many years ago even before thp First F ive-Year Plan at the Ravenstvo plant. He was a transmission lubricator in a shop and then a draftsman at KRASNAYA ZA RYA. And later he dreamed at on~ time of becoming a musician. He did not become a musician but the haztr~ony inherent to music and inspiration can all be followed in his amazing creativity when he develops telescopes. A fusion of beauty and power. And always the most optim~sn solution of the most complex problem. He began with the design of a school telescope. He developed a meniscus telescope - --the world's first--a telescopE with mirror diameter of 2.6 meters. And f inally he developed the BTA. _ "The main problem? There were many main problems," sm.iles Ioannisiani. "One of ~ the m~st unpleasant was the rigidity of design. This has always been a problem for telescopes. The dimensions increase an.d the tubes increase and everything be- comes ma..*~y times heavier. And the law of deformation comes into effect. Finally, the telescope tube bends and becomes distorted k~y its own weight. Finally, there is a misalignment of some tenths of a millimeter. But this woulci have a harmful effect on the quality of optical images. Ways must be found tc� compensate for this." 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY one looks and looks! How much design and production research development of the mirror rec;uired. One can ideally pour a gigantic piece of glass for a telescope but it still does not become a mirror. The inevitable internal stresses occurrinq during casting must still be removed. Otherwise the mi.rror "walks" or rather "creeps" and becomes prac- tically unsuitable for astronomical observations. Internal stresses were removed by - anneal~nq which continued for 738 days! The most careful of it continued for about 2 years and then the six-meter "eye" had to be covered with the thii:aest aluminum layer no more than one thousandth of a millimeter thick in a vacutar?. This operation with a part weighing 42 tons has never before been done in the world. Or take the telescope supports. One hears simply "supports." And each is three - stories high. It contains laboratories and auxiliary rooms. Elevators move inside _ the supports. "Yes, we developed the world's most ~owerful telescope with qreat light-qathering capability or, as journalists now love to write, the earth's big eye. This permits investigation Qf processes occurring in the most remote sections of cosmic space. 'I'hese investigations are inaccessible to other telescopes." Bagrat Konstantinovich related in detail about installation of the gigantic BTA, about its capabilities and presented figures, technological data and calculations. Ioannisiani took a pencil and began to calculate. He thought, knitting his thick, black eyebrows on the bridge of his nose. "well, if one eliminates atmospheric interference and does not take the earth's sphericity into account, our telescope is capable of r~cording the liqht of a can- dle i.gnited at a distance of 25,000 kilometers!" - This is what the prominent English astronomer Redish wrote to the chief designer: "Dear poctor ?oannisiani! Doctor Davis and I are exceptionally grateful to you for useful consulatiion on the altazimuth telescope design. Your report on this was favorably received. we here have good hopes for the future." The qigantic telescope constructed by LOMA has advanced worldwidE science and en- gineering practice. Chief designer of the telescope. In the given case are not so much a designation ' of 3n official position. They contain the very essence af the matter in which Ioannisiani has been involved his antire life. After all, one can simply desiqnate a chief by positio,z and he can be replaced, but to be the chief in such an extensive sive, important and crucial matter due to his own talent, unlimited creative inter- es*_ and to have the skill to ignite it in others--not everyone can become such a person. Chi~f designer Ioannisiani has extensive experience: he designed the telescope for - the Alma-Ata observatory, a meniscus telescope for the Abastumani observatory and 2.6-meter reflector telescopes for thE Crimean and Byurakan observatories. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE bNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY When he was developing the 2.6-meter telescope, Baqrat Kor~stantinovich suggested an essentially new device, simpler and more impro ved, instead of the long and univer- sally accepted yokes that support th~ tube. There were also many proponents and m.any opponents. Baqrat Konstantinovich listened to one and the other with identical attention. Both versions were sent far confirmation. Ioannasiani's version was given preference. The advantaqes are more than convincing: the com~actn~ss oF the design and mainly the complete quarantee af high observation accuracy. And here is the new building of the USSR Academy of Sciences, already comparably more complex with a gigantic reflector with six-meter mirror. Up to this time only in the United States did they know how to develop a reflector telescope ~aith mirror diameter of five meters. The telesr_ope mirror, as already noted, is exceptionally complicated to manufacture, machine and relieve the stress. ~ The precision of the mirror working surface is determined in fractions of a micron and itself weiqhs appror.imately 42 tons with an area of approximately 27 square meters. And this mirror must be firmly held and rotated. That means a movable support that excludes deformation of the mirror reflecting surface must ~lso be developed. And then on~ must 3ecide from what material to make the mirror .i.tself ar~d with what and how to machine it. 2'his technology did not exist previously. At today's level of science ~nd technoloqy with the endless variety af fields re- lated to each other, it is impossible to image a designer of such a multicomplex instrument as a modern telescope in isolation even one who is supertalented. 'I'hese problems ~an be solved only through the efforts of a large, friendly collec- tive of scientists, desiqners and investiqators joined together at the firm. That is why Bagrat Konstantinovich talks with qrest warmth about his own numerous col- _ leagues at the design office and about such prominent specialists in this field as N. S. Samofal, V. V. Bobashov, V. A. Kovalev, I. K. Pavlov, L. P. Karabutova, M. V. Lobachev, V. N. Pavlov and others who headed the group which made complex calcula- tions with wnprecedented accuracy of special relieving of the unique mirror on the support, preventinq defozmation of it. To aim such a giganti~ telescope more accurately and more rapidly, a complex tele- scope control system had to be developed which includes a digital control computer. And they developed this system and the control computer at the firm itself in one - of the laboratories which is managed by candidate of technical sciences Ye. N. Neplokhov. Bagrat Konstantinovich also notes many other names of scientists, en- gineers and technicians from the astronomical office itself and the workers and peogle of unprecedented skill and inexhaustible creative thought intimately asso- ciated with them. These are enqineers V. B. Labinskiy and B. G. Kovalev, engi.neers- assemblers I. M. Varvarkin, A. A. Nekrasov and F. M. Barkovskiy, young engineer G. I. Amur who managed the maGhining of the unique mirror and these are experienced "celestial optics" technician V. V. Oshurko, a researcher, and many others. An now a few words about sir,?ilar BTA telescopes developed at LOMO, also unique in their type. "we made tY:ree telescopes quite recently," relates the chief of the design office and chief designer of th~se telescopes V, V. Demidov, "which indicated the begin- ning of a new phase in astronomical instrument building." 20 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For example, take the AZT-12 telescope. This is a 1.5-meter mirror reflector. It has three optical systems. The first of them is a so-called primary focus system with quartz corrector designed to photograph elongater3 sections of the sky. The second system is used for observations by photographic, photometric and spe~toqraph- - ic methods. And the third system is needed to conduct spectral investigations. Transition from one optical system to the other is accomplished by simple repiace- ment of individual optical components. This is carried out automatically. There is also the AZT-11 telescope. It is totally automated. It is designed for ph~tometry of the luminous fluxes from stars. The main mirror has a light diameter of 1,250 millimeters. Aiming, trackinq and control of the observation process, in- put and output of filters, references and diaphraqms, photoqraphing the results and making corrections--all these many operations are completely automatic. And a special cybernetic machine controls the telescope. The memory of this machine is such that it permits an observation cycle of several hundred stars to be proqrammed and to make photometric measuremen~s of them during a single night! But this is already behind. - "And what is in the near future?" "In the very near future there is a solar telescope for the new solar 'service.' There is also a series of chromospheric telescope~. There is also a meridian disk for astronomical measurements." "What things new are being done at TsI~ tg accelerate the development of astronom- ical instruments?" "That is a valid question," says Demidov, "especially if one takes into account that the number and camplexity of problems in this field will increase sharply even dur- the current decade." Development of a single medium telescope 1.5 meters in diameter alone required 4-6 years in the past. If one takes into account the qrowinq rates of "moral" aqing of equipment, the problem ~f acceieration of development and introduction becomes one of the main conditions of technical proqress. We are faced with the problem of re- ducing the cycle of developing astronomical instruments to 1.5 to 3 years. And with the same if not fewer forces since a reduction in the development cycle should be "won" by skill rather than numbers. And we have concluded that standardization (even under conditions of individual production) becomes ane of the levers with which the periods of development and preparation of production and expenditures can- not only be reduced, but labor productivity and the quality of our instruments and thQir rzliability can also be increased. This is the main task in development of new instruments that are at the level of the best worldwide models and tnat some- times exceed this level. And the efforts of the astronomical instrument builders have been directed toward this task. However, we must knock on another door. 21 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR QFFICIAL USE ONLY Interview at the Special Desiqn Office of Miczoscopy = The fir~t microscopes were developed at Nurnberg more than 200 years ago. Many of these old-timers have been exhibited in Moscow at the Polytechnical Museum along- side modern microscopes. The tourguide, showing yoL their collection, says with a smile: "The difference between them is like that between a postal carriaqe and a spacecraft." A modern microscope is a most complicated device where electronics and automatics serve optics and this makes the microscope an irreplacea.ble instrument of investi- gatnrs in the most diversa fields of science, engineering, medicine and industry. To the question what sections of physical optics does the work of the office encom- pass, they answered me: all sections. The SKB of Microscopy produces the most dive rse microscopes: biol~gical, lumines- cent, ultraviolet, infrared, polarization, me tallographic, high-temperature and microscopes for nucle ar research and for mic roelectronics. The list of them is ~ very long. And there are also devices for mi crophotographic filming and micromovie The 5KB is a unique orqanization in the USS~ which is engaged in develop- ment ~f luminous microscopes of different de s ignations. The office also develops - measuring devices to investigate the roughnes s of machined surfaces and also works on development of devices for local microspectral analysis. One of the leading designers shows me an expe rimental model of the new MMR-4 micro- - scope. They have long been waiting for it at the metallurgical plants and at sci- entific research institutes. It is very important in manufacture of inetal to determine as accurately as possible _ the structure and dif ferent inclusions. The MMR-4 metallographic working microscope helps metallurqists to investigate more prec i sely the structure of alloys. It is equipped with optics with plane field--so-c~ 1 led plane optics. Due to this, the microscope clearly "sees" an object through the entire visual field, whre as its ~ predecessor produced a sharp image only in the center. . "How does standardization in microscope design appear in practice7 Here is at least one example." "An entire series of polarization microscope s was renovated during the Ninth Five- = Year Plan. Transmitted liqht microscopes--the MIN-8 and MIN-10 (for investigation of transparent minerals) and the reflected 1 i ght microscope--the MIN-9, designed to work with opaque minerals--have been replace d by standardized devices of the POL~M (expansion unknownJ type. The labor product i vity of geologists will be increased significantly by increasing the operating qualities, introducing new optical com- ponents and changing the design parameters.�' _ The designers, mathematicians and investigators of t'~e SKB are working on a broad topic of standardizing these microscopes. A group under the supervision of R. M. Raguzin manages the design part, investigations are conducted by the group of chief engineer A. I. Frez, optical systems are calculated by specialists headed by engineer T. A. Ivanova. Many microscopes developed by them have won the State Emblem of Quality. 22 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ "Does your SIB dev~elop on3.y microscopes?" "The thinking of designers and investigators of ~he SKB is directed toward develon- ment oE d~vices that considerably alleviate the work of geologists. For ex_~mpl,e, we are working on an integration device to measure tY~~ quantitative composition of minerals--a micror~fractometer that permits one to determine the refraction of flu-- ids and others." Incidenta?ly, it becomes ever more difficult to determine where a microscope ends in "~ure form" and where other devices begin since all modern optical devices are a com- plex installation and include both a microscope, spectral equipment and also laser - equipment. Incidentally, a word about the devices which the firm makes for geologists aad met- allurgists. There is among them one which is a"hybricl" microscope and laser. Its designation is microspectral analysis. Geologists have discovered, for exa~le, a hardly discernible point--impregnation-- in a rock specimen. This is possibly a substance or mineral, a trace of which they are seeking. But try to extract it to make an analysis. The problem is solved simply by using the device: the specimen is placed under a microscope coupled with a laser and this valuable point is found and the crosshairs visible in the micro- scope are aimed at it. This means that the laser is also aimed at the paint. A flash and the impregnation is converted to steam while a spectrograph (it is also contained~in the device) records the composition of these vapors. This is a"three in one" device for you: a microscope-spectrograph-laser. But lasers are another matter of the SKB. On the Trail of the Magic Ruby Yes a laser is now known to everyone. During childhood many love to amuse them- - selves with a magnifying glass and to ignite a sheet of paper with the rays of the sun. One or several watts of power are produced during this. Modern physicists who utilize light rays in their work have learned how to conaentrate power of 100,000 kilowatts on a single square centimeter. The temperature of the light spot reaches 100 million degrees. The thinnest light beam drills through diamond within a fraction of a second. Impressive data! The operating principle of the laser is quite simple. A crystal ruby rod is placed alongside a powerful flash lamp. The ends of the rod have a coating. The electrons in the ruby atom~ are set into oscillatinq motion due to the light pulses until the beam generated by them breaks through a narrow aperture in one of the doped ends of the crystal. They sketched tl^.e circuit at the desiqn office and I saw a laser in operation in the demonstration hall of the firm. It is demonstrated to touring s~hool children and in their presence the laser beam drills through a metal plate which the lads and lasses take with them as a treasured souvenir. Industrial production of lasers was first developed at LOMO with the assistance of scientists of the State Optical Institute and peaceful lasers desiqned for our - 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY industry and medicine were also develaped at LOMO. Surgeons call them bloodless scalpels. The most delicate operations on the eyes are made with these remarkable instruments and oncologists use 'them successfully. 'I'he lasez design office is the youngest in the firm because this field of technol- ogy is also very young. And the chief designer is comparatively young and we walk with him into one of the optical shops to watch the birth of a laser. A worker brought a ruby rod from a case. He was supposed to machine its ends with very high accuracy. I saw those people who were atte:ntively following numerous instruments. The people studied all parameters of newborn lasers, noted the slightest deviations from the norms and i~nediatel~ decided what to do to eliminate these deviations. This was also the main task of the adjusters. Workers--but the level of problems which they solved was an engi.neering level that requires broad theoretical knowledge. The laser adjusters, like adjusters of other, most camplex devices at LOMO, are usually people with an engineering education or are students of vuzes. Behind each door are enthusiasts and developers of models of new equipment, new _ devices and apparatus which are thought up here, calculated and acquire the first outlines in drawings. Incidentially, almost all the movie theaters in the Soviet Union are equipped with movie projectors with the mark LOMO and the sound engineering equipment developed - and created at LOMO--the largest USSR enterprise in production of modern apparatus for creation and showing of movie films--is used in almost all movie th~aters and - in all the largest concert halls of the Soviet Union. The deputy chief of the TsKB Tamara Mikhaylovna Senchugova talks about this: "The engineering pxocess of devel~~ing a film is very complex. Different devices-- preliminary sound recording equipment, c~ubbing and duplication. Sound amplifica- tion equipment, modern microphones and loudspeakers are required for movie concert halls and places of entiertainment. The specialized design office develops all these these devices. The best specialists were concentrated in the office during organization of the firm. This made it possible to carry out developments at rapid rates and at a high technical level. For example, the essentially new apparatus Zvuk reproduces the sound of ordinary and wide-format films. Its sets are designed for the most diverse outputs. And they can also be used for operating with an ordinary microphone, tape recorder, radio receiver or phonograph--in general, in the widest range of operations. The Zvuk immediately forced out many expensive amplifying devices of different types. They were immediately taken out of production. The new apparatus is n~ore improved but is simpler to manufacture. It is designed on the basis of standardized units-- 24 FOR OFFICIA[, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY pr~liminary amplification, power supply, loudspeaker heads and so on. Standardiza- tion makes it possible to use a progressive technology, efficient orqanization of - labor and naturally leads to an increase of productivity in the shops and also ~ makes it convenierit to operate. Movie theaters and clubs have received an interesting innovation during the past - few years. The KZVP-10 universal portable sound-reproduaing device was developed and put into serial production. It is designed to serve movie theaters and clubs with capacity up to 200 viewers and also for mobile movie installations which num- ber up to 150,000 in the country. This is a small, transistorized device designed on the modular principle. The Solist mobilQ sound engineering equipment, which is designed to serve stage presentations, was first developed in the country at this SKB. Cinematographers who must frequently coaduct filming during expeditions are assisted by the Ritm-2 tape recorder, designed to record speech and music under full-scale filming conditions. A special recordinq console that permits 10 pieces of equipment to be switched on simultaneously (monitored by the sound angineer) offers great op- portunities to sound operaters. - 'I'he SKB has conciueted considerable research to improve the sound amplifying equip- ment which is designed for multipurpose halls. It now completely provides stereo- - phonic and monopho,~ic sound amplification and sound reproduction when showing wide- format, wide-screen ,3nd ordinary movie films having magnetic ana photographic sound tzacks. Unique sound amplification equipment has been installed in the large Kremlin palace, in the building of the Presiditun of the USSR Supreme Soviet and in the reception building. - The design office develops standardized sound engineering apparatus for recording, re-recording and copying magnetic sound tracks. Integrated circuits and transistors will be used in the electroniC units. "we now have everythir:g for successful operation," continues Tamara Mikhaylovna Senchugova, "the firm makes availnble to us a special acoustic test room and a re- search center of the laboratory." Now work, create and bravely experiment. The Great Grandsons of Fotokor The reader knows already that one of the first Soviet cameras--ttie Fotokor with - bellows camera--was born during the prewar years in the shops of GOMZ. Now millions of modern cameras--grandsons of the Fotokor with the mark LOMO--are in the hands of amateur photographers not only in the USSR, but in many countries of the world-�England, Italy, West Germany and others. According to general acknowl- edgement, ZOMO cameras are now superior to the products of some foreign countries 25 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONi.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in their class in quality and, which is no less important, in cost. A number of models and mockups ~f the latest cameras can be seen in the camera SIB and one can _ meet their developers. How many generations of amateur photographers dreamed ahout an automatic camera which would free them from selecting the exposure time and diaphragm size prior to taking a picture. And many factors must be taken into account to correctly deter- � mine these values: brightness, contrast, the light sensitivity of the film and so on. Hence there are 'frequent uncorrectable errors which not only amateur photographers but professional photographers as well make. "Our desiqners," they related to me at the camera SKB, "helped to a significant de- _ gree in making the dream of amateur photogr~phers come true by developing the Sokol camera." - The required shutter speed is set prior to filming. It is known that a fast shutter speed of approximately 1/250 or 1/500 second must be set when filming moving sub- jects, while the shutter speed has no significance when filming a landscape but in - this case it is very impcrtant to set the aperture size so that the depth of image sharpness is increased when the object is diaphragmed. An automatic camera selects the diaphragm size for the set shutter speed. If the amateur has set an incorrect shutter speed for which the necessary diaphragm cannot be selected, the automatic camera corrects the error. LOMO designers went further, having developed the world's first five-program auto- matic camera with preliminary information in the viewfinder on the actual values of shutter speeds and diaphragms. The amateur only has to lightly press the start but- - ton prior to filming and the digital values of shutter speed and diaphraqm appear in the viewfinder which the automatic camera triggQrs. The developers of the Sokol camera have obtained an i.nventor's certificate foz it in the USSR and LOMO has patented it in France arid Japan. Moreover, this camera was awarded important gold medals at VDNKh (Exhibition of Achievements of the National EconomyJ of the USSR and at the International Leipzig Trade Fair. And despite this, the joint work of designers and technicians is persistently continuing at the~design office on improving the operational characteristics, on simplifying the design an3 - on reducing the cost of the camera. The enthusiastic designers are ready to talk continuously about the newest and lat- est camPras for amateurs. This includes their contribution to fulfillment of the socialist pledges o.*"_ Leningrad workers to assimilate producti.on and produce new con- sumer goods. Ar,~ong the new goods is also a family of modern, reliable amateur movie cameras, the Avrora. "The Avrora-14 is the latest representative of the so-called simple class of movie cameras," explains the chief designer N. I. Panchenko. And here he notes with a smile: "However, what does simple class mean in our time? The amateur movie 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY photographer needs a convenient and simple camera. The new camera also meets these requirements. It is supplied with the most complex systems which ensure filminq or. color and black-white 8-millimeter movie film of super-8 type. Cartridqe loading - of the camera is used for the first time. This is a great convenience for ama~eur movie makers. An objective with variable focal distance was used �or the fixst time in a camera of this class. This permits the scale o~ the image to be changed during filming a large background and to diversify the film." " Even prior to production of the last model, the movie camera had reca.eved high marks of Soviet and foreign amateur movie makers. Here is just one lettPr from England: "Gentlemen, last year I acquired your movie camera Avrora. Until now I had never - made amateur films. I found that the camera is simple to handle. My first film was quite acceptable. I feel that I should thank your association for developing such an inexpensive and good design of a camera. I hope that I can make even more ama- - teur films. B. J. King, London." Those Who Saddled the Rainbow The rainbow, the rainbow--it is long ar oused not only the fantasy of poets but the _ thinking of scientists as well. Scientists have established that this intriguing arc is nothing more than refraction of light and splitting of it into the spectrum. De- velopers of spectral instruments which now find the widest application in all kinds of scientific research and to monitor various production processes, make use of this phenomenon. - Y~vgeniy Ivanovich Lebedev has for many years headed the specialized design office of spectral instruments, without which progress in different spheres of modern sc~- ence and technology, from metallurgy to medicine and chemistry, would now be prac- - tically impossibie. Yevgeniy Ivanovich is in his forties. He is a broad-shoulde~ed and broad-faced man with cheerful hazel eyes. In 1944 his father enrolled him in the plant technical school where they trained aptical specialists. Yevgeniy was attracted to optics. Not having yet defended his diploma, student Lebedev, who had only turned 18, was assigned to work in the plant design office. Together with the other enqineers, he was immediately entrust- ed with developing an optical device. An the facets of his talent wei:e here: independence, initiative and creative daring! In the shop the metal workers and enqineers assembled a device "f~om paper." They are the first advisers, consultants and critics. Since then there has remained a special attachment, a special partiality and trust in these consultants in the work shops. But even long before Lebedev received a vuz diploma, the young designer was siun- moned by the then chief of the design office, who said with a smile: "Be glad, Lebedev. It has been decided to appoint y~u the leader in the qroup who will develop the IKS-15." 27 , FOR OFF[CIAL USE CDNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICCAL USE ONLY "The IKS is an infr~red spectrophotometer. A completely new model of a device, more improved to determine and measure the chemical composition of matter, had to be developed. These devices were rec~uired for research institutes studying the stzuCture and quality of materials." - The future device was represented by an entire complex in which both optics, mechan- ics and electronics would be combined. When the IKS-15 was born, an entire collec- tive labored on it--engineer Nikolay Sergeyevic~ Golyandin was responsible for the electronics, Neonila Ivanovna Ivanova, a specialist in physics, conducted physical investigations and Natal'ya Sergeyevna Moskaleva supervised the investigations. But Lebedev remained the leader. He was responsible for joining all the systems into a unified organism and for givinq the device its final form. And his word was last in all debates, inevitable during creative search. After LoMO was formed, the SI~ acquired well-organized and equipped scientific re- search laboratories: electrical engineering, aptical-physics and diffraction grat- ings. Ye. I. Lebedev headed the SKB which now reminds one in scope and scales of activity more of a large scientific research and design organization. What are they now doing, what are they working on and what are they developing? - Yevgeniy Ivanovich shows an installation connected to a gray metal housing, inside is hidden a secret miraculous rainbow. What is it for? Now imagine an open-hearth shop and a molten flow of steel filling a gigantic ladle. eut before releasing the steel from the furnace, one must find out whether it is ready or not and whether it will receive the mark which it has been given. This was previously done thusly: a sample of steel, was taken with a special ladle and the metallurgist guessed "by eye" and by color whether or not it was time to pour it. This was in the past. The development of inetallurgy now r~quires precise and objec- tive analyses. And chemistry came to the aid in this case. But the foundry worker at the open hearth waited for 30 zninutes to an hour until the chemical. laboratory provides an answer. As a result the process itself was delayed. Chemical analysis took too long. But could it not be dnne more quickly? Zt could. Metallurgists take a sample of steel and receive a precise answer about - the quality of inetal within minutes by using a spectral quantometer. The special- - ists figure tha~_ if quantometers could be universally introduced into metallurgy, the productivity of smelting would be increased considerably. "Metallurgists were pleased with our device," says Lebedev, "but even so this de- vice required too much time. Follow the pointers on the scale, take the readings - and calculate from special graphs." 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400400080019-9 FOR OF~iCIAL USE ONLY And a group of designers developed a special automatic electronic device. And they equipped the new quantometer with it. Now it not only makes an analysis within 3-4 minutes, but automatically issues an answer in written form on a form: the percen- taqe of manganese, sulphur, nickel and so on. The long row of desks in the SKB is just like sailboats arranged near a dock wall. Every draft of the assignment is sent directly from the drawing board to the exper- imental shop, is converted into a model, then into an experimental prototype and again undergoes inv~stigations in laboratories until it receives authorization for serial production. ~ For example, the t~'S-5 is a new type of quantometer. It predicts whether it is time for an article, machine or engine to undergo major overhaul. Only a drop of oil taken from the engine subject to checking is required for this. And the degree of wear will be determined instantaneously. Yevgeniy Ivanovich shows letters from the depot of Vologda Station: "Your N~'S-5 monitors the condition of 300 diesel locomotives. The saving is approximately - 100,000 rubles annually." And this is at one depot alone. Somewhat later I am in the shop of assembler-metal worker Yuriy Ivanovich Murav'yev, = who developed the first of these devices and explained its operating principles. He related how oil specimens ignite and metal residues are detected during this and how the device fixes the percentage of inetal saturation of the spent lubricant. And the developers of this device--engineers I. Trilestnik, M. Fridman, N. Sidoruk, A. Livshits and S. Orlov--have long been working on new, more improved models of the device. The first device is only a starting point. workers of the Lebedev SKB designed a spectrophotometer for medical workers. The . devices makes a diagnosis rapidly and without error. Take, for exampl.e, a throm- bosis or hemorrhage. ~ And I would also like to note one characteristic feature of the spectral SI~. Lebedev recalled a case which caused serious speculation among the designers. Once a new universal quantometer was installed at one of the metallurgical plants. Be- fore shipping it, it had been carefully tested and checked at the firm. The device operated perfectly. And suddenly there was the alann bell: the device was not op- erating! A colleague of the SKB flew iinnediately to the place. What was wrong? And the fact was that the person did not really !cnow how to work with such a com- plex device. Printed-circuit designs, even the most detailed, were inadequate. The least inaccuracy and the dev~ce Eailed. They decided that the operators shoul~ be trained at the firm. That is to say at - the primary sources. And so representatives from Moscow, Izhevsk and Donetsk were in the SKB laboratories. And engineer-researcher Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Podmo- shenskaya, one of the developers of the quantometer, conducts exercises with the operators. A dependable device should be in dependable hands! And when does custody of the Si~ over its child generally end? 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "This is not a simple question," says Yevgeniy Ivanovich. "After all you can't pre- d~ct everything and toresee everything beforehz~nd. Take the DFS-10 quantometer. It seemed to the designers that everything in it was "absolute". But the device op- erated for some time in the metallurgical shop and it suddenly became cleaz that dust, despite special protection, still penetrates onto the optical mirrors. And this means that they must be carefully cleaned from time to time, but the coating is w~orn away with this. And the concerns of the investigators again begin anew: . what to do? What should be done? Formally we are perhaps not responsible. ~ How- ever, we cannot act on the principle: "Once the customer accepts it our duty is done." our investigator requests the assistance of the electrovacuum laboratory of - the firm: the mirrors must be enclosed in a reliable protective layer. And they search, test and set up experiments immediately in this laboratary. Finally they find the method. And the optical mirrors are enclosed in a st ronq protection." Yevgeniy Ivanovich rAlates how literally every day ever highe r requirements are placed on the quality of modern spectrophotometry. The range of customers is ex- panding continuously and each has their own specific requirements. I saw a list of new customers. The Scientific Research Institute of Cardiology, the Alma-Ata Airport and the Belgrad Vitamin Plant, ttie Aqricultural Experiment Station in the Ukraine and the institute of ~bstetrics and Gynecology in Georqia request spectrophotometers. Tens of new and the most different devices in innunierable ver- - sions are required. Are now the limits of the SKB too confined for this? "This is a flexible concept--confined or not confined. we look at this thusly: the more diverse the instruments which we develop, the more flexible and more eff~cient - should be the approach to solution of any creative problem. Thase high requirements which are placed; ].et us say, on spectrophotometers, can be satis~ied primarily by "families" of instruments that solve different problems on the basis of a single baseline instrument rather than by development of new models and consequently stan- dardization of numerous assemblies and parts is necessary. There are immediately many advantages here both for production and engineering." Incidentally, this standardization made it pessible for a gro up of 5KB designers to develop a thematic plan ahead of schedule for yet another mark of ultraviolet ~ spectrophotometer. A step was then made toward improvement of spectrographs. The designers developed and created for them special photoelectrometric recording accessories. And it . turned out that many research institutes had no reason to acquire the expensive new - instr:unents. It was sufficient only to acquire the accessory. Thus, yet anothe~ feature of this collective of designers of little importance was manifested: con- cern not only about the economy of their own SKB or their own firm, but also about the economic interests of all for whom they work. Concern about economy pushed toward a new important directio:Y in the work of the SI~ designers--a reduction of the metal consumption of iristruments. They do not conduct a campaign because of some sloqan, but from sober thrifty calculation. After all, for example, tons of pig iron are expended on massive castings for the bases of instruments alone. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Lebedev and his colleagues began to calculate not only the excess weight of inetal but also the excess time and escess labor of the machine tool operators which is expended on machi:�;inq the heavy castings. And it was suggested that they reject ~ these castings and replace them with a design from sheet metal. Initially there was much concern even about this. An unusual approachl But even so the latest model of the IKS-25 spectrophotometer sits on a sheet rather than on a cast iron foundation and the results are excellent. And at the same time tons of cast iron are saved from being machined into cuttings. As you can see, the people "who have sadd~ed the rainbaw'� have their feet on the ground, but sober thrifty calculation does not interfere in any way with the flight of creative thoughtl An excursion through the engineering buildinq is similar to an excursion into the world of the latest modern technology of instrument building from its very sources, where it is "created," where unusual monitoring and measurinq instruments begin their journey from the drawing board to the real world. Here is an instrument for measuring the ci.i.ameters of quartz tubes by the contactless method, here is an inter- ference inside miarometer designed to measure openings with accuracy up to 0.1 micron, an automatic dividing machine for high-frequency hatchure gauges, an auto- matic scale monitoring device and mockups of video tape recorders for the country's television centers. It is difficult to imagine that all this innumerable variety of the most complex equipment is created at one enterprise and at the highest level too. What are the most pressing problems common for the entire TsKB that are being solved today? "One of the mQSt pressing problems," relates the chief engineer of the TsI~, is universal introduction of microelectronics into design of ~ptical instruments and equipment. This alone will ensure th~ir high reliability and will reduce the weight of many instruments by a factor of tens. The laboriousness of equipment manufacture will be reduced through extensive use of inteqrated microcircuits. The problems are many and complex, but they are solvable. 31 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY THE FIF2M CONDUCTS RESEARCH What is a mod~rn enterprise and a modern production association7 Today these are not oniy shops which are saturated with automatic lines, machine tools with program control and remote control devices but these are also design offices and scientific research laboratories. The joining of production and science has entered the epic of the scientific and technical revolution as one of the main indicators of ~he time. . New production process~s, neW materials and new designs are being developed in in- dustry ever more frequently through their own efforts. An examgle of this is the Leningrad 4ptical-Mechanical Association imeni V. I. Lenin. There are many doctors and candidates af sciences here. The design offices and laboratories of the firm are ever closer to the level of scientific research insti- tutes ~n the scope and scale of their activity and in their practical results. A designer-scientist working in industry is now a widespread phenomenon. �These are people who combine high theoretical training and the capability of independent re- search with the grasp of managers and with extensive knowledge of the characteris- tics of serial produ~tion in the fine points of its technology. They also now emerge as leaders in the ~ompetition of Leningrad workers to reduce the deadlines for developcnent and introduction of the new begun at the initiative of the leading associations. I shall atte~t to talk in these features about two engineer-researchers of LOMO _ who participate in solution of this problem. ~ Fomenko, "Who Can Do Everything" T::ere is absolute quiet behind an ordinary door with an ordinary nameplate "Electro- ~,a cuum Laboratory" if one does not consider the low conversation of 2-3 persons in cream-colored smocks. You look around and everywhere glass or metal domes and domes ~ of the most diverse sizes and shapes, transparent and opaque, flash. Then somewhere aside you notice the blinking of small different colored lamps on a console. - My escort, an elderly stocky person with very kind blue-gray eyes, Pavel Nikolaye- vich Fomenko, conducts me now downward past enormous black cylinders, now along a narrow steep stairway, now upward onto a platform from which you can see the blink- ing hemisphere of a gigantic disk. Fomenko's movements are light and precise and he enthusiastically points out the most diverse equipment and fantastic installations. 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus we complete an amazing excurions: here under each dome or rather under each cap a small "cosmos" has been created, that is, the air has been pumped out with - special suctior. equipment and the same maximum degree of vacuum has been crated as in circumterrestrial orbits. Under these secret caps installed on heavy slabs, glass castings polished with maximum precision, of different sizes and shapes, make planetary motions with the aid of the most precise mechanisms. And the glass under these same caps is bombarded by billions of aluminum, tungsten or gold molecules. The molecules are "blown off" from metal coils or rods through which an electric - current passes. There is nothing threatening about them since there is no oxygen _ in ~ vacuum and they cannot burn or become oxidized and nothing interferes with their flight since there are no counter molecules of air in their path and they settle firmly on tize bright polished surface of the glass and are transformed into the th~nnest, imperceptible film fractions of a micron thick. This film transforms the glass into truly magic mirrors which aze installed in a special microscope to penetrate the secrets of the structure of a cell or into powerful telescopes to trap the glow of remote stars and galaxies. Optical mirrors different in design, shapes and sizes are required for hundreds of modern optical instruments most di- verse in golds and designation. Unt il these mirrors were developed there could be no talk about modern optical in- struments. But until they mastered and assimilated in industry the creation of - the thinnest and most precise films by means of the electrovacuum method of coating, ' it was impossible to dresm seriously about manufacture of these mirrors. These films were first assimilated and introduc:ed at LOMO. One of the main enthus- iasts of development, introduction and creation of these and many other optical films, the author of the mo~t important inventions in this field, i5 winner of the state prize Pavel Nikolayevich Fomenko. The electrovacuum laboratory which he has undoubtedly headed for many years is his ch ild and his pride. The name of the future engineer-researcher first appeared in the press in 1937. But this had no relationship whatever to his occupation. They wrote about him as about a master in classical wrestling. It turned out th:~t Fomenko, wno is now 70 years old, was among the 10 strongest wrestlers of the Soviet Union in the semi- he avyweight class and occupied no lower than fifth plac~ in the championships of the country. And before this he was a boxer for two years. = But the chief attraction of the young Pavel Fomenko was always engineering. First in the small town of Tetkino near Sumami, where his father worked in the rural mill an d then at a sugar plant as a fitter-machinist, then in construction, where he liked the occupation of installer. And later he worked in the university laboratory. Pavel Fanenko liked everything only he hadn't formed his own character. Once he went into the forest with his father hunting--he didn't raise his weapon. His father joked: "Look, the rabbits are amazed at you. They are running around in front of your nose and you are still looking for mushrooms and berries." 33 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 NOR OFFICIAL USE OtiLY After being admitted to the physics faculty of LGU [Leningrad State University], Pavel simultaneously decided to "develop his character." The studies were easy and as is known, his character was being hardened if one cvercom~s the difficulties. On the advice of his friends, Pavel engaged in classical wrestling. It is not known whether Pavel Nikolayevich's character was changed or whether it needed to be changed, but the physical hardeninq prepared him for the future. A boy from the remote Ukrainian countryside intelligently solved the most complex problems. Once Professor Vladimir Ivanovich Pavlov, who at that time taught elec- tronics theory, entering the faculty laboratozy where practical exercises were usu- ally conducted, suddenly turzed his attention to the electronic instruments. How much time they had not operated, gathering dust and being inoperational. And even so there were not enough people or skilled masters who could repair them. And here they are standing in complete workinq order ready for operation. "Who did this?" asked the amazed professor. "I," timidly answered Fomenko and thought with alarm: Have I broken something? "Have you previously worked on such instruments?" "No," admitted Fomenko and began to justify himseZf: "They were simply interesting to me . " Pavlov smiled and continued: "Would you like to work at the Institute of Applied Physics? As a laboratory technician. It is right alongside. If so, then come to me tomorrow." It wasn't far to walk. The laboratory of the institute was then located in the university courtyard. Fomenko's duties were fo:-merly simple--to assist the scie~.- tists in conducting investigations. Academician Sergey Eduardovich Frish capitvated him with problpms in the theozy of light, spectroscopy and geometric optics. Fomenko grasped the prospects and prac- tical possibilities that had been opened up on the mutual positions of electronics, optics and chemistry. He was the first to encounter the first attempts to apply films to optical glass under high-vacuun? conditions. He was very interested in this. And he did not think at that time that his whole life would be devoted to this f ield. The university graduate was seemingly given an honored appointment--to teach at the industrial academy. He taught physics and higher mathematics there f o r several years but his heart ached for something different and he was attracted to research. After all the daring fellow noted precisely that he who accumulates knowledqe and does not use it is like a man who plows but does not sow. And there was a happy encounter with Shoshin. Ivan Alekseyevich Shoshin, a scien- tist of many talents who at that time was the scier.tific manager of the design of- fice at GCM'L and a university instructor, was distinguished by yet another quality: he loved talented people and brought them to the plant. 34 FOR OFFICIA~, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY He had no difficulty in convincing hia former student, about which they said at the university that he has a clear head and sk;lled han d s, to come to GOMZ as an en- gineer-researcher in the department of the chief techrxician. They tried in the modest laboratory to manufac~ure by the cottage industry method a vacuum installation for coatings and tried to apply silver to mirror glass. Fomenko was immediately involved in research work. As an ir.ate engineer, he noted the imperfection of the first vacuum installations and equipment and suggested that they be modified. At the same time he was involved in other problems, including one of the timely prorlems at that time--magnetic flaw detection. It turned out - that very important parts, immaculately machined, suddenly broke and failed under loads under a press or when rot~ted at high rpm's. How could they check beforehand whether ther~ was a hidden defect or crack in these parts? Fomenko recalled a prediction described in one of the scientific papers: the properties of permanent magnetic permeability may be useful for flaw detection. if one can magnetize metal and cover it with iron oxide powder, the powder will he arranged in parallel lines on a"healthy" surface. And the lines will follow a crack hidden in the interior and will be bent on the same surface. Fomenko began investigations and worked out a method and practical method and hand- book on magnetic flaw detection. A special instrument was developed which techni- cians jokingly called a "Fomenkascope." Fomenko remained in Leningrad during the blockade. He was the last among the plant staff to be evacuated. The order was issued: the remaining specialist opticians were to be used in work for the front. Combat vessels urgently needed special non- magnetic instruments at *_hat time. "If they need them, we will make them," an- swered the opticians. On one of the days the warehouse where the necessary machinery for these instru- ments was stored burst into flames, ignited by fascist bombs. And t7ien Fomenko together with his comrades rushed to the burning warehouse. The necessary mechan- isms had to be saved. Production of nonmagnetic instruments for combat vessels was organized. And again an important question arose: where to obtain transport to deliver the parts? There was no fuel and almost all the vehicles were at the front and there was no one to drive them either. The only lorry was a gas transporter which "puffed and blew" and stopped frequently. The driver was unable to start it. He cranked it in front by hand in the old fashion. Who had the strength? They asked him, the former wrestler, Fomenko! Here at one time was accumulated some strength! Fomenko did this willingly, but like a true engineer, fiqured that the efficiency from this effort was not so high. And what would happen if he himself sat behind the wheel? And he learned how! He received an official driver's license. And the engineer-researcher, "who held more than one office," took the wheel, as they would say now, "like he was born to it." 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 I~OR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y But what is one machine for a plant? And once in the plant yard a gas-delivery truck of completely unique design began to ratt le in tha plant yard. It was Fomenko's desiqn. ~ie collected parts, assembl i es and components from former trucks at dumps and along the sides of the roads to th e front. This was probably the _ first case in history when an optician had buil t a truck. This now sounds like an amusing curiosity. But at that time the Fomenko truck labored quite successfully in lumber procurement. Later, toward the end of the war, Pavel Nikolayevich, with the firm reputation of a person "who could do everything," supervised construction of the plant railroad branch. 'I'hus, during one of the most severe days of the blockade he made a"invaluable" gift to his comrades for tY?ose times. They opened the ,r_pwspaper and in it was - fresh breami Where did this miracle come from? Did God send it or did it create itself? Inci- _ dentally, it is obviously no accident that Fomenko can do everything. They found out accidentally that there was a f ish artel at Lakhta, and people go there only once or twice. And theze are wages there which nature pays out. He hired himself out. As the strongest one, he manned to oars. The remainder let out or drew in the net. He was soon "elevated" ancl became the brigade leader on the boat. He worked all night. He slept a maximum of th ree hours. And in the morning he came to the plant as if nothing had happen~d and beqan to fulfill his numerous duties. . Once Ivan Alekseyevich Shoshin, excited and joyful., came up to him. ~ "Pavel Nikolayevich, that's enough! There is a time to finish and a*ime to begin." "I didn't know that it was time far me to finish." "It's time for you to finish everything unrela ted to electrovacuum eguipment. And it's time to begin every thing related to it. We will obtain the equipment. Ebery- thing--suitable or not, complete or not, I c3on't know. Disassemble it yourself. Besides yourself, there are no other vacuum specialists. You will have to begin from the beginning. This is a new sectionl" The days and niqhts were the same for Fomenko. An a small, close room similar to nothing more than a production section rather than te a laboratory, he assembled each device, evaporators, transformers and fil ters, frequently even without draw- - ings, simply on the intuition of a born engineer. At the same time he developed the production technology and equipment for manufacture of various coatings, in- cluding clear films for the most important models of optical equipment which they nad begun to develop at that time. Zt is easy to say to develop. Sut with whom? They gave him several teenagers for assistants at thaL time and he talked of hi.mself as their "kindergarten." 36 FOR OFFIC[AL LISE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Nevertheless, he taught each one with envious persistence, giving each one as be- fore his boundless energy and teaching them love for a difficult, very difficult occupation that requires maximum attention, concentration and a special feeZing. The young boys and girls from Fomenko's "kindergarten" imperceptibly grew under his � - instruction into qualified masters and later became prominent specialists. And now they are leading eagineers of the firm--Vladimir Nikolayevich Skorodumov, Georgiy Fedorovich Zubov, Ivan R,omanovich Aipolotov and many others and they are now in- volved in development of larqe mirrors and the most powerful telescopes. The tasks of the "laboratory-section" were expanded and newer and newer specialists were required. One feature of Fomenko's character also helped. He knew how to re- cruit and ignite with his energy and attraction people of different occupations. _ Soon enthusiastic researchers were working alongside him--Larisa Yakovlevna Pinskaya, Nikolay Fedorovich Makarov, Shmul' Abramovich Furman, Nina Alekseyevna Malinina and others. It seemed the simplest th~ngs required experiment and creativity. How does one position or place a part under a vacuum cap to spray its surface with tungsten? How does one evaporate chromium so that its film protected aluminum against oxidation and how does a layer of protective zinc sulphide behave on glass3 Can a tungsten coil evaporate in a quartz cone? This and much more must be known to design the most sensitive bolometer device that - permits one to record invisible heat rays. One must also gain the interest and re- cruit consultants from the Physicotechnical Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, for this. This is one aspect. And on the other hand, one must seek out a magician- glass blower who would Glearly understand that he must ~reate from glass for an in- strument that has never before existed. Fomenko found both the scientist and the glass blower. Moreover, Sokrat Yevgen'ye- vich Gur'yanov--the oldest master glass blower from the optical shop--brouqht in trustied assistants--two of his sons Leonid and Aleksandr. Fomenko had to be directly a researcher and a"coordinating center" between scien- tists, designers and workers in one person. The instrument which physicists-scien- - tists were awaiting so nuch was developed within a very short deadline: within one month ! An enormous role in development of the scientific and technical revolution belongs to modern optics and consequently to electrovacuum technology. Improved.optical devices and optical instruments are beinq developed, by means of which ane can in- vestigate the earth's in terior, the structure of inetal and can aim the most power- ~ ful telescopes into L-he sky. - The new electrovacuum labor~tory, which it was suggested that Pavel Nikolayevich Famenko head, began to be developed with the birth of LOMO. Fomenko was somewhat per~lexed. He had not worked in his own laboratory for ~hree years. Bagrat Konstantinovich Ioannisiani, the chief telescope designer, - "called" Fomenko to his office. Pavel Nikolayevich was involved at that time ex- - clusively with astronomical mirrors. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OF'FIC1A1, USE ONLY At first it was necessazy to develop some special types of reflective and protective coatings for the unique mirrors. Because nothing similar had ever been done beiore in ~he country. There were attempts to order these mirrors from abroad. The Lenin- grdd opticians decided to make them themselves. A special design office was created to which Fomenko also transferred in order to be exclusively involved in the diffi- cult and complex problem ~f large telescope mirrors. Zbgether with the researchers, the designers made preliminary calculations and sub- stantiated the specifications. They made a rough calculation of the unusual instal- lation which had never before been done in Europe at that time. Who can manufacture it for us? It was suggested that one of the Gor'kiy plants could. Fomenko travel- led specially to Gor'kiy with all data for the detail design. when the installation arrived, Pavel Nikolayevich Fomenko headed the qroup of en- gineers that installed it. He had to ascertain personally that each lead, each joint and each assembly i.n the evaporator, each tiny screw and rod, all the count- less components for the electric discharges were in the most complex system under the gigantic hood made for the first time of special grades of stainless steel rather than glass, and that everything was in place. That is the nature of Pavel Nikolalevich. But the telescope for the Crimea and the telescope for the Caucasus had already been installed. And F~menko sets out ~n a trip to see how his "mirrors" are behaving. The Order of the Red Banner of Labor, which he was awarded in 1961, reminds Pavel Nikolayevich of those stormy and hot days. w'hile they were building the new laboratory, in planning and equipping of which Fomenko participated most actively, Pavel Nikolayevich set up an experiment in the optical shop and recruited prominent scientists to participate in the developments, trained personnel and even when he "moved" to the ne:v large laborato~y flf the engin- eering building, part of the optical shop continued to remain nis unique branch. Accelerated work was begun to develop coatings on special mirrors in optical devices that separate narrow spectral regions "upon order." Together with a group of his coll~agues, he is developing and putting production so-called interference filters required in quantum electronics, photometry, microscroscopy and various fields of instrument~building. The work of the firm laboratory acquires such a scope and scale that people bec~an to come here from the most diverse cities of the country, optical enterprises and institutes for consultations,to borrow the ex~erience and for joint scientific work. The remarkai~le perfection of the technoloqy for applying a film to astronomical mir- rors strongly interested many scientific institutions. Thus, the firm's laboratory became the epicenter of scientific developments for all the country's optical enter- prises related to solution of similar problems. Here are the lines from one letter ;and there are many of them) addressed to the general director of LOhiO M. P. Panfilov: "The Institute of High-Energy Physics thanks LOMO for the excellent quality of making mirrors for wor:cing in the ultra- violet region of the spectrum, required to conduct scientific research on the worlfl's largest proton accelerator. And it requestsyou to express gratitude to the 38 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 F(DR ONFI(.'IAi_ USF: ONI.Y direct e:cecutors--chief of the electrovacuum laboratory P. N. Fomenko, deputy chief of the laboratory M. A. Furman and chief engineer A. A. Metel'nikov." But for him this is a phase that has already been passed. The search continues. And now Fomenko heads a creative group which is seeking a method of applying a uniaue film in a vacuum on a six-meter mirror already installed in a strong metal support. Otherwise the very thin reflecting layer may be damaged. This is an en- tire epopee related to development of a completely new technique of inetal coating of mirrors and development of special evaporators for application of an aluminum layer one-tenth of a micron thick. More~ver, there is the problem of strengthening this layer and also of cleaning the future mirror whose surface sh~uld be super sterile. If even a small piece of dust invisible to the eye falls on the coating it becomes an eyesore on the ideal surface of the mirror and will make a rough error in the coeffir.ient of reflection and may spoil the mirror. And the workers of Fomenko's laboratory must successfully solve these problems. The ~ large computer complex developed at LOMO renders invaluable assistance to them in this case. The computer selects 10 of a thousand possible versions and suggests them to the investigators. It is of course much easier to select the one, most suitable version from 10 versions. Fomenko jokes: "If this proceeds any fur.ther, we will become totally lazy and then what will we do with our time." , But the electrovacuum workers have no free time. Experiment generates new possibil- ities. And the most unexpected ones at thaL�. For example, they reportecl from the Chamber of Commerce that cameras with the mark LOMO--Smena, Sokol, Avrora and others--were enjoying popularity on the world market. But they must now be made even better. They should have an especially illuminated obj~ctive which permits one to take pictures without the least distortion of light. Exceptional accuracy is required here. Because variation of the thickness of the coating by the most negligible fraction of a micron--one-tenth or one-hundredth-- already produces an error. But there were not only production difficulties here. The fact is that old wizard vacuum specialists, who knew how to determine intuitive- ly and erroneously the proportion of the coating, were involved in this most com- plex operation, but the number of these old "wizards" has decreased. And Fomenko's "guard" of electrovacuum developed the technique of amber coatings and deteztnined all the required calculated data for the required propor- tions. But during the first days thousands of objectives were decisively rejected by OTK. They referred to Fomenko in the shop. 'I'his was rejection of his laboratory. How- ever, when the researchers triEmselves went to the shop, everything turned aut fine! Fomenko did not make excuses, although he firmly kriew that the technology had been developed and calculated precisely. But he also knew something E~se: to work out 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 N'OR OFFI('fAI. USE ONLY something little, one must introduce it and one must count in this case on hundreds of ordinary young girls--graduates of PTU who were working for him, rather than on the notoriou~ "wizards." And this was also in the tradition of IAMO: a development - was considered finished when it could be "released" for mass production so that it produced no less effect in the shop than in the laboratory snder special conditions. And these "special conditions" existed. When they were only working out the tech- nology in the laboratory, a special instrument--a photometer to determine the pro- portioning of the coatings--was created through their own efforts for the process - of investigation itself. What would happen if this photometer was made not only a laboratozy instrument but a shop instrumer.t as well? It permits automatic determin- ation of the necessary amount of material even during coating in a vacuum. Several of these instruments were manufactured from laboratory drawings at the firm itself. _ P'omenko allocated them to his colleagues who taught female workers to use them di- rectly in the shop at the job site. Besides the planned topics, Famenko's laboratory was also involved in researve top- ics. Thus it was with a number of problems that had ripened with regard to the vigorous process of improving color television. Pavel Nikolayevich foresaw that - the association would have to become xnvolved in manufacture and improvement of special units that split white light into red, blue, green and other colors. The laboratozy was linked to scientists: they jointly studied the physical and chemical processes related to this and preliminarily workEl out the technology, testing its components in the shop. Sometimes the sco~e of rr;search of Fomenko's eYectrovacuum laboratory acquir~s such scales when the special assistance of colleagues from laboratories of completely different profiles is re:quired. This causes no 3ifficultzes whatsoever in ~he firm. The electrovacuum workers, for example, must apply coatings to optical parts which are attached to metal supports by means of an airtight seal ;a special glue which . should guarantee absolute sealing of the seam). The sealer is a polymerized compo- sition. It is initially similar to cream. It is injected in th~.s form inta the gap between the lens and metal support. It is th?n wlcanized a?ad becomes hard. _ And absolute airtightness is achieved! But hermetically sealed connections that can at the same time be "disassembled" must sometimes be made in modern optical instruments. And the laboratory of organic chemistry develops a nondrying hermetic seal. But this hezznetic seal emits gas under high vacuum conditions. And both ~aboratories - jointly set up experiment after experiment and new types of hermetic seals are de- veloped, One of them, used in application of chromium to a glass plate, yields excellent results. But what was done was unusually important for all ogtical-me- chanical productionl Fomenko finds "related" problems among the "global" problems of optics. For ex- ample, how to force ordinary glass to perfo rm and be irri3escent like real semi- precious stones? The problem, salution of which is local industry, was incidentally solved quite unexpectedlj, its simple technique made it possible to produce women's jewelry that sparkles in all colors. 40 FOR OFF�CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - FOR OFFICiAI. USF (DNI.Y When I became~acquainted with Pavel Nikolayevich and with his concerns, problems and research, it seemed to me that the laboratory did not leave him any time at all. But then I see in the hall of the engineering building the announcement: "The next - lesson in the system of party education is being held. Prnpagandist P. N. Fomenko is conducting a seminar on problems of econcmics." The old communist has been canducting propaganda work for many years now: the history of the party, philosnphy and a range of economic knowledge. The range of his interests are broad. And not only in the field of technology or ideology. Once when we were arranging the next meeting, Fomenko said: "I can't tonorrow." "But tomorrow is Saturday." _ "Tomorrow ?'m to Dibuny. 'I'here is urgent work in the garden." He grows flowers and fruits in his garden and of course with the inventiveness in- herent to him. "Can you not postpone it until Sunday?" "No way! Othe r~ise my father will begin to do everything himself," "Your father?" "Yes, he is already 90 years old," Pavel Nikolayevich smiled and added: "He is my primary support in engineering. But he still does not trust very much what I plan to do in horticulture. What can you do!" Man and Miracle Gratings Sometir.ies one can hear the following question in the conversation of opticians: How are things going with Rowland's ghosts? Ghosts7 But there are no mystics here: Although there really are "ghosts." As you can see, they even have a name. And it is not so ~asy and simple to control them, especially when manufacturing such. a ~rsracle of optics as a diffraction grating in the literal sense. The grating is the main component of all modern spectral in- ~ struments and was designed to split light into the spectrum. It consists of an op- tical mirror on which almost invisible lines-channels are cut. There are hundreds and thousands of these grooves on each millimeter. The more precise and improved the spectral device, the wider the ranqe of problems which can be studied by using _ it. The prominent Levsha would not take ~p this work. Because it is a simple matter to shoo a flea compared to cutting diffraction gratings. And if he had taken i* up and if he had suddenly become able, then five of his lifetimes would not have been adequate to cut only one of the smallest mirror blanks. Imagine--2,400 grooves r~n a single millimeter! The accuracy of arranqing them is determined in thousandths 41 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USF: nNLY of a micron� And each groove should not differ in depth ar.d angles of profile, regardless of whether the mirror surface is flat or curved. Un iq ue dividing machines developed especially for this purpose seemingly achieved su~eraccuracy. They achieved it and even so the meticulous researchers, or rather the American scientist Rowlatid found that even the best modern diffraction gratings, despite all the perfection of machining, splitting the light into spectra, sometimes create iliusions of nonexistent anci false spectra. They are called Rowland's "ghosts." These "ghosts," despite all their "transparency," can lead ta very real errors. Only a superfine di~fraction grating, which in itself is a very accurate physical instrument, can erroneously split light into the spectrum and can align the emissions in a specific order by wavelengths. And now imagine that manufacture of these gratings with incomprehensible machining accuracy is no longer a problem for Leninqrad opticians. Th~ LOMO firm, which pro- duces still and movie cameras that have become known throughout the world, has become the leading enterprise in development and manufacture of the most complex - spectral equipment. But as before, the basis in any spectral instrument is the dif- fraction grating. It was developed by the cooperation of GOI [State Institute of optics imeni S. I. VavilovJ scientists and was put into serial production by the firm's engineers and workers. The technology of manufacturing it is beinq improved in a special laboratozy headed by Ivan 2akharovich Semenov. He is unobtrusive in appearance. He is sho rt, lean ~with blond hair and has kind cornflower blue eyes. Wnen you see him for the first time it seems that yau have met him already somewhere. He is very similar to an agricultural worker. In fact he is a native of a small, quiet village in Novgoz~odskaya Oblast, from a peasant family. - "There were five of us," he says. "I am the youngest. After seven years of school I car~ie to Leningrad to become nothing else but an a.rchitect. Generally I took the first exams and in my thoughts I already saw beautiful homes constructed from my designs. But optics? Z never dreamed that I would at some time have any relations with it. Incidentally, my childhood dreams did not proceed further in architecture. After the sPCOnd e xam I took my papers. There were family circumstances. My father died and my eldest brother--the commander of a regiment--was killed on the Volkhov front when he was 43 years old and my mother became ill. In short it was decided--I had to enter a trade school and had to stand on my own fEet as soon as possi~le. My air castles could wait." "It was necessaryl And if it was necessary then so be it. I understood this. And now I was in the trade school on Kondrat'yevskiy Prospekt. I was studying to be a metal worker-pattern maker. I finished with excellent grades, with a high rank and it seemed to me that there is no better occupation in the world, se fine, accurate ar.d amazing." "Later there was urgent service in the navy and they tziught me a new specialty on the ship--I became a navigator electrician. There is a new technology in my con- sciousness--gyrocompasses, radio direction finders, ech~o sounders. Again I applied myself and i*_ seemed that I changed my previous occupat:~on. Instruments, precise, _ complex instruments was now where my heart lay. It was a pleasure to tinker with 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 NOR OFF1C[AL USE ONLY them. As soon as I was released from the navy, the first day afterward I headed towarci an address that I had long loved: LITMO--the Leningrad Institute of Pre- cision Mechanics and Optics, to the radio engineering faculty. I was attracted by electronics. I defended my diploma on the subject "Tracking Systems for Remote In- stallations." And I did my prediploma practice in laboratories o� the just founded firm LOMO. And again I think there is nothing better and more interesting in the world than this occupation of an engin2er-optician. At that time optics w~s a modest duet of glass and metal. Now optics is radio engineering, electronics, tele- mechanical and chemical. Here I understood that I had not "changed" my former occu- pation in any way since they all served me in good stead for the present and the main thing which always requires newer and newer knowledge from the person who has selected it." During the year when ivan Semenov finished LYTMO, both the institute (Semenov was already seen as a graduate student, bearing i.n mind his extensive knowledge and tendency toward theoretical, scientific work) and industry were quarrelling over him. Even during practical. work, he managed to manifest those qualities which are especially valuable in an engineer at LOMO--breadth of knowledge, the creative vein and the s~rong grasp of aa ~rganizer. The young engineer, during the first steps of the firm, participated together with other engineers of the firm in development of the large astronomical telescope (BTA). The chief designer of the BTA Bagrat Konstantinovich Ioannisiani, unexpectedly for Semenov himself, entrusted the young engineer with the most responsible assignment-- development of an automatic system for aiming the telescope at the stars in azimuth using a computer. . It is a tradition of LOMO ~o trust a young speciaList. The important, serious mat- ter in whic?~ he revealed himself as an engineer without any excess delays, shows ti~hat he is worth. when Semenov hea.rd about his first assiqnment from Bagrat Konstantinovich, he was glad and at the same time alarmed: could he cope with it? One can imagine with what fervor he took up the work together with the other engineers and specialists in automatic control and computer technology. When this system was designed and installed at LOMO, it had to be checked and worked out on an existing mockup of the telescope. This mockup was a reduced model of the future, the world's largest and most improved telescope, which was later installed at Zelenchuk. But the mockup-- with 60 r,i.illimeter mirror--was installed in one of the towers of Pulkovo observa- , tozy. It also underwent pl~t trials in the tower. During those ~.ays or rather - nights, Semenov was the chief in the tower and supervised the tests. Then for the first time his look "jumped cver" the terrestrial threshold and saw the stars in the eyepiece. For the first time they were quite clos~. Here even a star was not called a star, but an object. The task was to see that the telescope tracked a celestial object, equalizing itself to the rate of motion of it through the heavens. Othezwise a photograph or spectrogram would recor3 a smeared i.mage . "This was done thusly," quietly relates Semenov. "We took several stars, calculated their coordinates and trajectories, entered the data in the computer and the compu- ter transmitted signals to the automatic processing system." 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400080019-9 I~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Hut this was not done immediately. Ivan Za3charovich's friends and colleagues re- call those restless days and nights in the tower of Pulkovo observatory when all this intertwininq ~f the most complex systems suddenly broke down and the synchron- ism that they had achieved with unbelievabl2 lab4r was suddenly dis r.~pted. Semenov was the first to determine the need to use a special linear converter to improve the system: a machine to control the signal of a moving device. The inno- vation freed the system of errors related ~to the inevitable mechanical oscillations. _ This made it possible to precisely aim the telescope automatically without fluctua- tions from the given value. Everything that the young engineer thought up and ~auggested was initially realized in a mockup and later in the gigantic telescope it;aelf. And ir,cidentally, there is yet another tradition of the firm: the young enginee~ here is not only immediately and daringly truste~3 with a lot--many people help him. The most experienced people, the most talented people, engineers, designers and sci- er~tists. After all, they have a"profitable" interest in the success of each other. Because the overall success of the firm depends on *_he success of each one. After th2 gigantic telescope had been intalled at the Zelenchuk observatory, the chief of the TsKB suggested that Semenov head the laboratory of diffraction gratings. The young specialist was again trusted wi~.h a very complex assignment--to improve their manutacture. Imagine six l~rge booths with transparent walls whose doars are sealed just like safes in a bank. No one can enter there. You can observe the "secret" occurring during operating of the dividing machine, whose quiet no one dares disturb, only through the window. Even the machine itself has no right of the slightest deviation and is therefore installed on a special floating foundation. The ~otor of the ma- chine is located in another, adjacent hermetically sealed separate booth and is in- stalled on the same floating base. And there eJen the motor or the breathing of a oerson can distrub the specific temperature and humidity required for a precise production oQeration. A difference of more than 5/100ths of a degree in temperature fluctuations may lead to rejection~ Zf an adjuster enters the booth, and this occurs approximately once per month, then - t!~e machine operates on "idle" for one or two days afterwards until the instruments show that temperature is normal. One can work. And then the diamond cutter on the mirror surf.ace begins its infinite motion. The diamond labors for hours on each millimeter of mirror area. Day and night. And the cutter is hardly worn in this case. And the grinding of the drive screw of the dividing machine, on the "spacing" of which the accuracy of cutting the lines also = depends, continued for no less than 6-8 m~ont.hs and the most experienced masters were involved in this. 'I`~:ese superprecise machines must be improved even morel RQwland's ghosts--what about them? How can one eliminate these ghosts? Ivan Zakharovich's laboratory was ' now supposed to answer this question. - 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The appearance of the first dividing machine and the first diffraction grating is related to the State Optical Institute (GOI). LOMO specialists studied the model developed at GOT and designed and manufactured six unique dividing machines at the firm on its basis that became the production base for manufacture of diffraction gratings. The struggle for accuracy began from the first steps of developing the machines. The most accurate ootical checking instruments--collimators--suddenly revealed un- desirable surprises. For example, mysterious black and white, so-called moire pat- terns that altered the true brightness of. light, appeared in the visual field of the collimator. one of the leading scientists of the cptical institute, doctor of technical sciences Fedor Maksimovich Gerasimov, with whom Ivan Zakharovich later became closely ac- - quainted, then worked out special scanning sensors and an original electronic cir- - cuit for taking these moire patterns into account, whic~ had to be taken into ac- ~ caunt during use of the gratings. However, that which the scientist proposed and developed could be used only on the - single-screw machine of the institute itself, whereas the two-screw version of the dividing machine was being operated at LOMO. One screw was a rough "transport" feed screw and ~ne other was directly a dividing screw. The LOMO version guaranteed the highest accuracy and the highest productivity. Semenov together with his colleagues in the laboratory Yuriy Iosifovich Braynin and Aleksandr Ivar;ovich Solntsev carefully studied that which scientist Gerasimov had warked on and learned how to apply his electronic circuit to the designs of machines developed at LOMO. As a result the diffraction gratings were of very high quality, whxch made it possible to sharply expand the range of sp~=ctral instruments. The machine was checked again and again and so-called "creep'' phenomena were found when _ the carriage supporting the diamond and responsive to an electronic signal was sup- posed to stop, but continued to move forward for some thousandths of a micron due _ to inertia. Braynin and Solntsev attempted to replace the cast iron carriage ~aith a lightweight aluminum carriage. They felt this was supposed to somehow neutralize inertia, Experiments were again conducted. They served as a thrust to broader investigations in developing methods to utilize the principles of compensating f~r the creep fac- - tor caused not only by mechanical stress but as it seemed by temperature conditions as well. A discussion arose once in the small group of investigators. Some were proponents of precision mechanics and others of electronics. Ivan Zakharovich, knew from his experience of w~orking for the BTA that only fusion of precision mechanics and elec- tronics and their combined eFforts could reach the goal in modern optics. And they worked on the problem of "joining" the dividing ~r,achine to an electronic circuit which would q~iarantee absolutely precise and strict stopping of the carriage at a qiven point. Many scientists of research institutes were involv~d in this problem. Thus the firm's production laboratory became a unique epicenter for improvizg every- ~ thing new that was being developed in this field of t2chnology. 45 ~'OR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FnR OFFICIAi. USE ONI.Y As a result work of theoreticians of the institute and investigators of the firm began in developing completely new types of gratings. Besides doctor of technical sciences F. M. Gerasimov and Semenov, engineer Galina Nikolayevna Rassudova and the amazir.q engineer, the local "lefthander" Yuriy Mikhaylovich Balyasnikov pa rticipated in this tedious and complex work. A.-~ arsenal of weapons was gradually accumulated for a de~isive attack against Row- land's ghosts--the enemies of precision. Rowland's ghosts were reduced to a minimum under production conditions and the moire patterns were first "made harmless" in the unique dividing machines designed and constructed at LOMO. Semenov's laboratory was the first to develop and introduce a photoelectric system for monitoring the main nerve of the working member of the machine instead of a mechanical system. 'I'his system automatically and with maximum - accuracy checks the path of the screw and makes the dividing machine free of residu- al errors. News about the victoxy over Rowland's ghosts quickly spread throughout our country. The miracle grating; received high marks of scientists from many ccuntries. Spec- tral instruments with the new gratings were by those who observe stars and satellites and by those who must conduct the most precise analysis of inetals during smelting and by those who desired to look into the secrets of cells. Thus the most complex task in modernization of dividing machines was accomplished. 'I'his permitted the firm not only to improve the qua:.ity of gratings but to produce _ completely new types of spectral devices. The possibility o� cutting 1,800 or 2,400 lines per millimeter instead of 600 lines, which was considered the maximum, was a new achievement in serial production. - Modernization under conditions of the firm's modern laboratory is not only research and checking one or another systems. This is both development and creation of all the required equipment for modernized machines and this is improvement of the tech- nology itself and application of it in pr~ctice. _ And it is really not surprising that only ~ive engineers and eight workers were in- volved in this large laboratory with multicomplex equipment. And 'r,ere is the enchantress--the dividinq machine is "under complete control" of the worker servicing it. He adjusts it himself, repairs it himself and installs blanks and diamond cutters himself, manufactures test gratings and himself partici- pates in checking their quality on special instruments. This in itself requires - t:.e highest qualifications and extensive, universul knowledge of a rank and file w~rker servicing the machine. _ The senior engineer of the laboratozy Anatoliy Ivanovich Malyshev, a knowledgeable and talented inventnr, beqan work here as a rank and file worker. Working as a mechanical engineer, he studied at the Northwest Correspondence Polytechnical Insti- - tute. Here he dev~eloped a new spindle assembly for a r~achine on which diamond tools were sharpened. 46 FOR f)FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY Sharpening the diamond cutter to cut gratings is one of many of the most important problems for the laboratory, both engineering and economic. The fact is that a diamond cutter is supposed to cut approximately 25 kilometers of grooves without stopping. It is impossible to replace it during operation. The research of Maly- shev immediately led to solution of the problem of predicing the wear resistance of a diamond cutter, which is related to its natural microstructure and the flexibility of the surfaces being machined. Almost all the laboratory collectives began to work on this problem and subsequent investigations led to development of new instruments which helped to finally solve this problem. The design office of microscopy needed a st3ndard instrument to determine the rough- ness of optical surfaces. Malyshev developed and manufactured such a standard. yiuch can be said about this young, light-haired engineer. Semenov talks about him briefly and expressively: Malyshev knows all and knows how to do everything. Such a definition is quite suitable for mechanical engineer of the la.k~oratory Yuriy - Mikhaylovich Balyasnikov. Yuriy Mikhaylovich thought up many accessories for cut- ting gratings. The effect of the accessory is equal to starting up yet another dividing machinel The accessory cuts two qratings i~nediately rather than one dur- ing the same cycle, but with two diamond cuttersl But ~Salyshev did not stop at this. And what if two gratinqs could be cut with only one diamond cutter? The laboratory engineers together with the chief developed a new, completely original drive for the dividing machine that permitted this version to be used. Malyshev's new macliine tool then came to light for grinfling diamonds. Despite the high requirements on diffraction gratings, the laboratory turns them over to the OTK without checking. And any OTK hardly checks them more strictly than laboratozy worker, engineer Maria Petrovna Ustyuzhaninova. She took on her- self the voluntary duty of additional checking of the gratings. The LOMO mark is on almost all the machine tools and ::achines of the laboratory. The special nonstandard equipment shop manufactured them. Only the firm is capable of having such a shop. How many designer ideas have already become embodied here in metal! When I was leavinq the laboratory, Ivan Zakharovich Semenov suddenly opened yet another door: "Look in here." "And what are they doing here7" "Still the same--they are makinq diffracton gratings." "But where are the dividing machines and the diamond cutters?" "They are not needed here. This is still an experiment. We are testing a laser beam instead of a diamond cutter. But this is a matter for the future." 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY WORKING GUARDS If one begins an excursion through the firm from the engineering building and if one becomes familiar with its numerous design offices and laboratories, then one can show that LOMO consists primarily of scientists, engineers, desiqners and researchers. This group of specialists occupies an ever more significant place in production un- der conditions of the scientific and technical revolution. However, the same scientific and technical revolution now requires even greater cre- ative initiative than at any time from the broadest mass of rank and file producers and f rom rank and file workers. 'I'hey emerge not only as execritors, even the most faultless and highly qualified, in a modern socialist enterprise such as is LOMO. But most frequently they are both developers, creators of :he new and advisers and colleagues of engineers, designers and technicians. They lead t.he chorus of com- munist labor. ~ And it is obvious here at LOMO how quickly the functions of a worker change along witti his experience, level of education anc~ occupational training. I had occasion to become well acquainted with many workers at the fi~-m and to ob- serve their growth. Growth not in the sense when a rank and file worker becomes an engineer, technician or chi~f of a section or 3hop. But pritnarily growth of knowhow, skills, breadth of knowledge and feeling of responsi.bility for the en- trusted matter. I have in mind the growth of a worker as a creative per.sonality and moral and ideological growth that provide the right to the proud ran.'c of Soviet labor. Ivanov's Personal Matter Tuesdays are reception hours ior personal matters at the ~eneral director's office. It is known what these "personal matters" are: concerns about housing, complaints about some injustice and a request to transfer to a different post and so on. _ Among those who requested a reception is Mikhayl Ivanov, a milling machine operator of the experimental shop. "I have come about the plans in our shop to arrange the new equipment. Imagine, they want to locate the grinding machines under the very nose of the OTK. How can sensitive instruments operate if everything is shaking aloagside them? 48 FQR OFFICIAL USE O'~ILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 NOR OFFICIAL USI~: ONLY "It is understandable. Weli, what is your personal matter?" "This is it. "'hey prcved it in the shop--they did not listen. They said that the planning has already been confirmed and it is generally not your concern." Panfilov qlanced at his watch: ~ "All right. Let us end the reception and go to your place of work. TAe shall con- tinue the conversation on the job." The director's conversation with the shop specialists ended in that Mikhayl I1'ich Ivanov's sugqestion was approved. Panfilov later reprimanded the service chiefs who were involved in replanning: "It would not have hurt to have consulted beforehand with the workers." This one episode milling machine operator Ivanov related to me at the association. Therefore, it is admitted that Ivanov impressed me as a person with a stern and authoritative character and with a decisive exterior. P,nd here we were meeting him - in a snall, one-room and vexy comfortable apartment in a new building on Vyborgskaya Storona. I saw a kind person. And although he was short, everything about him seemed large and solid: a compact figure, a weatherbeaten face, thick black eyebraws and remark- able smiling eyes. He was about 50 years old, but Y:e appeared to be the healthiest of persons. When toward the end of our conversation I jokingly mentioned this to them, he laughed: "This is true, I am an iron man." His wife, looking in to the room for a second from the kitchen, noted: "You sure are an iron man. You carry 80 fragments in you. And all the time he gives the appearance that there is nothing special about this. He should be treated and observe the regime. He catches cold at the least drop. Not likelyl t~e has - been a Komsomol volunteer his entire life. And you say he is 'the healthiest of people. "Now that's enough, Valya," he softly interrupted her. ~ Ivanov's working life, like most pe~ple of his generation, began in the most literal sense with "Komsomol-volunteers." He had hardly finished school when he was hired at ~he plant and dreamed of becoming the same as his father--a shock worker of the Third Five-Year Plan. But this was in the June of 1941. "They sounded the trumpets of alarm" and the student milling machine operator together with other young ICAm- somol workers of the shop volunteered for the army. He was s~nt to a military- political school. He was a cadet for 10 days and the school was closed. Everyone left for the front. Like the others, he was issued a pass in which the unusual, such capacious rank was denoted to which he remained true his entire life--Ivanov was a political fiqhterl 49 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL 11~F. (?!~1LY He received his christening at the front in Estonia, repulsing fascist attacks. On . the first day "Messerschmidts bathed their antiaircraft batterv in a leaden shawer. - He regained consciousness in a medical and sanitary battalion. He heard how, lean- ing over him, someone was slowly counting: "78, 79, 81." And this same voice said: - "All right. The fragments �rom the bursting shell are small ones and there is no time to dawdle. Prepare him for evacuation.'' But he aas not sent to the rear. At first the roads were cut and then ivanov him- self began to refuse: "I feel better, I'll manage." And he really "did manage." Soon maciline gunner Ivanov was defending Moscow. He then campaigned in the Bryansk woods, participated in the liberation of Czechoslo- vakia and fought in Manchuria. He returned to the shop in 1946, which he regarded as his own, although he had been _ working in it only a little more than three days before the war. "So he returned," said the old master, looking Mikhayl over. "And how else! The earth is round! No matter what point I left, I arrived here!" They gave him a test. He helped to adjust machine tools and they gave him the job of milling 20U of the simplest parts. Ivanov tried as well as he could and turned them over by the deadline. But soon he heard the angry request from the OTK: "Who made this mess? They are all rejected." "Well, we got through it!" said the foreman. "Now get out of it yourself. Take the rattail file and try to take off the corners carefully. It can and it will work out well." Ivanov fzled these corners until late evening. And the rattail file, as if to spite him, had no handle and for that reason burned his palm--he had scratches, blisters and callouses everywhere. Eie went home in an angry mood. He no sooner had crossed the threshold than he met his father: "That is it: I wil l not go to that plant again : Took at these hands , j ust look. " ris father looked: "Poor thing, he has callousesl The fact that he is lacerated through and through with bullets and fragments is nothing. But he can't tolerate callouses. T+That do you think--you think they are playing games at the plant? You are in no way of the working class." ~likhayl became confused and suddenly everything became funny to him when he tried to look at himself through his father's eyes. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE dfVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The next morning he arose earlier than everyone, poured icy water over himself and again went to the plant and decided to request that he be ac3~r,itted as an apprentice. He found out with amazement that even so he was awaxded third rank. He assumed for himself that he had been given an advance. Stormy days and nights of mastering his occupation began for him. He studied furi- ously and did not let himself or others rest until he had meticulously learned everything. He mastered very rapi~dly the skills of many and achieved the highest, sixth rank. And he immediately took on apprentices to himself. Young people love to work under his beginnings. The generous unselfishness and kindness of this man attract the fellows. Regardless of~who else in the shop one studies with, you still cannot get along without it in precision and complex optical production. Reckoning here is only in microns and fractions of a miczon. And experimental models mainly "travel" in this shop. The technicians themselves rarely rely on the experience and inven- tiveness of the machine tool operators such as Ivanov. For example, take the history of one part for the objective of the latest micro- scope. Such a complicated thing had never before been done, even similar to this. r~ikhail I1'ich looked over the drawinq for a long time and carefully read the pro- duction chart. At which end to begin? If one proceeded according to instructions it would be too lonq and would the part be produced with the precision as thought out? He walked around puzzled for a day or two. He readj usted the machine tool ar:d changed the cutting heads. And the result was an essentially new solution in the ~ te Ghnique of milling the most complex parts of optical devices, a method which per- mits one to increase productivity thirtyfold! This innovation of Ivanov, used in the entire sector of instrument building, saved tens of thous~nds of rubles. The most refined innovati~ns of Mikhail 11'ich also became the achievement of his ~ appreentices: Yuriy Sasnin, Oleq Mikhaylov and many others. When they note in the shop haw Mikhail I1'ich unobtrusively observes the work of younq machine tool oper- ators, they jokingly sa~: "Hello! Ivanov is looking for talentl" He seeks passionate lovers, like himself, of "headbreaking" work. And if he is not given this work he finds it himself. Once in the shop they were manufacturing eye- pieces for special microscopes. A superprecise thread was required so that each turn had an ideal surface. Zt was assumed that this fineness could not be achieved with the most filagreed milling. Almost invisible scratches over which tens of metal workers then sweated, removing them manually, remained i.nevitable. It is understandable that this exercise of the metal workers was hardly joyful wc~rk; so many times at meetings they teased the machine tool operators: "It comes out and you have nothing to do with it one way or another without manual labor." Ivanov did not plan to protect "reqimental honor." He extracted the next creative task for himself from this criticism. He thought for a long time. He tested and ground this way and that and qave unusual profiles to the cuttinq e~ges of the cutter. He used an original "slotting head." And so they again began from the beginning. 51 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICI.A1. USF. nNLY Metal working labor was not provided for at all in the production chain proposed by Mikhail I1'ich. Ivanov was always modest about what he himself achieved. He travelled to the other end of town, to the well-known Kirov plant. He studies whether there is something , worthwhile in the millinq machine operators there. Or as soon as he has a day off _ he heads for the House of Engineering Propaganda on Nevskiy Prospekt to find out whether something valuable has turned up there. How can one compete otherwise? He always says to his friends: "Always hold the alignment to better and better!" And it is he, M. I. Zvanov, Hero of Socialist Labor and delegate to the 24th Party Congress, that is considered the best in the shop. Some think that, having received the "highest praise," Mikhail I1'ich will settle down and will cease to be troubled by rest. No way! Once they brought to the sec- tion a blank weighing about 20 kilograms to manufacture an experimental part, and - the part should weigh one-tenth as much. Mikhail I1'ich immediately raised the - alarm---metal could not be squandered: At the first par*_y meeting he immediately proposed that measures be implemented so that this was not repeated. Once it was noted that :~ikhail I1'ich was a constant visitor to the job site cf a young communist machine tool opErator. He would come up, observe for a little bit and leave frowning. And hardly any complaints of any kind could be made against the young fellow. He was fourth rank, he performs his tasks and there are no vio- lations. What is it? But IvanoL- shakes his head: "what is this 'what now'?" Yes, I have knowr. him for a long time. I have known about his head and his hands--he could have control of mountains, but he remained ~alm, became lazy and deprecates himself." And the persistent question arises: should the machine tool operator be cailed to - the party group--it must be analyzed what kind of person he is and why he is stuck among the "mediocre types"? And even more important how can he be helped7 Mikhail I1'ich is first af al~. ready. - ~1nd as always, the fate of this young ~ellow and the affairs of the shop collective and of a~l LOMO is Ivanov's personal business. To Be Firs~ The competition was beinq held for the rank of best in occupation among the young- _ est w~orkers of LOMO. The entire brigade of milling machine operators awaited the result with excitement. The brigade leader, Yuriy Aleksandrovich Metelkin, was himself es~ecially excited. After all, no one other than Viktor, his apprentice, to whom he had tried to transfer his skills, craftsmanship and spirit, participated in the competition. Bu�r the main thing is that Viktor at his own initiative wanted to participate in this competition. Metelkin trusted the young fellow: h2 was clever and persistent. And he had finished secondary school. But he was still a = youth! without any experience. 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y Metelkin was glad for his apprentice and he himself would have taken his place. After all, like Viktor, he began his journey here in this very shop, 23 years ago. As an appren*ice. Gnly after demobilization from the Soviet Army. Someone advised him to seek out a"non-dusty" position, but Metelkin decided to become an apprentice for milling machine operator. He was an apprentice for a very short time. The senior foreman ivan Fedornvich IQllopchenko to this day recalls the capable apprentice. He worked with skill and persistence. He loved the most complicated work. And all the time he learned. He 12arned from ris comrade foreman. No year passed that he did not gain a new rank - and finally he achieved the highest--sixth rank! Having attached oneself to any machine tool and to any system you could not go wrong with any task! But Yuriy Metelkin, having seemingly reached the top in his occupation, still con- ~ tinued to study. He heard that Ivan Leonov from the Kirov plant was using a special cutter of his own system--he immediately went to him: "Show me, teach mel" He had occasion to be a guest in Moscow and he immediately headed to the capital House of Engineering: what valuable things there could he take away and introduce in his own brigade7 But Metelkin's brigade was a guard's brigade: Nikolay Bogdanov, Nikolay Lyubich, Anatoliy Illarionov, Gennadiy Uvarov and Vladimir Petrukhin. They were all highly qualified milling machine operators. Not all of them were highly qualizied when they entered the brigade but they became so in it. Metelkin laid the basis for the tradition: to help each other, always ready to replace a comrade and to manage oneself freely at his own machine tool. It is no accident that MeteZ- kin's workers bear the rank of brigade of communist labor. And now Metelkin wished that his Viktor, for whom he had felt pain in the competi- tion, would also become such a real guardsman of labor. His Viktor is not bletelkin's son, his son Viktor also works at LOMO as an electrical fitter. His Viktor is Viktor Zhukov~-an apprentice for ahom Yuiry Aleksandrovich - feels no less than for his own son. The competition has ended. And now the young fellow with eyes bright with happiness runs to meet his tutor: "Yuriy P.leksandrovich, complete orderl" Viktor Zhukov had become one of the winners of the labor competition among milling machine operators. It is interesting to follow the work of Yuriy Aleksaridrovich and the expression on his face. During these minutes he was seemingly carrying on a silent conversation with the machine tool and finds a complete understandinq with it. And this may be so. After all, Metelkin can marage to do that on his own machine tool that no one else has ever been able to do. Once, they received an unusual urg~nt order in the shop--to manufacture specially pz~ecise cast iron plates for a series of very important optical instruments. These plates were initially machined 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440400080019-9 rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - with great difficulty on the milling machines and were then sent to the experienced metal workers. Their task was to quickly and methodically remove invisible micron unevennesses on the surface of the metal and to achieve ideal surfaces whose pre- - cision could be determined only by special indicators. This is a long, exhausting process in which hardly 4-5 plates could be machined and brought up to co*~dition. And Metelk~,n suggested th~ improbable: "We can turn out not 5, but SO of these plates per shif~! And without any scouring. Simply on our own machine tools." And the improbable unexpectedly becomes the obvious. It turnQd out that M~telkin, as soon as he learned what concerns his comrades in the shop are expecting with re- gard to the unusual order, began to think: how can I help here? After an agoniz- ing search, the idea of an original attachment to ~he machine tool was born. The idea "was floated around" with his brigade comrades and the �irst experiments and corrections to the thought-out idea were begun. Finally ~he first plate taken f.rom Metelkin's machine tool was in the hands of the inspectors. Indicators and microm- eters are in operation. Not one error! This was a great victoryl - And Metelkin now has a new concern. How to change the design of the cutter so that two grooves could be made immediately by a single cutter? In turn he got the idea of a si.ngle attachment which would permit low-qualified machine tool operators to perform a number of crucial operations accessible only to experienced masters. Yes, the plans were enormous. I am talking with Metelkin. His dark complected face is very young and devilment - is in his hazel eyes. He talks jokingly about himself: "'1'he occupation of milling machine operator? It is simply to know geometry. Here we have a geometiy circlel" But then he talks about each one in his brigade willingly, warmly and even with - kindness. And he notes not without proudness: "Almost every one of our workers now turn over products themselves without the OTK. We have our personal stamps." ~ - "And you put the stamp on the p~rts?" "why?" he is amazed. _ "Well, and if someone suddenly" "we don't have these 'suddenlys.' If it happened, it would be easy to find out by the 'handwriting. "Can one really determine who milled one or another part if all of them are identi- cal and they were made from the same drawing?" 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Of coursel Take for example musieians. They play the same piece. The same notes are in front of them. But they sound different. It is about the same among us milling machine operators. You recoqnize a machine tool operator by his 'handwrit- ing' and by his style. The trained eye can iimi?ediately and erroneously dete~mine by external appearance the parts, who did it and whether the spirit of the machin~ tool operator participated in the operation, besides his hands. Generally, we are the same as in music." "I see that you love music. Is this your attraction?" "Yes. I love music." He thought for a while about something and quite unexpected- ly adds: "Once it helped me to find Gennadiy, my youngest brother." And he continues: "My fatner ar,d mother died even before the war. My older brother worked as a lathe operator at the Krasniy Viborg plant and he died when fascist 'incendiary bombs' were dropped on the roof of the shop. And we and Gennadiy, understand, were orphans in a children's home. We hold firmly to each other. He was sti].1 quite a small - lad. And I was almost grown--14 years old. And I was Genka's guardian and mentor. And suddenly separation: I was taken into the azmy as a pupil in the military brass band. I played the trumpet. Later, as you yourself know, the war interfered with everything and Genka'schildren'shome was evacuated somewhere from Leningrad and I was stationed near Nbscow in a military school. In the band. They don't send young people to the front. And now the cadets are h~ving a graduation party. The young officers of tomorrow are going to their ~eqiments and fighting the fascists. We played marches, waltzes and polkas. And now we were supposed to play my favorite waltz Amur Waves, I couldn't stand it any longer and I asked the band leader to let me dance. i was dancinq with some unknown girl, I had hardly managed to look at her and the dance was over. And already here the voice of my chief: 'Metelkin, re- turn to your position!"' Suddenly the same girl touched me on the sleeve and looked at me closely: "So you are Metelkin?" "Yes, I am Metelkin." "And you have a younger brother?" I felt a shock. "Z have. His name is Gennadiy. Where he is I do not know. But why do you ask?" "Because I probably know your brother well and I saw him qui~e recently. He talked so much about you." "You know him? You saw him? Where? How?" And this is how it was. It turned out that the girl had come from Ryubinsk a few days ago where her father worked as the director of a children's home and my brother fr~m whom I had been separated by the war was being educated in this home. The very same ~vening I go to the company commander. I outlined my situation: I need to meet my younger brot-.her. Either I go to him or he comes to me! My brother came to me and we were never separated again. The company commander assigned Gennadiy to the band as a pupil. But we decided as soon as we were de- mobilized to go immediately to some plant. Our father was a lathe operator and our - older brother was a lathe operatar. So we also inherited the "working stone." 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOIR UFFICIAL USE ONLY . I soon was able to see the younqer brother. Cennadiy Metelkin works in a neighbor- ing shop. Of course he looks like his older brother: the same tall, enerqetic person with f.ast movements. It's true C,ennadiy is not a milling machine operator. Durinq the postwar years at the insistence of Yuriy, who was for him the only author- ity,he entered a trade school and studied to be an automatic metal worker. He works in the neiqhborinq shop and became a specialist in repair of inetal working machines. A few years have passed since then. They are both fathers o:E families. Yuriy Aleksandrovich from �ime to tisae looks ir~to Gennadiy's shop. "How are things going with my younqer brother?" And Gennadiy always turns to his older brother for advice. The opinion of an older brother is important to ~veryone. Yuriy Aleksandrovich was often elected to the people's control group, the party bureau and to the party co~aittee . In the shop the~~ recall the time when Yuriy Metelkin headed the people's control qroup. The hiatory related to storage of finished parts, which sometimes rusted and wexe roughly thrown into a corner, is especially memorable. The guilty parties were found and no excuses of any kind helped. Metelkin received a special order of the shop chief in this matter and did r~ot rest until he had checked that everything had been done as it should be. But Yuriy Aleksandrovich has long had a new public commission and he does not tialk quitely past if he saes disorder. Once Gennadiy asked Yuriy: "Llsten, where do you get such influence from? Y know you better than anyone: you are a kind and soft person and yc~u do not at all have th~ aharacter of a manager. Share you secret like brother to brother." "My secret is the s3.mplest," answered Yuriy. "If you agitate and struggle for some- thing, begin with yourself. In ord~r that people cannot rsproach you: after all, � everyone can mx~]ce mountains out of a molehill. You have to test yourself. Yourself!" Probably this is the easence ot the matter. If you want to show people how to achieve an important and qood matter begin with yourse~f. Be the first. And he is one of the first. Milling machina operator of LOMO Yu. A. Metelkin was - awarded the rank o! Hero of Socialiat Labor for high indicators in fulfillment of tasks during the third, d~cisive year of the Ninth Five-Year Plan. Toward Maximum Precision In an enozmous shop with snow white walls, everything is lighted by a bright blue light falling fram a.bove from a wholn cascade of fluorescent lamps. fiundreds of geople are c~orkinq with concentration at long desks. Here is the pinnacle of pre- = cision! These are univexsal measurinq microscopes--UIMs. They are so sensitive that air temperature fluctuations ox even a loud conversation during assembly can _ affect their accuracy. 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 ~OR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY And people are working quietly. Here is an old man with thin face and blue eyes in horned-ri.mmed glasses. From time to time he Quts a secrewed up eye to the microscope eyepiece and with his fingers slowly rotates an almost visible screw under the black scale. He writes something in a notehaok, thinks for a long time about the notations, then sighs with relief, smiles, gets up and alongside his work bench with rapid, light steps. This is Aleksandr Antonovich Bespalov, winner of the State Prize, and veteran of the firm. When future young workers hear about the amazing path which their enterprise travel- led--from semicottage wor.kshops to one of the world's largest optical firms, they _ often hear the name of Bespalov among the other names. If the talk is about the First Five-Year Plan when shorinophones were being devel- oped--the first sound-recording apparatus--one i~?ediately hears: "Bespalov was the one who assembled the first model" or if one is talking about the first Soviet movie came ra movements a g a i n o n e h e a r s: "At that time they came f rom Bespalov' s light hands." A conversation breaks out about how the first astrophysical instruments were devel- oped and again: "Bespalov began the assembly of an experi.mental model." And Bespalov ta2ks briefly about his own work: "What do I do? Well, you can say that I assemble and adjust experimental models of a gun for hunters of microns. There is now no letup from orders for ever newer and newer mod~ls of ineasuring microscopes." - The work of Aleksandr Antonovich requires effort, the fullest at~tention, patience and the most precise skills. When a vezy complicated optical instrument is com- pletely assembled, this is still only the beginninq. The main and most di�ficult thing then begins--so-called adjustment. The adjuster slowly "conjures" over the tiny assemblies, levers and lenses for lonq hours, days, and freguently even weeks. And it turns out that during these minutes he holds his breath so as not to alarm them and so that the "axis" of the instrument is not shifted by a hundredth of a micron and so that the established and regulated "focus" is not disturbed. Each instf�ument of the series is adjusted in this manner. And Bespalov is responsible for the standard instirument in the experimental section. He does not have the right to make an error. This same Bespalov at one time adjusted the �irst assembly of the UZM. Althouqh everything was correct in the drawinqs and calculations, the instrumc.nt erred. They tried to assemble the instrinnent in a specially equipped room witho~xt vibration. But the instrument still erred. And each time by ill-fated two microns. Regardles~ of what they tried and what they changed the deviation from a straight line still appeared upon maximum motion of the optameter tube and still there were those two little microns. They tried newer and newer versions. And it was all the same. Deadlines passed but the UIM was not delivered. 57 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON1.Y Investigators worked intensely and Aleksandr Antonovich and his comrades urorked late in the shop. And they found a solution. They checked the path of the microscope table--it was in complete order. Accuracy was guaranteed. But as soon as the machine tool began its return path the poin~ers of the scale deviated b~ a total of six microns. The specialists worked on this problem and Bespalov found justice for this "capriciousness," having designed a de- _ vice which Lompletely eliminated the vibration. The group af its developers was awarded the State Prize for this UIM and the name of w~orker Aleksandr Bespalov was rightfully on the list of winners. Many instr.uments have passed through his hands and there has not been one, develop- _ ment of wZiich has proceeded without his thought, creativity, clever and at some times th~ most unexpected corrections in the calculations of designers, developers :3nd inve~tigators. They wE:re demonstratinq a unique measuring machine in the Soviet pavilion in Brus- sels a.t one of the international exhibitions which could make measurements of all paramF~ters with high precision and speed by means of optics. This machine was award~3 first prize--the Grand Prix--at the exhibition. The machine operated at full speed and performed the most complex measuring operations. The display guide gave detailed explanations to all visitors through an interpr~ter but frequently - without an interpreter--in German and sometimes a little in French. IAMO worker _ Al~ksandr Antonovich bespalov serviced this machine. Long ago in the youth of Bespalov, which coincided with the years of the First Five-Year Plan, the plant Komsomol workers, as now, insistently demanded from each young worker--studyl And Sasha registered for courses in foreign languages in order to study foreiqn technical literature in the original. He engaged in boxing and strengthened his character--with persistence he achieved that of which he thought and about which he dreamed. is his character: not leavirlg that which has bee n begun half finished, one doe~ not deviate anywhere until he is victorious. Thi.s is how it was in the courses. No matter how difficult the Gezznan language was, he overcame it methodically with an iron patience ~ntil he had mastered it. During World war II, the Komsomol member, young optical worker Aleksandr Bespalov campaigned near Leningrad and was wounded. He found himself in the north in one of the aviation units after being released from the hospital. Here the optician- inventor became an indispensible person. He organized the instrument facilities in this unit within a short time. Moreover, Bespalov fundamentally changed the instrument system of the aircraft, having de- signed a special fixing m~chanism which ensured reliability of the most connected - instrument with the aircraft in any position. KAB--Bespalov's aviation correcter-- was the name of ~his device. When restoration of the demolished plants was begun, including optical plants, specialists were rapidly demobilized. And now Bespalov in his overcoat without shoulderboards hurries to Chugunnaya Ulitsa to a fami.liar passage. ~ 58 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Suddenlp someone called to him: "Aleksandr Antonovich?" Before him stood Mikhail Panfilovich Panfilov--then a technician and the future qeneral directar of the firm. Panfilov told h im how much the country was expectinq of the Leningrad opticians and how those such as Bespalov were now needed. "You do not need to persuade me," answered Bespalov. "I am a political fighter myself." Yes, he, a working communist, always felt that he was a polxtical fighter all his life. An he always tried to remain true to his party duty--to qo forward, to take on the most difficult and take charqe of oneself. During the early postwar years when the rubble of shops destroyed by fascist bombs was beiaq excavated, he saw an ir~strument changed to unrecoqnition which Leningrad opticians had czce been the first to develop in order to photograph the stars. _ Aleksandr Antonovich well remembered with what love and care pro~inent scientists, engineers and workers, includin3 he himself, had worked on it here at the plant and how mu~h prid~, romanticism and how many dreams were related to this instrtuaent. And now it's all ruined. A few fraqments. He felt grief. But in those days Bespalov became one of the ent}iusiasts for restoring the plant and then became one of the first proponents for developinq new optical equipment. He was elected to the party committee and he again felt himself a political fighter. A.zd how could it be otherwise. He, a communist, could not lonqer see for himself any other role than to always be a party fiqhter. And primarily in his labor and creativity here in the shop, in his own experimentaZ section and at hiR own job site. This became part of his flesh and blood: if something did not go right for someone in his or in a neighborinq section, he was ready to immediately find out, explain ' and assist them. Thus it was when a finished lot of optical instrur+.e+lts were turned over for measurement of. caliber--a snaq. It wasn't so terrible--three in- - struments of tY~e entire lot "played tricks." And reqardless of how the enqineers and adjusters fought and regardless of wht~t they did--nothinq worked. And Bespalov i~nediately went to Zook and to help them analyze, to fir.d some omis- sion and somehow to improve it. And this is the way it is every day. But ask him to recall even two or three of ' these episodes and he shruqs his shoulders: this is an ordinary thinq. Incidental- _ ly, everyone recognizes Bespalov as an innovatn�t if you judge by the summaries and the few formulated innovator suqqestions. This is somethir~g he does "by himself" and he does not feel it is necessary to record all this. 59 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY His constant concern is to teach, to pass on knowledge to young people and ta trans- fer experience accumulated at the plant over the long years of a~.l the five-year plans--from the first to the present--to them. Wherever you meet his former appren- tices today, he has given that one his thirst for creativity and his desire for the new. Engineer Anatoliy Budinskiy ccmes into the shop--this is Bespalov's appren- tice, and he consults with innovators d~puty chief of the c~esign office Boris Shustov--also a pupil of Aleksandr Antonovich. Ent~re generations of young people change at the firm, but in each of them there is an apprentice of worker-communist Bespalov. But not only the section in the shop--the entire firm is in his field of vision and he sees all its concerns, anxieties and joys. And often, having completed work in the section, Bespalov does not go home, but to the party committee to consult with the secretary of the party organization, to share his thoughts and to ask about the news. Aleksandr Antonovich always came here with support and advice when he was a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and when he performed crucial commissions, being a~nember of the municipal party co~nittee and as a member of the firm's party committee. Many crucial commissions are entrusted to him. "So then," the secretary of the party committee said to him once, "we have ex- changed opiz~ions and have reached a decision: you, Aleksandr Antonovich, are the m~ost suitable candidate to become more familiar and to check how things are with us in the chief technician's department." And Bespalov carefully checked the work of the most important deFsrtment. This is how it is recorded in the reports: "30 devices were developed and created." Bes- palov, not only as a member of the party committee and as an engineer-specialist - and innovator, was interested in lookinq at them and in analyzing and seeing the w~ork in the shops and in the sections. These devices rea].ly do exist but for the most part either in dreawings or if they are in metal, why do they lay on the shelves. And haw do they operate? There are many questions. Bespalav qives a report at the party committee. The feeling of a manager in his plant brought ever greater acuteness in hi.m as the years went by. Yes he, worker Bespalov, is manaqer of a firm, a city and of an entire country. And this feeling was especially 3eveloped in him during many for- _ eign trips. He is a member of the administration of the Soviet Society for Friend- ship and Cultural Ties with Foreign Countries and he is a member of the Presidium of the Leningrad Co~nittee for Maintaining Peace. - Bespalov has been in Poland and in Czechoslovakia, in the GDR and in Fi,nland, in Sweden and in Norway. He has participated in many international meetings, discus- sions and forums devoted to the struqgle for peace. And everywhere he has appeared as a representative of his own countzy and of his own Soviet motherland. Once he was visiting the enterprises of the well-known Karl Zeiss firm. He talked a.bout the Leninqrad firm LUMO. And he felt not without pride how the foreign spe- cialists were amazed by the success of the Leningrad opticians. After all old Russia generally had no optical industry and now the Leningrad firm was compe~ing 60 FOR OFFICIAi USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY on the w~orld market. The mark LOMO became a symbol of hiqh quality. And during those minutes Bespalov was especially glad to recoqnize that he, a rank and file worker of the firm, is directly related to this. Y~s, Bespalov, despite all his cumbersome titles of rank and award.s (he was awarded _ the Order of Lenin and the gold medal "Peace Fighter"), is primarily a rank and file worker-communist for which the main party affair is his daily "commonplace" w~o rk . "Commonplace," this as before, toqether with designers and researchers, is to de- velop the first models of ever newer and newer unique measuring instruments. He is now working on a new model of a device of unusual accvxacy and perfection. One of the devices is a special optical thickness gauqe for checkinq and focussing the lenses installed in supports. It is a routine, commonplace matter. He himself gave no special significance to his new innovation. But he received a routine in- ventor's certificate for this device. This "commonplace" exists in everythinq. Participation in the work of the scientif- ifc and technical society, a r,~ew commission of the party committee with regard to ' exchange of party documents, correspondence with foreign friends, work on articles for a literary journal about his trip to Scandinavia. And on a rare free evening when his wife and son Vladimir have already returned from the plant, it is good sim~ly to sit and listen wh at his old friend Vladimir Petrovich Vereshchagin has to say. At one time they completed the factory training school toqether, they en- tered the Komsomol together in the shop, they went to the front toqether and to- gether they mastered optics from the beginning. Vladimir Pstrovich has something to tell his friend. As an optical specialist he travelled to Moracco, Vietnam and to France. The firm has business everywhere, and they, like thousands of other - workers, engineers and scientists, are representatives of the firm and its main people. Family Treasures , Goncharov looks at Goncharov. In order to see better without rushing to put his h o r n r i mm e d g 1 a s s e s on , he brings the newspaper a little closer to his eyes . This is LENINGRADSKAYA PRAVDA, but an old, old edition--dated 3 July 1945. On a half-faded, yellowed page was preserved a still rather clear photograph. It was a gzoup portrait of the Young IGomsomols of the brigade that assembles movie projec- tors. And in the center, 3n the forefront is the briqade leadEr: thin and ruffled, staring with a victarious look into the lens. What is this! It was mentioned in the caption under the photoqraph that the brigade leader produces three norms per shift. Goncharov looks at Goncharov. Thouqhtfully, with a soft hardly discernible smile: and the young fellow was dashinq." He pzronounces these words rv4t with pride, but with sadness. And again he looks closely at the photograph. He looks at his friends of the same age and at himself as if his friends wer~ in front of him whom he met lonq ago and had again had occasion to see. And suddenly his eyes light up with a mischievous, joyful fire. His face inunediately becomes younger and he unexpectedly tossles his hair combed smoothly back as if he wants to say: "well, and what about it if some thick qray hairs are visible and what about it if there are some wrinkles. But this is I--this is I1" And for an instant I see him as that "dashing youth," as which he impressed his photocorrespondent more than 30 years ago. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF(C(AL USE ON1.Y "It is good to preserve this issue of the newspaper," he notes pensively. And he adds as if joking: "It's somethinq of a fami~y relic. A family treasure. After all Z have three sons. One works with me in the shop, the second works in the nei~hboring shop and the third--also one of ouxs, part af the fixm, studies in the technical school attached to the association I~OMO. These are treasures in their hands." The list of family treasures in the working familiy of engineer-metalworker of the _ LOMC firm Grigoriy Andreyevich Goncharov is not so small: among them are certif- icates of shock wnrkers of the First Five-Year Plan, combat medals of a Leningrad defender, certificates for innovation and inventive;ness, metals of Wt~ for suc- cess in development of new models of movie equipment, an award of the Polish Peo- ples' Republic and finally the highest award of the motherland--the Order of Lenin. sut one of them is not kept at home but in the personnel department of the firm. _ This is Grigoriy Andreyevich's work book. And in the col~nn "Job data" there is only a one-page notation: 1933j admitted to post of enqineer-metalworker. Evezything began when Goncharov came to Leningrad from the little town of Dorogo- buzh, which is near Smolensk. There he considered himself a confirmed "movie fan," and he went to see each film several times. And when he saw "The Battleship 'Po- temkin�" he decided that from then on his entire life wr~uld generally be related to movies. No, he did not dream about either the occupation of movie director o r~ut a ca-- reer of a film star, he was attracted by something else. He looked at the old, chirruping movie library install.ed in the g~ssage between benches and that trans- mitted enchantir.q onto a curtain attached to the wonden wall as a miracle. The young boy was very envious of the two movie engineers who participated in this - sorcery, one of which turned the handle of the prajector with an unusually import- ant look, and the other of which operated the qenerator drive, producinq electric- ity. To touch this apparatus with one's hand was already happiness. 1~nd to find out how it was made? And who made it? Once he looked at the mark on it: Lenin- grad Optical-Mechanical Plant." And this decided everything. He did not like to put off anything. Within a week he was already in Leningrad at the plant and in the shop where they made movie projection equipment. and busy days then beqan, and what days! The human voice was heard for the first ~ time on the country's movie screens. Coming out of the movie house, they sang the song of Maksim that had just been heard: "P blue globe spins and turns" and no one knew that the lean worker, young Grisha Goncharov and his comrades had assem- bled those first movie projactors. But even outside the shop he aqain dared to hold a movie projector in his hands. Cnce he heard from a friend from an adjacent enterprise: "I have not yet seen 'The Opposite.' I can't get a ticket and they did not show it at the club. Thre is no movie engineer." "There isn't?" asked Grisha. "That's no misfortune. ~Ae will he lp them 1 Thus he also became a v o 1 un t a r y a m a t e ur-~vie eagineer. "The movie spun around" on the latest libraries with the mark of his plant in clubs and in schools-- 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY everywhere where they only asked for it. The audience applauded "Chapayev," and ~ were overjoyed with the success of Maksim and of the heroes of "The Encounter." But Grigoriy was three times glad: both for the heroes of the film, for the view- ers and for himself--he saw how necessary his labor was to people--apparatus whioh ~ he assembles with his own hands. And one more thinq: he can now not only be proud of the fact that he assembled - this equipment but can soberly and critically analyze thcir quality even on the job, can note their merits and deficiencies even from the viewpoint of an experienced, interested movie engineer. He thus became an innovator, unique counselor and con- selor for those who designed and improved experimental models of projectors. And how important this was at that time! The PeopZes' Commissar of Heavy Industry G. K. Ordzhonikidze came to the ~lant shop from Moscow. Goncharov saw him several times. The Peoples' Commissar met with peo- ple and became familiar with new marks of projectors and talked about how these pro- jectors were needed in all corners of the country, especially on the kolkhozes. The shop collective then developed a simple and most dependable projector and called it Gekord, that is, the abbreviation for Geargiy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze. It was pleasant to think and know that part of one's labor and one's concerns, ideas, hopes and knowledge was left in this Gekord. And with reqard to knowledqe, the further he went, the more that he needed. He entered the workexs' faculty. It was difficult to sit behind a desk in the even- ings, after a hard shift. But he did not give the appearance that it was difficult. Asid not in order to embarrass his instructors. It was not them but a girl from Svetlana in a red kerchief sitting c~uietly near the window. This girl was called Kseniya. In Kseniya's presence he co~:ld not answer the instructor's questions at all as if it was she rather than the instructor who was greeting him. It was as if she was a controller over him. It must be said here immediately that this is how it happened in reality. Kseniya ~akharovna became Goncharov's wife, came to work with hiun in the shop wh~re she has now been workinq more than 25 years and her duties are a controller of the depart- ment of technical control, and it is frequently she who checks the movie projectors which her husband and his comrades assemble. As Goncharov himself states, it is very difficult to find a more particular and mc~re "parniciou~" contzoller. In i941 they interrupted their joint plans for the future. The first bomb dropped ~ by fascist pilots on the plant came into the shap where Grigoriy Andreyevich worked, whose specialty had become manufacture of mines, antitank grenades and so on. In May of 1942 several bright 150's rush~d along the Ladoga, raising a spray of the liquid ice. Their wheels were hidden under the water and the machines, finding themselves under fire, could be seen from a distance as some fantastic squadron. They soon unloaded not far from Volkhovstroy, from which the line of the front passed three kilometers away. And the just delivered machine tools were installed in one of the empty shops of the Volkhov Altuninum Plar.t. The two surviving tur- bin~es of the Volkhovskaya station provided power and after the second day here they began to produce weapons for the defenders of Leninqrad. Young w~orker Grigoriy 63 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONI.Y Gonch3rov organized this production. He trained the unusual personnel on the way: housewives who had never seen a machine tool before and still quite green teenagers. Nevertheless each day the weapons manufactured by Goncharov and his comrades were sent directly from the shop to the front from hand t~ hand. They were sent from = the workers to the troops. Thus was established the basi~ for the characte r of the future ancestor of the , working dynasty cf Goncharor~g. And primarily a keen feeling of personal resp~onsi- bility for the fate of the ent.~usted matter. A beloved matter, great or sm.all, but = needed by the people. Thus ~he moral heritage of ~.~Q Saviet worker was accumulated ~ which he lster, years later, ~ould trasnfer to his owin sons. The growing sons unwi.llingly learned facts and events from the unwritten family manuscript, perhaps not vsry significan*_ for others but for them important, that ent~red their consciousness and comprised the objec*_ of their pride. ~ it wi~l always be remembered in the Goncharov family how, returning to the plant = even before the end of t,he war, Grigoriy Andreyevicn together with his comrades _ examined every piece of the territiory under t1:e snow: tnere the~ found a cartridge, = theze a ro11Er, there a lens--they assembled s~und projectors for hospitals and - clubs. And later, af~er *.he :-nd of the war, having finished his shift, he went to = restore the equipment of the bomk~ed-out r~ovie theaters on Nevskiy Prospekt. They _ how the head of the family did not ieturn home until late--they f~und out _ that he was organizing a~semi~ly of new complex instruments for spectral analysis. - The instruments were made in the neiqhboring shop and they were needed by many en- terprisPS. Grig~riy tindreyevich came to a~s'_st. A person of encrnaous skill, a ~arn enc~ineer who had if one may say so "~:~gineering intuition, " he entered the ~:ourse c~f a~fairs quickly. He trained an entire section of assemblers who were tr3ns ~erred to another shop. '2'Y~ey susr,ested that Goncharov transfer there. _ Th~y promised hi~h wages. He did not go. "It's more interestinq for me here. I = am a movie fan." And that is true. Tt was not easy to find a skillful master in man~i~acture of - ~rojection equip~~nt o� any s,ystems and any models--portabie, stationary and thos~ designed for showing o� any �ilms. - ?'he ran'~t and file wnrker becor,i~~ a full repre~Qntative of the firm LOMO abroad. ' The famous hall of science wa~ erect~d in Warsaw and the sons a~c~ompany Grigoriy ~ ?~id~-ey~vich to Pa],and. ~'Y:e father will instali the Soviet movie e~uipmeni: there. - Later his labor ''g~oc~raphy" already encompasses Prague, Takyo, Osaka arid some Afri- - can countries. His ~ons accompany him to Guinea, Toqo and Mali. ~ Grigoriy Az~drey~vich i~ a kind, simple a~nd o~~en man ~o whom people are attracted, friendshi~ wi~h fri~ndship and li~taninq to his wnrds. Once in t~tali r~e ~ even became an ins ~ igatoz of a unique "subbo~.riik. " There during his fre~ time = GOI1CYldrut, and his new friends arganized immacula~e ordez in the roam of the movie tneater where the rn;.+vie projector was ins~alled. They quickly becam~ accu~tomed _ ~c Griqoriy Andrey~~rich and the local rPSidents asked h~sn to repair their watches - a.nd some kinds of :~z~usehold appliances. He repaired them. Ur~sel,fishly ~nd with - iriendliness. = 64 _ ~'OI2 ~FFICIAL LJS~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY Once his oldest son asked Goncharov: ~ "Tell me frankly: You've been working for 40 years in the sazne shop and in the same section and you have been involved in the same thing for 40 ;~?ears. Tell me, swear to me, is it not boring? Wou2dn't you like to transfer?" Goncharov shruqged his shoulders, removed his qlasses and looked with surpr~se at him. "Now what is thisl Transfer. First, I have one love. I love my work, my occupa- - tion and as ~hey say in the song, "I hope that this is mutual." Work and an xcu- pation lo ve him who is true to it. It then opens for him one secret after another. : If one only looks at it more attentively, it opens to one that which amazes oneself~ - of course, how did I not guess th~s eazl~ler." And since all members of his family are avid movie and photoqraphic amateurs, he explains: "Let's say that two persons take a photograph of Mednyy vsadnik or some other well- known site. You look at the photograph of one and you have seen it a thousand times. But in the photograph of another there is a discovery! It's as if this miracle oc- curs for the first time before your eyesl This is because the second person looked for and found an unexpected angle and knew how to see that ~ahicti all others had passed by." Thus it was in the shop of Goncharov himself. A long time aqo they had put into - serial production a single movie projection apparatus. It came off the conveyor lot after lot over many years. And it seemed there wa~ nothinq "to take away and to add" to it. And the comments of users were the best. No one gave any attention to the KPT, as this apparatus was called. But Goncharov He looked at the ordin- ary with a fresh eye. And he suddenly saw that the system for switching on the cut- out arc was insufficiently perfect~d and convenient. One could get along without it. One could make it s~ that the arc itself was switched on. - Of course, this is what they did. The designers aqreed i.mmediately. Because Gon- = charov's unexpected suggesti~n was extremely simple. And the advantaqe from intro- dLCing it was enormous. Incidentally, if. one calculates the advantages from the innumerable suggestions of . ~ Goncharov, they would have long ago been worth 200,000 rubles, not countinq those - introducta.ons which were officially not formalized. ~ The most exparienced desiqners of the firm feel that Grigoriy Andreyevich is their own colleagus. Theze is r~ascan to talk about him, to consult with hiun, to think and debate ~~aith him. Yes, y~es and to debate since it happens thusly: the old en- gineer-metalworker, usually quiet and obliqing, unexpectedly be~omes prickly and implacable. Thfs is when he is cor~vinced that he is right and that failure to in- troduce his suqgestian :nay inflict losses on the firm. Again and again he se~s up - an experiment and seeics new, r~wre c~nvincin~ proof of his position. . 65 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Incidentally, most frequently his situations are still without conflict. There : where true talent, invaluable experience and knowledge are found, there is noplace for conceit. = How long they had racked their brains over a mechanism which was supposed to guar- antee simultaneous autasnatic exposure in an installation of 11 projection apparatus which was ordered for a ci ne ram a in Tokyo. Grigoriy Andreyevich suggested the solution. ~ All these histories of course become worthy of the unwritten family manuscript and are qiven to the sons--the heirs. ~ The heirs. Griqoriy Andreyevich, when they gather together around the table, at- tempts to talk with them more carefully "so as not to chatter," although he still looks at his sons with an evaluating glance and smiles. All of them even in char- acter are hardly similar to each other, bu~ there is something of their father in each one. The oldest, Viktor, has a high forehead with a forelock and has be~n with tne firm = for several years already. Viktor came to LOMO immediately after thQ eighth grade, - became a radio installer and learned the fine art of installing the most crucial assemblies in spectral analysis instruments. ~ Father and son consulted many times and debated various enqineering problems but not only eng~neering ~roblems occurring in production. Grigoriy Andreyevich was glad that his son accepts everything warmly and close to his heart that concerns the life of a shop and Grigoriy Andreyevich was glad when once Viktor showed his _ father a new certificate of a shock worker of comcaunist labor. The most pleasant for the head of the �amily was nct external indicators, but the essence of character. He saw that it was easy for the young fellow to both work and study, completing the 9th, lOth and llth grades in the evenings. But the firm urgently needed builders for reconstruction of the shops. There were not enough builders. Ttie young people decided: we will help and we shall work on the con- struction project. And Viktor was al~ang them--one of the first. Another time Viktor heard friction in the shop. Griqoriy Andreyevich was planning to step in but his son sharply stopped him: "I will do it myself." More than anything in life he generally likes independence and self-reliance as incidentally does everyone in the family. Like Gennadiy. Many saw in him the fu- ture of a musician from his childhood. Griqoriy Andreyevich bought a piano for his son and the young fellow had absolute pitch and could listen for hours, enchanted, to a melody that he liked. But the son selected his father's path. He entered the shop where his father works. He became a worker. 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY And music~ No, he did not forqet it. True, not so much time remai.ns for it: work, studies at the technical school in the evenings, but still the hours which he can devote to Tschaikovsky and Chopin are doubly precious. : His father patiently taught his son to think about any, even a seemingly simple operation so that each action was justified and previously calculated. And if it was complicated he said: "Do not hurry. Think about it. If something does not work then: think about it again. I will say nothing. You will achieve it with your own mind and you will remember it more stronqly. To think is the main thing in any occupation." Gennadiy has already attained the third rank of assembler-engineer and his fat~er has attained sixth rank. This is still a very difficult position to achieve, but Grigoriy Andreyevich has no doubt that Ger.nadiy will reach it successfully. A1- though the road is steep, but if,it was laid by the father, the son will travel more easily along it. ~ The third son, the youngest, also plans to travel in his father's path. And it is not only in the fact that Sergey is studying in the technical school at the firm but perhaps even more important is the fact of how he listens and instills in him- self what his father, mother and two older brothers say at home about the enter- prise. And they always talk about this since their common work is at the firm-- the main and inseparable part of their life. The Generous Life of Valentin Petukhov our first meeting with Valentin Yakovlevich Petukhov occurred in the shop where modern videotape recorders are developed for television studios. Hundreds oE peo- ple in snow white smoGks were working behind long tables in an enormous light hall similar to a scientific laboratory. Among them I sought out Petukhov, a solid, wideshouldered man with thin and soft features of a dark face. He looked somewhat a kindly schoolteacher and this was unexpected for me since Z already knew that Petukhov served in the paratroopers during the war years, par- ticipated in the liberation of Vienna of fascist occupation troops and was awarded ~ the Order of Glory, third deqree. At that time he had just barely ~~:xned 18. Now he, like everyone here, was sitting in a snow white smock and holding in one hand a small electric soldering iron and in the other pincers and carefully, like a surgeon, touched different points of a dark panel on which, unfathom~able to the - foreign eye, a labyrinth gradually occurred in the thinnest varicolored wires. The labyrinth contained nuemrous triodes, dio3es and capacitors--the filling for various types of units which, bein joined with other electronic and optical de- vices, are transformed into a videotape recorder. This videotape recorder with the mark LOMO then receives a permanent registration in our or foreign studios. His friends in the shop Vladimir Sutulov, a formex naltic sailor and now an in- staller, member of the party rayon committee, ti~e oldest wnrker Tat'yana Nikolayev- na U1'yanova and veteran of the firm Ivan ivanovich Tsyganav asked me to write about Valentin Yakovlevich. 67 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY He enumerated tens of names and about each knew what "really should be talked about." _ "You already know what kind of people these are," says Petu.khov, "wh~en I came here, I was already approaching 25 years. And I had no specialty at all. I worked as a stevedore for several years after the war. 'i'he wages were good but the work was not very interesting. I decided that I will spit on the wages and become an appren- tice. And Speranskiy, the then deputy chief of the shop, says to me: 'well, young fellow, it is already time for you to take on a family so how can I take you on as an apprentice? And what about it if we immediately give you the fourth rank? You have a secvndary education and you were connected to engineering in the army. I will talk to the fellows. One must assist a former man of the front."' The next day he was alzeady hired on ths production line where they at that time - i.nstalled the sound amplifying equipment for movie projectors. He tried as well as ize cauld. He was very excite d. It seemed to him that everyone looks reproachfully _ at his unskilled hands. But Tat`yana U1'yanova came up to him and at that time she was still a very young installer. "Don't be emba.~rassed, no one can glue it immediately. You have already managed so much!" she praised him, although a whole pile of parts had accutnulatpd near Petu- khov and he was unwillingly delaying the remaining ones on the production line. Tat'yana skillfully assisted him. And not only she, bst Sutulo�a, Tsyganov and any- one that he requested about this and those that even he did not ask. - Petukhov relates many of these stories and finishes them with the words: "You know that I was always lucky to be among gvod people." There was among these stories ' one quite long ago during the blockade. It turnea out that he stayed in the be- sieged city even as a teenager without parents and relatives. He roamed through th~: snow-covered streets and fell into the snowdrifts, weakened and powerless. And probably he would never have gotten up if some Red Army soldier, passing by in a sleigh, dug him'out, brought him to consciousness and took him home. We met with Petukhov many time s. His involuntary "lyrical asides" helped tn under- stand much in his character, wh ich was kind, qentle and sympathetic. LOMO had long ago become for Val.entin Yakovlovich not only the p lace where he works but the main content of his li fe. This was a platform for creativity for which ~ Pet~:khov and many others comrades live. He is at the center of the social life of his shop and his firm. During 23 years of work he was elected to the shop commit- tee, the secrPtary of the party bureau and a memb~r of the party committee of the association. A crsiet life is not for him--he is always advocating something, makes some suggestion, checks and organizes. He also has inteqrity. Sut this is the in- tegrity of a working man and a foreman who loves his work. And if he, Petukhov, installs ~ complex mod~~l of a videotape recorder, for example, the Eiektron-2, then everything should be at the highest level. It is because of this feature of his character that Petukhov insists on an opera- tion which is here called "a 1-~airstyle." This operation is the last before the _ new apparatus is sent to its po int of destination. Petukhov carries out the final - 68 FOR OFF[CIAL USE O,*.'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and the most precise finishing. This always costs him enormous tension. After all, even the strictest controllers give their approval but Petukhov still has something to finish. Once one of the f~remen could not stand it: "Well, how much can you do. Soon you will begin to sign your name on each instrume~t." Petukhov shrugged his shoulders: "Our signatures--mine and yours--already are on each instrument. And the signature of evezyone who works at the firm. This is the same signature, the collective sig- nature IAMO." Petukhov's concern was always businesslike and creative. However, he talked very temperamentally at the party meetinq of the section and the desiqn office. But this was not simply the fervor of an orator. The very next day he and his comrades in the brigade began to think about developing a special improved bench so as to check the correctness of installation of the most complex circuits more rapidly, more precisely and more reli.ably. And soen a special board with varicolored signal lamps appeared in the sectiAn. Press a button and the manycolored lights instantly let or,e know how one or another circuit is behaving. Yet another innovation was horn here through the joint Offorts of the same instal- lers--special produ~tion boards for so-called tying of the bundles when installing the videotape recorders. All this facilitated and accelerated labor and improved the reliability of the most important assemblies and units in the apparatus. Nevertheless, Petukhov did not parade his participation in innovation and in creativity. But when he as secretary of the party bureau and later as a membpr of the party committee was called upon to "cres~e, seek and test," no one could re- proach him: But how are things with yourself7" The word "study" is not simply a slogan at LOt70. Courses, the evening scnool, the technical school and the division of the vuz ase an entire academic combine to one's awn efforts. Valentin Yakovlevich has already taken knowledge from almost all these sources. But he also has other sources. Former apprentices. Here he goes into the d~siyn office to the chief enga.neer Aleksandr Kuzin: "Sasha,I would like to consult with you on perhaps one questian." Sasha Kuzin and 18 more of the same teenagers as he came to LOMO from the PTU when it was just beginning to be organized and they were all taken under the wing of Valentin Yakovlevich. Petukhov taught them and acted as their mentor. He noted Sasha Kuzin ~specially when they were assembling sound recordinq systnms: from the start the young fellow grasped the situation and exasperated his men~or some- times with the most unexgected but very lucid and serious questions. Petukhov also thought at that time: here is someone that will be turned ~.nto an engineer in the future. And he directed the young fellow: study! The years passed. And Petukhov comes to one of his former apprentices, now the chief engin- eer of the firm, for advice and consultation. 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - F'OR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY The breadth of this knowledge and his rich experience also made Petukhov himself a consultant but frequently an authoritative arbiter in discussions as well. The version was frequently ccnfirn~ed which Valentin Yakovlevich had cfiven high marks to. And then they say at the SKB: "So, Petukhov's version is accepted." Some- times Petukhov's versions are also accepted far beyond the borders of the countxy to where Valentin Yakovlevich travels as a chief assembler and a full representa- tive of LOMO. Thus iL was in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Japan where he together with a grcup of cther workers asser.?bled the cinerama orde:red in Leningrad for movie theaters. Can he really forget those restless days and nights in the laboratory, in the ex- perimental section of the assembly benches alongside developers iCira Nikolayevna Tsvetkova, Militsa Aleksandrovna Bamm and others. He recalled the first two shy female students of the institute of movie enqineers who were trained in the shop . in the assembly-installation section. TY:ey literally did not leave *he side of - Valentin Yak~vlevich when the firsti cinerama set was being assembled. Everything - h~d to be solved for the first time: for example, how to assemble the motor. The success of synchronous starting of all the systems, including those rel.ated to focussing the image, sound transmission as~d so on, depended largely on the accuracy of selection. The experience and knowledge of chief installer Valentin Yakovlevich Petukhov were natural here. And all together triumphantly noted the first awards--the bronze medal of VDNKh and ' diplomas from the CSSR government. An order fror~ Japan then came in. But it was a new order--this was not a repeat of the pas*_ order. There is the same tradition at LOMO: each new model of an ap- paratus or dPVice is continuously more improved than its predecessors. The cir.erama for Japan was the most complex unit with the most modern magnetic tape - devices and noise-protective filters controlled from a single console. The new unit was too sensitive for long voyages and malfunctions appeared during the test star~tups. 'Che search and intensive experiments continued during assembly in Japan. And this was very difficult s?.nce the deadline for turning over the apparatus w3s determined. ' Petukhov, like his remaining comrades, had reason to become very mach agitated; without stopping assembly, they chanqed this and corrected that "on the road." The cinerama was turned over to the Japanese within the established deadline. Dur- ing assembly the Japanese specialists treated Petukhov with special deference. He inspired in them involuntary respect of his skills, erudition and some special :nodesty and kindness. The curicus Petukhov asked the Japanese about their life and told them about his own Soviet country. - when Petukhov returned from his next short assignment abroad to his own shop, he had the feelinq that the separation had continued for entire years. - Once, after a long absence, he noted two young, broad-shauldered youths in the me- chanical section at the milling machines. Petukhov at first thought,these are novices and I must became acquainted with them. Latier, having looked closely, he smiled and loudly pronounced: "You returned!" 70 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 Fr.)R OFFICIAI. USE ONLY And they both looked toward him~: "Valentin Yakovlevichl How are yaul" He was glad to see them like his own sons. These two had come to the shop once from the PTU. But their efforts did not flag. Their work in the section was ~re- cise and complex. And they w~re intimidated by it. ?~nd therefore. of ccurse their wage:s w~re 2.ow. But once con~idence i^~ onself is less, the consequence is almost alwa~ys being released at one's desire. Petukhov, and not only he, but many other - co~iunists of the shop sounde:d the alarm: We must help the fellows stand on their feet. - However, some then trie.~. co cool theis ardor: "Is there a reason to fire the crew? They will have to go into the army within 6 months anyway." Hut Petukhov came to the party meetinq: "We must look ahead and help the fellows to qain confidence and to convi.nce them that their future is here in th~ shop. ~o that they themselves will return to us to the firm from the army. They must do it themselves." ; After the meeting there was a confidential conversation wi~h Anatoliy Babanov and the best milling machine operators i~? the shop. "Fellows, i am hoping '~or you. This,is my personal request. Take these two still - untried youths and do not let them be separated fram our collective." Experienced mentors appeared amonq the fellows. And they tried. Valentin Yakov- levich was frequently among them and advised: "Do not attempt to 'overtake the plan' innnediately. Try to do no more, but do it better. The speed will take care of itself." And now they learned and how! They served their teza, in the army, returned to their own shop and received qood wages and study. s And it was that Valentin Yakovlevich, havxng zealously tried tio hold each of them in the shop, said to one of his apprentices: "But perhaps it is better for y~~u to leave. You have another callinq." This was Oleg Mikhaylov, a 16-yeas~old youth. He had been hired in the shop on the - r?quest of his mother. He was a student. But Petukhov later took him under his own wardship. He was not a youth, but quicksilverl And he seemed to be intelli- qent. But he did not desire to understand the simplest things in assembly. Petu- khov also frequently n~ted something e~se in him: the youth's desire for drawinq. He was always drawing and everywhere. Petukhov saw in his home the niunerous sketches--landscapes, portraits and genre scenes. Ne then decided: - 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084419-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Whether you believe i.t or not, you have a different path--to the artist's school." This was a long time ago! And now Uleg had graduated from a special school and was a decorator artist of Lenfil'm. When Petukhov sees his name on the movie cred- its ne is proucl: "My Oleg!" And as before Oleg regards Petukhov as his teacher. Landscapes given to him by Oleg hang in Valentin Yakovlevich's new apartment re- ceived from the firm. P~tukhcv and his sons are constant visitors of exhibitions in the Hermitage and the Russian Museuin. And this is an irresistible need and at- traction toward the beautiful. And therefore it is not accidental that the section foreman, talking about Valentin Yakovlevich, once said: "Petu;chov knows how to do everything only beautifully. As if her were drawing it. He is an artist in his own way." Hence, another of his passions is understandable: flowers. Flowers which he grows at his dacha at Karel'skaya Peresheyka, an object of his special pride and tender cor~cerns. His many shop acquai.ntances also love these flowers. Petukhov's dacha , was obtained "from the firm" in a special resort zone of the association. He - brings his friends there in his Moskvich so that each one can fall in love and share with him the joy of ineeting the amazing creations of nature. The Petukhovs have three sons. The oldest, Valentin, works in Far Yakutiya, the youngest, Aleksey is still a student, and the middle one, Andrey, serves in the Soviet Army. A letter has already come from the unit in which the commander thanked Valentin Yakovlevich and his wife Nina Vasilevna for their excellent edu- cation of their son. Petukhov lives in Vyborgskaya Starona on old Vasenko Ulitsa in no way especially noticeable. Bu.t they are frequently on Laboratornaya Ulitsa. Here many people know Petukhov and especially the workers of the housing offices. He now call~ one with regard to repair of the recreation and reading room, about the library, or _ he organizes lec:t�sres through the efforts of the residents themselves. why is Petukhov here? He is not a deputy nor ari inspector of the Department of Culture. But Valentin Yakovlevich is this type of person: he is always tnere where there is the pos~ibility to do something good, interestinq and useful. Petukhov's sons were attracted in chilc~ood, even without his influence, to radio engineering. But are there really others who are not interested in this? Thus there may be the opportunity to organize these circles for the young people--his neighbors on the street. And is there not joy in bringing music, the theatre and creative arts to his many friends? All this led Petukhov to the party committee of *he firm where he was appointed the chairmari of th~ coordinating council to work with the population. And he has had many enthusiasts: ~~vorkers, foremen, engineers and reti~ees. All of them are from LoMO. And Valentin Yaklo~?levich heads these people. 72 FOR OFF~iCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400084019-9 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY Optics is Their Family Matter An Unexpected Acquaintance _ My first acquaintance with the Golovan workers' dynasty occurred by correspondence and under un~xpected circumstances. They told me at one of the scientifir. research institutes where problems of genet- ics were studied what amazing possibilities m~dern biological science has. What is it now not capable of establishinq, penet~ating into the secrets of the livi:~g. cell! They showed me an instr~aaent toward which they exerciaed special respect and care, careful~y touching its dull gray body. It is call~d a fluorescent biological microscope. "This is an entire unit filled with the most complex and delicate equipment," con- tinues my guide. "All prev~ious bioloqical mic:roscopes regarded as perfected cannot ~ compare with it. How can they! We can observe ~ ceYl oz~?y in section. It was . specially processed, frozen and stained. Many, many hours were spent on this. And we observed it only in the stati.a state--dead and immobile. And at that only visu- ally by eye. The new microscope has produced revolution! We see a cell in its natural state--live and in its own light. We see all the chanqes in its microstruc- ture. We can make any photograms, use spectral methods of analysis, obtain auto- matic recording of information and use polarization microscopy. And all this in a single instzument." "Incidentally, they sent a specialist to us at the IAMO laboratory for these in- struments so that everything would be debugged, regulated and adjusted locally. We were amazed by h~.s work here--fast, precise ~rcd confident. His name is Golovan' and he is younq, sympathetic and jolly. And Tater as it turned out he is not an engineer nor a teckiriician but "simply" as he said, an ordinary optical engineer. And he assembles these unique microscopes in his own experimental section. - The scientist expressed a wish upon parting: "If you are at LOMO talk with Golovan'. He should be arz interesting person. And from all of us give him our respects." I decided to fulfill the scientist's wish with pleasure, but it turned out that it is not as simple to do this for the most unexpected reason. They asked me in the personnel department of LOMO: "Golovan'? Which one2 Do you know how many Golavan's we have?" The young female worker of the departsaent began to enumerate: - "Mikhail Golovan', that's one. Viktor Golovan' is two, Tamara Golovan' 3s three and Nina Golovan' is four. Incidentally, Nina is no longer a Golovan' but a Smirnova because she married, but her husband also works here at LOMO." 73 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In general an entire dynasty. The girl talked about this dynasty with pride. "But I need Golovan' the optician," I said mare carefully. "But they are all opticians." "All? Well, the one of them who is a specialist in microscopes. Fluorescent bio- logical microscopes." "They are all specialists in both fluorescent and ultraviolet and generally in any _ :nicroscopes which the LOMO company produces." ' There was only one way out: to meet with all the Golovan's. And this is how I proceeded. A Matter of Heredity And now ~lmost all the Golovan's were assembled in a larqe three-room apartment on Vyborgskaya Storona at the youngest of the brothers'--Vi.ktor Georgiyevich, as it turned out the very one to which the scientist sent his best regards. _ Unlike Viktor, quiet and thorough, Mikhail is warm and fiery. Both look much younger than th~ir age and something boyish and mischievous remained in them. They both suddenly l~qan te quarrel, recalling yesterday's fishing trip to Shchuch'ye Ozero, now "seizing" on the character and "intelligence" of pigeons. They have been attracted r~y pigeons since childhood. In general they are very f o n d of living nature and therefore the rooms have been filled with aquariums with electric lighting, with fantastic grott~es among the - algae, among which swim odd, exotic fishes. And their home is also full of flowers. Flowers are also a"weakness" of the Golovan's: They have transformed their plot in the collective garden of the firm into a living, fragrant and beautiful carpet. And of course everything that they do, they do "scientifically." Much special literature has been read and assimilated both about raising aquarium fish and about raising flowers. - 'lfiey do everything scientificalJ.y--this has beco:ne a habit related to their work at the optical firm. It isn't enough to have "golden hands" here, one must also have theoretical knowledge. viktor Georgiyevich is an optical engineer in the experimental section. Mikhail ~eorgiyevich has the same position in the Laboratory of L~icroscopy of the Central Desigr~ Office, the wife of Viktor, Tamar Petrovna is a designer and the husband of Nina Golovan', Vladimir S7nirnov, is a designer. - ;licroscopy is really a family occupation of this dynasty. Those who develop micro- scr~pes at LOMO are permanently connected to such scientific and scientific research institutions as the Institute of Psychology, the Military Medical Academy, the Znstitute of High Molecular Compounds, the Institute of Physiology and the Botan- ical Institute. And each institute has its own special requirements on an 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY instrument and its own special tasks and goals which its developers must take into account. Therefore, one can see at the assembly table in the shops a venerable scientist-designer and optical engineer discussing problems related to the devel- - opment of the next experimental model of a future instrument. They are all Golovan's with secondary and specialized education, not counting the inntanerable courses for raising qualifications which they have taken. Mikhail a3ds: "we at LOMO are all 'permanent students' and study there never ends for anyone. _ You study--and eWeryone here, regardless of whether you are a worker as Viktor and I are or Tamara and Volodya are. It is impossible otherwise. One - must maintain the mark. The mark of the firm. Yes, and speaking frankly, the mark of a dynasty." _ The mark of the Golovan' dynasty is thought of hiqhly at the firm. LOMO veterans say that this is a family of specialists, public-spirited pers~ns and good succes- sors to working family traditions that have been given to optical production for more than 150 years. Rnots and Branches The present Golovan's are a branch of the root which was begun here by the heredi- tary St. Pete~sburg worker Georqiy Metrofanovich Golovan'. He began; already be- ing married, he became an apprentice automatic lathe operator and gained the occu- pation of machine tool operator. He was one of the shock workers of the First Five-Year plan. He finished the technical school and headed the optical shop of the plant. During World War II he was evacuated together with the enterprise to distant Cmsk, where he was elected the plant party organizer. The present Golovan's were still young boys dwring the difficult military evauca- tion. They recall those rare hours when their father was able to be at home. They looked at him as at a wizard who could create amazing thinqs "from nothing." For example, he could make a stool, table or even a cabinet from seemingly unnecessary slabs. They then w~orked together: wooden skates with metal runners, skiis and games. And all this was made with their own hands. With their own hands! What joy it was for the young Golovan's to giv~ a game made with their own hands to one of the comrades and to hear their approval: "Well, how about thatl You realZy did it yourself?" The father said: - "Would you like to make an even more valuable c;ift for your friends? Then teach them so that they can make the same thing themselves. Hands are not only for holding a spoon but a hammer as well. Right?" 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ Crifoztunately, this happy time of being alongside his father did not happen very frequently. He taught day and night at the plant and everyone was working for the front: mother, Valentina Mikhaylovna, a seamstress by profession and grandmother. The grandmother, Yekaterina Mikhaylovna Golovan', was an old Bolshevik. Despite hez advanced age, she took cares on herself during that difficult time to assit the tens of Leningrad opticians evacuated from the besieged city, bought provisions for them in the surrounding villages and patiently and persistently helpd her small _ wards to find their parents. Thus lived the Golovan' family, with an open heart. There were no strangers for them. You would come and there would be enouqh warmth for everyone. The family became an orphan after the war--Georgiy M~etrofanovich perished. Th?re remained a sick mother and three children--Mikhail, Nina and Viktor. In memory of their father they preserved the Order af the Red Baxuzer of Labor, the Orcier Badge of _ Ho~or and the Medal for Labor Valor. And there was yet another award which was always kept in view as during their - father's lifetime. A small, simple school microscope enscribed with their father's name given by the collective of the enterprise--a r,~emorial gift to Georgiy Metro- fanovich, shock worker of the First Five-Year Plan and enthusiast for development of Soviet optics. how many times their father's hands carefull.y and gently touched the black burnished body. What gleasure it was for the children to place their eye to the microscope eyepiece and ther. to tell their friends about the fantastic J "secrets" th~t they had seen. Georgiy Metrof~novich's friends from the optical shop helped the young fellows to accomplish their father's dream for them--to become rea]. opticians. Nina, who had already successfully completed the lOth grade, had already been ap- pointed as a laboratory worker. The well-known optical engineer Afanasy Petrovich Terekhov took on Mikhail as an apprentice. And Viktor--he was only 13 years old at that time. Special permission of the trade-union obkom was required for Viktor to be hired at the plant as an apprentice. Teachers and Students The teaching of the brothers proceeded very ~apidly. First, their father had in- stilled in them since childhood the thirst for skills and the joy of creativity even in the simplest work. Second, the occupation of optician ~~as always the most significant and interesting in his eyes and his sons looked at ever~~ hing through their father's eyes. Third, Mikhail, who was two years older than Viktor, managed to learn something in the Pioneer House as a schoolboy, learned the skills of mill- inq and lathe operation and could himself turn a fine part. Viktor learned every-~ thing from his older brother. The main thing was that from the steps the working youth of the brothers was surrounded by the kindness of Georgiy Metrofanovich's friends--~Gaiakhov, Terekhov and many others who remembered his sincere generosity. Afailsiy Petrovich Z'erekhov strict and closed to Mikhail. At first he even felt some fear of him. And why not fee~ fear! From the first days Terekhov gave him unexpectedly difficult assignments. 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 Ft~R OFFICIAL USE ONLY He had to learn to think for himself. Mikhail un8erstood very quickly how right his men~or was, who only from the side could seem to be "a dried-up man" and who = in fact from the first steps tried to teach the novice the most important thing in his occupation which was always related to a persi$tent independent search and solution of many difficult problems in assembly, installation and adjustinent of optical instruments. It is unimportant thaL you n?ade an error. It is important that you thouqht, Tere- khov loved to repeat an3 added: "You know, they say among the people, he who knows little makes no errors but that who is confident and knows everything does make errors. And then he began to patiently explain what the error was." Mikhail was transferred long ago to another section and if there was a need for it he went to Afanasiy Petrovi~h long after for advice. And even being an optical engineer of sixth rank and working in the research laboratory on experimental " models of th.e latest microscopes or rather on mockups of these models, he ~nentally consulted with Terekhov. And it was as if he heard aqain as in his youth: "Now ~ you think about it! You think about it again!" And it turned out that this advice was constantly effective: to think and learn in one's own experience and i.n the experience of one's colleaques. His father's friends were worried about selectinq the future occupation of the - 13-year-old Viktor. Petr Markovich Tychin and Pavel' Nikolayevich Pavlov--adjust- ors of automatic machines--tried to get him into the automatic machine shop. � Lathe operator Nikolay Vasil'yevich Kuznetsov and o13 optical enqineer Feodor Aleksandrovich Galakhov tried to get him to their shop in the assembly and exper- imental section. They argued where it would be better for ~he young fellow and where it would be most interesting. Viktor decide~ himself: - "I want to work with Misha. With my brotiher." He then began learning the skills of a comparatively young engineer--Ruf Ivanovich Kolosov, with whom he quickly became friends. Everyone tried in his own way to teach the lively restless youth in the occupation of optician. In order to learn all its fine points, c~nstant attention, the capa- bility of careful accumulation of skills and of scrupulous analysis of one's own successes and failures were required. Only then could one qain the reaY attraction of an occupation. Would Viktor become such a one? Like a sponge he soaked up everything that Galalchov and Kolosov said and showed to him. And he learned their working procedures and secrets of his future occspation. The young Golovan' changed before their very eyes. The boyish fidgetyness disap- peared and he became reserved and close-mouthed. And the sinqle thing with which - he exasperated both his m~ntors and the designers, developers and investigators who came to the shop was his endless questions. 77 FOR OFFICIAL ?JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080019-9 ~ ~ F~UR OFFICAAL USE ONLY vikr.Qr war;ced with ecstasy. N~ anr. s~e~!.:~ngly noticed when this yaur~g fellow con-- ' triv~~d ta learn evezythinq. I;: was su~denly discavered that he could wa~x dn the ~ milling machine ~rd it was not kndwn wher. he had learrxed the fine points af lathe ~ arts . Kolosov "sudCenly" discoverea this in him. And Itolosov~ ~xadualiy begar~ te txus:. Viktor with assembly not only of small asse,mi~li~s, but the most complex aci- - ~usting instrum~n~~, ~ncludir.g speei.~l m.icror~ov~e unzts, microhardness measuring ~ instxur,.ents wi:-.h remot~ control and final]_y moaels of microscapes ~ Ynuag Veterar~s Y,.olosov looked at h' s charqe uf ~rh~m he was truly pzoud. "N~w here i, a real Golcvan' he beqan t.o repeat, "he knows how ta :,iaintair. the family honar. You oniy have t~ tr.:s': ay.m and he will fulfill it. " - "Do you think you are not qett~;~g too ~a~ried ~.way?~` G~orgiy ~iktorovich Orlav, the most "n~gging" foreman f.~om the ::ontrc sexvice, tried to ma~~ra~e Kolosov's - enthusiasm. This was the most expRripnc~d sp~cialist whose keen, proficient eye was hardly inferior to the most delica~e ir.stdr~:mQn*.s ~nd standards wk~ich he had used in checkinc . "I will answer f~r the young fellow," answered IGolosov. And the professional skills of the young Golovan' brothers who had given yreat hope, received the high marks of spQCialists. Moreover, the brothers helped eack~ other and extricat~d each other. The 20-year- old Mikhail acquired the hiqhest sixth rank in spite of all the adopted deadlines.~ Viktor, when he was only 18 years o:.d, had already achieved the fifth rank and soon, like his brother, achieved the sixth ran'.c of optical enqineer. Fewer and fewer of the veterans--friends of their father--remained at the enter- And it soon turned out that the "veterans" were now regarded as the Golo- - v~n' brothers themselves, although they were still of Komsomol age. The brothers already enjoyed the reputation of very experienced specialists by the _ time that LOMO was created. They were naw requested to train personnel for the ex- p~nded production. ~ V Creativity of the Brothers ~Iikhail was persuaded. A central design office was being organized and a special research laboratory of microscopy was in it. You will work alongside researchers. As what? As their first assistant and participant in investigatior~s. You will d~velop new circuits and check th~n on models for them. And of course you will make these mockups yourself. You are capable of doinq this. Mikhail ~greed. 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400404080019-9 - FUR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY = T:~~ establi~hment of the firm opened up new vast oppc~rtunities for creativity. - Microscopes with the LOMO mark had already been sent to the market~ in tens of countrieG ar?d the mo~t diverse institutes--from medical to metallurgical--sent in - ~rd~r9 for development and creation of ever newer and newer microscopes. Mikha~.l oc~upied a worker's position amonq a large collective of investigators in the laborato~-;~. And he w~orked al~ngside engineer-specialists Inessa Leonidovna Zarubina, Ira.r:a Konstan`inovna Lapina, Natal'ya Dmitriyevna Glazunova, Natal'y~ Sergeyevna and Natal'ya Mikhaylovna Gunch~nkova, designers Anatoliy - Ivar.avich Mamayev and Aleksey Alekseyevich Kulaxcov, designers and specialists in optical calcu?ati.ons and among them was doctor of technical sciences Viktor Alekseyevich P~nov. ~ Mikhail worked alongside each of them or rather together. with them. TogE~ther be- c~use an investigator and developer unwillingly seems to t_hink aloud alongside Mik.hail's job side, desiring to hear his opinion continu~usly. - Mikhaa.l listens attentively and rubs his hand throuqh hi3 tousled hair. Beginning to develop a new device, he knows already for whom this device is designated. An- other time a developer of a mockup must literally show "on his fingers" how he ~rould like it and how he sees the future instruments. New assemblies and parts are not always manufactured specially for the mockup but old, ~ised parts are used in most cases. And frequently this mockup looks ridiculous externally. And even so this is a"live" instrument. It should indicate what it i~; capable of, whether - it is true to the idea in the design and whether the calculations were accurate. And now much 3epends on the rank and file worker, optical-engineer Mikhail Golovan'. The mockup was made with sk~.ll and knowledge and with a f~eeling of responsibility and this is a prototype of a Future, but still only an er.~erimental model. The ' fate of the instrument is frequently on his conscious: will it be or not. And there is no lack of con:~ultants in the labo:.atory and the SKB--scientists-special- ists. And what about practical doubts? Mikhail picks up the telephone: "Hello, Vitya? Could you drop in. We must.." For a lonq time Vitya was for Mikhail only a young~r brother over whom he lorded it as an older brother protected him arid taught him how to think. The younger was now already a figure among the microscape specialists and he already travelled to Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi and other cities as a representative of the firm. He inde- pendently adjusted special microscope units. The first optical instrument assem- _ bled by his hands for investigation in ultraviolet bQams was exhibited at the - world exhibition in Brussels. Many other improved models of ultraviolet micro- scopes which the firm developed with his participation were displayed and received high marks at the exhibition in Montreal. 1 There was perhaps not a single model of an instrument znto which Vik;-~r has not put something of himself: either a correction to the design itself or to the as- sembly technique or to the mathod of adjustment that guarantees the greatest ac- curacy. Viktor, having become a recognized leader among the assemblers in t~e optical section and their brigade leader, has also made a namA for himself in the rssearch laboratory to which he of courae caa?e not only at the request of his brother. 79 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 _ FOi2 OFFIC[AL USE ONLY Once Viktor tog~ther with do~tor of technical sciences V. A. Panov was sent from IAMO to Stocl:holm. Here they assembled a~d demonstrated the latest model of an ultraviolet microscooe. Representatives of the Federal Republic ~f Germany with - their similar unit also came there. An involun~;:ary comparison was awaited: ~ whose model is best7 When they unpacked our instrument it seemed that it had been basically damaged during shipment due to someone's careless. Panov, placing his eye t,o the ~yepiece, exclaimed: _ "Viktor Georgiyevich, look. What is this? There are some shadows in the field of vision." They appealed to the Swedish workshop. Under the vi.gilant observation of Viktor , and upon his instructions and with his participation, the Swedish workers repaired _ the instrument. Viktor did not sleep until almost the following morning. When Panov again began to check the instrument, he could on2y say to ~�iktor: "You are a real wizard. Honestly." The most prominent specialists compared both instruments over a period of time in Stockholm. The instrt.unent with the LOMO mark wa.s rated higher in all parameters. Viktor was also in England, where hE went ~s an exni.bit guide to an industrial exhibition where all firms of the world producing microscopes displayed their pr~ducts. is why when Viktor comes into the laboratory or the design office - he is listened to with the greatest intere~t. They know that Viktor has a precise and clear eye in precision mechanics. And now Viktor has come to Mikhail's labaratory. Mikhail shows his brother the mockup of the new model of the ultraviolet mi~roscope. Zt turns out that one of the investigators suggests some new version of the assem- _ bly or unit in the instrument. If Mikhail or Viktor says: "No, this will not do," they may aot waste time in checking. And it really will not do. If they say: "Yes, this will do," then there is alr~ady no doubt that effort, enes~gy and funds can be expended on final finishing of the device. And what will Viktor Golovan' now say to his brother? viktor does not hurry with the answer. He slowly walks around the mockup, looks at - it, asks :iikhail to show him now one, now another assembly, listens to the explana- tions of the developer and asks many questions. Viktor understands the entire crucial nature of what has happened and does not waste words. He is interested in eliminatirig possible complications in the design beforehazid. After all, he will be thE~ cne who will assemble the first experimental model after the mockup. HE must think. To think--in the language A~ both brothers this means that tney wili test all the ur.known methods and procedures of precision machining of the surface and will invent new methods and procedures day after day both durinq work and af.ter work. Viktor is especially skillful in this. 80 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For example, the surface of the disk had been brought to the ideal. was only the beginning. Now a layer of special "sealer" g~ue a fraction of a micron ~hick had to be applie3 to the disk somehow ideally. And only then did Viktor answer the investigators: "You can produce this instrument. We can cope with it!" Later, when Viktor Golovan' was accepted into the party, one of the old workers who - had recommended him said: "Viktor Golovan' lives with his work and is anxious about his work and for him it is averything in the world. Some say that he is not very talkative. They ask whether he teaches young people? His main educational line is again work. Every instrument assembled by him teaches people in itself with its high quality. He increases respect fcr la.bor and respect for the working man. An instrument devel- - oped by Golovan' is its primary characteristic. Not only young but experienced : opticians come to him for experience. He is a thorouqh person in everything." That was truly said: "He is thorough in everything." Viktor Golovan' penetrates - not only to the heart of an instrument but to its economics as well: he calculates and knows how much a fluo~escent microscope will cost the firm. Why it is not less _ exp~nsive is also his personal concern. He suggests that some especially labori- - ous processes be made more efficient.. The result is 1,500 rubles saved for the firm. 'I'he most complex assembly, accessible only to assemblers of the highest rank,is lacated in the three-floor photvchambe~ of an instrument for taking pic- tures with different degree of lighting. He suggested the technique in which a number of the most complex operations can be entrusted to young optical engineers. Generally if on~ listens what the youngest Golovan' is talking about at party meet- ings, it may somet~.mes seem that he attracts newer and newer concerns to his shop. For exampl.e, something is not go~ng well witn his neighbors and Viktor asks that these assemblies be transfezred to his shop. Not everyone likes this. Sometimes the rejoinder is thr~wn at. the orator: "YOU will make a mess of it yourself." And he as if nothing has Y~appened says: "Of course I will. I wnuld like ta do it with your help." "Yourself" is his bric~ade which includes his old mentor ?tmlosov and his young friends Valentin Galakhov, Mikhai~ Shalygin, Pavel Sobkin and athers. Golovan's and Smirnov He was not quite five years old when he was left without his father. His mother, Yekaterina Dmitriyevna, a trolley conductor, took hian witt!, her when tnere was no one to leave the young child with. From ring to ring. Thus, the war found hiun and his mother in the troliey car. When bombing or artillery bombardment ~f the _ city began, ths passengers had to immediately run to shelters. And only thF driver and conductor had not managed to leave tk~e car when everything thunderEd around them from the explosions. "Ma.~na, what about you7" he asked wher. an air raid alarm sounded in their path. 81 FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 FOR ~FFICIAI_ USE ONLY Yekaterina Dmitriyevna ciuiC~ly aii5wered: "I? I am on duty." Once at night in 1942 when the fascist aircraft were bombing Leningrad especially heavily, "incendiary" bombs began to patter on the roof of the house on the Okhta where they lived. A land mine exploded somewhere nearby. Yekaterina Dmitriyevna immediateZy went to his bed: where is her son: where is Volodya? And it turns out that he is on the roef. He is busily extinguishing the "incendiary" bombs together with the adults. His mother throws up her hands: "What are you doing7" He answers her: "And I am on duty. That's alll" At 13 Volodya was awarded the medal "For the defense of Leningrad." Several years later Young Komsomol member Vla3imir Smirnov became a radio engineer on a combat vessel plying the vast reaches of the Baltic. He entered LOMO after the army. He worked and studied. His bent was radio engin- eering and he found special happiness in ele:.tronics. Because at that time the very first steps were begun here in the unique "cooperation" of optics and elec- tronics in an instrument itself, in the future microscope. All this attracted the younq engineer. And he became totally involved in electronics and began to study all the possible versions of interactions with optics. He was carried away with ris work. A practical knowledge of optics or rather knowledge from the practice of instrument building, assembly and adjustment of microscopes for which his "electronics beginnings" were intended, were required. At this time the young Golovan's, heredit~~y opticians who now as one of the first had to organize manufacture of the latest special microscopes equipped with dif- ferent electronic units, needed their "own" consultant. Thus the acquaintance was made, later a friendship began and later an alliance of engineer-researcher Vladimir Smirnov began with the working dynasty of Golovan's (Nir.a Golovan' became ;iis wife) . Vladi~rir had only to express an idea (he was always full of new ideas) about im- proving the noise resistance of a circuit or about a new, more successful in his view system of selecting the diameters or somethinq else and the Golovan's were ready to test it and try it. And their voices were heard more and more frequently at party meetings. They talk about what is first discussed in the family circle: a modern microscope is a mul- ticomplex and expensive unit and every customer has his own specific requirements on it (biologists have some, chemists have others, metallurgists have still other requirements and so on). So does it always make sense to develop a special devi.ce = 82 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY for every "one-time" customer from the beginning and ta the end? But what about tLavelling a different path: develop a generally universal design but provide re- placeable assemblies and change theu? depending on the customer's profile and requirecnQnts . Vladimir, a young comm~anist, often insisted on this idea at the laboratory's par~y group and at party meetings in the TsI~. And although this idea hardly belonged to anyone personally, everyone now supported it both with w~ords and deeds until it became the rule. And again and again the enthusiast engineers-investigators Maria Davydova, Natal'ya Gunchenkova, Irina Lapina, Vladimir Slnirnov and, of course as always, alongside them the brothers Golovan'--Viktor and Mikhail--assembled them. Tl:is is joint labor and ~oint creativity and a joint search for new paths in which both the scientists, engineers and workers of the LOMO firm participate on an equal basis. This is a continuous search. LOMO specialists only quite recently began, for example, new serial production of an entire family of biological microscopes, so-called "biolams." Incidentally, development of instruments for investigation of the microscopic world - is one of the ~r,ost important specializations of the firm during the lOth Five-Year Plan. A large group of specialists--scientists, engineers and workers--has been working on development of new devices tk~at help to penetrate the secrets of the living cell. Thus it turned out that all the Golovan's assembled most frequently ~at Viktor Georgiy:vich's. And regardless of what the conversation touched on during the meeting--about detached duty of one of the family members abroad about tours of MFQzAT in Leningrad or about a new book of fiction which one of fihem had liked and which each of them would undoubtedly read, everythinq still turned to these "microscopes." - Sometimes Nina sighs: "Again, again they have started talking about microscopes. As if there was nothing more interesting in the world. You come and they 'arrange' a production meeting for you." And this is true. They all applaud and laugh. Everyone is silent for a few mo- ments. But Viktor unnoticed looks at the old dull black school instrument on its � base which had been given to his father with his name. And he says to his sister: "Well, Ninochka, what can you do. Microscopes aze our family business." 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE (~NLY KOSTYGOV UNIVERSITIES _ The role of the foreman in production is important and the responsibility placed on his shoulders and the responsibility for everything that occurs in his section and that occurs with those under his wardship is important. Not everyone can be a foxeman and not everyone will take on this difficult matter. Once in the large shop of. astronomical instruments of LOMO I had occasion ~o make the acquaintance of the oldest foreman of the mechanical section Sergey Mikhaylo- vich K,ostygov. I did nat know at that time what position he occupied and I did - not know that quite recently he was awarded the Order of the October Revolution for his labor success. It was one of the last days of the month. Behind the glass partition where the foremen usuall~~ are I saw three. They were gravely talking about something. One of them w~s familiar to me: the old machine operator, LOMO ve~eran ivan Fedorovich KoJ.esnikov. The second also seemed familiar: the athletic face of a young man in light coveralls, a foppish array was worn almost on the back ~f his head. He had a dark thin face. His eyes looked out seriously and thoughtfully from under his thick dark eyebrows. I had seen him somewhere. I remembered that his portrait was placed in the enterprise newspaper. He was the winner of a com- petition among younq lathe operators. - The tnir3 one I did not know. Young-looking, wide-shouldered with an energetic face. He was showing them a drawing spread aut on the desk. "Well, friends, our neighbors are having no success with this instrument. It's amazing that there are so many operations in one parti How can we help them7 The technique has hardly been developed and organized. What else can we invent here? They are askinq us for help." They were talkinq abo~it serious difficulties in ma.nufacture of a new, very complex instrument for spectral ~nalyses in the adjacent shop. Development of this instru- ment is one of the items of the firm's socialist pledges. Both workers--the ald and the young--were listening attentively. Ivan Fedorovich slightly pursed his lips, asked something, then added: "So, so" then, putting the drawing aside, he said quietly: 84 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Sergey Mikhaylovich, I don't xet know exactly but we will solve it. We will take on the entire world. If i.t must be done then it must be done! Let us begin right now on the machine tool." Kolesnikov left and then the younc lathe operator. A;id the one who they called Sergey Mikhaylovich remained sitting at the desk. Placing his hands on his cheeks, he again Iooked the drawinq over. I iz~troduced myself. He extended a Wide, strong hand : "ICpstygov, senior foreman of the mechanical section." 14nd ~:Q follows immediately with the statement: "You couZd write about Kolesnikov. T'he old man can litexally do everythinq at his machine tool. A different, even serious part that you have - 'tried' thousands of, but he suddenly looks at it in a new light and you can be sure that he will turn it more precisely and faster. Volodya Skol'nov, who was just here, is the same type of pilot." "You have many of these aces here?" "That's true, but there will be more," he finally answered. '7'he main thing is that everyone wants to become one. And we will help them." "We" is a school of communist labor in the macnine section which�senior foreman Kostygov heads. This is his party commission. To my question whether the post of foreman is to his likinq, he answered directly: "It is Hard work, but I like it." And he immediately asked me a question: "'v~hat topic exactly are lou interested in?" There was nothing for me to do but lay my cards on the table: "Well, what about th~ role of foreman." It is probably very curious to hear about an interesting person from other people. The oldest milling machine operator of the astronomical shop Ivan Fedorovich K,~lesnikov, who had already reached retirement age, had seen in his time many foremen, first talked briefly about Itostyqov: "A person with his feet on the qrounc~." - He then thought about it and began to talk: "Yes, the foreman in the section is ncw everythiriq. Even more so a senior foreman. I have met many: sor�e are fussy and panic. And everyone feels with them that here is one of the best. Another makes up to everyone and doesn't want to quarrel with anyone. Ev~~n so he is not respected. After all, it is important ~:hat workers 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 , FOR OFF'ICIAL USE dNLY really feel that the foreman is the chief one in the section. Now regardless of who you take--the people are educated and each requires respect. And it is simply that the foremen do not become respected in their position. What kind of prodiic- tion commander is he today and what kind of educator is he if he is hardly more than a senior clerk who opens and closes details." But Knstygov is different, quite different. He says, "It must be done," and you do it, lay it out and do it. This is how everyone feels both old and young. And mainly young ones. It is 3ifficult for them to recognize authority. Our section has gained communist rank. This rank is not given for nothinq. Each of the workers passing through his "universities" seems to have his head on his shoulders. A"green" novice quickly becomes an experienced worker. After all you would be in- terested in Volodya Skol'nov. Senior Foreman and Novice It happened this way: one year before the end of World War II Kostygvv was called into the army and Volodya Skol'nov had just been born. In 1966 Kostyqov was ap- pointed the senior foreman of the machine section while Volodya, having serverl in the Soviet Army, came to Sergey Mikhaylovich that same year to the section as a lathe operator. He was literally the first one who met Volodya directly in the personnel department and kindly clapping him on the shoulder like an old acquaintance and welcoming him to the firm, conducted him acress the iarge, but ama~ingly clean and green plant yard to the astronomical shop directly to his future job site. They talked along the way and before coming to the shop the seni~r foreman had al- ready found out that Volodya's father died near Konigsburg in 1945 and that his mother work~d as a grinder at one of the plants. The youth had grown up and had made s~mething of himself. He had completed the eighth grade. Kosi:ygov then - liked c;~e remazk that he made with a guilty smile: "They always felt that I would become a hooligan. But in the army they appointed me commander of a division, awarded me the rank of sergeant, even though there were fellows more educated than me with secondary and higher education. I had to 'make - a try at it' since they believed in me." volo~ya unwillingly thought how easy it was to talk with almost stranger. It was as if he was simply and frankly talking with his own gather. ~.ostygov knew from experience how important it was for a novice on the very first day and even the very first hour in the shop. Much depends on this, including rapid acclimitizntion in the collective. A novice is after all especially impres- sionable. Zf the job site is not prepared then someone will be hurt. Kostygov conc~ucted each new arrival this way. And Volodya Skol'nov as well. His neighbor in the section was excellent lathe operator. Valya Fedoseyev with whom he - quickly becam~ friends. He immediately felt the kind attitude of yet another - machine toal operator--Viktor Gordiyenko, ~ student at LITMO, and the firm's lead- ing player on the volleyball team. Volodya's replacemen~ was qualified lathe 86 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040400084019-9 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY operator vladimir Ivanovich Loginov, althouqh Skol'nov himself was still only of third rank, which he had acquired even before going into the army. He observed within the work of such skillful lathe operators as, for example, Nikolay Aleksan- drovich Kazlyakov. Once, :~aving seen how Volodya looked at the work of the wall- known lathe operator, ItQStygov noted: - ,"Incidentally, it is difficult to achieve this skill without special knowledge and it is simply impossible to maintain the LOMO maYk without it. By the way, we now have at the firm a first-class academic combine. So that one who plans to remain here for a long time must study. There is no path to lathe operation or to becom- ing a fore~:an to anyone at LCMO without this." During his first year on the job, Sergey Mikhaylovich sen,t Volodya to take courses to raise his qualifications. At the same time he entered the ninth grade of the ev~ening school. He then passed on to the lOth, and then entered the t~~hnical school. And during the year of his coming to the firm, a complex plan for the social devel- opment of the collective was adopted as one of the �irst in Leningrad and the coun- try. And Volodya ~,col'nov was one of 5,000 LOMO workers who received an education provi3ed by the plan in schools of workinq youth, technical schools and vuzes dur- ing the Eighth Five-Year Plan. He was one of many young worker-students in K,osty- gov's section. - Of course, Sergey Mikhaylovich also has many concerns about those who study. First, each student must be arran~ged on the same shift: one on the nprning shift and an- other on the evening shift. Then additional leaves are also granted to the stu- dent. Some of them must work during this time. But these present no difficulties to the studen~s. ~a the contrary, when meeting Kostygov, they timdoul.~tedly ask: "What success7 It is difficult, but I understand." Sergey Mikhaylovich had already found out about co~npetitions of occupational skills. And now the ideas caught on: a competition of youn3 machine tool operatars must be organized. Kostygov invited the most well-known and multiexperienced lathe operators as judges. Who else but them could properly evaluate the skills of the young people! The day before the competition the senior foremart wished each of them separately victory . The young lathe opera.tors had never before worked with such truly combat attitude. - This was the most memorable and happiest day for Volodya Skol'nov. Unexpectedly for himself he surpassed the very intensive standards almost doubly an!3 the quality = of the parts made by him were recoc,~nized as excellent by the tho.rough "oldsters." Kostygov, being happy with his ward, thought: Here is a long-range reserve--knowZ- ed~e--to become a future reservel Free orientation in trigonometry, sterometry and total skill$ in reading a complex drawinq. This is how all this seemed and how! ~37 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY True, there were some misses at that time. Some of the participants of the compe- tition had rejects. The rejects literally signalled to the young people where the brakes were hidden which interfere with intensive gaining ~f productivity without loss of quality. Kostygov together with the shift foreman patiently examines each case of failure. This is even mr~re important since no one can be accused of negligence or careless- ness. Everyone tried as best he could in the competition. But everything did nGt turn out equally as well for ev~eryone. Fo~ different rea- sons. Significant gaps in thec~~y were found in some and slow response to high- speed conditions were found in another and a third haci not yet learned how to apply the latest L�ittings and how to use them. Thus an individual approach was needed for each one. And the foreman teaches them. Like they teach, for example, in the school of communist labor. The party and trade-union organizations of the fi.rm warmly supported the idea of the competition amonq the ~~oung workers and soon ap- proved competitions even on a wider basis and began to conduct them on the scale of the association and later on the scale of the ministzy. Special conditions were worked out and a vezy discernible stimulus was provided. The winner of the compe- tition would be advanced to the r.~-~ worker's rank ahead of schedule. And here, moving fozward, let us say that fellows from Kostygov's section, including Vladimir skol'nov, who is~animously reccgnized as the Y~est among the young lathe operators, usually led in the competitions. 'Do you know what is especially important f.or me?" says Volodya. "The senior fore- man is continuously preser.~ �mong those who failed in the competirion. He feels for each one and is concerned about ~as. And he sweats for the honor of the section and _ fo~ our small collective. Generally you don't feed our 'senior' with bread only if his section is first. It is first i?? everything, even in sports." Talking about this, Volodya smiles and continues: "Can even our Kostygov remain on the sideline if it is a matter concerning his sec- tion? Never. 'Fellows,' he says, 'do as you like, but everyone should participate in sports competitions. I will also come to the stadium. And he did go. And not only to applaud from the stands. But like everyone in :zis athletic suit. Like everyone he ran the hundred meter dash. Moreover, his time _ was not bad. This strongly impressed us young people. We had qenerally become ac- customed ~o the fact that t,",e 'old man' was always c:ith us everywhere and he knows everything about each one and he feel~ for each one rls if he is dur own father." vladimir recalled a hardly usual case. A young lathe operator and good machine tool ope rator with whon he had participated many times in the competition suddenly had a case of the blues. Once he came to work happy and later loafed. Once he was a different person. He did not want to talk with anyone. And a complaint also � came from his fa.mily. The f'ellows in the sectioii were disturbed and even more so since he had also been rude to Sergey Mikh aylovich. Many waited for the "old man" to brin~ the guilty - party to his s~nses. 8$ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y However, Kostygov did not hurry to "bring him out of it." He once appealed to ~ Sko: nov: ';Volodya, you should find out quietly what has disturbeci him. He won't say any-, either he's ashamed or afraid. Or h~ doesn't trust him. But he is an aY- - rogant fellow. So we have decided to give you a delicate mission with the party ' group organization. You are both young. He will be more frank with you. But to punish a person for a lonq time the main thing is to find out everything." And Kc~stygov fotnd out and helped him. "The senior foreman said 'it must be done! This is the formula cahich determines the degree of importance of one oz another commission. This formul.a is the guid- . ing one for most warkers. Volodya recalls how he dreamed about whether they w~ould trust him with such unique work as Knslyakov was doing. And once he received it. He tried very hard. The part came out. Volodya decided tr,at from now on he would work together with a v~teran. But he hear@ something else: y "Wait. It is early. You have little experience. We can't risk it here." He was first hurt but then analyzed it and everythinq became clear to him. The machine tool was too valuable and the part was too crucial t~o take even the slight- est risk. But even this was not the most important thing: there were so many fine - points in the work that his simple knowledqe and simple skills were clearly inade- quate to it. For example, he held in his hand a delicate part--if its tempera- ture increased by only 1-1.5 deqree it would ao longer be accurate. The lathe op- erator's hand was supposed to feel the deqref of heat more accurately than any thermometer. This is experience! And sooa he said solemnly to Volodya: "Well your hour has now come. The machine tool has now been freed about which you have been dreaming. Go to it. And don't tremble. The more delicate the work the more confidently should be the hand and the harder should be the character. Like that of a surgeonl Is it clear?" Senior fvreman Sergey Mikha.ylovich K,ostygov is a unique director of everything happening in his section. i1e seems to direct everythfnq quite unnoticed. And not only current work directly. People consult with him as to who to advance by the Kr~msomol orqanization of the section. After all, senior foreman Sergey .Mikhaylo- vich is a communist and a member of the firm's party committee. The xnms~mc~l organization elected Volodya Skol`nov. And here iG~styqov was the first adviser and assistant. "To become a real leader one must first be himself - in front," he says. Once during a meeting Serqey Mikhaylovich asked: ~~I heard that the K,omsomol qeneration is organizing a movement of innovators in the _ section." 89 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Exactly, Serqey Mikhaylovichi" "This is good. This is at the heart of things! Even more so since the collective of the firm has promised to turn over and introduce no fewer than 14,000 innovator proposals durinc~ the current five-year plan." Kostygov smiled knowingly and Volod- ya already knew that he was already asking: "What about yourse',f?" The Komsomol organization made its recommendation but he re~ectECi it as unrealistic. - lcnstyqov then said: "It is sad. After all, you correctly rejected it. You look everything over as you should. Think about it but calculate. There is something here for your hands." And now Vladimir began to check the entire production process of manufacturing the most laborious parts. He went to the assemb].ers and consulted with them. He inde- pendently calculated the laboriousness and consumptio~ of inetal with the old ver- sion of the billet and with the new one which he himself suqgested. It turned out not bad: the labor constunption was cut in half but the savi~q of special steel was 400 kilogramsl Volodya Skol'nov's method was adopted. Kastygov congratulated him: "You now see that you are a real worker. Even though you are of fifth rank, a real worker beqins with a th rifty attitude about the entire production. Then he becomes a real innovator. So then comrade IComsomol organizer. Yes, incidentally, and what about your K,~msomol generation?" Volodya lauqhed: "I understood you Serqey Mikhaylovich. After I had done it myself they a17. began to make suggestions more actively." After some time Vlad~.mir Skol'nov was accepted into the party. The senior foreman gave a talk at the first meeting: "Did you know I myself did not notice how everything oCCUrred. Only it seemed that a green youth had come to the section. And he is already the best Iathe operator. And he is already the best innovator, a restless soul and the inventor of many worthwhile suggestions. In short, he is a real experienced worker." How Kc~stygov Became a Foreman Let us return to the story about my first acquaintance with Kostyqov. In a complex situation for himself, the senior foreman asked for advice and assist- ance not only of the multiexperienced machine tool operator :tolesnikov but not without accident of his younq ward Volodya Skol'n~v as well. 90 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY The first thinq that had to be done was, havinq solved the next production prob- lem, to find a method of rapid manufacture of unusually complex and laborious parts and to help the adjacent shop which could not cope with the manufacture of these parts. The main rule of the socialist cnmpetition is active here. _ Second, FGostygov did not doubt that there was someone about the "patriarchs" of milling machine operators of the shop that Ivan Fedorovich would think of. And the young lathe operator, the future technician-inventor, sees much with a fresh eye and utilizes all his acquired knowledqe. - Sergey Mikhaylovich's confidence in the success of the unique duo of workers--the senior milling machine operator Kolesnikov and the little-experienced, but theo- retically excellently trained novice lathe operator Skol'nov---was completely justi- fied this time as weil. After careful "analysis at home," Volodya showed the pos- sibility and need to use precise casting in manufacture of these parts--this would immediately reduce all machine-tool operations by 70 percent and would r~duce the - laboriousness of them almost by one-half. Ivan Fednrovich, inc~efatigable in his inventiveness, of course introduced his own original fitting and changes in the configuration of sharpening the cutter. The planned tasks are always constantly fulfilled in Knstyqov's section. H4w? On what does the personal qualities of the commander of such a comparatively young, but important section in organization of production as the section depend? In ~he first specific case we are talking about senior foreman Sergey Mikhayiovich - Itnstygov, w'hat is exceptional and special in him? What made him one of the best foremen of the fizzn? There is nothing special in him and there is nothing exceptional in him. And per- haps initially he had far fewer formal data to occupy this position than otizers. I3e came to the firm not having a secondary education. At that time he did not have a single civilian specialty. He was drafted into the army as a youth and he later reenlisted as a master sergeant. He was immobilized already "in years," ~he father of a family--a wife and two child:ren. of course he wanted more interestinq work. But where could he fird it at that aqe? As a student? They hired him at LOMO as a stoker. They warned him on his first day in the personnel department: "that he must study continuously. This i~ our - procedure. Look it over and do not forqet about this." At that time Kos~ygov did not qive any special siqnificance to these words, as if they had been dropped randomly. He still did not know that from the first days of the firm's foundizq the tradition had been established: cu~tivate your cadres for all sections. They felt that it was better if the ton~ was assigned at the enter- prise by those who started the roots here and who felt something for the collective. And the firm began to place bets on the more capa.ble of them. A year later before finishing the ninth course, Kostygov requests that he be trans- ferred to another job on the same shift so as to continue his study. _ It was hard for the new riqger: to load and carry heavy rolls of copper wire ~a the electric motor section. His shoulders and back hurt from such unaccustomed - 91 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY labor. To sit at a desk and to concentrate on what the teacher is explaining after such work req~.iired a very strong effc~rt. But he did not let it show. And somehow it turned out in the ~hop: yesterday's master sergeant now gives out good ~ advice or is now called on to replace one who is out sick. Sergey Kostygov was an observant person. He watched and he tested. And is there too much bustle in or- ganizing the work of riggers? He corrected in his awn way the path of the carts - with ~he load and calculated the most feasible time to deliver the wire. ICAStygov was later appointed brigade leader. A year later the brigade leader of riggers had succPssfully passed exams for secon- _ dary school. They suggested that Sergey Mikhaylovich become the shift foreman of the revolving section in the astronomical shop. "Foreman? In the revolving section? I h~ve seen revolving machine tools only from a d.istance." ~ The secretary of the party cammittee laughed: "That's no misfortune. You will master it. The main thing here is that people come here unwillingly. The firm begins to organize the latest instruments for different sec~ors of science, engineerir.g and medicine. We must forc~ out our competitors on the world market. This is not only a question of economics but of politics and the c~untry's prestige as well. So that you, as a communist, should understand that this is a combat and party m2.tter." ~ And so he appear~d in the astronomical shop. A rather modest, strong figure. His blue eyes look at you softly, openly, but kin3ly. The revolving section operators did not ~mmediately recognize him as chief. Kr~sty- gov went up to one young machine tool operator without any tact and said: "Please learn the occupation of revolver operator. I learned it. You are only helping and coping. Otherwise how can I supervise you?" xis directness hit th e heart of all the workers. They willingly went to meet him. But all the intricacies of the accupation could not be practically mastered immed- � iately. Obviously, it is important to analyze the essence of the matter. To be a foreman means first ~o learn how to organize la.bor and to manage people. And this idea of Kostygov was correct. All the machine tool operators in the astronomical shop were soon joined--the lat:ie operators, milling machine operators, metal work- ers and revolving section workers--into a single machine section. Sergey Mikhaylo- =ich Rostygov was appointed the senior foreman. At that time he had already bril- liantly defended in the evening division of the institute his diploma, related to problems of planning and economy of production. ' The Section--School of Communist Laber A worker approaches the senior f~reman and says: "What is nappening, Sergey Mikhaylovich? The machine tool is standing idle. There will be a direct loss to us and to the shop. We and the fello~:s have already fig- ured out how to get around this." 92 FOR OFFICp;? L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY A lathe operator or milling machine operator could earlier come to the senior foreman with a complaint: when will the machine tool be adjusted and how long can it sr_and idle? The worker now inevitably presents the "economic base" and calcu- _ lates how long the section, shop and firm will remain idle. This economic accent i.n the daily conversations about production matters did not arise suddenly. _ ItDStygov has propagandized his economic knowledge several years running. He is the d.irector of the school of .;ommunist labor, which has also become a school of economic knowledge, a schoal of advanced experience and a school of moral education. It also has precisely allocated hours for studies, but it is not regulated by any time framework. Because this is a school of labor. Not only students but the propagan3ist hims~elf is educated and grows creatively in it. It began with the small, seemingly quite insignificant. Machine tool operators were assembled and it was suggested that they themselves organize in their own sec- tion. They then tried to convert to se lf-checking. A worker of the OTK was re- leased but they began to check the parts even more riqidly. The senior foreman thouqht about the first results f.or a long time. It was not bad. And the matter is not only one of indicators. Here, thought Sergey Mikhaylo- vich, one must know human psycholoqy. A lathe operator who tidies up in his own section would not let chips fall where they may and will not let grease or emulsion drip over the edge. In his time IGostygov understood vezy well what "standard-hours" and "nomenclature" were, but he als~ knew something else: all these standard-hours are provided by specific people about which nothing is said in the summary reports: Ivan IGolesni- kov, Vladi.mir Skol'nov, Nikolay Nikolayev, Petr Malyy, Valentin Fedoseyev, Boras Rusak, Nikolay FGokurin--generally tens of the most diverse people both in age and occupation and with different level of qualifications, but even more iunportant different in character. ~ And IcAStygov suggested to the shift foreman that a daily personal schedule be en- tered so as to see from it who is workinq and how they are working. A machine tool operator comes up, looks and it is clear to him how he worked today and how his neighbor worked with whom he was competing. The senior foreman assembles the students of the school of communist labor. He has something ta say to them. - Here the personal schedule lets one know whether thinqs went well with one young lathe operator. T~ow is this so? He is hardly a capable fellow. The worst thing is heard--he became disillusioned: "He is bored. You think that it is very impor- tant to turn bolts and screws?" And this circumstance also depressed Kostygov. He understood that until the fellow feels interested and respect for his werk that no rules will help. How can one bring him "to the people"? They also talked about this with concern at the studies in the school of communist labor. 93 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY But now some of the w~orkers--students of the school--turned attention toward that which had hardly attracted anyone. On a tour. How many of them are at IAMO! Peo- ple from many corners of our countzy and foreigners. ~ Well, is it really less interesting for one to look at al`1 this who turns, mills or polishes parts customarily day after day? a They suggested to this same fellow and not only him that he participate in this tour through his own firm. And many saw their "nuts and bolts" in a quite differ- ent light for the first time--as part of a unique technology. They heard how one of the renowned adjusters at the firm, showing them the operation af the most complicated optical instrument, said: "You can't really say what is more important in this instrtanent--the pr~cision of the lenses or the quality of an ordinary screw for adjustment. Everyone who has ' been lucky enough to put his hanns to development of this miracle deserves great respect." Eve.ryone. One of them was also this fellnw. And this seemingly was all. Seemingly nothing special occurred but the young worker for the first time thought seriously about his place in the shop. And he began to change. For th~ better: ~ "Int~rnal reserves," says the senior foreman, "~re in every pe~son. True, it is not always easy to reach them. The competition is the main assistant in this." s Kost~gov loves to work r:ith skilled people. And he tries so that everyone who de- serv~s it is singled out with gratitude in orders throughout the shop. He is not ungenerous in his gratitude. The senior foreman has a routine exercise in the school of co~nunist laboz. The topic is the culture of labor and the quality of production. The worker.s~themselves began the class. The one who he had previously asked to think about these questions: did they feel it was time to star~ rejecting arti- cle~? what measures did they propose to increase quality? The studies were con- - ducted directly at the machine tool operators' positions. A lively interested conversation takes place. After all, these are the manager~ ot the section. All of them! But quite recently the experienced teacher anc~ manager Sergey Mikhaylovich Knstygov was sent to an even more responsible production section--he was appointed chief of - the shop. 94 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONLY TI~ DIPIAMA OF THE SHOP CHIEF The topic of the diploma project of student Alekseyev was called "Improving the Operation of the Shop by Improving the Use of Equipment." And the main thing is - that the diploma candidate has himself managed one of the largest shops of LC~MO for ~ many years. This shop is not inferior to other plants in the voliane of praducts produced. It sends parts to numerous shops of the firm. And if something slows - down here, almost the entire association inevitably begins to get a fever. A new chief. Meeting with him,I tried to ~magine at what price he managed to raise the prestige of the sho p and I mentally drew a portrait of a thoroughly exhausted person weighed down ny a thousand con~erns, with continuous phone calls and urgent c~uestions. However, the Vladimir Ivanovich Alekseyev with whom I first had occasion to meet in his larqe and liqht office was in no way similar to the portrait that I had mentally drawn for myself. He quietly and confidently answered phone calls-- there were plenty of them during these da~y~: the routine quarter was ending. He answered with a cyuiet businesslike manner. ~ I felt durinq the first minutes that befare me was a skillful organizer who knew his business. But what the main thinq in his skill was I still had tio analyze. After all, one not occupying a position determines the prestiqe and influeace of the shop chief among his subordinates and amonq hundreds of w~orkers, foremen and engine~rs. Vlasiimir Ivanflvich answered my question about this: "One must understand the simplest truth itself: the atrength,of a chief is in his subordinates. One must only trAat one with justice an3 skill." Vladimir Ivanovich grew up at LOMO before becoming chief of the shop, like most managers of the firm, from its own rank and file w~ork~rs. He entered GOMZ where his grandfather and uncle w~oYked at that time, as ~n apprentice lathe operator in 1944. Why did he begin as a lathe operator? He didn't know anything at all about this profession but lathe operators were necessary. 1~nd in the personnel department they began to talk to the thin blockade teenager very uniquely: "A lathe operator is easy. You turn the handle, switch on the 'self-runainq' and rest for your health:' - 9~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The "ease" did not bemuse him. He began to drive a tractor as a student in the evacuation near Vclogda, then he replaced the tractor operator who left for the front and worked in the field like all the adults. He worked very hard. Of course, it was not easy at the lathe. It was easier but not as complicated. This he understood immediately as soon a.s he was given his first seemingly simple oner- ation. Here is a billet and here is plug. Bore the opening so that one end or the plug goes into it and the other dcesn't. Vladimir looked at all his voluntary mentors of ac~ lathe operators with much re- spect and almost with worship: Petr Smirnov, Petr Saperov, Nikolay Krutikov and others. And within several years Vladimir Ivanovich Ale kseye v was a lathe opera- tor of the highest xank. He completed the technical school. He was assigned the position of foreman o~ a large mechanical section. He studied with different machine tool ogerators of his own section. Now if a de- bate arose about introduction of any innovation, not only among the lathe oper- ators but about the gear-cutters and polishers, his word carried weight and proof. - And as it always happens, what position was he not appointed to. For example, when _ he became the senior foreman in assembly of optical instruments. He took up the study of optics and electronics although there were enough specialists in assembly even without him. He could not simply do otherwise. The concept "organize" meant "learn how" for him. And later when the staff an~ the complexity of the job became much more complicated and the range af probl~ms zxpanded sharply, he still remained true to his initial principle--know, find out and learn how. The shop received a new isnported revolving machine. They installed it and switched it on. They attached the first billet but the wark did not proceed. The friction _ clutch went out. They could not understand what was wrong. And even the m~st ex- - perienced foreman Sergey Nikolayevich Pynin shrugged his shoulders: _ "I don't understand. And this is not the reason that it went out." Of course, they could call the chief engineer to help. The shop chief was not ob- ligated to adjust and debug machine tools. But he was interested in understanding and analyzing how to find the reason for the failure. And he finds the error. The machine tool operates. Alekseyev himself may have forgotten about this long ago, but people remember. And they talk with pzide about their chief: "Vladimir Ivanovich is always aware of what is going on." _ But not evezything went as smootnly for the shop chie~. He dia not have enough economic ;cnowledge. How could one manar.s praduction and be involved in problems of cost, profitability and profit without them? This means that one must conduct one's affairs blin3ly under conditions of the new planninq and economic; i.zcentives system. And he goes to the institute to study. ~ In 1967 he graduated from the engineering-economic institute by correspondence, de- fending his diploma with mark of excellent. I asked Vladimir Ivanovich how and what interesting he used from the shop work for his diploma work and he impercept- - ibly turns the conversation toward a new channel: 96 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 F~R OFFICIAL USE ONLY "Well, what is a eliploma? If I say frar.kly tYiat the most interestinq thing is that you don't have to write anything in diploma work. These are people who are alongside you and on whom everything really d~pends. And one must find a common lanquage with rhem and create a friendly, woLk-capable collective. This is what is important to me. Then everything is all right: both the "shift factor" and the equipment load and all similar indicators. And of course the only authority of a chief," he concluded pensively, " is not to a~hieve much. What could I have - done alone without the party ~rqanization and without the shop communists?" The life of the new shop manager began with acquaintance with the party organiza- tion. The party organizer is Ivan Nikolayevich Dmitriyev. ~'he communists have elected him as their leader for 13 years running. He is several years older than Alekseyev. His biography is simple. Before the war he was a timber cutter. He was a master sergeant of a machine gun regiaient at the front. He served in the army for 15 years. After demobilization, already being the father of two children, he entered the shop as an apprentice lathe operator. Yevg~eniy I1'ich Semenov taught him, a cammunist and former partisan. When we talked he went in~o the chief's cabinet and said angrily: "When will we get orde.r among the casters? What are the t~chnicians thanking about? A billet is an entire mountain but a mouse should move it. No, I do not - plan to bLry metal any longer. After all, it does not fall from the sky." - No one said anything to the thrifty Semenov: after a~l, we'll w~ork it out later. And this "later" never happened. And Dmitriyev, exchanging two or three words with Alekseyev, got up immediately and they went with Semenov to the senior technician. "We have founc~ a common language with Dmitriyev and he helps me a lot. For exam- - ple, I began to trace the entire route, beginninq with drawinqs, from billets to _ finished parts. And flaws were found in the intrashop planning." They had to break it steeply but not everyone always liked this and doubts arose. They soon decided to hold a gzneral meeting and Alekseyev was supposed to give a report. And now the new chief was hardly tempted--there was no time, and he com- missioned his deputy to speak to the workers. But it did not turn out. The party organizer insisted: "You must meet person to person with people. Otherwise how can you manage? They have a riirect idea about what to think. And what about - you concerninq them. " Alekseyev listened to the talks attentively. Ivan Nikolayevich introduced him to people in a lowez voice. Senior foreman Sergey Nikolayevich Prypin. He had re- tired lonq ago. He remained in the shop as an adjuster of automatic machines in order to at the same time teach this occupation to young workers. And now Yakov - Leonovich Parfenov--also an adjuster of automatic machines--specialist of the highest class and party group organizer, gives a talk. He was awarded the order of Lznin. He feels that now some tutors of the younq formally relate to their duties but more than. half of the w~orkers in the shop are young people. And that the new chief should generally take this into account especially. . Semon Kazachkov, a young worker and as Dmitriyev expressed it, "the grandson of Pfyp~a alonq the party line," also said a word. Because Kazachkov had been tauqht 97 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 ~ F'OR OFFi~::tAL USE ONLY - his occupation and recommended to the party by Parfenov and he had at one time taught and tutored Prypin and also recommended him at that time to the party. Senior f~reman I. IGoltunov and polisher, deputy to the regional Soviet V. Chumakov demanded that he "take a shorter rein" with violations of discigline. Both the complaints and the proposals were valid but the most important thing, Alek- seyev felt joy: the people in the shog were interested in working better. 1~nd frequently he got the idea he "commanded" these people--not the best method of management. But to consult with them and make a decision is perhaps the truest and most reliable. without even talkinq about the fact that the person with whom he was consulting grows in his own eyes and is ready to take on his own rESponsibility. As never before, Alekseyev felt the importance and value of the participation of each one in solving a difficult problem when reconstruction of the production areas, replacement of obsolescent equipment with new more improved equipment, shifting of machine and so on was begun in the shop, as in all ~ther shops of the firm. During the period of reconstruction the shop was given no break but the additional requirement: do not reduce the output of products. And of course so that this was not reflected in the quality and in general fulfillment of all socialist - pledges. ~ This was a real test ror th~ new shop chief and for the entire collective. Alekseyev suggested to the party organizer that the communists be assembled and that he talk frankly with them. But a general open party meeting is better. The work was organiz~ed into thxee shifts without specific days off under the clat- _ ter of jackhammers. With lighting from temporary wiring. Under construction tim- bers. on old machine tools which had been hauled from place to place. On new ~ machin~ tools with program control which still had to be assimilated. - And what didn't the working wit suggest! After all they had to temporarily stop all the milling machines. And what about the footing? This was a long and major job. The milling machin~ operators Yuriy Aleksandrovich Metelkin and Gennadiy Pavlovich Uvarov suggested the way out themselves: install a channel iron girder and fill it with cement. But what would be suitable for the milling machine op- earators would not be suitable for especially precise lathes. How cauld this be? land lathe operators Garman Ignat'yevich and Nikolay Makarov suggest their own solution to the shop chief: wnat if they install the machine tool directly on the vibration supports so as not to lose time in filling it with cement. And what about the vibrations of the machine tool? They also studied this. We witl work at low speeds. True, the third shift will have t~ work harder. But this is a temporary phen~mtnon--reconstruction is under way! The shop party bureau followed all the proposals smoothly. An amazing atmosphere of labor enthusiasm and some kind of "unaqreed-upon competition" were organized. 98 - FOR OFF'ICIAd. USF. ON~LY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Once Alekseyev su~gested to the brigade of polishers--Aleksey Fomin, Petr Kuchenov, Valeriy Shchelokov, Valeriy Lutsenko and Feliks Kalashnikov--stay and work on the evening shift: del~very of the billet in lthe casting shop was delayed. It turned out that they had tickets to the theater, a cultural show. They had planned for a long time to go BDT to go to a beloved show and they would not manage to see it. ' But the brigade leader said decisievly: _ - "All right. Once is one thinq--we will stop on three. On thE evening shi�t." They worked sadly. They covered the norms doubly and triply. And in the morning they came to work again. The shop chief expressed his gratitude to them in an order. The shop chief came to all the Komsomol meetings. Ae noted the capable, promising youth. The youth had to be tauqht. They had to be taught beforehand. '1'he con- cerns were constant. For example, modernization of machine tools. He talked about this many times with technician Valentina Ivanovna Kuznetsova. He talked with the party organizer and they decided to invite as a consultant the best gear cutter Ivan Vasil'ye�rich Bazunov. They created something resembling a complex brigade. And they a~;hieved and accomplished what they had thought of. The most complex operations a2~e now considered comparatively simple and rank and file ma- chine tool operators now cope successfully with them~. And these are mainly young people. ' Success i.lspired tnem. And on the advice of the shog chief not one but several of these complex brigades were formed, the purpc+se of which was to develop the tech- nolagy and accessories so as to +~tilize the equipment more densely. The most d2fficult thing initially was with the new program machin~ tools. There were many machine tools but who and how wo~ld work on them? Talents began ta be revealed. For example, the shop chief proposed that adjuster Viktor Britov as- similate this new equipment. gritov was ex~eptionally capable. He rapidly mas- tered the machine tool and immediately beqan to teach others. Foremen, engineers and technicians now came to him for "raising their qualifications" in program ma- c:hine tools . The example of Britov attracted other machine tool operators. A competition was arganized among them. Dmitriy Petrovich Petrov competes vigorously with Britov and they assist each other. Now each one works on two program machine tools si- multaneously. They teach the otehrs. It was eight months while reconstruction was under way and the shop fulfilled the plan, even producing products above the plan. All this was became of maximum loading of the equipment. And because of increasinq the ahift factor. I should like to add a small afterword to this essay. While this book was being prepared for press, Vladimir Ivanovich Alekseyev was appointed to the position of chief technician of the association. 99 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION OF LABOR AT TI~ FIRM As is known, scientific orqanization of labor arose on the eve of Societ power. Lenin, exposing the notorious "Taylor system" and reqarding it as a"refined at- trocity of bourqeois exploitation," saw in it "a ntanber of the richest scientific achievements in analysis of inechanical motions during labor, elimination of super- fluous and inefficient motions, wurking out the most correct work procedures, in- troduction of ~the best accounting and monitaring systems and so on."* Lenin assumed that everythinq scientific and proqressive from this system should be per- - manently used in the interests of the Soviet economy anii in the interests of the workers to increase their standard of living, well-beinq and leve].. The new, socialist contribution also required the highest labor productivity. And this means the highest organization of it. The party leadership proposed that mod~l enterprises be developed for this and that socialist management be taught on their ~xperience. He felt that scientific organization of labor was the most fun- damental and timely problem of all public life. At that time the first ~voT [Scientific orqanization of laborJ cells were born a*_ the plants and factories. "Scientific organization of labor is the most reliable m.eans of increasing its productivity. Development of a firm itself and development of its most important trends in the field of specialization and mechanization, improvement of the man- agement structure and the main thing of course organization of labar" says general director of LOMO M. P. Panfilov, "is all related to NOT." One of the veterans Miron Pavlovich Sh~ynin heads the department of scientific organization of labor and manaqement of the fizm. Here in three research labera- tories of the department work 28 highly qualified specialists: engineers, physi- ologists, psychologists and musicologists. What does the NOT service do? Businesslike Suggestions 7'he chief of the machine assembly shop was having a meetinq. The occasion was an alarm siqnal: im~.>ortant parts had not been manufactured by the deadline. To * V. I. Lenin, "Polnoye sobraniye socheneniye" [Complete Works], Vol 36, pp 189-190. 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY detennine what the situation was, the workers of the planning-shippinq office were stimunoned. Telephone calls were heard from time to titne in the office. The shop - chief picks up the telephone and answers briefly and decisively. He then again returns to the main question. The meeting ended. Only one worker in the firm's w~orking smock with a uotebook in her hands remained in the empty office besides the chief. She had not taken any participation in the pzoceedings. "Well, what would you say, Lyuc~nila Anatol'yevna?" the shop chief asked her. "Was everything this time ~ccordins to science or not very much so?" I will begin with that which I liked: the sgeed with which you solve problems. 1The clearness of instructions. But now you have deteznu.ned the cause of the delay of parts. You have assigned new deadlines orally. No one writes it down. Proto- col is not maintained and the decision has not been rec~rded in aziy documents. And how will you check it? Does this mea.~ that a check will be made at the next rou- tine meeting? And then not everyone who was at the meeting has a direct relation- shi.p to the matter? Why invite those not related? And one moze thing: you were distracted by telephone con,versations and this scattered the attention of those attending the meetinq and distracted them from the main thing. The secretary who frequently caine in with documents for siqning also created a distraction. And it is absolu~tely i:npermissible that the meetinq participants came and went whenever they felt like it. And y~u sat for a vezy long time with a break of four hours in overall complexity. And who could decide anything besides the meeting. Let us - look at it together." Lyudmila Anatol'yevna Ivanovna is a worker of tt~e department of scientific organi- zation of labor and the chief of the office. She graduated from the financial- economic institute and was involved with investiqation of organization of labor and management. And a broad field of activity was offexed to her at LOMO. The chief of the machine assembly shop had already long ago established contacts with workers of the NOT department. The senior en g in ee r of th i s department Igor' I1'ich Bogushevskiy studied planning, accounting and the work of the auxil- - iary services in the shop. Many improvements were made here upon the recommenda- tions of Bogushevskiy. Take, for example, the storaqe room in the section. Boqu- shevskiy suggested that one or another articles not simply begin at piece by piece but that>sets be collected together for ass~mbly. The storage room managers were - specialized in specific nomenclatures so as to work with knowledge of matters-- rapidly and intelligently. The shop chief was also able to ascertain how not only a reduction of the amount of paperwork but qenerally of the document workload helped the shop. Only the - information required at a given moment began to come into him. ~ He saw how much workexs from the NOT service were doing to help the foreman. How they helped them to correctly distribute their time, how to place people and how to bring order to the workinq day~-in short, to create favorable conditions in � the section and to increase labor efficiency. - 101 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY And there were previously different instructions about the work of the foreman and shop chiefs. But there were general propositions in them. ' And how should one proceed in a specific case? Complete parts were not issued in ~i~r~e. The person on which they counted did not come to ca~rk. '~he drawings did no~ - come in on time. The workers of the NOT d~epartment work at different versions of production decisions for these cases. Of caurse, the foreman selects the best ones for himself. The prestige of the workers of the NOT department slowly increased in the eyes of the shop chief. And once he said to Lyudmila Anatol'yevna: "Cou?3 not NOT help the fate of the shop chief7 It must be ac:mitted that the more perfected the system of organization of labor in the shop is, the more acutely you _ feel yesr own deficiencies. In any case, the fluctuations bother me. So there is the suggestion-wcome, observe and study. My working day, my office and my desk is :t rour disposal. Sit down, spread out all your papers on it and see what is right and what is wrong." This is a complex matter. We have b~ecome acc:ustomed to the term "manager." But - "business person"? Yes, exactlyl We know many manaqers who are selflessly de- w ted to their business and who know it. They work late. Th~y don't even have any rest at night. In general these are real enthusiasts read1 to pay any price "to fulfill the plan." But enthusiasm alone, even if it is reinforced by knowledge, is not enough. This _ is felt especially in such modern p*_-oductic+n as LOMO where almost evezy shop can be compared to an entire enterpris~ in the volume and complexity of the articles produced. - It is nc~t so si~le for a capable engineer who knows production to take the helm of the shop. There are too many concerns: a number of services of the most diverse 3esignacion, engineering and technical personnel, hundreds or work~rs, the plan, quality, realization of production, communication with other shops, wage funds, everday life and educational work. Ivanova certainly penetrates the work style of the shop chief. Her papers are o;; the desk. Alas, such a facility cannot be managed without papers and without docu- ments. In order to manage one must know primarily how much information is needed. Every day. r111 the time and continuo~sly. Lyudmila Anatol'yetma beqins with how to help bring order to the papers on the chief's desk. And she writes in her recommendations on the topic: "Bring order to working with documentation and st~rage of it. To d~ this, place the documents in folders according to the designation qf the documents and depending on the fre- quency ~hat they are consulted; store the folders in vertical pcsition and then it will be easier to extra~t what is reguired. Zt is best to have the folders of different colors. For example, a red folder for incoming correspondence not yet considered. Another, let us say white or blue folder for documents sent to execu- tives or for monitoring and a strict reminder. All correspondence must be reviewed on the day of its arrival." 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Trying to be unnoticed, Ivanovna persistently observed the work of the shop chief. He is now touring the section with notebook in hand. He listens to coanplaints and suggestions. He resolves one thing, making notes on one sheet, on another and on a third. And hcw will he later check what was done and what was not done? Will he leaf through the entire notebook? Will he make notes on the calendar? And if something is not fulfilled must it be recorded again? M~oreover, it is difficult to monitor the fulfillmer~~ of orders. But what about instead of notebooks he takes a card index? And he makes the same notes on individual card indexes. Arranged together in the necessary order and by deadlines for fulfillment, they can always be seen. It makes sense to entrust monitoring for execution to a special worker--a secretary or to someone else. In- cidentally, not only the chief needs a secretary but the assistant and reviewer who knows production and knows how to fulfill important commissions. Observing how the shop chief conducts his own working day, Ivanova easily estab- lished that the shop chief essentially has not clear routine. During the entire day numerous workers of different services drop into his office when they need to or want to and he receives them at any time. It seems t:o the shop chief that other- wise all problems cannot be solved in an operational manner and after all you can't stop production. NOT department worker Ivanova brought these reflections to the shop chief for a frank conversation. The shop chief had something to think about. He answered frankness F~ith frankness. Lyudmila Anatol'yevna step by step followed the shop manager's working day. She then wrot~ down her own observations, conclusione and outlines of futher reco~nen- dations. This is the well-reasoned advice of an expert with respect to the chief of a given, specific shop, with regard to its characteristic features and specifics and with respect ta the personality of a manager with quite specific features of character, virtues and deficiencies, habi.ts and tendencies, views and temperament. She observed how the character and habits of the manager are reflected in prepara- tion of decisions. And among the notes to be remembered appears this one: "Compile a routine of the working day for the shop chief and for the work of all shop subdivisions, having provided time for work with correspondence, holding meetings, receiving workers of the shop subdivisior.s on production problems and also on personal mattera. Develop a sample plan for the work of the ahop chief for the next month, providing in it consideration ~f questions of a future nature: a) on questions of a future nature that require preparatory work for deci- sion-making and turninq over the appropriate tasks to executors (pre~aration of _ drafts of decisions); monitor the execution of assignmentsj b) familiarize the ahop chief with the literature (a list of books is needed) on organization of -~anagement and so on." 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE OtVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY These and mAny other recommendations of the NOT department worker helped to deter- mine the new work style of the shop chief and manager. I am Writing to You I was interested in the office: "How many letters does the firm receive per year?" "Almost 100,000 letter-telegraph dispatches." "That means how many answers must be sent?" "That goes without sayinq. And we also write letters to many addres~~; ourselves." "And is there also interfirm corrESpondence?" "And how! They write from the administration to production and from the production to administration. Engineers, designers, shop and departrc?ent chiefs and planners write. There are reports, requests, official reports, lis~s aazd technical documen- tation. There are approximately 200,000 internal dispatches annually." Ho w many office workers are needed in the apparatus and how many postal workers and messengers are requiredl The post office of an entir~ city must cope with the same thing. The flow of documents will increase. This is inevitable: the range of problems and tasks which LOMO solves will expand and the range of contacts, including for- eign contacts, will increase. But how will one cope with this flow? Will the business production staff be in- creased continuously? No. "We must continue to work for further improvement and reducing the cost of the administrative-management apparatus," so it is said about this in the proceedings of the 25th CPSU Congress. They forced the LOMO managers to rethink things with new acuteness and effort. The movement of documents must b~ ordered. Documents are the basis on which everything is constructed: planning, regulation, coordination and checking of ex~cution. Organized production begins with clearly compiled documents. And the following problem was formulated and posed to the NOT service: to reduce labor and time expenditures in fulfillinq ~aork on compilation of doci:.~ents and on their reception, recording, accounting and distribution ar.~or,g executors and delivery. This problem is not solved immediately. T:~ere are ao ready models. One must think. Raisa Yefi.movna Polina--a worker in the fiizn office--thought about this. The prob- lem also touched her personally. The flow of documents was flooding the otfice. Documents frequently duplicated each other. Ordera came in every ciay which should have been delivered immediately to their deatination. But many addressees are 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY several kilometers from each other. And Raisa Yefimovna quite freq,uently had to expend not only much time on dispersion of papers and not only to analyze the es- sence of different documents but she also had to deliver them hers~lf to the ad- dressees, performing the duties of a messenger. Sanetimes the messengers became the authors of the dispatches themselves--designers, technicians, planners and workers of the accounting office. Raisa Yefimovna Polina, being a correspondence student, attempted to look at her occupation crPatively. Like everyone in the firm, problems of efficiency and im- provement of management disturbed her. The serious, weighty suggestions of Polina, related to improving the office service, interested the department of scientific organization of labor and management where Polina is now the senior engineer of one of the laboratories. Many of her sugqestions, realized together with those of other specialists of this - laboratory, helped to solve urgent problems. I am now having a conversation about this with Raisa Yefimovna. And she talks about what their sma.ll laboratory hns already been able to do. "First about the letters. It was firat necessary to sharply reduce the simplify the number of letters because this in itself is a very laborious proc~ss. We qual- ified the corresp~ndence and worked out standard texts concerning formulation of agreements, supply, technical inforn?ation, exchange of experience, adoption of or- ders and so on. The texts and copies were printed in the firm's printing plant. The issue "Collzction of Standard Texts for External Correspondence" was used by them for convenience. A fourth of all the letters now sent from IAMO is printed on the firm's forms." "And do you have many specimens of these letters?" "About 100." "But how is data changed in these standard letters?" "For the convenience of the typists who type only the variable data, copies of the letters are placed under the originals, which together with the originals are bound together into blocks." - As a result the time expenditures on correspondence were redu~ed by a factor of more than 3.5 after standardization. And the firm not only made up th~ expenditures on paper and printing expenses, but also saved 10,000 rubles on this. All external correspondence was centralized and any letter ie dispatched only through a common department. And if, for example, the addresses must be written on the snvelope. Will this be a trifle? But still it takes one and a half to two minutes. And several tens of letters are sent out per day. This adds up to hours taken frota the business produc- tion workers, needed for more impor+tant matters. And we introduced envelopes with so-called open window on which an address does not have to be written since it is visible on the letter through the transparent insert. 105 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY "This is ~oncerning external correspondence. But an enormous circulation of dif- ferent documentation also goes on inside the firm?" "Yes. ~en more so since enterprises with their own systems an3 forms of plan- ning, accounting and report writing have been included in the association. We be- gan here with standardization of documents. All their standards were grouped by principle of identical and similar designation into classes and groups. Y~Iaving studied them, it was decided: 300 forms of different documentation can be replaced without any loss whatever. And standardization of dociunents made it possible to process them by using computer equipment." "We have talY.ed with you about the innovations in document grocessing. What about delivery of them to the addressees? After all, there were several con~rersations about the fact that designers, technicians and foremen became messengers for an hour. " "Oh, this is already ancient history. We have not needed messengers for more than one office for a long time. Almost all staff inessengers have been reduced. A ring post office replaced them. You can see it in action. The pickup will ,3rriv~ in five minutes." And precisely, within five minutes I went to the main entrance and saw a small pick- - up to which the gates were immeidately opened. Two girls sat in the cab. We were soon introduced. These were driver-expediter Nadya Sin~l'nik and business produc- tion-sorter Natasha Kurga. They are the pntire staff of the ring post office. Hundreds o� thousands of documents, letters and newspapers pass through their - hands. Several times per day, strictly on schedule, the pickup travels between all the subdivisions of the firm, distributing business papers which were previous- ly packed in folders and cases. The driver-messenger�places the correspondence in- to the post boxes belonging to the shops and departm~nts and removes the outgoing mail which was also ~repared in time for dispatch by the shop and department mail room workers. Of course, not everythiny was smooth at first. It turned out that someone delayed papers and the schedule was not kept. At the suggestio;~ of the girls, the pickup was re-equipped, special compartments were placed in it in order to more easily sort packages and special briefcases were prepared to facilitate delivery. Other innovations were also introduced. "1~r?d can the work of inessenger be interesting?" "And how. But the main thing is how many people we have relieved of superfluous concerns and how much time we have saved for main work." ~ahy Does Petrova Work Bettor Than Gerasimova? "Let's look in on the ~hop of amate~ir movie and still camera equipment," suggested Vladimir Nikolayevich Mitrofanov, the chief of the NOT office. "We and you will possibl}� see something curious." 106 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I had visite~i this shop several times and it was really remarkable, a modern shop with production and conveyor lines with electronic sfgnalling devices. The shop was large and well-lighted. There are long spans along which an endless conveyor belt slowly moves. There are well-lighted benches along the conveyor, at which a female worker sits. Each one assembles sm~ll parts ~nta assemblies from which an objective for the popular Smena-8 camera, which is in great demand, is finished on the conveyor line. "Look at these two femal~ w~orkers," said Mitrofanov, pointing to the assemblers w~orking alongside each other, "Petrova and Gerasimova. These are the best assem- blers on the operation 'assembly of tr.e shutter base.' But the operation of one of them is more rapid and that af ~he other is slower. Although both women have identical time of service and exp~rience. They have the identical rank. And gen- erally there is nothing different a~aut them. And both have the great desire to work as good as possible. In short, if there was a differeace in physical data-- _ in acuteness of vision, let us say, then everything would be simple and clear for the NOT service." "Our task is to study and disseminate leading experience. And if it is accurate to develop a meth~d of this study and dissemination. Observe for a little while how they work," suggested Mitrofanov. "Observe closely. I think that you will hardly notice a difference. And this is perhaps impossible even for a person with a practiced eye." "Le* us say so. However, is the difference so great that it can ~e determined?" "The difference is really small externally, counting in seconds and fractions of a second on each individual components of the operation. And there are a lot of them. And the operations are mass types. Imperceptible seconds saved by each as- - semoler per shift is already an additional lot of cameras per day." "~,nd does this not bring some concern about the intensity of labor to the physical fatigue of workers?" "Possibly at first glance, but here is something cwrious: a carQful examination showed that the worker who produces mo~e products usually gets tired less." "Beginning the investigations, we had to arm aurselves with a special camera and chronometer and make a series of continuous sequential photographs. As a result something like a film was obtained, taken by the frame photography method. One of these films could be called, for example, a'shutter' operation and one cauld see how worker Gerasimova or Petrova installs the liners and axles in the base of the shutter. Soon much was discovered. Both unique planning of the jobsite near the conveyor itself and the posture ~f the worker and the sequence of one ox: an- other movements." "It seems to be a trifle how one holds ones hands during w~ork. Petrova rests her elbows on the table and her movements are absolutely precise. The ~unch grasped by two fingers is inserted in the opening under way. A short strcke with the 107 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ hammer and it is riveted. Gerasimova seems to have her elbows suspended and the punch "fumbles" into the opening until it falls into it. Seconds are lost. The muscles are tensed for a longer time. Fatigue begins sooner and work proceeds more slowly. Many fine points were also de~ermined due to which it is harder or easier - to work. Gerasimova also revealed her virtues. She was skilled in installing the _ shutter base into the attachment with both hands simultaneously. This is easier and faster. The experience of the best workers---Gerasimova and Petrova--were studied and synthesized as a result. A special instruction chart was worked out by means of which the most efficient methods of work of those young female workers who had only taken on this occupation could be taught more easil~�, more rapidly and mainly more clearly," Mitrofanov showed me one of these instru~tion charts for the movie equipmer~t assem- blers. This is only a few pages. But a brief, cZear description of all ogerations is contained in them. And there are tens of expressive photographs that illustrate them sequentially by items. The workers are taught from these charts in the schools of advanced experience. Labor productiv~.ty in them was increased by an average of 4,5 percent compared to those who had mastered their occupation in their time by the ordinary method. The NOT department conducts principle investigations, w~orks out recommendations and methods which become a compulsory guide for th~ shop workers of the association. _ For example, a special me~hod was developed. It was intended for the NOT engineers in shops and for workers of producLion-engineering trai.ning, consultants of the schools of advanced experience, technici$ns and production innovators. The method contains four sections. Selection of operations for study, selection of procedures and methods of labor, compilation of a draft to describe these proce- dures and methods. And the instruction chart itself which was already discussed. Everything is significant here and everything is designed with rsgaz~d *e the effi- ciency of expended efforts and means. For example, the investigator should bear in mind that an ogsration selected for study should be mass or standard type for one or another shop, no fewer than three workers should be engaged in it simultaneously, the productivity of the operation is not less than three minutes and it is not less than 5-IO days during a month ;f marn~al labor comprises no less than half the oper- ational time. This is especially important r.ow when the association has converted to new wage conditions and to new rates. From the most modest calculations, an additional reserve of labor productivity in mass production alone comprises approximately 6-7 percent annually due to introduc- tion of advanced exparience. The NoT service, being involved with study and introduction of advanced experience, is investigators working hand in hand with innovator workers. They study with them and enrich their experience with the fruits of scfentific investigations. It Seems at First Glance The reader has already probably noted: when we are talking about NOT one fre- quently hears the phrase: "At first glance." This is no accident. Because NOT is always discovering something unexpected. But only at first glance. 108 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY But in fact, can labor productivity be increased if a worker takes frequent breaks during a shi~Ft? If she has more breaks? Do not hurry with your answer. Psycho- physiologi,ts, who carefully study the problem of labor on a conveyor and on a production line where fatigue is caused r,ot only by the physical load but by monot- ony and boredom, did not find it immediately. ~ What can be done so that the same Gerasimova and Petrova and many tens of their friends w~orking on the conveyor line become less tired and feel stronger and bet- ter and are highly productive during their work? What work and rest conditions would be most desirable and beneficial to them? And the psychophysiologists visit the conveyors again and again. They stand by the conveyor belts and the production lines from the first minute of the working day to the last minute. The pointera of the chranometers flash, the shutters of cameras are heard audibly, graphs are compiled, the slightest changes in the well- - being of the workers are recorded and the data are processed statistica].ly. Analyzing them, the psychophysioloqists proceeded from a conclusion already made repeatedly in the experiment: human efficiency is very variable over the course of the day. It is the highest 2 or 3 hours after the beginning of work. It then usually dropped. Samething similar happens after the lunch break. Moreover, the fatigue aecumulated during the first half of the day makes itself felt during the second half. And therefore, the highest level of labor productivity during the second half of the day is most frequently lower than that during the first half. As a result the NOT service makes the _recommendation: give the first five-minute break about 1 hour 40 minutes after the beginning of work. Give a second 10 min- ute break (physical exercise) 3 hours 15 minutes after the beginning of the shift. And again give a five-minute rest 1 hour 30 minutes after t~~~~ lunch break. ~ The recommendation of NOT was first introduced on the camera assembly line. More- over, the speed of the conveyor was changed in the photo shop upon the advice of the psychophysiologists. It was changed so that the greatest speed was mainly during the first half of the working day and the slowest speed was during the - first and last hour of work. And another recommendation was to alternate the workers in the operations every month or two. What did this yield? The new work and rest conditions, changing the rhythm of the conveyor and alternating workers in operations sharg~ly improved their well~being and attitude of the workers and labor productivity increased. And it was calcu- lated that these innovations on the aonveyor alone produce 10,000 rubles saving annually. The psychophysiologists of the NOT service, to whose activi.ty many initially were unsure of, became very popular people in the association. Their participation and assistance was requested by many shops. N~w the most efficient work and rest modes, developed on the basis of investigations, have now been intro- duced at more than 1,500 jobsites. So as you ca~n see, that which seems unexpected and paradoxical at first glance _ suddenly opens up new opportunities so as to achieve the best results with the least expenditures. = 109 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 ~OR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY The "Moonlight Wa1tz" a~d Labor Productivity You of course had occasion to observe how at times a person whistles quietly to himself on the job. He whistles in time to his motions. And obviously his work comes out better from this unique accompaniment. And now soldiers are marching and behind them are tens of kilometers of road. Fa- _ tigue has overtaken them. But suddenly an orchestra is heard in front and their legs seem to "walk by themselves" in tune to the cheerful rhythmic marching music. And the fatigue literally disappears! Psychologists and physiologists have long explained this secret of the effect of music on man: sound is related to the sen- sation of m4tion, Rhythmic music evokes and maintains stable motor and mental activity. It relieves nervous tension. It is capable of stimulating the physio- logical processes of the organism. And at the same time it is capable of making them both optimum and economical. And it creates the necessary moad. And if this is so, then is it possible not to consciously use music, so to say, for purely practical goals--to facilitate one's labor and at the same time to make this labor more productiv~e? Thus was born the idea of functional music. Long before this term itself became widespread, the first step had been taken at LOMO: before the beginning of the shift when human flows headed across the thresholds to the shops, they were accom- panied by cheerful, joyful music coming from loudspeakers. But it was not so simp?e to utilize functional music in the shops. Many of the most diverse problems had to be studied and solved. Could it be used everywhere? And where is it primarily necessary? And in what doses? And during what hours of the working shift? And there were as many questions about the nature of the music - ' itself, about the genres, orchestration and rhythm! And about selec~ion of programsl And a series of experiments was begun by physiologists on one of the large mass _ production sections for which monotonous labor is eapecially typical. Careful ob- servations and investigations were conducted day after day. And it was precisely - established: how and when fatigue of the central nervous system, the cardiovascu- lar system and *_he muscular system begins and develops during work. Having deter- mined the hours of the greatest fatigue during the shift, it wa~ possible to com- pile a schedule of music transmissions. - And not only a schedule. And what about the musical programs? Who and how would they begin to be selected? It was necessary to consult with the most qualified consultants in the field of music. And the department of scientific organization of labor appealed to the Leningrad Conservatory for assistance. Not only specialists in the field of optics or electronics, but well-known musicol- ogists first appeared as consultants in the shops of the firm. 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY The musicologists and psyr_holoqists selected the first repertoire. There were 30 � programs per month. Loudspeakers were installed at that time in the section. The wires fr~m them extended into the shop assembly for connection to a~ape recorder. Each ioudspeaker has a switch. If you want to listen, if you don't want to, you switch it off. When everything wa~ ready, the consultants from the conservatory gave lectures in the shop about how music can always have a favorable effect on man and of course during work. They were coz~vinced not to saitch them off. And it was true. When the music transmissions began no one switched it off initial- - ly. Ex:.erpts from classical operas and jazz rhythms were heard. But there were soon surprises. It turned out that music has far from an identical favorable effect on everyon~. Labor productivity decreased for some and some ir- ritably switched off the loudspeaker. It turned out ~hat the music initially distracts the attention of some people from their work. And after all it should, like the wind pushing a sail, be "unnoticed" but pushing forward with force. And again there were psycho].ogical investigations but now based on primary experi- ence. Practice showed that the greatest effect is gained from rnusic si.mple in or- chestration, primarily cheerful music. Works performed on the piano and on wind and electronic musical instruments were best received on the job. And again there was a surprise: at the end of the shift they "started" a cheerful, fast melody by an instrument ensemble. It turned out that cheerful rhythms had no benefit at the end of the snift. Why7 The psychologist, physiologist and physician talked to the workers for a long time. They concluded that by the end of the work day the human organism experiences a defini~e revi~alization together with the onset of fatigue. Calming, quiet and slow melodies rather than cheerful rhythms are required at the end of the shift. As soon as it became clear that functional music is a valuable matter and enjoys - very real benefit, the firm created a special studio from which they began to con- duct transmissions of functional music to many shops. A record library numberi:~g more than 5,000 works recorded on tape was created. Incidentally, auch an exten- - sive musical stock was simply necessary since first experience showed that even the most beloved melodiss interfere if they are rapeated too frequently. As you can see, rhe concern of the NOT department was supplemented with regard ::o introduction of this innovation. And there was soon a need for the post of "engin- - eer-musicologist," unusual for the firm, who would select musical programs on the recommendation of psychologists and physiologists. These duties were entrusted to a worker of NOT--an engineer having a musical and engineering education, Geliy Fedorovich Sukhanov. - Sukhanov is an enthusiast of this new post and works with animation. He unwilling- ly made a very remarkable observation. He, a proponent of functional music, most 111 F4R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - liked to meet wel.'.-Qrganized and established work i.n the leading shops. There where the musical rhythm could be "hand in hand" ~:ith production rhythm. But in other shops he was first cautious and uncertain about intzoduct=or. of func- tional music, especially in those where presses roar and conveyors rumble. If a loudspeaker is switch~d on here on jobsites, as in the phntographic shop, only more noise will actually be heard from the music. Then he got the idea of using antibackgrounds. Special earphones were given to workers engaged at the presses. They protect them fron~ external noise and make it possible for them to hear the music. As the first, carefully studied experiment showed, the workers' attention was not _ distracted and not dispersed. On the contrary, the music, freeing the person from stress caused by the noise, permits better concentration. And statistics proves this: both injuries and turnover of personnel in the tool and die and ather noisy shops were reduced over a period of six months after intro- _ duction of functional music. And they were soon interested in the automatic ma- chine shop: "And is it not possible for us to use music? And there is such a noise from the automatic machines." The question was more than appropriate. The noise level in the automatic machine shop was really high. But how could it help if a worker servicing sevpral machine tools on the same line was in constant motion? He could not drag a cord plugged into the loudspeaker system behind him. But there was a way out. There is a small transistor radio in the top pocket of the ordinary w~orking jacket. And the ear- phones were connected to it. Do people like to wr~rk to the accompaniment of music? A questionnaire poll was conducted. Seventy-nine percent of those questioned noted: music reduces fatigue and increases efficiency. Ninety-three percent added to this: it improves the mood and provides good exercise. In places where functional music has been introduced, labor productivity was in- creased by three percent. Work quality was improved. And this was no surprise. Good music has an aesthetic effect on man and forces him to be exact toward his labor, to learn more acutely and to more clearly perceive the beautiful. - Moreover, they also call the studio during rest breaks and request: "I would like to hear the 'Moonlight waltz' of Dunayevskiy again." Or: "And could you play Uginskiy's Polonaise?" "I Stay Becauso T Want To" Youn~ optical grinder Boris N., having gone ta the personnel department to formu- late his relaase at his own desire, was ashamed that he wanted to be released so fussily and again dropped into the NOT department. 112 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Regardless, Boris had to submit. He filled out a thorough questionnaire in the NoT department: why did he want to leave a~nd with whom and with what was he dis- satisfied. Perhaps the conditions were unsuit~ble? Or the work was un- interesting and the wages were too low? And perhaps he had established abnormal relations with the foreman and brigade leader? Are there no prospects for your growth? Is there no opportunity to study? It turned out strangely: a person had to fill out a detailed questionnaire upon leaving a job rather than upon entering it. Another conversation was held after the questionnaire was fil,led out. And it turned out that the grinder wrote the statement: "I request to remain at r.;y own wish." This was several years ago. I am in the sociological laboratory. My company is one of its w~rkers, the senior sociologist-engineer. A question. What is your laboratory involved in? The answer. we develop problems related to plans of the socioeconomia development of the firm. One of the social problems is personnel turnover. The scientific workers of the Leningrad Financial-Economic Institute helped us here. The first phase is usually study of statistical data. One very significant circumstance was determined. During the years when the investigation was conducted (1968-1969), more t;�~n half of thos~ leaving were young people. And we have half ef all workers at tY~e firm that are up to 30 years old. The laboratory conducted a survey of one- third of the young workers. Thousands of filled-out questionnaires were processed by a special program on a computer. We received extensive informatiAn. For exam- ple, one-third of those questioned, in answer to the question whether they were satisfied with the attitudes of the ~administration, answered "No." It was obvious that almost all the unsatisfied workers were from the procurement and finishing shops. A rather typical attitude toward young workers was determined for a numbesc of shop managers: the young are inexperienced and this means that it is risky to trust him with a good machine tool and tools and we will give him a poor machine to~l and we will give him materials last in line. We brought the attention of the managers of the firm to this. Recammendations were worked out--how to proceed so - that the novices worked better. The administration estab2.ished a strict proce- dure: now all novices are provided with good equipment and a standard set of all necessary tools from the first day on the job and are supplied accurately with materials and parts. Zt is a simple pat*~rn: the more trust in the young worker, the higher his responsibility is. Piecework for beginning workers was also re- - stricted at our recommendation. Within one or two years the statistics showed that turnover in the procurement and finishing shops had been cut in half. A question. But this was probably only one of the reasons causing the turnover? Answer. Of course. A young person who links his fate to the firm should be ~.,on- fident that he will acquire a firm material base here. After all, he will acquire family in the future. This means that he must earn good wages, that is, work well, 113 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and conditions mu~t be created for him to rais~ his qualifications. But since the shop chiefs and foremen were given our recnmmendation as a duty to eliminate the reasons interfering wi*_h young people working well and earning good wages, there became fewer and fewer young men and wvmen who felt that they were temporary at the firm. It is not simple to find all this out. Here is an example. A young machine tool worker handed in his in~ention of leaving. The foreman, without thinking, signed it. When case was analyzed, the foreman said: "And why should I bother with him? He spends haZf his time smoking or strolls around thP shop." But the machine tool operator gives these explanations: "Yes, it happens that I wander around the shop because the foreman gives me an as- signment for a day or for a week. But if he would give me an assignment immediate- ly for a-:lonth, I would have no idle ~ime." These cases prompted the engineer-investigators of the NOT service to become in- volved in development of important problems. The first was to imprc-�e intershop planning and the second was how to eliminate an unconcerned attitude of other ad- ministrators to the requests of workers about leaving the firm. Each application should be considered with maximum attention. Why does a person leave? Is there really a telling reason for this? Perhaps it is easy to corr~ct? Perhaps the ap- - plication to leave ;aas written in anger due to a minor affront? Question. And how was a way out found? Answer. Public personnel offices were created in the shops. 7chis same public committee then began to operate on the scnle of ~he �irm. The committee included workers and representatives of the administration. The committee tries to de- termine the reasons for leaving and takes all possible measures to create normal working conditions for the worker. The followiny statement has recently been printed on the official forms of appli- cations to leave: _ "Comrades! Before making a decision to leave the shop, carefully think about the reasons that aaused this and try to correct them with aur help." "If yau have still decided to leave, fndicate the reasons that interfere with your continuing to work in the shop." I had occasion to visit one of the meetings of the public committee for personnel - of the fizm. The committee meets twice a week with the participation of the as- sistant general director of the firm for personnel. The materials of the shop office are carefully studied here and their work is analyzed and generalized. And - here I met grinder Boris who was discussed at the beginning of this chapter. For about an hour and a half he patiently explained his complaints. They summoned the foreman of the section in,which Boris worked. And the conflict was resolved. 114 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , The public coc~unittee for personnel gradually expanded the range of its activity. _ It participates in the reception of workers to the firm an maintains contact with young workers who have gone into the army. And many of them usually return to their own collectives after demobilization. I continue my interview. _ Question. I have heard quite aften recently in your firm: "Potential turnover." What does this mean? Answer. You see tihe idea of leaving the enterprise at one's own desire does not - appear immediately. A person accumulates affronts, dissatisfaction with his occu- pation is aggravated and a conflict with a bYigade leader or foreman increases. Frequently, as you and I have already seen, the c4nflict can be resolved in the end. And the public commi.ttee for personnel in the shops and the public commi~tee - created at our r~commendation rendered great assistance here. But all this forced us to think about something else. Would it not be possible to provide beforehand for possible conflicts and to prevent their becoming an applfcation of leaving through one's own wish? There are many psychological fine points here which one does not immediately catch and one does not immediately read. Question. Who helps you to analyze these fine points? Answer. We have in the laboratory specialists--psychologists and physiologists-~- working with us sociologists. Their assistance is inv~aluable. We developed to- gether the method and system of questionnaires which are conducted once every 6 manths with the participation of the public offices of personnel in the shops. We managed to determine possible, buti almost undetectable conflict situations. For example, the youngest workers in one of the shops, it is true, expressed in am- - biguous foYm dissa*isfaction with their jab. The foreman was frankly amazed at this. Both their work records were excellent and the working conditions were fi~e --this was a shop that had been reconstructed. The psychologists managed to detezmine the reasons for the dissatisfaction af the young people. It turns out that in manufacturing parts, they have a vague idea of _ the final product of their labor and their work no longer had any attraction for them. An excursion to the neighboring shops was organized for them and they were shown the instruments for wk~ich they made parts. Their attitude toward work changed ap- preciable. They felt that they were creators of the latest modern apparatus which - are used on all continents and in all corners of the world. Question. Apparently there is an especially jealous attitude to supporting the _ labor of young people? What do your psychologists say about this? Answer. Yes, there is rich material to study this a~at~rial at the firm. A young man or young woman, coming to u~ from the PTU, usually has a aecondary education. 115 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 F'OR OFFIC[AL USE (~NLY - Many continued to study, combining it with work. And naturally, raisinq their own educational level, young people gravitate toward interesting work. TY?ey are no lonqer content with simple operations that require only the most elementary and mechanical execution. Question. How do they at the firm attempt to eliminate these contradictions? Answer. This is not a simple question. A high level of technology is always re- lated to mechanizat~on and automation, that is, to simplification of manual oper- ations. But on the other han3, the need f4r peopZe with broad technological view = incre~G?s ~nd ade~?~ ~uners and adjusters ar~ r~quired. A new technology is born that requires various types of knowledge frnm a worker, especially in optics. , Young people can rapidly acquire several occupations and easily switch ta new oper- _ ations. Tk~e advice of psychologists was used in practice in a number of shops when _ new models of instruments were 3ev~lopea there and complex technology was employed. The education of a worker becomes an additional reserve for labor productivity. Question. Especially a lot has been said recent~y about the significance of the microclimate in the production collective, that is, about the effect of personal a~~~tudes toward the results of labor. What can be done here and what are your - psychologists doing? Answer. We compared two seemingly absolutely aimilar brigades of opticians. Everything was identical in them: the number of people, their qualifications and they performed the same work on the sane equipment. But a small difference was found in the results. One of the brigades regularly distinguished i,tself with high labor productivity (7-10 percent higher than that of its neighbors) and witl~, a miniinum percentage of rejection. What is wrong? A different microclimate. The _ first brigade was a united, friendly collective. There were tense relations and - frequent conflicts in the other b~igade. A lot of time was lost here on resolving relations. Question. Perhaps the second brigade was unlucky and incompatible peop~.e were as- semb~ed there accidentally? Answer. Of course it happens this way. Incidentally, our psychologists concluded that it is very imp~rtant in making up brigades to take into account the psycholog- ical compati.bility of people, the range of their common interests, their needs, - life situations, principles and sympathies. Without this there cannot be a real brigade in the sense which we have become accustomed to understanding this. But what is especially important is the personality of the manager and brigade leader. The brigade leader is appointed by the administration. A very impor~ant circum- stance was determined wher. studying this problem. Tt;.ere are usually two leaders - in a brigade if the appointment of the manager is unsuccessful. One is the offi- cial appointed leader and the other is th e unofficial leader. However, the unof- y fi~~}al leader enjoys the greatest influence in view of his businesslike and per- sonal qualities. And this in itself freguently causes an acute situation in a - small collectiv~. It is this very situation that developed in the second brigade of opticians under discussion. The brigade leader was soon replaced tr,tere at the recommendation of psychologists and everything changed. ' 116 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY Question. This means that it is not so sin~le to be a brigade leader? Answer. In any case, it is much more complicated than people think. In forming production brigades, managers frequently underestimate the opinio~ of psycholoqists. And some aspects of creating these groliYS remain outside the field of vision of tiie managers. For example, should there be a man or woman as a brigade leader? It would seem that a competent man as head of a female brigade is a proper appointment. But if you question a female brigade of painters (the brigade leader is a male) it turned out that this was not so. Half the brigade expressed dissatisfaction with the brigade leader. He was unable to understand the needs and interests of the female workers. Moreov~r, he was much younger than fhe members of the brigade. You cannot decide to talk with such a brigade leader about everything bothers you. And without this how then can he be the head? Upon our recommendation a female brigade leader was appointed and th~ psychological climate in the brigade improved a lot. Question. Obviously, the difference in the age between the brigade members is also important? Answer. Undoubtedly. Study of t~his problem revealed some fine paints which must be taken into account in forming a briqade. An old ~aorker, for example, is espe- cially sensitive to the slightest deficiencies of w~rkxng conditions in the shop, but is less perceptive to any rough points in relations with the administration. His life and production experience, his high occupational skills and his knowledge - of his prestige in the collective evokes a feeling of the incomparable strength of his position. And on the other hand, a young worker responds especially emotional- ly to each w~rd of the chief. He has his own rpquiremen~s related to the prospects for growth and raising of rank. Thus complex psychological problems frequently arise which are inevitably solved by the brigade l~aders, foremen and shop chiefs. Brigades and sections must be formed so that people of different ages can supplement each other harmoniously, combining the experience of a veteran with the energy and knowledge of young people. To validly evaluate a person, his character and his possibilities, one just learn how to distinguish the psychological fine points which others try to brush away. But a production organi2er of any rank is unthinkable today without this. we are making the first attempts. Our psychologiste and sociologists are working out recommendations based on specific study of one or another brigades and sec- tions. Special topical seminare, leature cycles and conversations with the par- _ ticipation of our sociolagists and psycholoqists are conducted after this. Exer- cises are conducted with the brigade leadera, foremen and senior foremen on topics related to problems of the person in the collective and management of the - collective. Our firm is a collective of communist labor. This places special responsibilities on us. We have to bec~me our own type of laboratory where clearly new relations in the labor collective are formed. 117 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON~Y Electronic Assistants The telephone rings: "They are calling from the supply department. Be so kind and prepare duta in which articles steel pipe is now used at the firm and in what quantities and of what diameter. And how many of them are needed durina the first quarter of next year. And we also need data on." The request was listened to carefully and written down. "Everything is clear. You will receive all the data in a few minutes." "All the data within a few minutes?" But who can know about this and remember how to answer suddenly to an unexpected question? These very pipes are used in the most diverse shops and for the most diverse instruments, of which a countless num- ber is produced. Yes, of course the data which they request can be assembled. But the shops must b~ questioned and one must dig into an enarmous card file and make complex calculations. This is generally a week or week and a half of ~rork for an entire group of qualified people. But the supply w~rkers the answer i~nediately. [aithout any wires. And within several minutes. The operator enters the assignment in a machine and the machine prints out an exhaustive answer. Its magnetic memory is unlimited. _ And th~re is no need for card files. There is no need to load down planners and economists with boxes of desks full of swollsn foldera with very extensive informa- tion. Ninety-five percent of the entire information service nas subscribed to the computer center, which has become the nucleus of a future ASU--autamated control system. The computer center is the same age as the firm and was born together with it. And they could not get along without it. At one time a"low-power" machine calculating station was located here. The firm was immediately able to acquire entire computer complexes. One of the enthusiasts of creating the firm--its first director for production and economics Ivan ivanovich Vasil'yev--headed a group which from the very beginning "taught" the computer not only to serve the engineers and designers in their creativity, but of also assisting all the services in their extremely complicaked w~ork of management. In the complex plan for the socioeconomic develop- ment of the firm for the lOth Five-Year Plan, it was immediately provided to devel- op an automated produ~:tion manaqement system on the basis of a computer cen~~r. In the lighted rooms of the computer center people converse silently with machines in the language of algorithms. To each question they receivQ exhaustive, precise answers, advice, instructions and waraings from their interlocutors. The chief of the computer center af IAMO candidate of economic sciences Yakov Iosifovich Pivovarov relates beforehand the following story: "The well-known academician Trapezn.~?;~~~ ~~:aehow calculated that the entire adult popula~ion of the USSR would be required by 1980 to work in the sphere of managing our producti~n." 118 FOR OEFIC[AL L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR ~FF'ICIAL USE ONLY It w~ould be required if there were no computere among the other means of mechanization. It so~mds fantastic. But let us take the "very smallest." Approximately 250 mil- lion parts are manufactured annually in the shops of the LOMO firm. Several dif- ferent operations are required for manufacture of each of them. This means that we have already calculated new millions. And not for the sake of counting. One must determine precisely how much and what materiale are required, the priority of their manufacture by deadlines, the priority of sending them for asseaibly, one m~xst calculate the neen for materials and equipment, the number of workers, the cost of expenditures and so on and so on. And now imagine what staff should be made up of engineers, technicians, normalizers, ec:onomists and other specia'ists for calculatinq these data (among others) if they are azmed only with an ordinary slide rule and an addinq machine. And how much time they would spend on this. If you calculate, continued Pivovarov, such a param- eter as the equipment load. One Leningrad economist, having studied our production, - determined how many equipment load versions can be under the simplest condition. But 40 parts must be machined on at least I5 machine tools. Do you know how many? Ten to the 28th powerl And we have thousands of them of the most diverse designa- tion from which the best and most profitable version must be selected. And all this concerns in the given case only one problem: efficient loading of equipment at the firm. But let us take an even smaller scale, continued the chief of the computer center, a shop or even a section for which a foremz.n is reaponsible. Investigators have established that the foreman should operate with information 3.6-fold greater than that which he can perceive in such a complex production enterprise as ours. - Computers have now freed the foremen of needless concerns. He first receives a form on which everything is scheduled and everything is taken into account from the computer center for each day. And the machine takes on the "technical" functions in almost each management link. The machine memory provides unanimity in planning, cantrol, accounting and analysis of the activity of each subdivision and of the er~tire firm as a whole. Z'he computer - helps to select the optimum version when solving any creative problem, regardless of what it concerns--equipment, technology or finances. Yakov Iosifovich leads me to a wall consis~ing of files. "Information from the shops, departments and design offices," he explains, "is gathered in them. A half million bita of information in the form of alphanumeric characters on the most diverse problems comes to us here every month. The 'elec- tronic brain' immediately processes it." "Undoubtedly there is no amount of people who could calculate "manually" and could "overtake" the computer. But �rom the viewpoint, for example, of selecting the optimum versions." Pivovarov laughed: 119 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "I see that you also must overcome the 'psychological barrier' of mistrust of the computer, which we have already encountered ourselves. I can cite an example, h3ving already become a reader. Once we checked an experiment with dispersion of equipment. A group of the most experienced engineers and computers solved the problem. The engineers propo~ed an excellent, well-thought-out version. But vahen they found out that their assignment was duplicated by a camputcer, they were hurt. Some of them b~gan to speak ironically. Well, we already see what the computer has 'thought up."' And intentionallyl When they compared the two versions it _ turned out that the machine, free of traditions and templates, had proposed a new, unexpected version. They checked its veraion and it turned out that, because of it, the path of the parts between two m4chine tools is reduced by a factor of 1.5 compared to the version proposed by the most experienced specialists. The computer does not make the slightest deviation from established order. Once a foreman tried to 'go around the instruction' of the machine and violated the priority of the op- eration in processing and began to do operation '2' instead of the last operation '3.' But the machine knows that operation '3' is the final one. If it is ful- filled that means that the part is finished. And it immediately sent a new as- signment to the section." Management using computers does not tolerate the slightest violations of production discipline. It in itself is a powerful stimulus to increasing production skills. We are walking through th e rooms past many computer, keypunch-calculating and special production recording devices. This engineering complex--the electronic brain--became the basis of the ASUP [Automated production management system] con- nected to all shops and sections and the planning system for most production sec- tions, detailed calculation of production assignments and automatic monitoring of their fulfillment and so on is now introduced at the firm with its assistance. And all this is in addition to the thousands and thausands of the most complex engin- eering and design calculations. Thus accumulated experience made it possible ta convert from solution of special problems to development af a complex automated management system. Under new conditions of economic planning and incentives, the firm receives from the ministry and main administration only the basic nomen~lature rather than a fin- ished plan. The firm its elf determines the remaining extensive z~omenclature of articles on the basis of what brings in the greatest advantage and highest profit. And to produce what is most advantageous and what is most profitable is indicated to the firm by an electronic economist. Because of the camputer, the number of engineering and technical personnel at the firm was reduced by 167 persons, thos~ in the planning departments were reduced by 58 persons and those in bookkeeping and finance departments were reduced by 73 persons. But this does not mean th at the computer generally forces a person out of here. The main thing is that th e machine releases the valual~le time of a person from - everything that can dist ract him from direct creativity. Do you know what the day of a rank and file engineer frequently begins with at - LOM07 With a telephone call. Yes, yes. He is interested in which la~est informa- tion innovations have come in in that field of engineering in which he is involved. And he immediately receives an exhaustive answex previously recorded on tape--the computer memory. 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY If a designer needs syatematized information on a strictly specific problem in a narrowly specialized field, the computer helps him to find a complete list of the literature with which he must become familiar. The books are recorded in its memo ry . The creators of future instruments can determine beforehand the optimum capabilities of one or another designs by means of a computer. - But this is only the beginning. We will soon be able to plan precisely and before- hand by periods each phase of birth of each new instrument, from the very initial - stage, from the designer's thought, from the initial sketch to a detail plai3, from - the first drawinc~s to a mockup and from a mockup to an experimental model and put- ting into serial groduction. And a strict schedule of preparing the production for each element of the design will be compiled beforehand. The ASU only needs before- - hand a general annotation for the future instrument. Desfgners, technicians, in- vestigators and testers will know precisely beforehand when and by which calendar deadline they should begin or end. - "I am confident," states Yakov Iosifovich, "that this will be a weighty contribu- tion to the success of Leningrad firms: to reduce the deadlines for development and introduction of new equipment into production and to raise product quality. And this is the main thing baday." From a modernized nighttable to an automated production management system and from the attitude of an individual worker to problems of a communist attitu3e toward labor in an entire multiperson collective--this is the range of problems of the NOT service at the firm. - 121 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY FOCAL POINT OF COMMUNIST EDUCATION - There is a building on the territory of LOMO which in no way reminds one of a pro- duction site. Moreover, it is here that you can meet any workers of the firm-- workers, engineers, scientists and young workers only beginning their working life and gray-haired veterans who have given tens of years to production. And each one comes here with his own concerns and suggestions, with his questions and thoughts and comes for advice and assistance. _ The pulse of the social life of the association beats continuously here. In this building is concentrated a unique staff of all the social organizations of the firm engaged in communist education of workers: the party committee, trade-union com- mittee, Komsomol committee and editorial office of the weekly ZNAMYA PROGRESSA. "There were many significant changes in the work of the party, trade-union and Komsomol organizations with creation of the firm and with introduction of the new _ form of production management," says secretary of the LOMO party committee Anatoliy Ivanovich Kirsanov. Creation of a large production association opens up new and very favorable oppor- tunities for ideological and political krork among the collective and permits dis- semination of leading experience on a wider basis, faster and with gr~ater effect. And it operates more confidently, clearly and more goal-oriented, solving the most important problems. We have many hundreds of co~nunists in the party organization --a real guard which is capable of anything. 7.'he IAMO party committee, according to the bylaws of the CPSU, enjoyed the rights of a regional party committee. It has 55 persons in its expanded composition. Current affairs are solved by the of- fice of the party committee. Who is included in the party committee? Well, primarily these are 30 of the lead- ing, most active workers from the different shops, leading specialists and managers - of the main subdivisions and representatives of all large party organizations of the association. All this makes it possible for this party committee to more uni- versally and more deeply analyze the firm's activity and to consider in detail and with total competency the questions brought up for discussion. After all, the members of this expanded party committee are closely related directly in their work section with the primary party organization and know and judge tne situation by the `acts of life itself which they encounter in the daily work rather than from summaries. 122 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY And of course the members of the party committee can under these conditions inform communists and all workers of the firm more operationally and more fully about the decisions and decrees of the party committee, thoroughl.y ex~laining them at party and workers' meetings. And this is important. Aftar all it is one thing to read some decree to people and quite another if the person who participated in its dei velopment, discussion and adoption himself talks about it himself and answers questions which may arise convincingly and exhaustiv~ly. This also increases the personal responsibility of each member of the party committee and more fully de- termines its role as a collective body of the party management. A real opportunity appeared under the new conditions to devote attention to bztter thought-out, scientific approach to party work and to substantiation of the effi- ciency and results of any measure which we plan to implement. One of the condi- tions of this scientific approach was development of a future plan of party work , for the long term. These plans are closely tied to plans of the socioeconomic de- velopment of the firm for each five-year plan. This plan was developed at the initiative and with the participation of the party committee for the lOth Five-Year Plan--a five-year plan of efficiency and quality, as the 25th Party Congress and General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid I1'ich Brezhnev defined it. Of course this definition became our main ref- - erence point in all work of the party organization and for all its sections--from the party committee to party groups. The materials of the congress are beinq universally studied at LOMO after the 25th CPSU Congress and moreover in all exercises which prupagandists are conducting and they talk in all schools of communist labor and at all party and workers' meetings . in detail about the role of our firm in fulfillment of the tasks posed at the 25th CPSU Congress. After all, one of the features of I,OMO is that its production is required by practically all sectors of the natianal economy. 7'he success of other fields of science and technology largely 3epends on the quality of instruments - made here. The party committee organized special theoretical and methodical seminars for - propagandists and political informa~ion specialists and prepar~3 for them reference materials which would help them more clearly, more specifically and more convinc- ingly talk to the student;;, which is now required of workers of each subdivision of the firm. The work of the committees of the party committee in monitoring the economic activ- ity of the administration, in development of technical progress and in economic and social development became more animated after the 25th CPSU Congress. The coinmittees render invaluable assiatance to the party committee in solving the most fundamental problems related to the role of communists in recor~struction and in mechanization and automation of production processes. The LOMO party committee proceeds on the basis that success in fulfilling the de- cisions of the 25th CPSU Congress depends primarily on the skill of communists who he~~d political and organizing work directly in the shops, in the production sec- tions, in departments and laboratories, from shop party organizations and from each communist separately. 123 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ Discussion of the materials of the 25th Congress at the firm aroused each communist _ seemingly to again ask himself: have I done everything so as to justify the high rank of fighter of Lenin's party in full measure? Here are several inter.views at the jobsites. Optician, supervisor of the brigade imeni 25th CPSU Congress, K. Yakovlev is speaking: "The workers of our brigade, like all Soviet people, received the Annual Report of the CPSU Central Committee to the 25th Party Congress with enormous interest and warm approval." "When you read between the lines of this most important document, you think about its propositions and conclusions and gain a feeling of deep gratitude to our party, which purposefully and sequentially leads our country along the path indicated by Lenin. we answer a worker about the concern of the party and government: work with doubled energy. We have the conditions for this. Even more progressive machine tools are now being developed for opticians and dianond tools will be introduced for the first time in fine polishing oper~tions. This wi.ll permit a significant increas~ of labor productivity during the lOth Five-Year Plan and will improve product quality. Our opticians have converted to the brigade method of work. There were 42 brigades in 1976 and each worked on ~ single detail. Five of them were young brigades headed by a brigade leader-mentor. This is a~so new since it appeared quite re- cently in the practice of our shop. Our brigade stood a shock watch during the work of the 25th Party Congress. WE cover our shift assignments daily and the quality of work is good. But it will be even better!" Senior foreman communist V. Spitsin: - "Our mechanical section coped successfully with their pledges taken in honor of _ the 25th Party Congress." "The section was the victor from the results of the 25th 10-day labor watch and it was awarded a certi�icate and the challenge red banner." "The brigade of boring lathe operators, which is headed by young Komsomol Vladimir Romanyuta, also won first place. And he himself raised his own rank to third rank during this time." "It is not easy to head a young workers' collective. There is little experience arnong the young machine tool operatars and it happens that some of them violate labor discipline and it is hard to make demands on young people, they do not al- ways understand you at first and try to do something on their own. Now here I ap- peal to the party groups and to communists for assist~nce." 124 F4R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY , "i never weaken contact with them. I rely on the party group both in organizing and in educational work. For exeunple, here is how we together contrcal rejects." "Someone conceals a sin and one of the young people spoils a part or turns in sev- eral flawed parts. A signal comes from the OTK and 2 as the direct representative go to one of the communists, most frequently tc~ party group organizer Nikolay Semenovich Matyukha. Help so and so,I say, to turn the fellow onto the correct path . " "And this was not immediately in my practice that they refused this request to me, saying that they were busy or that were some more important reasons. Without any superfluous words, that same Nikolay Semenovich switches off his machine tool, for example, and heads to the jobsite of the guilty party. 2 look from the side and there is a serious conversation under way: the reason for the rejects have been found and Nikolay Semenovich shows how to correct it and then sees whether every- thing is okay. Training, both occupafiional and purely human, for a young person provided a clear lesson in mutual help." "My prc~posals always find support among communists and the section has become the leader probably due to our cooperation." Milling machine operator Yu. Vasil'yev, an innovator, mentor and member of the - party committee of the association: "The word 'quality' is now in the ears of everyone but I also think that the strug- gle for Zabor quality begins with education of the working conscience of the young worker who of course desires to master his skills. One is inseparable from the other." "And when you think about the thousands of young w~orkers who will determine the appearance of the firm at the end of the lOth Five-Year Plan, you understand what responsibili~y has now been laid on us, the veterans. That is why both the party organization and the trade-union committee devote ever more attention to develop- ment of apprenticeship and to the remarkable, most noble movement which was born in Leningrad." There are now 800 mentors at LOMO. The party and trade-union organizations have selected the most ~xperienced workers from an enormous number of the best--commun- _ ist and non-party, ready td share selflessly and unsparingly their skills with young people and mainly to educate in their wards working pride and a feeling of high moral rQSponsibility for their labor and for all their behavior." "Seminars of inentors are held at the firm, they visit special lectures and exchange experience." "The party cdmmittee and the trade-union committee is always seeking newer, more - flexible and more effective forms of tutorship." "And if the labor discipline was recently improved among young workers and if most of our wards won the right to enter the Komsomol and become worthy members of the LoMO collective, then undoubtedly this is due to the important labor of the tutors." 125 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "And if a tutor was skillful in teaching his ward to love his occupation, to re- spect lalbor and to value working friendship, then let he himself teach his comrade to follow the same principles--principles which tr.~ party organization of the firm teaches in the LOMO collective and.which find their fullest and clearest embodi- ment in the daily life and work of the communists of the association." "The right hand of the party committee is the trade-union committee. The trade- union organization combines thousands of workers, scientists, engineers and salar- ied emplo~~ees at the LOMO firm. Working under the supervision of the party commit- - tee and in close contact with it, it widely recruits all workers of the firm to participate in production management and to pa.rticipa.te in the mass competition to fulfill the five-year plans ahead of schedule and for high product quality." "Much has been done among the shop committees the permanently acting production meetings, the advice of innovators, VOIR and other creative organizations which the trade-union committee of the firm supervises, to develop an effective mass competi- tion. The LOMO collective was one of the first to support the patriotic call of the w~orkers of the Association Kirovskiy Zavod, who came out with the initiative to fulfill each production five-day task within four days. The trade-union organ- izations of the shops helped eacn of the participants of this competition to work out his own plan-pledge and the complex plan for increasing labor productivity at each jobsite. Being true to the slogan 'Complete a five-day task withi.n four days' makes it possible to regularly evaluate the personal contribution of t~ie competi- tors to the success of the co].lective." "The trade-union organization of the firm warmly supported and disseminated the ca11 of the Moscow workers 'Give a worker's guarantee to each article.' And to do this, they organized even more widely the competitions that have become traditional _ for the firm and which provide for awarding the honorary ranks: 'Best worker of the shop (association) in occupation,' 'Best young worker' and so on." "These are those who are irreproachable on the job and in everyday life and these are those who showed the highest labor productivity and achieved the highest re- - sults in occupational skills, in innovation and in economizing of inetals and raw material. These are those who transferred the 'secrets' of their success to the greatest number of their own comrades in their occupation." Cumpetitions by occupations have become a powerful stimulus for the movement for - communist labor in which the absolute majority of IAMO workers participates." - "'From high work quality of each one to high labor efficiency of the collective' is tl:e main direction in the activity of all public organizations of the firm." - 126 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400080019-9 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY YOUNG COMMUNISTS - A conversation broke out in the party committee: with what and when does education of a young communist begin? From that memorablQ moment when he is handed his party - card? From that party meeting at which he excitedly hears the words: 'I request that so and so by accepted'?" Or perhaps, even earlier? "Of course :.t is much earlier," so says secretary of the party organization of the LOMO firm. "It is much earlier," he repeats with confidence. "It should begin from the very day when the young man or woman first crosses the threshold of the enterprise. Of cours~ not all of them will become party members in. the future. It is felt that this is very important: so that they feel a moral a~nosphere such as an 'ideologi- cal' cl~~.mate where their dream to become a party fighter is born of itself from the first minute tt~at they are among a new collec~ive of workers." When you become mc~~e familiar with the mul~tifaceted life of the LOMO firm, you be- gin ~o understand: this is not only a creative laboratory of new progressive forms of production organization and management. This is a uniqu~ laboratory of commun- ist education whose activity is closely t~.ed to the concern of the party committee about supplementing the party ranks and w.'1th education and with ideological temper- ing of younq communists. = Incidentally, an average of 150 workers k~ecome party members here in the multi- = thousand collective of the firm. You berome acquainted with them and you see tha~. these are actually the best young w~orkers and your~g foremen, the young engineers and designers--the future of the firm. Recently the party committee secretary in a solexnn occasion handed a party card to one of them--young lathe operator of th.e astronomical shop Nikolay Nikolayev. And now I am in the astronomical shop ~~ahere specialists of the highest class, high- est not only in 3.eve1 of qualification.s but in the degree of the responsibility with which a person relates to a mattF:r, develop the most complex optical instru- ments. It is a complex task to name the best one among them. And even so they name Nikolayev immediately. ~ When the work was ended we became ac.~quainted. And Nikolay Nikolayev almost modest- ly talks about himself. 127 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400404080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "I came to the shop as an apprentice lathe operator. I now understand how much ~oncern the older.� comrades--communis~s and non-party workers--showed me until I learned to gain the fine points of the occupation and how they hAlped me to better understand myself. They helped me with o~her than speeches and exhortations. I saw how, for example, communists Aleksandr Fedorov, Konstantin Kharlamov and Viktor Smirnov worked. They were the first ones to be interest~d in me: how I Iive, who my friends are and what I am interested in. And they seemingly by chance opened up to me newer and newer 'lathe' secrets. ~I myself did not notice how I gxadually gained my occupation and I lost the skill of wandering around the shop and start- ing any kind of conversations with my section neighbors. It was very good that from the first days such people respected in the shop by all considered me one of their own and i frequently repeated to myself what I heard from them: 'This is a matter, first of all that for which you are responsible.' I tried to do as they did. Moreover, i was even amaxed why they treated me so well and so attentively even like my father since I had hardly managed to deserve this. Or perhaps I was simply lucky to be among good people. But later I learned and understood something else. Whether I was lucky or not, a tradition was established in the shop which ~ communists kindly maintain--to give their experience to each novice. This meant not only to teach him their skills but ~o give him a true party look at everythin,g which he encounters in life. The senior forema~.n convinced me to graduate from the evening school. I later entered the correspondenc;e division of the institute. It was difficult and I almost dropped my studies, but my neighbors in the section, communists, did not give up and helped to creatE~ conditions for normal study." r And could Nikolayev not feel sympathy ~oward fihe,5e people who had been so concerned _ about him? Could he not desire to be something :Like them himself? Once, when an urgent btit "unsuitable" order came into the section, Nikolay willing- - ly took it on himself. He knew how ttie communists af the shop wvuld act in similar cases. He took it on and completed it 1.5 times faster than expected. Soon, he, a distinguished worker and young IC,~msomol, was el~~cted to the Y.omsomol organization of the shop and later to the shop committee. Listening to the story a't>out Nikolay Nikolayev, I unwillingly recall the words of the party committee secret~ry that the education ~~f a young communist begins long before he enters the party. , And now Nikolay Nikolayev is a young communist. He touches with pride his inner pocket of his jacket where his candidate's card :~s kept. His dream has come true. But Nikolay understands that everything is only beginning. T'hey will now approach him with a new measuring rod and with ne~,~ demand.s and a different demand is now on him. He will soon undergo self analysis before communists: how is he justifying the trust of the collective. And in fact how? He now looked at himself with di�ferent syes. He approached himself with a different measuring rod. He had n~w received the assignment of - machining a large lot of partsa Having thought it over he decided that all these parts can be converted to casting. It turns out faster and less expensively and both metal can be saved and the machine tool can be freed for more riecessary 128 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 EOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY operations. He consulted with his comrades and they agreed, but warned him: but don't be stopped by trouble." After all, the entire technique has been set up, inscribed and it is not easy to chanye it. And true he will not get by without having trouble. He then proceeded as the party conscience had guided him. People now looked at him in a different light and trusted him more and pl~ced greater hopes on him. And now Nikolayev together with experienced lathe operators Smirnov and Fedorov suggest high-speed clamping accessories which would permit the machine tool operator to work easily and quickly. They tested it on Nikolay's ma- chine tool and the result was excellent. But again there is a problem: there are 18 lathe brigades in the shop. And all of them need these accessories. The com- munists proposed that they be manufactured through the efforts of the collective itself. And they were manufacturedl There is also the expression: "It was not noticed how a person grew." Everything is excellently noted in the LOMO party organization. When the deadline approached, Nikolayev was unanimously accepted from among the candidates to membership in the partp, And after several months the party bureau recommended Nikolayev as a candidate for the party group organizationof the sec- tion. And they were not wrong. Nikolay Nikolayev is now one of the best fighters of the party group organizations, he enjoys prestige and has initiative and is demanding. ~eryone in his section shares this opinion. There is a small grinding shop at LOMO located on the side of the large shops. Various special resins are made here for gluing glass and metal and grinding- ' polishing micropowders are mar.ufactured for machining optical surfaces. Once the young tdina Kupriyanova--a resin work~r--gave a talk at a routine political meeting in the workshap that was devoted to communist morality. Her first specialty--ma- - chine tool operator--was cleaner and easier. But they needed someone more as a resin worker in the smatl workshop and Nina decided to master this difficult occu- pation as well, which she has not left up to this day. Nina w~s very adept in her studies, referring to many works of artistic literature. And her female friends in the shop--students of the circle--talked about her selflessness in work ~nd her - responsiveness. The strict controller of OTK Yelena Fedorovna Knyazeva said: "If everyone always worked like she does, there would be no need to be concerned about quality." A propagandist told ai~out this in the shop party bureau. - The communists of the section and among them Yelena Fedorovna Knyazeva willingly gave recommendations to the young worker. And now Nina Kupriyanova is yet another fighter in the party organization of the firm. She is really a fighter. Modest, but decisive. - Additional grinding materials were needed to machine the mirrors of a large tele- scope. She convinced everyone to remain after the shift and was the first to take on a large volume of the work. And for this she gained respect in the shop. It is no accident that every time when foreman Viktor Vladimirovich Karikov goes on de- - tached duty or goes on leave he leaves the section in the hands of Nina Kupriyan- ova. The foreman is calm. H~ knows that he can rely on Kupriyanova and it makes no difference that she is the youngest one. They respect her and know that she will solve all problems with skill, ~ustice and in a party manner. 129 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ And chere is yet another acquaintance: young engineer-researcher Vyacheslav Grechkin from the Iaboratory of electronic components. He gave an excellent ac- count of himself in difficult and complex investigations relateci to develo~ment of a luminous flux stabilizer and other optical instriunents. Several years ago the investigator was a rank and file radio installer and active trade-union member at IAMO. Later with a pass of the firm he entered the Leningrad Institute of Aviation Instrume~ Building and reti:rned to the design office as an engineer. They trusted him with working out one of the problems, very important for engineering progress in the optical industry. He coped successfully with it and then gave an interesting report about his research at a conference of young specialists of the firm. Problems of optics was Vyacheslav Grechkin's entire con- cern. But why then does he devote evenixigs in the Central Lecture Hall and at seminars in the House of Political E;ducation and which innovations does he con- ~ stantly seek out at the shops of baok stores where they sell political literature? The fact is that Vyacheslav, having become a communist, performs a very important commission in his design office. He is a political information specialist. At first Grechkin was uncertain of himself: designers are themselves educated people and what could he provide new to them? However, now when Vyacheslav Grechkin gives a talk on political information in the design office during the lunch break in the - recreation and reading room, almost everyone comes there. And it always turns out that the young designer has the most interesting materials at his disposal regard- less of what the discussion is about--about problems of environmental protection or about the situation in the Near East or about the historical visits of Leonid Tl'ich Brezhnev abroad related to the struggle for peace. Like most other young communists, Vyacheslav Grechkin is a worthy member of our party and the important service of the mentor communists of the association are responsible for this. They are engaged on a planned basis and sequentially at LOMO in supplementing the - party r~nks. This is one of the most important spheres of party committee activity. = G~ec~a1 seminars of the party group orgar~izations and ~~Zeetings with party veterans are devated to ed+,ication of young communists. The secretaries of the shop party organizations specially listen to this problem at meetings of the party committee. - Th~ personat and daily leadership of communists is very valuable the entire period of the candidate period of those whom they have recommended. If a candidate - for membership in the CPSU has committed some offense, his guarantors are usually _ summoned to the bureau. The party committee has also organized a special school of party candidates. Besides propagandists, managers of the firm appear at the sessions and they talk about the primary problems of the association which all par- ty members and the entire collective of the firm must resolve. r~1d it is very important that every young communist be visible in this enormous party organization. Every novice coming to the firm enters a favorable climate where the atmosphere itself generat~s around him the dream to become a communist. ~1nd everything is done here to see that theae dreams come true. - 130 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A BOOK WHICH HAS A THOUSAND AUTHORS This is a book of forecasts whi,ch I continuously realized. These forecasts are not from the field of fiction. They were predetermined beforehand, calculated before- hand and they have a firm foundation that qunrantees that everything written down will be done within the designated deadline. And every person working at LOMO, hav- ing looked at this book, can learn what changes will occur at the firm during the next five-year plan and what he himself can firmly count on, bearing in mind the im- provement of working conditions, recreation conditions, raising of qualifications, education, provision with housing, medical assistance, an increase of wages, that is, how his living conditions will improve. _ This book is the complex plan for the socioeconomic development af IAMO. It was worked out by a special committee of leading specialists of the associacion with th~e participation of sociologists and is discussed and adopted by all workers of the firm--to coauthors of the plan and its direct executnrs. The system of primary measures on mechanization and automation, to increase the technical level, quality and specialization of produc~ion and to improve the man- agement system is clearly determined in the book. And here, along with other prob- lems, are invariably everyday social problems. - For example, development of new instruments has an appreciable effect on the occu- pational-qualification structure of the collective and the association needs people - of completely new specialties: engineer-technicians and engineer-investigators to develop hybrid intQgrated microcircuits, engineer-designers in fiber optics, opti- cal assemblers in fiber optics, operators of electronic units for mathematical mod- elling of new developments. And they have been trained beforehand. It is clear to everyone that rnore adjusters with higher and secondary engineering education are needed directly in the shops in adjustment of instruments and that adjustment of complex photoelectronic instruments can be carried out by a worker only with a higher technical education and that the knowledge of qualified workers should ap- proach in their own level the knowledge of diploma specialists. Vigorous scientific and technical progress caused a serious socia~ problem through- out the world: the need for new measures in the occupational-qualification struc- ture of labor collectives. It was justly decided that the rapid occupational growth of a collective should be the social consequence of technical progress in the association. 131 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY In order that each rank and file worker become more qualified, a special academic cambine was creat~d at the firm in complete accord with the plan for social devel- apment. A total of 5,000 workers and engineering and technical personnel study annually in an enormous building with an area of 2,000 square meters. Each audi- torium an d each ~ffice are supplied with the most modern equipment up to electronic systems for proqrammed teaching. Who studies here and what do they stu3y? All new workers (except those who have completed the PTU at the firm) are taught the theory and practice of any occupation chosen by them. Everything that a lathe operator or milling machine operator or optical engineer should know, let us say, in theory is learned in the classes. Everything in practice is learned in special training-~roduction shops. _ Courses are taught here to raise the c~ualifications of even the mo~t experienced workers, courses of "goal designation": timely training of workers to mastei the - assembly of instruments which the firm must manufacture in the near future. Every worker can obtain a secondary, related occupation here. Moreover, the lead- ing experience of the best production innov~ators is constantly studied in this _ training combine. It is felt that the saving from a planned increase of qualifica- tions of workers of the firm comprises 112,000 rubles annually. The source of this income is a rapid increase of labor productivity. , There is a special class of "simulators." The occupational suitability of a person for one or another specialty which the firm needs is determined here by means of instruments and tests. Semin~-~rs arc. held continuously in the training combine of the firm to raise the qualifications and creative growth of foremen, engineers, technicians and desig,zers. Many of them combine production work wifih scientific activity. The future scien-- _ tists have the opportunity to pass the candidate minimum in philosophy and a foreign languacre in the training combine. There is a two-shift school of young workers here whPre they obtain a complete ' secondary education. For those who plan to obtain higher education without inter- ruption from production, a vuz preparatary group has been created. An academic consultation office has been created for correspondence students. There is a tech- nical school at the firm where young workers or the children of workers of the as- sociation also mainly study. And now among those who develop the latest optical instruments at IAMO are more than 3,000 graduates of the young workers' scriool. and more tha~n a thousand graduates of the technical school and hundreds of workers who have achi~eved a higher education. It became possible to place more than 600 workers who achi~ved a secondary techni- cal education with the assistance of the firm in assembly, debugging, regulation and installation of the most complex instruments. 132 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Special groups of engineers in adjustment of electronic and optical systems were created and work here in six mechanical assembly shops. People with higher edu- cation were taken to perform the most crucial production operations where diverse and extensive theoretical training is required. The complex plans for socioeconomic development stimulate the mutual interests of the firm and of its collective for the successful results of labor. This mutual interest was expxessed, specifically, in such indisputable facts: la- bor productivity was doubled during the Ninth Five-Year Plan and almost the entire growth of product volume (98 percent) was achieved due to this. The wages of workers increasad an average of 27 percent and tha~ of machine tool operators in- creased by 40 percent. The additional, 13th wage comprised 75 percent of the aver- age monthly wages. The material incentives fund of the workers more than doubled during the five-year period. The firm spends millions of rubles every five-year period on housing construction, recreation, therapy, education, on construction of he~alth resorts, tourist bases, sports structures, pioneer camps and kindergardens. The personal incentives of each worker, employee and engineer in the success of his . own firm increase with each year. The people of LOMO are convinced in their own experience of the inseparability of the firm's interests and those of each one work- ing at it. I have related in this chapter only some of the items of the complex plan for socio- economic development that have already been implemented. "The House Where We Live" improving the housing conditions of the LOMO workers is one of the most important directions of the complex plan for ttle socioeconomic development of the association. The firnl is building an apartment building. New residents from LOM~J can more and more frequently be found in the most diverse rayons of ~he city. And almost entire quarters are populated by workers of the firm at Vyborskaya Stornoa. LOMO now has more than 100 of their own apartment buildings. They are comfortable with all the conveniences of modern apartments. These apartment buildings are carefully appointed and are equipped with mechanized laundries and service shops have been organized. The firm expended more than 1.5 million rubles during the Ninth Five-Year Plan on repair and appointment of their own apartment buildings. More than half of all the LOMO workers live in apartment buildings belonging to - the association. Moreover, the firm now participates in participatory construction of a number of apartment buildirags which the city is undertaking. It appropriates - hundreds of thousands of rubles for this construction from the social development fund. And this means that tens of families of many workers and employees of the association will receive new apartments. 133 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL ri15E ONLY Yet Another Facet Yes, the complex plan of the firm is multifaceted. But there is a human being be- hind every line of it. A human personality with his own secular demands, passions, attractions and interests. Yes, it is really a human personality. They are per- _ sistently and uniformly concerned here about the haxmonious development of each worker, about his ideolo~ical and general cultural out~.ook and about acquiring the treasure of all social riches which literature, music, movies and generally any artistic creativity can provide for man. , Let us take a look at the House of Culture Progress, which is not really a house but a combine of culture. It immediately combines three enormous clubs, recon- structed and equipped on a modern basis, which is required for any type of recrea- tion which one prefers. Two peoples' universities regularly work here with 11 faculties in different fields of knowledge, 14 clubs "for interests"--amateur music, movie excuzsions, ~ourism, collecting, photography and so on. More than half of the workers at LOMO are actively involved in 52 artistic collectivesi The library has 150,000 volumes. Select any book--classics, Russian and foreign, any works of Soviet literature and all journals--literary, social-political and engineering. It is calculated that more than 300,000 persons visit the House o� Culture during a year. They come because they are interested! I frequently met workers and en- gineers here whom I had met at the firm, gathering material for this book. I saw some at concerts of the wind ensemble preparing a new program. I met others in the vocal class and still others in the choreography studio. I saw how the instrument ensemble attentively studied new works. I observed how assemblexs of movie cameras, tool and die workers and operaters of thecomputer center carefully work out each step in the school of ballroom dancing. Moreover, LOMO can be rightfully proud of , its ensemble Kristall, that has become popular far beyond the firm. Kristall propagandizes modern ballroom dances and helps young workers to gain a deeper feel- ing for music and to develop good taste. - Incidentally, the young people devote special attention here: colorful occasions of young wives and holidays for young parents are arranged here. A young family club has been created. The members of this club meet with teachers, physicians, sociologists and other specialists for frank discussions and consultations on questions concerning them. Those who come here with children need have no concern with whom they leave them. A special room has been especially allocated for young people where the children can play at any games. Experienced teachers arrange jolly amusements, ~heatrical meetings with heroes of fables and show them animated films. Incidentall~, no one is left without attention here. Old female workers can com- fortably sit in the company of their spouses at their knitting and can listen to 134 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY music or can improve their dresamaking. Veterans of World War II give reminiscen- ces to young workers. Heroes of Lat,or meet with their own young shift. Frequent and desired guests of this House of Culture are well-known Soviet writers, compos- ers, artists and painters. They acquaint the opticians with their own new works and make creative plans for the future. Meetings with interesting people whom workers ~f LOMO love so are not only meetings with well-known guests but with their own "firm" workers. Is it not to - r~eet, let us say, with metalworker Boris Nikolayevich Anisimov--a foreman in manu- facture of mockups of new movie cameras and simultaneously a painter--landscapist - and and participant of many exhibitions? Or to hear the amazing story and see the films taken by underwater swimming amateur in the depths of the sea, optical engineer Aleksandr Mikhaylov, or to visit an evening of poetry arranged by worker-poets from the lithography association of the firm? There are 1,500 athletes involved in 22 sports sections at LOMO. Among them are 178 masters of sport and thou~ands of ranked athletes. A total of 30 masters of _ sport of the USSR, 4 candidates for master and 50 athletes of first rank were edu- cated in one ~ection of track athletics alone. Many of the students of the sports sections are participants and winners at the All-Union Spartikads and in the Olympic Games. The supervisor of the school of higher sports skills at the firm is V. I. Alekseyev--a multiple champion of the USSR in track and his students have estab- lished 39 world re~cords. Highly qualified specialists conduct exercises with ama- teur athletes. 1~mong them are 10 meritorious trainers of the USSR and RSFSR. From year to year the firm alZocates tens of thousanda of rubles to development of physical culture and sport in their own collective. LOMO workers have at their disposal an excellent stadium with total complex of spo~ts equipment and stands for spectators, a rowing and bicycling-skiing base and a shooting range. Construction of an enormous new sports complex with central sports club, two soccer training fields, a swimming pool and other structures has begun. This is only one line from the plan for socioeconomic developmentl The Lunch Table of the Firm "How did they feed you today?" A machine tool operator or optical engineer, having returned to his jobsite after the lu.~ch break, frequently hears this question. Both his foremen and shop chief and the general director himself if he is nearby asks him aY~out this. Not to mention the managers of the party or trade-union organization. A good lunch is important. If one wishes, this is most of all an additional re- serve of labor productivity. After all, this additional reserve is not only in new equipment or in innovative experience. It ~s also born at the lunch table and - in the workers' dining hall. Therefore, the firm considers all dining halls in the associat3.on, whether they are formally subordinate to it or not, as one of the most important subdivisions in the plant . 135 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY This vital (in the literal sense) question has arisen repeatedly at meetings of the most active party members of the firm and at trade-union conferences. Thus in time was born the idea of creating a public catering combine that combined all the various dining halls. And this made it possible to mechanize the work processes in preparation of food, to improve its quality and to see that each one could each - lunch with pleasure and rapidly. Of course it is easy to say "rapidly." The com- bine had to prepare tens of thousands of dishes daily. The firm took on itself expenditures on mechanization and similar conversions.i And allocations from the profits for construction and reconstruction of the dining halls are also provided in the complex plan for socioeconomic development o� LOMO. Everything changed within one year alone. The large dining halls, beautifully draped windows, restful painting of the walls and the soft color of the fluorescent lights. Comfortable furniture and clean, fresh air. The partitions everywhere are made of glass panels in the kitchens, bakery and in the pan::ries, the walls are paz~elled and ceramic tile is on the floor. Restful and - convenient cloakrooms have been equipped for the service personnel. And the main thing is that equipment that facilitates the work of the ooks has been installed at each step. Snack bars supplied with mQdern equipment appeared in the shops. And in each of them one could obtain steaks, fish, shashliks, hot tea, coffee, fresh milk, cream, kafir, fruit juices, eggs and pastries. A new, beautiful building appea~ed on the territory of the enterprise. This is the culinary store constructed by the firm which also operates as an ordinary cafeteria. One can drop in here for a slice of bread and butter, can eat hot sausages, can pur- chase a cup of coffee or cocoa with a pastry, pie or puff-pastry. And after the shift the women, so as not to lose t3me after the work day standing in lines in stores, can purchase semi-finished products here. tWnen summer begins and the bushes begin to bloom in the plant yard, an open-air cafe begins to operate in the shadow of young trees. One can l:ave a good meal here and at the same time can watch the perforcmance of participants of artistic endeavors, listen to a short lecture or learn interesting news. - The combine now has at its disposal a first-class factory kitchen, confectionery, = family of dining halls and excellent snack bars in each shop. And the when a machine tool operator or metalworker, sensing the approach of lunchtime tooked anxiously at his watch, has been forgotten at the firm. And an- other time, switching nff his machine tool "ahead of schedule," he hurried to get - into line into the dining hall. Everyone now has lunch as they wish and what they want. Z'here is also time to breathe in the fresh air on a garden bench, to look through a fresh journal ar to listen to the radio. If a diet has been prescribed, don't worry. Diet nutrition organization is the subject of the most careful concern at the firm. There is now a special dining hall for 640 persons here. And there are special diet tables in all the other '136 - FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY dining halls of the combine. Any worker of the firm, if he has a doctor's pre- scription, is fully provided with the necessary treatment and dietetic nourishment. Incidentally, hundreds of people receive dietetic nourishment at a discount here " and many receive it absolutely free due to social insurance. The physicians of the LOMO polyclinic felt that, due to therapeutic nourishment, the periods of loss of capacity due to illnesses relv~ed to the digestive organs were reduced by one-third. Yes, of course, it is not a simple and easy task to feed many thousands of people well and with taste who are engaged in two shifts in the shops of the enterprise and even more so the young people relaxing in Pioneer camps, plust the mar.y dacha dwellers in Tarasovo village and other places. - And outside the city in Tarasovo village, the LOMO firm has yet another unique "enterprise." It is both pastures, orchards and potato fields and berry planta- tions. Herds of cattle, hundreds of swine feeding and an enormous poultry house can be seen here. The auxiliary fazm, like everything related to the firm, is well-appointed, mechanized and supplied with modern equipment. Its own auxiliary farm, wel?-set-up and profitable, is a guarantee of the highest quality af products to the firm's dininq table. Good Health to Youl ~ These words are from the letter of Anna Vlasovna P., a worker in the optical shop, to the LOMO hospital. She fell ill suddenly arad they took her directly from home to the hospital. Not to the regular city hospital but to her own "firm" hospital on Chugunnaya Ulitsa. Anna Vlasovna's condition was serious. Moreover, it was critical. A complex oper- ation related to trepanation of the skull was requiredl. Only the most neurosur- geons could save the female worker. And only in a cli~nic supplied with the most modern medical equipment. And all this was in "its own" hospital attached to the firm. - A complicated operation was immediately carried out on Anna Vlasovna. They cared for the female worlcer carefully after the operation until she was completely on her ' feet. And now she is again working as before in the optical shop. Here is a note from her book of reminiscences and wishes: "They performed an operation on me which they could not do at the institute on Bronnitskaya Ulitsa. I am now walking arourid at home like a healthy person. My respects to youl A. Pikovskaya." "I am happy that S. Zlotnikov performed the operation on me. All the patients ad- mire your great skills, enormous love of labor and kindness. P. icorchagin, 81 years old." 137 _ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400084019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "You cannot even imagine how I am happy that we have such a sanitary unit. They - could never help m~ in any sanitorium as they do here, especially the manganese and carbon baths� Foundry worker Ivanenko." Letters, letters and enthusiastic reviews. From those who have been saved, from those extxacted from severe circumstances and from those to whom health, vitality and jo~ of life has been returned. Valentina Geargiyevna Terent'yeva, the chief physician of the medical-sanitation service of LOMO, pridefully shows off her "facilities." Two polyclinics, four ex- - cellently organizsd health stations and a hospital. And the laboratories--a clin- ical, biological, microbiological, functional diagnostics, physical therapy depart- ment with large, excellently appointed offices for light and electronic therapy, mud baths for paraffin baths and pools in which patients with especially - severe forms of radiculitis are treated. We visited with her in the pulmonological office, in the physical culture treatment office and in the dental and otorhenolog- ical office. The real palace of health preservation is the new, main building of the LOMO hos- pital, constructed quite recently. From afar an enormous white building surrounded by a chorus of trees is visible. The wide reflecting windows flash in the sun like gold. The large rooms, laboratories, operating and recover~~ rooms and the comfort- able wards impress one with their cleanliness and bre~the with an air of quiet. There are 200 beds in the new building. New wards have been opened--nerve, oto- rhenological and special surgical wards. In one year alone the firm spent more than 100,000 rubles to acquire the latest medical equipment--Soviet and imported. There are also instruments in this hospital which are being used for the first time in medical practice and incidentally devel- oped here at the firm. I met not only "their own" staff specialists in this hospital but also pro�essors of the First Medical Institute and the Military Medical Academy. They see patients here, perform operations, are involved in scientific research, improve the method of operation on the chest and abdominal organs, use the latest method~ of rehabil- itation and carry out qualified postoperative observa~ion. They help the hospital medical workers to master modern operations on the vessels of the lungs. The medical workers have at their disposal excellent equi~ment, modern wards, in- cludinq rehabilitation wards with the latest electronic apparatus, an endoscope office wirh the most modern instruments for optical diagnosis. Fwerything advanced and new is being in~roduced in the treatment center of the firm, like at the firm itself, and neither effort nor funds are spared on this. The concern about the health of workers is an inseparable part of the extensive program foz economic and sncial development of the collective. "The Resort Shop" "I don't need to go to the Crimea or to the Caucasus. I would like to go to Tarasovo." 138 _ FOR OFE'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY One can frequently hear these words now in the trade-union committee of LOMO. What kind of place is this to which many, very many workers, engineers and employ- ees of the Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Association are ready to pass up the golden beaches of the Black Sea and the mountain air of the Caucasus? This place is on the Karelis peninsula. Perhaps, the definition "corner" is not quite accurate for such a large, well- appointed recreation zone. Everything in the center of this forest village is like that in a real city: a post office, House of Culture and dispensary. Every- thing is also in mcadern style. There is also a d~partment store with reflective show windows and neon signs. And around it arP located many comfortable cottages painted in the most diverse colors in groves of lilacs, in the gold of cactus plants and in the floating fires _ of peonies. Entire families relax at these dachas, constructed by the firm for its workers. The inhabitants df each cottage have at their ciisposal furniture and everything required. Here nearby, a special store s~tls a large quantity of semi- finished products of ineat, vegetables and dairy proclucts. And if you don't want to cook at home, you can enjoy an excellent cafe. This, is a beautiful and comfortable structure. It is an airy, brightly painted room, ap- pointed with light, plastic-covered tables and chairs. There is everything here for a good mood. And it becomes even better when the steaminq dishes, shashliks and arocnatic meals appear on the tables. I met in this cafe with the Mikhaylov family, LOMO workers, with whom 2 hac~ come in the fircr,'s bus. They invited me to their tahle. Cool dry wine and fruits ap- _ peared. Pavel Yevseyevich, an old milling machine operator, sharing a bottle of Cynandal on the occasion of "a successful move to new quarters," said: "There is relaxation and there is relaxa~ion. And when I come here with my wife then let my Anna Matveyevna be freed from the kitchen. But I am uncomfortable - here. We work identically: I at a machine tool and Anna Matveyevna on the con- veyor. And should she work here as well--no. It's true, during this season we wanted to cook ourselves and my wife is the foreman on this account. But we came here once or twice simply out of curiosity. We liked it. We had breakfast, lunch and dinner in any form. If you want dairy products or if you want meat dishes they are here. The diet is whatever you require. There are salads and desserts of whatever you like. And if you love Caucasian dishes, then of course you can find them here. There is enough and it is tasty. So we decided to take our meals here." It was easy �or Mikhaylov to convince me to do this. Especially after I had myself "tested" tfie breakfast, lunch and dinner here. The cafe's popularity was not born - of itself. First, the very best products from their own auxiliary farm are served here. Sec- - ond, the most experienced and most inventive cooks are sent to this cafe from the food combine during the vacation season. And third, LOMO has outfitted the kitchen unit of the cafe with the most modern culinary equipment. 139 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONY.Y Coming out of this cafe, one can go into the cafe-ice cream pavilior~ if one desires. Generally there is a place to eat and a place to satisfy one's sweet tonth. On this day at Tarasovo I also met another acquaintance--assembler of optical equip- ment Sergey Vladimirovich Smirnov. He had r3one to the lake with his wife and two children. The parents were holding fishing rods in their hand and the children were holding a pail for the forthcoming catch. The Smirnovs had arranged themselves in a special pension together with their children, not interfering with anyone. Forty families take their vACation simultaneously in this pension. "This is so comfortable," says Smirnov, "comfortable and quiet. The children are with you where you can see them and when can you be with them at other times? So that you can be free of any 'current' concerns." "But do they not get bored with you here?" "tnThat do you meanl There is everything here for the young people--a sports area, swings, any type of attractions, soccer, volleyball, competitions, excursions and special daily movies. But now we are going together to the lake with our fishing rods." We walked along a forest road and then through a flowering meadow, again through the forest and suddenly in frent flashed far-off, blinking in the sun with gold lights, a cool. and large mounta~n lake which had attracted almost the entire "pop- ulation" of the village on this hot day. Hundreds of vacationers, especially young ones, were sunbathing on the beach, swimming in the lake 3nd playing ball. The beach at Tarasovo has been equipped as lovingly and carefully as those of the best resorts: comfortable dressing cubicles, sun-protective umbrellas and lounge chairs. After some time I again saw them with their fishing rods in a boat, far beyonc~ the buoys surrounding the safety zone for swimming. They were not alone on the lake. The firm has constructed a boating station at Tarasovo and any person can if he desires take the oars and travel around the picturesque lake or simply fish a little bit, dropping his anchor in a beloved spot. It would take more than a day to cover every corner here. There are approxi.mately 100 new country cottages here. Some are in the deep forest, others are somewhere on the slope of a hill and still others are in a grove near the brook. Everywhere there is space, freedom, quiet and calmness. IIut if you go a kilometer or two in the other direction, you can unexpectedly hear a guitar from far off, Happy melodies are replaced by sad ones, sad ones by happy ones or. suddenly you hear popular among several voices. There is a tent village in the space among the forest trees. This is the firm's young people's camp. Athletes and tourists travel here in entire companies. Attra~tive walks along short and long paths and among forests, lakes and waterfalls begin here. 140 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Not far from the tent village is an entire sports complex: tennis players battle on an excellent court and teams formed from the vacationers compete on the volley- ball and basketball courts. The endless battles of skittles players proceed on a specially equipped area. Young sisters Anna and Lidiya Poyarkova are workers from the tool and die shop. "I and Anna," says Lidiya, "spend almost all our days off here at the two-day vaca- tion base if only we can receive passes." And she added: "You can judge yourself what can be better, especially here, in summer on a day off, you have no concerns about eating and you are ready for anything. And of course it attracts you. You can go to dances in the evening--there are dance areas ~ in the open air here. There is a brass band here. And if the weather is bad you can go to the library or to the movies. And what a movie theater there is in the club! And the films such as Nevskiy are first rate. Or you can go to a concert. Or to an amateur evening. You are not bored here. You return to the shop and it's as if you have been born again--you are fresh and the work is incomparably easier. In general, Tarasovo is Tarasovol" And everyone whom I met here tal.ked with enthusiasm about their "own" Tarasovo. Quite recently here at the firm's resort the new and without any exaggeration the most excellent pension Dubki became operational here. Its construction, like de- , velopment of the entire "resort shop," was als+~ provided in the plan for socio- economic development of LOMO for the Ninth Five-Year Plan. And as stipulated, the firm did not spare expenditures. And the hundrPds of thousands of rubles which it selflessly allocated from its own profits to create Dubki were worth it. I am now convinced of this myself. It is enormous with magical outlines of the banks of ponds. Along the shore stretched a long, light and very unique three-story building with wide entrances. The tall and luxuriant crowns of the young oaks and poplars, birches and maples - surrounded it in a green ring. You h~ve only to open the doors of the wide en- trance and you i.mmediately enter an at�mosphere of the most complete comfort, beauty, elegance and quiet. The interiors of the chess hall, dining hall, guest rooms, li- braries and dance floors have been done with such fine artistic taste and skill. But the main thing is that the residential apartments, each of which is designed for two vacationers, are good and comfartable. The comfortable and beautiful furniture, mirrors, soft rugs and flowers. One can, having freely arranged one- self in a comfortable and soft chair turn on the stereophonic receiver and listen to music. Or one can see a television set in this comfartable and beautiful room or one can refresh oneself with a shower in the evening before g4ing to bed or in the morning after an exercise. Everything has been carefully provided here--from _ soft slippers near the doors of your room to fresh flowers on the table. If you wish to play chess you can always find a partner and "defender" in the chess pavil- ion. If you with to compete at billiards then do sa, a billiards pavilion has been constructed alongside the pension. 141 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFIC[AL USF. -~NLY And if the evening is a little warm and you are tired of walking and do not wish to sit in your room, you don't have to. Lights flash in the evening on the green stage and there will undoubtedly be something there interesting for you: a meeting with a w~iter, a concert ar simply happy, amusing games at which one can relax. ~verything is harmonious at Dubki, where approximately 2,G00 persons now take their vacation every year, and everything has been combined successfully--both restful - nature and the skills of the builders and artists and the caring hands of the managers. Moreover, the first good traditions have already aris+en at Dubki: the birthdays of the vacationers who come for a vacation in the per,~.sion are recognized collective- ly and solemnly and with happy arrangement, On the d~~y when I had occasion to visit the dining hall there, they were cangYatulating four warkers of the firm at lunch on their birthdays. They were seated at the same table and the chief cook set a large, steaming holiday pie, baked with his own hands, in their honor on a large tray to general applause. The day that I spent at Tarasovo will be long remembered. I recall not only the magical--beautiful places and the excellent structures, but also the small emblem which you always see on the facades of the dachaa, stores, cafe and pensions-- everywhere. This is the LOMO emblem. The firm's mark. ~ 142 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY LOMO DURING THE IOTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN LOMO has confidently stepped acr.oss the threshold of the lOth Five-Year Plan, rais- ing itself to a new level, having fulfilled all tasks of the Ninth Five-Year Plan ahead of schedule and having provided the country many million rubles' worth of products about the plan. Behind is one of the most important phases of technical dev~elopment: 13 of the largest shops were reconstructed during the past five-year plan and approximately - 1,000 of the latest highly productive machine tools were installed. The wages of workers, engineers and employees were increased by an average of 17 percent. Their material incentives in the total success of the firm was increased. The volume of industrial production during the past five-year plan increased by 79 percent and primarily due tn an increase of labor productivity. A total of 360 completely new types of instruments meeting all modern requirements was developed and manufactured. The output of consumer goods, including movie cameras, movie projectors and still cameras, was altnost doubled. - The collective of the firm produced additional products with more than one million rubles during the days af the watch prior to the Party Congress alone. And of course, the warm, hearty congratulations of General Secretary of the CPSU Leonid I1'ich Brezhnev was the very highest mark of the association's labor and of - all the collectives and organizations that participated in creation and introduc- tion of the world's largest astronomical telescope with main mirror six meters in - diameter. LOMO entered the lOth Five-Year Plan with this "baggaqe," full of resolve to ful- fill it ahead of schedule. In their letter on the eve of the 25~h CPSU Congress, the Leningrad opticians wrote to the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Commit- Committee: "Having entered a new phase ia~ the strugqle for further production efff.ciency and quality of labor at each jobsite in the name of the most rapid increase of the economy and standard of living, we Leningrad opticians have adopted increased so- cialist pledges and counterplans for 1976 amd have concentrated our efforts in providing the highest growth rates of labor productivity, improvement of produc- tion and management and in a continuous rise of the technical level af products produced and of the economy both large and small." 143 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY How will this be implemented in practice? This is discussed in the second inter- view with the general director of the firm, xero of Socialist Labor, winner of the State Prize, delegate to the 25th CPSU Congress Mikhail Panfilovich Panfilov: "The main thing for us today is to solve the tasks posed by the 25th CPSU Congress. The collective of our association is faced with making a contribution to solution of the problem of raising the technical level and of increasing the output of in- struments of v~rious designation." "During the new five-year plan we should provide a further increase in the voltune of production by no less than 65 percent, mainly clue to an increase of labor pro- ductivity. The output of articles, most impoztant for the national economy and science--spectral measuring instruments and microscopes--will be more than doubled." As one of the main tasks, the 25th Congress posed an increase of output of consumer goods with a simultaneous improvement of its quality and variety. Therefore, ~ae ~ r:,u~t develop the production of consumer gc?ods at accelerated rates. The most important direction of our work durinc~ the Ninth Five-Year Plan will be to increase the technical. level and quality of products produced, Mpre than 300 nomenclatures of experimental models and new unique instruments should be manu- factured dur~ing the five-year plan and more than 120 articles should be put into serial production. We ~~lan to increase 2.5-fold the specific weight of pro~ucts of the highest cate- gory of quality, to present 57 articles for the emblem of quality and to achieve a situation so that our instruments meet these requirements from the first phases of development. It is not suffici~ent today to pose the task of achieving the level of the leading foreign firms. We can and should develop our own, Soviet level and produc,e articles of the highest w~orld class." "The opticians ge:~erally have the broadest prospects for development," continues _ Mikhail Panfilovich. "And this is natural because both today and in the future scientific and technical progross is impossible in any field without it. Take, for example, the prospects for development of ineasuring instruments. I think that within several years almost all our measuring instriunents will operate jointly with r_.c,mp~~ters of~various designation that provide rapid receipt of information and also ~ ~igh-speed data processing." "Th~ use of computers to process infozmation permits not only a significant in- crease of the labor productivity of the investigator but also replacement of sub- _ jective analyses of_ investigators with more precise and stricter analyses." "we have already put into serial production new spectrophotometers for express analysis of alloys in metallurgical production that provide acceleratior of the processes and increase the quality of inetals, new quantometers to analyze impuri- ties in motor oil that permit elimination of pxemature wear of them and make it possible to extend the operating cycles between repairs." "The saving from using the new spectral instruments in the metallurgical and chem- ical inclustry alone and in transport comprises tens of millions of rubles." 144 FOR OFFICIAL USE ANLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 FOR OFF1CiAL USE ONLY i "Because of extensive unification and standardization, new families of biological, fluorescent and polarization microscopes are being developed and put into produc- tion. New equipment has now been developed and already put into serial production - to illuminate television centers that transmit colnr pictures." ~ "We feel another direction of our work is very important--to develop microscopes that provide live investigation of biological objects. We plan in the future to produce microscope-photometers which will permit our scientists to rapidly obtain information about the structural and different physicochemical properties of liv- ing cells." "The future of the firm is also related to the output of ~~;ze latest spectral in- struments used in the most diverse fields bf scientific research and production; - our spectral instruments used in the chemical and metallurgical industry for ex- press analysis will multiply their functions and will not only be used as automatic , analyzers but will also be able to control the most complex production processes." "Incidentally, medicine is now very interested in using our instruments to deter- mine the content of rare-earth metals in the blood. This will permit much more refined diagnosis of one or another diseases and determination of the absolutely precise dosage of inedicines." "Much could be said about those telescopes, still and movie cameras and equipment for movies and television which we now produce and which we will produce in the future. But if I talk about everything you would need too many new pages." "After all, the specifics of our pJ.ant itself forces us all the time to seemingly feel the pulse of technical progress and all the time to look constantly ahead so as not to lag behind the requirements of time by one iota." "General Secretary of the CPSU Central Comanittee L. I. Brezhnev named the lOth _ Five-Year Plan one of quality. And this means that we should struggle with still greater efforts to produce an excellent product, to win the personal mark for even more of our workers and to increase responsibility of ea~h one for the quality of the articles produced. Moreover, we are planning to present 57 new instruments for the certificate of emblem of quality. But by 1980 we must bring the weight of this production up to 34 percent, in other words, to considerably exceed the indicators which we achieved during the Ninth Five-Year Plan. Moreover, I would like to note that each of us should strive to fulfill the task td increase the guaranteed ser- vice life of a considerable number of instruments approximately 1.5-fold." "Further expansion of producti.on capacities will also be continued. Primarily, the builders will erect a new optical building and by the end of the five-year plan we should put into operation yet another building of 50,000 square meters. We will continue reconstruction and spec~.alization of production. A a~umber of new mechan- ized shops, warehouses and highly mechanized sections will be opened and additional automatic and conveyor lines will be introduced. And new highly productive equip- ment, including industrial robots, will be installed to carry out further mechan- ization of the shops." 145 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000400080019-9 F'OR OFF'ICIAL USE ~DNLY - "The primary task is to increase production efficiency. The incrPasing role of capital investments in technical re-equipping and reconstruction of existing pro- duction is being provided for this purpose in the basic directions for development of the national economy." "Z'he problem of increasing the output of products with each ruble of basic funds is being placed on this basis." "we also plan during the lOth Five-Year Plan to increase the volume of production, mainly due to further reconstruction and technical re-equipping of the shops and sections. For example, it is planned in our five-year plan of socioeconomic devel- opment to mechanize an additional five shops and 11 sec~ions in a complex manner. The number of machine tools with program control will be doubled." The struggle for production efficiency and quality is unthinkable without continu- ous improvement of personnel. And the firm has constructed a new training center-- a multistoried building supplied with all modern teaching hardware, especially to train and retrain their own personnel." "A total of 2,000 young men and women of 11 occupations will be trained in this center in only one PTU. Besides the occupations, each student of the PTU will re- ceive a diploma of graduation from secondary school. They will all link their fu- ture to the firm." "Generally, everything is going according to plan and according to the plan for socioeconomic development of the firm for the lOth Five-Year Plan. Much has been provided according to this plan to further improve working conditions, everyday life and recreation of the workers." "As you can see, new horizons are being opened to the firm during the lOth Five- Year Plan and we are confident that we shall fulfill everything planned by the 25th Party Congress!" - END - C OI'YK [GHT : Leni2daL, 1976 ~ G521 CSO: 8044/1G76 146 FOR OFFICIAL USE OIVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080019-9