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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ ~ 0193 16 December 1981 ~J SSR Re ort p METEOROL4GY AND HYDROLOGY No. 10, October 1981 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST I~VFORI~,~IATION SERVICE - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 NOTE JPRS publicstions contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agenc,y transmissions and broadcasts.� Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Proc~ssing indicators such as [Text] or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original inf,,rmation was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- ~ mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rPndered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in par.entheses were not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an ~ item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views ar attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF tfATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y. k APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOit Of FICiaL l,'SE ONL1~' JPRS L/10193 16 December 1981 USSR REPORT METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY No. 10, October 1981 Translations or abstracts of all articles of the Russian-language monthly journal METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA published in Moscow by Gidrometeoizdat. CONTENTS ; "Chan~es in the '1'hermal l:egime of the Phanerozoic Atmosphere 1 ~ Dynamic-Statistical Parameterization of the Process of Thermal Effect of the i Ocean on the Atmosphere 2 ' Scattering and Transport of a?'ollutant Cloud in.the Troposphere 11 ~ ~ '~Method for Variational Vertical Adjustment of Climatic Temperature and ' Geopotential Fields 20 ; Precipitation Distribution Over Territory of Experimental Meteoroiogical ; Polygon ..................................................e...................... 21 ; ~ ; Optical Properties of Clouds 28 riethod for Computing Effective Radiation of the Ocean Surface With Allowance for Different Cloud Levels 33 Tnfluence of Cold Synoptic Oceanic Eddies on the Trajectory and Evolution of Tropictl~ CyC10ilES~..�.�~..~�.~�.~~�.~���~~~~��~~~~~��~~~~~�.~��~~~~~~~~��~~~~~~� 4J Pl~ysic~l Structure of the Ocean Surface Layer .........................s......... 49 ~Angular Spectrum of Wind Waves .....................o............................ 60 '~'Sc~lar Cnergy Supply to Dnepr Cascade Reservoirs 61 'tComputation of Dynamics of River Flows Under Nonstatior~dry Conditions........... 62 'ti~todeling of Radiation Regime in Plant Cover 63 X Denotes items which have been abstracted. � - a- [III - USSR - 33 S&T FOUO] _ FOR OF'FiCI ~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Agrometeorological Conditions, Crop Yield and Quality of Spring Wheat Grain... 64 *Diecrimination of Travelling Waves From Experimental Data 74 *Investigating the Convergence of a Dry Convective Adaptation Scheme in Models of Macroscale Atmospherii: Processes 75 : *Determining Parameters of Correlation Functions During Objective Analysis of Hydrometeorological Fields 76 *Formation of Stratus Clouds and Fogs ~n Hydrological Frants 77 Role of Advanced Space Systems in Implementing the Oceanographic Part of the World Climate Research Program 78 *Review of Monograph 'Agrophysical, Agrometeorological and Agroengineering Pr.inciples of Crop Yield Progra~ning' (Agrof izicheskiye, Agrometeorologichesk-�~ iye i Agrotekhnicheskiye Osnovy Programmirovaniya Urozhaya~), by I. S. Shatilov and A. F. Chadnovskiy, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, 320 Pages............ 90 *Sixtieth Birthday of Andrey Sergeyevich Monin 91 * 92 Seventieth Birthday of Semen Semenovich Gaygerov .......................o...... *Sixtieth Birthday of Nikolay Gavrilovich Leonov 93 At the USSR State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental MonitorinE.. 94 Confere�ces, Meetings, Seminars 95 ~Obituary of Taisiya Vasil'yevna Pokrovskaya (1900-1981) 101 * Denotes items which have been abstracted. - b - FOR OF'I~1C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY UDC 551.524.34(100) C~IANGES IN THE THE~MAL REGIME IN THE PHANEROZOIC ATMO$PHERE Moscow METEOROLOGXYA I GIDROLOGII'A in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received ~ 3 Feb 81) pp 5-10~ . [Article by M. I~ Budyko, corresponding member USSR Academy of Sciences, State Hy- ' drological Ins r,i:tute ] [Ahstract] In t~e study of natural conditions in the past the greatest attention is usually devoted~ to the last interval of the earth's geological history, the Phaner- ozoic, which began about 570 million years ago. The problem of the reasons for the considerable difference in the climatic conditions of the main part of the Phanero- ! zoic and present-day climate has only recently been clarified. The matter can be ~ investigated by using the semiempirical theory of the theYmal regime of the atmo- ! sphere, whos�. use makes it possible to compute the mean air temperature at the ' earth's surf~ce and the temperature at different latitudes as a function of the ~ principal c?"imate-forming factors, including the value of the solar constant, albedo ' and the atm~spheric C02 concentration. It has been concluded that the warm climatic ~ conditions ~of the past are attributable for the most part to the higher concentra- ; tion ~f CO2 in atmospheric air. It has been established that the giobal cooling ~ caused by ~i de.^_rease in the C02 concentration under certain conditions was intensif- ied by an,increase in the earth's albedo as a result of an increase in the area of ! the polarrsnow and ice cover. Since data are now available on changes in the C02 concentration for the entire Phanerozoic, it is possible to make computations of ~ mean air temperature not only for the Cenozoic, but also for earlier time intervals. In such computations it is necessary to take two additional factors into account whose influence on Cenozoic climate was less important. One of these is a change in the solar constant, which as a result of the sun's evolution in the past was less than its present-day value. The second factor is a change in the earth's albedo due to f luc~tuations in the area of the oceans, whose increase led to some decrease in the alhedo of the earth-atmosphere system. The evaluation of the role of these fac- tors makes it possible to conclude that although their influence on mean air tem- perature was usually less than the influence of fluctuations in C02 concentration, in sone cases it was not negligible. Accordingly, the author haE compiled a table wt~ich gives the change in mean air temperature in comparison with the present day ~ for each geological period from the Lower Cambrian to the Pliocene. The presented materials make it clear that the variations in mean air temperatuxe in the Phanero- - zoic were dependent for the most part on changes in C02 concentration and to a less- er degree were dependent on changes in solar radiation and the earth~s albedo. Tables 2; references 17: 11 Russian, 6 Western. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 ROR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.465.7+551.509.313 - DYNAMIC-STATISTICAL PARAMETERiZATION OF THE PROCESS OF THERMAL EFFECT OF THE OCEAN ON THE ATMOSPHERE Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 28 Jan 81) pp 11-18 . [Article by Sh. A. Musayelyan, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, A. D. Tavadyan and D. B. Shteynbok, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, USSR Hydrometeorological Scientific Resear~h Institute] [Text] Abstract: The authors propose a Model of the asynchronous effect of the ocean on the at- mosphere. The "thermal memory" of the ocean i~ parameterized by means of integral allow- ance for the cloud cover over it. A study was t:iade of the possibiZity of computing the asyn- chronous influence function applicable to pre- diction of two-month anomailies of the heat in- flux over the European USSR. The results of numerical experiments for computing the asyn- chronous influence function on the basis of factual data are presented. ~ In weather formation processes on the earth an important role is played by the ocean. One of the possibilities for studying the influence of the ocean on the atmosphere is mathematical modeling of their interaction on an electronic com- puter using complex hydrodynamic models. The integration of a nonlinear system of equations in partial c~erivatives, describing the process of interaction be- tween the atmosphere and ocean, is an extr~mely complex and time-consuming com- putational problem. Many physical mechanisms of interaction between the ocean _ and the atmosphere have not yet been fully clarified and their description in ~ mo-lels is approximate. The numerical values of a number of parameters in hydro- dynamic mode?s, such as the turbulence coefficients and thermophysical parameters, are known only extremely appr~ximately. Additional hypotheses are used in their s~ipulation. Among the serious problems we should also include inaccuracy in the stipulation of initial and boundary conditions which are necessary in integrat- ing the equations of the problem and also the inadequate resolution in the models and other errors in numerical solution methods. As a result of the factors enum- erated above, at the present time, using models of the indicated type, it is im- possible to make a realistic prediction for a time of a week or more. A theoret- - ical analysis of the errors in these models is exceedingly difficult due to their 2 ~ FGR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY nonlinearity. To be sure, complex hydrodynamic models adequately ~~escribing pro- cesses of .interaction in the earth-atmosphere system must be formulated in the future since only by using them is it possible to describe the entire diversity of the proces~es transpiring in these media. However, at present it is evidently diffic~ilt to hope for quick success when using these models for the purpose of long-range weather forecasting. Therefore, together with investigations for im- proving complex models it is also necessary to develop other approaches to solu- tion of the long-range weather forecasting problem. A possible approach to the problem of predicting air te~perature for long periods in a~vance is the use of si.mpler models of tne thermal effect of the ocean an the _ atmosphere in which a dPtailed description of a number of physical processes is replaced by their indirect description on the basis of different parameteriza- tions. These parameterizations must reflect the macroscale features, synchronous and asynchronous relationships of processes occurring in the real "or_ean-atmo- sphere" system. To be sure, on the basis of such ~odels it is impossible to formulate a detai~ed ~ long-range forecast of ineteorological fields, but it is entirely reasonable to attempt to predict individual averaged characteristics of ineteorolo~ical elements and pheno~ena for a long time in advance. As such a characteristic, as proposed by Academician G. I. Marchuk [1], it is possible to use the mean value of the monthly or seasonal air temperature anomaly for a fixed reQion. Without question, - such characteristics are very important from the practical point of view. One of the merits of the approach developed in [1] is that the inaccuracy in describing some mechanisms can t~e partially compensated by including in the model actual in- formation concerning the prehistory of behavior of the ocean and the atmosphere. Here it is desirable to combine hydrodynamic and statistical methods. The applic- ation and theoretical analysis of ~uch models was also simpler than for full de- - tailed models. All ~his is indicative of the high prospects for this approach. Now we will into consideration a model of the type described above, iu- cluding an indirect description of the thermal effect of the ocean on the atmo- sphere and oriented on a long-range forecast of the air temperature anomaly. For parameterization of the heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere during the cold half year we will use the fact of presence of asynchronous relationships be- tween air temperature anomalies over the land and cloud cover anomalies over the ocean discovered by c:ne of the authors [2] as a result of processing of a great volume of ineteorological data. The physical mechanism of these relationships was clescribed in [3, 4]. In particular, in [4], on the basis of the mentioned asyn- chroneu: relationships, a dynamic-statistical approach was proposed for the prob- lem of parameterization of the thermal memory of the ocean, based on use of the ileat influx equation. Thus, in accordance with [4j, in the model it was assumed ~ that the principal source of heatit;g of the atmosphere in the cold half-year is ttie heat content of the active layer of the ocean, formed during the elapsed warm half of the ye~r, whereas the cl.oud cover is a regulator of the thermal ef- f.ect of the ocean on tlie atmosphere. This process of heat transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere can be described mathematically using the following simple taod- ~~1 for a spherical earth D: 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE O1VLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY r?T' ~ r.,.,~ ~ V~T ~r. ~ T' (t. _ Jl f ~l~ - - 1 1 t t', S' (t', ~.,'1 d W' dt' + (t, [OK = ocean] - ~ _l,~~~( ahere S' and T' are anomalies of cloud cover and air temperature respectively; V= (ve , v~ ) is horizontal wind velocity; ~.l is the ~aacrot~ubulence coefficient (horizontal); Q and A is the gradient operator and the Laplace operator on a sphere; B,~),~ is the complement of lat itude to ~C / 2; ~ is longitude; . d c.a! = sin Bded T is an element of the surface of a sphzre D; Docean is the re- gion on the sphere occupied by the ocean; ~C(t, t', t.~, uJ~) is an asynchronou~ influence function characterizing the degree of influence of the cloud cover anomaly at the point cJ' B', over the ocean at the time t' on the change in air temperature at the point cJ e, at the time t(t> t' '~l and ti 2 are non-negative numbzrs (or functions which are dependent on t and cJ), determining the time interval in which data on the cloud cover anomaly are taken into account; ~i2 are those nonadiabatic factors which cannot be described by the first term on the right-hand side of forraula (1). Witl~ respect to the type of equation (1) it is possible to note the following. The same as in [4], we will use the phenomenological approach to the considered prob- lem and the integral term on t:~e right-hand side of equation (1) is one of the pos- sible methods for parameterization of the heat influx from the ocean to the atmo- sphere. Henceforth this term will be dF.~oted E1 (t,cJ)� It follows from the form of ~ 1 that it describes the asynchronous relationship observed in nature between the cloud cover over tYiP ocean and temporal cliange in the air temperature anomaly. (The model (1) with a nonlo~cal integral interaction operator is new for meteorol- , ogy). We note that in [6] for the parameterization of the heat infl.ux from the ocean by means ~f cloud cover use was made of a special case of model (1) obtained from the latter in the absence of a dependence of the function x on t' and t~~, that is, with ~.(t, W). The latter condition means that in (6] the implicit assumption ;aas made that there is an identical role of all regions of the ocean in the formation of air temperature on the continent, which is evidently a signif- icant limitation of the model. However, with use of the model (1) such a limita- " tion is removed. In [5] use Is made of a model similar to (1), but for determining the function x a spectral approach is consideted. Our objective is the use of model (1) for a long-r3nge forecast of the time-aver- aged�air temperature anom~ly ~ Tslq, 7' (t, i.) dt, (2) � where Itl - tll i~ the time-averaging interval; 'G is the averaging scale. In order to integrate model (1) it is necessary to know the function x(t, t', ~J and also ti 1 and ~ 2. A determination of the precise form of the spatial- - temporal deper?dence of the asynchronous influence function x(kernel of the in- tegral operator) is a complex problan. In order to ensure the uniqueness of the solution ~.t is necessary to use not only equation (1), but additional considera- tidns concerniag the nature o� the ~C function. Iiere we will examine only an 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~+pproxim;?te method f~~r computing the ~ function, using data on the time-averaged fields of temperature anomalies and cloud cover anomalies. This method involves the following. We wi11 rewrite equation (1) in the form f~=~a TVpT'--;x~T', ~3~ - where F' _�1 +~2. We introduce into consideration the grid of points of intersec- tion Dh on the sphere D. We will assume that we have an archives of inean monthly fields of air temperature anomalies, cloud cover anomalies and wind velocity for N years. Then, using difference approximations for the derivatives entering into the right-hand side of formula (3), using the latter it is possible to compute the "ac- tual" mean monthly values of the heat influx anomalies during these same N archival - years. ~ In order to determine the problem of computing the a~ynchronous influence function ~C. completely we will impose two natural limitations. The first of these involves the requirement of an approximate periodicity of the function ~C in time with a per- iod equal to a year, that is a ., t'-~-rTo, w, w')=y,fr, Y, W,m~) (4) with all t, t', c~, c.J'. In expression (4) Tp = 1 year, r is any whole number or zero. Condition (4) means that the naturQ of the relationship between cloud cover anomalies and the change in the temperature anomaly in different years is approx- ~ imately one and the same. Here we take into account the assumption ma3e in [4] that the asynchronous influence function of interest to us is quasiuniversal. If this requirement of "universality" of the asynchronous influence function is satisfied, _ ~l, can be computed in advance (on the basis of archival data) and then it is pos- sible to use model (1) for the purpose of long-range forecasting of the air temper- ature anomaly for any year. The second requirement on the Z function is related to the limitations on the "time radius" of influence of cloud ctsver on.temper~ture, as is also manifested in equation (1) in the form of a finite lower limit in a time in- terval. Mathematically this condition of finiteness is formulated as follows: Y(t, t', c~~, cu')=0 with t- t'>~2. (5) C:onditions (4) and (5), in combination with formula (3), make possible an approx- - imate computation of the grid values of the x function. For this we will examine the foltowing approximcition of the integral term of interaction El in model (1): ~r,, ,~p~ ~ ~ ~ i (r,, t;. ~~k, ~;t s' ~t',, W;~ e~,,e t, (6) ~ h rj ( ~ T'' ~ w~f' no~ where _ = I t, =z, t, - t, I; Docean is the totality of goints of intersection in the grid Dh entering into the ocean region; LS t is the interval of the quadrature formula for time integration; is the area of the ~-Eh "cell" of the cubature formula for inte~ration in space v~riables. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFF7CiAL USE ONLY We will also represent ~ 2 in the fflllowing form, whose sense will be clarified be- low: =7 ~ti~ ~~~k~ - i ~tf+ WR~ ~ Itl~ Wk~~ l J where'y is a time-periodic function with a period equal to one year; U is a resid- ual term. The discrimination of the periodic component Y in formula (7) is related to the fol- lowing circumstance: even with a zero cloud cover anomaly over the ocean there-can be formation of an air temperature differing from the norm over the region of inter- est to us, associated with other heat transfer processes. The Y function character- izes precisely this "residual" heat influx. For computing'~C we will examine a set of grid quadratic functionals Qh . ~%h, ih~ _ . !r (r +F~ ~t~i ~k~ - S' ~ti~ ~~k~ - 1 ltl~ Wk~~=, ~8\ 1 i ' 1, f ~~r ~,k~~h Here x h and Y h are the grid values of the x and Y functions; Pt~ is a set ~ti~ of moments in time such that ti = tp + riTO; here Tp = 1 year, ri is a whole number or zero; tp is a fixed moment in time (or a fixed month), for which we want to deter- mine )C; ~ h is a grid region where we want to compute the heat influx anomaly. The X h and Y h values will be found from the condition of a minimum functional Qil,-G2, also using (4) and (5). , The minimizing of qil'~2 means that the asynchronous influence function x is deter- mined by the best mea~i square approximation of the actual heat influx anomaly. Derer- mining the ~~1,L2 and ~'til .t2 values for different 'G1 and 'G2, we find such 'G10 and ~20 that ' " t ~ ~ , )=min (Qh (%h y~ )1� ~9~ Q.~~~~ tu ~'u, ~:n ~ _1 S~ .1, c~ Then, eyidently, the asynchronous function x~0,'G 20(t, t~, w, w T) (together with yil0~~G20 ~t, t' ,~1 , c.~ will be the best approximation of the heat influx anom- aly in model (1). Now we will proceed to a description of the numerical experiments carried out for practical realization of the dynamic-statistical parameterixation method described above. 4Je are interested in computation of the asynchronous influence function for predict- ing the wi.nter air temperature anomaly for the European USSR. We had at our disposal ~rcnives of data ~n the mean monthly fields of the cloud cover anomaly and the air temperature anomaly in the lower half of the troposphere at the points of intersec- tion oi a geographical grid measuring 5~t 10� in the northern hemisphere for 1965- 196' and 1970-1974. Using archival data and formula ~3) we computed the actual heaC influx anomalies averaged for two successive months. Use was made of nondivergent wind velocity obt~ined by solution of the linear balance equation using climatic data on geopotential at the mean levei of tl'.e a::mosphere. The approximation of tlie 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE bMLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY space and time derivatives in formula (3) is similar to that set fortn in [7]. Be- low we pr.esent the determined actual values of the heat influx anomaly, averaged for November-December and relating to the point iJ~, located approximately 100 km from 'loscow. ~ ~ i 1 o[ ~ ? o~ ~ ~ t ~ , ~ Ro o f , ~'i~. 1. Ocean regions used in computing the asynchronous influence function. Data on the anomaly of total quanti~y~ of clo:ids were taken into account in our sx- periments only over the waters of the North Atlantic, which was divided into four J regions, as indicated in Fig. 1. We computed the grid asynchronous influence f~u~c- tion fur the cloud cover ar.omaly over each of chese regions relative to the forma- tion of the heat influx anomaly in November-December at the pointcJO. The averaged heat influx anomaly, in accordance with what has been ~tated above, will have the following form: ~ f,'xi-xi~ ~We) _ ~ y,i ~-xii: ~~WO) S~~ (u,i) + ~ xi-xii:1 ~~'o)� ~=1 (10) llere ~ is tl~e number uf. the region of the Atlantic; ~1 is tr.e central point of the x-th region; n is the number of the year; j ts the number of the ffionth (or months) which cloud cover is taken into account; ~L~XI-XII;3 ~~,,~0~ is the grid fur.c- tien of the asynchronous influence of the cloud cover anomaly over the,Q-th re- gion of the Atlantic in the j-th month on the formation of the heat influx anom- aly averaged for November-December at the point ~1p (multiplied byA~,~Qt); S~n~~''~0) is the cloud cover anomaly averaged f.or the region ,Q in the ~-th month of the n-th year; y I-XII~~(cJ p) is the heat influx anomaly averaged for November-December at the point~p with a zero cloud cover anomaly over the Atlantic in the j-th month. Actual Values of Heat Influx Anomaly, Averaged for Novembex-llecember, at Point ~0 (in 10-5�C/sec) Years 1965 19G6 1967 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 - Neat influx value -1.6 0.]. -1.7 0.8 --0.3 -l.l 2.3 -0.4 iJe ~arried out different variants of computations of the ~c funetion differing from c,ne ~' (2a) h';.a - I c='~' ~z:~'!3~ - 1, 2, (2b) where c is constant (for numerical computations, see below, we used thz value c= 0.1), � is the velocity of cascade transfer of energy through the spectrum, D~ are the horizontal dispersions of the cloud of pollutant. The mean velocity of cascade energy transfer obtained from information on the wind velocity field [5]. 13 FOR OFF7CIAL ~USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF7CiAL USE ONLY The second variant of the dependenc~ (2b) apgears to be physically more valid be- ~ cause numerous experimental inve~tigations in t:~e free atmosphere [20] show that the micro- and mesoscale horizontal disturbances of wind velocity are virtually isotropic. Nevertheless, the problem of how significautly the deviations from iso- tropicity are reflected in the scattering of a ~laud of ~ollutant in the tropo- sphere for the time being remains open. At fir~r glance the problem is greatly complicated since the hori.zontal diffusion coefficients are functions of the dispersicns, which in turn are determined through the field of concentration, that is, with such coefficients equation (1) " will be nonlinear. ~ Tiie experimental method and technique of diffusion experiments at the present time do not maxe it possible to speak of obtainjng a detailed experimental distribution of the field of concentration of a pollutant. The dispersions of clouds and plumes of pollutant are measured relatively reliably and precise~.y, as are the tra~ector- ies of movement of the center of gravity of a pollutant cloud. Accordingly, it is more logical to derive equations directly for determining' the simplest diffusion characteristics of the pollutant cloud and not extract them from the distribution function. This method, the so-called moments method, has been repeatedly used in examining the diffusion process [11, 14, 18]. Now we will examine the behavior of a cloud of pa~sive pollutant from an instant- aneous point source. We will integrate equation (1) for xl and x2, first multiply- ing it by x~x~ (m, n= 0, l, 2) and limiting ourselves to the case when vi and Kii are not dependent on the horizontal coordinates, but v3 = 0. As a result, we ob- tain a system of five equations: ~ , ciqa d ' ~q�' - or - o: ~ k~:~ dj (3) , ~o: - a~ ~K-~ s ~ ~ ~ z~~ 9~ (z~ t)~ . (4) dv.~ d ~ , ~9;.;~ - a~ - a: h'~ o: Ka;.q,,1 2 v;, q,. , (5) where ~ , q~,: t) , x~'.~^ q!x, y, z, t) dxdy~ . �=1, 2; m, n a0, 1, 2 are the moments m+ n) of the o~der (not greater than the second) of the con- centration distribution function. Through these moments we determine the central moments of the second order the dispersions; then the horizontal diffusion co- efficients will have the form K~i. _ ~ E~I3( 9~a 9_. \I'1~13 ~6a~ L4o ~9''I J ' K;.a = r E~~3 ~ l qo q~ 1 JL q^ ` 9~ -~~1 ~1~. (6b, 14 FOR OFFICIAL~ USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400080048-7 FOR ~ORF7CIAL USE ONLY ~ Now we will examine a specific case when the pollutant is propagated from a high (X, y= 0, z= h) instantaneous point source, K33 = k= const, const, v~ = vb + ya(z - h). The boundary conditions for the moments are found from the ordinary cor?ditiox~s for the concentration with the concentration tending to zero at in- finity and with absence of a flow at the underlying surface. With these simplifica- ~ions it is ea~y to obtain an analytical solution for q~ and q a, describing the behavior af the integral concentration qp(z,t) vertically and the coordinates of the center of the pollutant cloud X a= q~/q0 (t+hl~ (~-h1' l ~7~ 1 f e a~r g- akr Jr 9u ~Z~ t) _ ~ ~~T kt ~ ~ 7. l/ nrX ,Y~ _ ~v� ~ ~ h) t 4 V k ~z-hl' z+h ( z: _ h: t? kt ) eric ~2 l~kt 2(z T h) kt e 4~r ~ x . t:+ht' _ (s-h)~ ~8~ 4 Rt e 4 Rf + P where X ; erf c(x 1- `e-'~' dx. ra , Expressions (8) for the coordinates of the center of gravity of the pollutant cloud differ from the corresponding formulas derived in [18] ~n an examinatioa of ; diffusion from a surface point source with a linear wind profile and K33 = const, ~ K11 = const (or Kilz) in that in (8) the height of the source is taken into ac- ~ count. With h= 0 formulas (8) undergo transition into the formulas in [18]. I As indicated by the computations, with large z and h and relatively short dif- ~ fusion times (z, h~ kt) the curves (8) for X a are approximated well by the asymp- totic straigh.t line . X., - ~y~ + ;a = 2h 1 t, ~9, . which can be used in approximate computations of the trajectory of the c~enter of gravity of a diffusing cloud of pollutant. The last two equations (5) in.the system, describing the behavior of the second moments and accordingly the horizontal dispersions of the cloud of pollutant, are nonlinear rind therefore are not subject to analytical solution. For a numerical solution we wi~l reduce the equations to a dimensionless form and we will assume that the initial distribution in the cloud is Gaussian and v2 = 0. We will use the follow:tng scales: Q is the mass of pollutant introduced into the atmosphere; U is the scale of wind velocity; T= U/E is the time scale; Zk =(kT)1~2 = U(k/� )1~2 is the height scale; L= UT = U2/E is the length scale. It is found 15 FOR OF'F7CiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFF'?CIAL USE ONLY that k and � will not enter into equations (3)-(5), whereas the expression for dimensionless wind velocity V1 VI + G(z' - h') will include the dimension~ess _ parameter G = 7~ ( k )Ij , (lp) which is the ratio of tlie diffusion height scale Z~~ _(kT)1~2, found r.elative to gradient height scale Z y= U/ y 1(with ~'1 = 10'3 sec-1, k= 10 ml/sec ar_.i E= 5� 10-4 m2/sec3, G= a.14). The parameters forming the number G= G( yl, k, E) in principle are correlated and therefore, despite the fa~t that we know the limits of change of these parameters, it is difficult to say what G values are observ- able in the atmosphere. The equations (3)-(5), reduced to dimensionless form, were solved by the finite differences method. For approximating the equations we used a Crank-,Nicholson scheme having a second order of approximation in space and time. The trial-and- error method with iterations was used in solving the derived difference equations [10]. The correctness of application of the finite-difference scheme was checked by a comparison of the numerical solution with the analytical solution (7) and an an- alytical expression for the horizontal dispersions relative to the center of gravity of the cloud of pollutant: 1~3 ~ ? ~ g1j3 t13' Daa = ( ~0 3 ~ (11) which was obtained from~solution of equation (5) with k= 0 and with Kaa in the form (2a). Numerical experiments were carried out for determining the dependence of the hori- zontal dispersion of the cloud on the dimensionless number G characterizing the joint influence of the wind velocity shear and vertical. diffusion on the horizon- tal scattering. In these experiments the pollutant "was introduced" so high above the underlying surface and such diffusion times were considered that the horizon- tal dispersion was virtually not dependent on height. The figure (a,b) shows curves of change in dimensionless longitudinal and transverse dispersions when the initial size of the cloud no longer exerts an influence on the behavior of dispersion. As might be expected, in all the experiments the horizontal dispersion already with relatively short times (t'-~-0.07) increases as t'3. It can be seen from this same figure that the coefficient on t'3 is essentially dependent on G. In addi- tion, with the stipulation of K~~ in the form (2b) the transverse dispersion is also dependent on G. If G= 0.14 is used as the characteristic value, then, comparing the horizontal dispersions obtained in the model [13, 16] and from solution of equations (3)-(5) we see that the longitudinal dispersion is greater by a factor of approximately 15 (with stipulation of Ka~ in the form (2a).) and by a factor of 4(with K~~ in the form (2b)) than the cloud dispersion in the absence of wind ahear. Thus, the model in [13, 16] understates the longitudinal dispersion value by several times. 1G FOR OFF[ClAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400080048-7 _ FaR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY The different stipulation of the functional form of the horizontal coefficients K~ in the form (2a), (2b) leads, beginning with relatively large G values (of about 10-2), to an appreciahle diffe:ence in tfie ratios of the horizontal disger- sions D11/D22 for a given G(see figure c). The figure shows that for large G vgl~ ues the ratios D11/D22 increase in tfie first variant (2a) of stipulation of K~~ as G2, in the second variant as G. An answer to the question as to what variant of the behavior of Daa is observable in the atmosphere can be obtained only by a field experiment. G�;rl rG'' t Py,1~ 0) ;4~ ~ ,L�,r a ) G� ~ri�' �2 - b ) / ~frf,~~ C } , ~ 0~41 J~+ tp' ~ ~~Q~tif, / 6~O,fi~i ~ i h. _ / ~ / 1C~'' ..r ~ ;G'd ' / 1~ o _ ~ _ ~ . ~ ~ IGr 1 1 / --3 . _ g ,~,r , , ~y G,Ay C,.' ~ Q2 r;.i' J,y u,~ ~ C,OB y' J? UJ 0,4 t %0~' 10~ 6 , Fig. 1. Dependence of horizontal dispersion of pollutant clou~ on time with dif- f~rent v3lues of the G number, V'1 V+ G z' - h'), where V= i0 m/s c, h= 5000 m, V2 = 0, B~ = 5000 m2. a) KKa~ = cEl 3 D2S3; b) K~a = cEl/31(D11D22)1~3~ 1 and 2 ; longitudinal and transverse dispersions obtained as a result of computations us- i ing model; 3) longitudinal dispersion computed using formula (12); 4) transverse i dispersion computed using/3 ~31a (13); c) rai~3 of dispi~3ions D11/D22 as function cf G number; a) Ka~ = cEl D , b) K a~ = c� ~D11D22~ � I For many problems information on the behavior of the first two moments of the dis- I � tribution function for the mean concentration is entirely adequate. In addition, ' in case of necessity it is possible to write equations for the higher moments and solve them, determining asymmetry, excess and other charscteristics of the pol- lutant cloud. But for some practical problems it is necessary to have evalu~tions i of the mean concentration distribution. A necessary condi.tion for the horizontal ' distribution to be Gaussian is that the asymmetry and excess coefficients be equal to zero. As is well known, the third moment of the Gaussian distribution is expressed through the lower moments in the following way: q~;.; (z, t) - 3~~.~u,;. qo l q~~ (12) Substituting this expression into the equation for the third moment dq~~ti ~a de;.>.~ = 6 K~~. qoa"~ + 3 4;.;.~y;. , (13) ar - d: ~K'3 a: ~ ~7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 [ aR OFFICIAL USE ONLY we see ttiat the equation is not identically satisfied; on the right-hand side is the additional term ' �dXa dn~.;, b Kas9� ds ds � . Thus, the distribution of pollutant becomes asytmnetrical if this term is different from zero. Since in the real atmosp:~ere there is virtually always a wind shear, the gradient d X a/a L is virtual?y always different from zero. At the same time, as indicated by our nurue:rical experiments, the dispersion gradient ~Daa/ a z is equal to zero with a linear wind velocity profile and only near the lower boundary be- comes different � zero. A similar, but externally more complex result is ob- tained for the fourth moment. Thus, if the initial distribution of the pollutant is Gaussian, the cloud ~aoves distant from the underlying surface and the wind velo- city changes virtually linearly with altitude, the distribution of the pollutant at a given level in a cloud within the framework of this model can also be conside~ed nermal.. In conclusion express appxeciation to N. L. Byzova for discussiei. of the article and atcention to this study. I3IBLIOGRAPHY 1. Veyl', I. G., "Hydrodynamic Schemes for Short-Range Forecasting," TRUDY GIDRO- METTSENTRA SSSR (Transactions of the USSR Hydrometeorological Center), No 124, 1973. 2. Voloshchuk, V. t~., "Vertical Turbulent Transfer in the Surface Layer," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA (Meteorology and Hydrology), No 10, 1975. 3. Volos~chuk, V. M., "Nonlocal Parameterization of Vertical Turbulent Exchange in the Surface Layer," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA, No 6, 1976. 4. Koropalov, V. ti. and Severov, D. A., "Propagation of a Lfght Pollutant Over Great Distances From a Linear Source," TRUDY IPG (Transactions of the Insti- tute of Applied Geophysics), No 35, 1978. 5. Leys, Ye. K., "Two-Dimensional Turbulent Viscosity Coefficients," TRUDY 2-go TOKIYSKOGO SIMPOZIUMA PO CHISLENNYM METODAM PROGNOZA POGODY (Transactions of the Second Tokio Symposium on Numerical Methods of Weather Forecasting), Len- ingrad, Gidrometeo~zdat, 1971. 6. METEOROLOGIYA I ATOI~IAYA ENERGIYA (Meteorology and Atomic Energy), translated from English, edited by N. L. Byzova and K. P. Mal~nQn'ko, Leningrad, Gidro- meteoizdat, 1971. 7. Monin, A. S. and Yaglom, A. M., STATISTICHESKAYA GIDROMEKHANIKA (Statistical Hydromechanics), Moscow, Nauka, Part I, 1965, Part II, 1967. ~ 8. Novikov, Ye. A., "Turbulent Diffusion in a Flow With a Transverse Velocity Gradient," PRIKLADNAYA MATEMATIKA I MEKHANIKA (Applied Mathematics and Mech- anics), Vol 22, No 3, 1958. 18 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR ORF7CIAL USE ONLY 9. Pinus, N. Z., "Energetics of Turbulent Movements in the Troposphere," IZV. AN SSSR: FIZIKA ATMOSFERY 7 OKEANA (News of the USSR Academy of Sciences; Physics of the Atmosphere an3 Ocean), Vol 8, No 8, 1972. 10. Samarskiy, A. A., WEDENIYE V TEORIYU RAZNOSTNYKH SRHEM (Introduction to Theory of Difference Schemes), Moscow, Nauka, 1971. 11. Aris, R., "On the Dispersion of a Solute in a Fluid Flowing Through a Tube," PROC. ROY. SOC. (London), A 235, 1956. 12. Corrsin, S., "Limitation of Gradieat Transport Models in Random L~alks and in Turbulence," TURBULEN't DIFFUSION IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, ADV. GEOPflYS., , - Vol 18A, 1974. 13. Crowford, T. V., "Atmospheric Diffusion of Large Clouds," PROC. OF THE USAEC METEOROL. INFORM. MEETING, 1967, CHALK RIVER, Canada, Rept. AECL-2787, 1968. 14. Csanady, G. T., "Diffusion in an Ekman Layer," J. ATMOS. SCI., Vol 26, No 3, 1969. 15. Csanady, G. T., TURBULENT DIFFUSION IN THE EIWIRONMENT, D., Reidal Publ. Co., 1973. 16. Knox, J. B., "Numerical Modeling of the Transport D~ffusion and Deposition of Pollutants for Regions and Extended Scales," J. AIR POLLUT. CONT. ASSOC., Vol ' 24, No 7, 1974. 17. Pasquill, F., ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION, 2d Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1975. ~ 18. Saffman, P. G., "The Effect of Wind Shear on Horizontal SPread From an Instant- aneous Ground Source," QUART. J. ROY. METEOROL. SOC., Vol 88, No 378, 1962. 15. Syrakov, E., "On the Basic Dependence of the Relative Eddy DiffuL{.on in Syn- optic Scales for Rotating Atmosphere," Paper presented at the WMO Syn:iosium on the Long-Range Transport of Pollutants and Its Relation to General�Circulation , Including Stratospheric/Tropospheric Exchange Processes, Sofia, 1-5 October 1979, WMO-No 538, Geneva, 1979. 2Q. Vinnichenko, N. K., "The Kinetic Energy Spectrum in the Free Atmosphere 1 Second to S Years," TELLUS, Vol 22, No 2, 1970. 19 FOR OF'F[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OF'~7CIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.524.72+551.547.5:519.3 METHOD FOR VARIATIONAL VERTICAL ADNSTMENT OF CLIMATIC 'rE1~ERATURE AND GEOPOTENTIAL FIELDS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 4 Jan.81) pp 26-33 ~ - (Article by K. G. Rubinshteyn, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, and V. B. Shilyayev, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorolog- ical Information-World Data Center,~and USSR Hydrometeorological Scientific Re- search Center] - [Abstract] A method is prOposed for vertical ad~ustment of the temperature and geo- potential fields as a solution of the variational problem. The authors have em- ployed the traditional approximation of the equation of 'statics employed in the static monitoring of aerological data. Three possible variants of formulation of the variational problem are presented. Analytical solutions are given for two of these and the results of a numerical experiment are given for the third. The paper is presented in three parCs: formulation of vertical ad~ustment problem in the form of a variational problem; adjustment algorithm; example of use.of ve'rtical ad- 3ustment method. The materials presented here indicate that use of the proposed .method leads to retention of the fundamental structure of the climatic temp~ra'ture and geopotential fields when there is assurance of precise satisfaction of the sel- ected approximation of the equation of statics. At the pres~nt time work is pro- ceeding on a more detail�ed analysis of the influence of ad~ustment on the initial fields, their integral characteristics and spectral propertles. Future plans call for investigation of sensitivity of the ad3ustment method to changes in the weight- ing factors from the point of view of retaining the fundaaental structure of the long-wave part of the field spectrum. After optimizing the method, it will be used in adjusting the archives of climatic aerological data created at the Moacow Div- ision of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Infor- raation. Thus, the proposed method. is a necessary p2rrt of the process of creating aerological archives. Figures 3; references 10: 6 Russian, 4 Western. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 5~1.577.2(477.63) PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTION OVER TERRITORY OF EXPERIM~..NTAL METEOROLt)GICAL POLYGON Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 3 Mar 81) pp 34-39 [Article by ~1. M. ~:uchnik, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Ukrain.- ian Regional Scientific Research Institute] [Text~J Abstract: Data.are given on the distrib- ution of sum4ner prediction as a function of the direction of its transport. In [1] we established statistically that stable local nonuniformities of precipit- ation exist (during the warm season of the year) over the territory of the Exper- imental Meteorological Polygon (EMP) of the Ukrainian Scientific Research Insti- tute of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Manitoring. It was postulated that such a distribution of precipitation is attributable to the effect exerted by major industrial cities (especially Krivoy Rog, situated within the limits of the polygon) and large water bodies situated near the Accord- ingly, within the polygon there should be a dependence of the distribution of pre- cipitation on the direction of its transport. In particular, it must b~ expected that with directions of transport from the west the distribution of precipitation over the territory will be detarmined by the influence of Krivoy Rog, especially since with the transport ~f precipitation with a westerly component the most abun- dant showers occur because the movement of fronts ~~ver the Ukraine in most cases occurs with westerly directions. In order to clarify the influence of cities and water bodies on the distribution of precipitation over the terri.tory of the EMP we compiled maps for the four prin- cipal directions of transport: northerly (315-045�), easterly (045-135�), souther- ly (135-225�) and westerly (225-315�). The directions of transfer of precipita.tion _ were determined from the prevailing direction of the wind in the layer 2-3 lan [2] over the course of 24 hours. For this purpose we used the same data on precipita- tion for May-August 1966-1970 in the EMP which were used in [1]. Figure 1 shows that for all directions of transport of precipitation there is :n extremely significant break~~own ~nto local regions. As in [1], we will desig*,ate regions with an increased quantity of precipitation on the maps by the symbol and regions with a decreased quantity by the symbol As a convenience in com- parison of maps of the distribution of~precipitation for the different directions of transport with the general map published in [1] we here as Fig. 2. 2I FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY ~ _ .i: $ r~ I ~ t ~ ~ a, . " ~ ~ ~ r.~ :~v = b ~ G~~ ; iy. 1. T ~ I 6. ~ 1 ~U~ ~ ~ J ~ ~,,,7 ~ V U ~ i_ ~ ~ ~ , j ~ ~ c~ JO ~ ~ ~~1- _ ~E~ ~:~~c,` ~v ~ . , ' 'tl r- r' U i � ~y~ , . . u:l ' ~ ~ " i I;," ~ . - 1yf DOI ' 1 ~ r 1 , I" t j~: I J ~ V ~ ~ yu ~ ! ` ? f l Cl ~y ~t1 ti. V ~ ~ r. ,"~~y ~ � u ~u ~ ' ~ t~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ . ~ . . . ~ . - - :c ~a _-ac Fig. 1. Seasdnal (May-August) precipitation maps for the Experimental Meteorolog- ical Polygon for 1966-1970 for directiuns of precipitation transport. a) norther- ly; b) easterly; c) sour_herly; d) westerly. I 1',i ~v :i~0 ~OO~a7'd0 ; G ~ 16J ~ ~;fC v \ ' ~ ~ I- ~1~~ !Q. L~ I;~~ ~ i ~ ,e >~o ~ , ~ ~7~~ ~ ~ ~ ~T/ 1~~ 'U1?0 ~B V L lPO~ ~v?00 290 ?00 JBO !60 16~ 160 Fig. 2. Seasonal (May-August) precipitation map for the Experimental Meteorolog- ical Polygon for 1966-1970. It follows from the precipitation distribution maps (Fig. 1) that with northerly (a), southerly (c) and westerly (d) directions of transport the maximum quantity of precigitation falls in tre EMP. In tlie case of northerly and westerly direc- tions the centers are arranged for the most part from NW to SE. For example, ~ on the map (a) the centers IT~, V+, VI+ follow one another, whereas on map (d) the centers III+, IV+, V+, VI+. We note that the centers exhibit approximate- _ ly the same behavior. For example, on the map (a) the centers In, ?IIn, Vn are ar- ranged in t':is direction. ~ 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 F'OR OFFIClAL USE ONLY - Table 1 y Coincidence of Centers and on Maps [Jith Different Directions of the Transport of Precipitation During 1966-1970 With Regions and on the = Overall Map for These Same Years I ~ _ Direction of ~ ~ - precipitatio~ ~ f ~ t fnon- ~non- trans ort co Ico co co Northerly I r + + 3 f 0 x ? ~ Easterly + - � ~ 1 T I* + 3 0 Souther ly i ~ T . a 0 - + i 2 1 Westerly ~ + } * 2 I t ' tp j Note: co number of coincidences, nonco number of noncoincidences for all re- gions of precipitation. Table 2 Frequency of Recurrence of Centers of Precipitation by Directions of Transport - an? ~ alues of p Parameter for 1966-1970 Centers ~ Direction of. precipitation transport ~ ~ I ; ` ,n~rttierly i easterly souttierlyl we~terlyi _ ' ' r-, ~ 5 a 7 24 - � ~ 6 ti fi 28 e: z~: a-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1:7 0`) 1n Q,a i (1,;i~ 0.4~ ~ Q.4 i ' 0.46 . r,.~, n.1 ; 0.1; 0._,3 0.32 _ ,n. ~ p.;,; i~.if (I.i6 0,~3 0,61 [N= an A further examination of the maps of distribut~!on of precipitation by the directions af transpcrt indicates that despite all the diversity one noteworthy fea- ture: both the centers and are arranged on them in an extremely similar man- . ner. This becomes especially obvious in a comparison of the arrangement of centers on the maps in Fig. 1 with the arrangement of regions of increased and reduced quantities of precipitation on the ~ap in Fig. 2. These data are ~resented in Table 1. The coincidence of a center with a region of increased quantity of precipitation and a center with a region of reduced quantity of precipitation is noted in the table by the symbol and their noncoincidence by the symbol We note that cases are possible when with a particular region of precipitation on the overall map there can at the same time be a coincidence with a center of one sign and a noncoincidence with a center of the other sign. In addition, there can be cases of absence of a coincidence, which are denoted by an "x". Table 1 reveals that the. number of coincidences of and centers with corres- ponding regions of precipitation on the overall map for 1966-1970 considerably exr ceeds the number of their coincidences for all directions of precipitation transfer. 23 FOR OF'FIC7AL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02149: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFIClAL USE ONLY These data indicate tliut not only with northerly and westerly dtrections of trans- port of precipitation onto the experimental polygon is theY~e a manifestation of the intluence of the peculiarities of the terrain on its distribution, but also with easterly and southerly directions. This influence evidently has a similar charar_ter for all dlrections. It can be assumed that with northerly and westerly directions of transport Krivoy Rog exerts an influence on the di~tribution of pre- cipit:ation over the experimental meteorological polygan. ~ ~ Table 3 Frequency of Recurrence of Centers of Precipitation by Directions of Transport for Individual Regions and Values of p Parameter for 1966--1970 I : ll ; ~ll . l nirection o - ~ + _ 'T ~ ~ precipitati n � ! ; ~ ! c = co t`~i I i~ I o ~ i H ~ c: i~ I o r; u;~~ tran~port ? , i; ~ H= nonco ~orthe ly 1 ~ t~ I~? 0 A ~ ~((i ~ 2 2 l; I 13 0,."~; ,.aster~y 5 u I 3 U i~ I U ? 1 3 iti ti~ 3:U,73 ' Southerly ~ 1 ~ 0 ~1 ~i ~I 3 1 ? l 2 I~ 3; 3 A,G~ Westerly ; I l ~ t t '3 ~s_I 1 l 2 2 l:~ 3.3;0,6:; : 13 ~S 2 I;i 13 l li l:i i ~i t3 ~;2 t3'~,G4 p ~.ah ~ u:~~ q,:,, U..i~ n,irl~ p, U.ri~ ~~,:;4 ~),,5~ 0,,� iu,5~l p, ~1,Sa; I u.;3 4,;:I 11.31~ ~U,%:;'� Directio~i o ?I_ i III_ I precipitati n~~, p: j ~ i p c I n~ o c I u ~ ui r I n I o c I u I o) P Pi Pc trans ort i ( ~ Northerly U,3~U.;5 O I U -I 2, ! ~tll 3 O I2u i I0,2UO.U~0,~1 EasCerlp ~i,~U~),5~~ J t) I 5 l ~l 6 3 0 Iti ~ u O.r)U,O~~),~4 Southerly ~~,~1 ~?.8.; ~ I G :i t u ll U i?0 0 I0,?~)U,OSQ.41 iaesterly U,~.' +~,5.~ U 0 1 0 3 7 U IS 3 U~).31 U.I~U,a2 ~ U,~�I U,"? Iti 1 0 li~ 1;ti I~; 0 7~{ 22 1 lu.?:;0,1~0.32 p c1,05 i),21 0.31 0,2:5 ~1,01 u,OS U,15 O,Ici I P2 t?.?5~ ~i,42 U,~6I 0,32 ( I . Note: co number of coincidences, nonco number of noncoincidences, o-- cases of absence of coincidences or noncoincidences for individual regions of precipita- tion. Now we will endeavor to ascertain whether the regions and on the maps of distribution of precipitation by directions of its transport is a random phenomenon or is governed by some cons~antly operative factors. For this we introduce some parameter p= m/n, where m is the number of the centers and n is the total num- ber of the and centers. For determining the limits p-pl and P2 we will stipulate ~the 99% confidence level, as was done in [1]. The limits~pl and P2 will be determined from the p and n values using the nomogram in [3]. 24 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 4 Frequency of Recurrence of Centers of Precipitation by Directions of Transport and Values of the p Parameter From Annual Maps 1966-1970 Directions of pre~ipitation tranap rt Centers ~ ( I northerly leasterly ~southerly westerly a+ s 32 29 ~ 28 31 120 4l 39 39 42 l6l ~ N r-s i 3 68 67 73 281 p 0,44 0,43 0.42 0,42 0,43 p~ 0,32 0,31 0.30 0,30 0,37 pz 0,5' 0,52 O,o4 0,54 0,48 [ ~i = .an The data fro~n the maps in Fig. 1 were used in determining the frequency of recur- rence of and centers for different directions of precipitation transport. Table 2 indicates that the p values for different directions of transport of pre- cipitation, although determined from a small nwnber of cases, are approximately ~ identical and an the average p= 0.46. This p value is already statistically more guaranteed. It was close to the mean value p= 0.41, determined using data on the distribution of precipitation by months for the same period of time [1). In order to evaluate the hypothesis th~t the formation of and regions of precipitation in the experimental meteorological polygon is a result of some con- stant factors, we will undertake a comparison of the p parameters determined using the data in Tahle 1 with the corresponding p parameters according to the data in Table 2. Unfortunately, the data in these tables do not make it possible to carry - out such a comparison separately for different directions of transport and indi- vidual regions af precipitation due to the low 1eve1 of guaranteed probability. Accordingly, wre will make such a comparison data for all directions and separately for all positive and negative ragions of precipitation. From Table 1 m+ = 14, n+ = 16, p+ ~ 0.88 and m 1= 1, ri= 11, p- = 0.09. Using the nomogram from [3], employing these data we obtain pi = 0.62 and p~ = 0.98, p' a U.O1 and p2 = 0.42 respectively. From a comparison of p~' and p- with p it can b~ seen that these values differ greatly from one another and that their confidence limits p+, p~, p1, p2 for all practical purposes lie outside the confidence limits pl and 1 p2 (Table 2). Thus, already on the basis of these data it is possible to assume to be confirmed the assumption that the distribution of precipitation over the experimental mac:eorological polygon by directions of transport is not a random event but is dependent on the influence of constantly operative factors. Since it would be extremely desirable to establish the existence of the dependence of distribution of precipitation for individual ~irections of transport, we will undertake an examination of the frequency of recurrence of the and centers - using the data cited in Table 3. ~ As indicated by Table 3, the p value for all positive regions of precipitation for all directions of transport considerably differs from the p value for negative re- gions: p(~, = 0.64 and p(~',_) = 0.23 respectively. At the same time, the FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400480048-7 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Pl~~+~ - 0.54 value for positive regi~ns does not overlap the valu+~ p2(~_) = 0.32 for negative regions. This indicates unambiguously that the distribution of precip- itation for positive regions differs completely from the distribution for negative regions. We will make the same comparison for values of the p parameter for individual posi- tive regions of precipitation with p values for all the negative regions. It ap- pears that the values p(I+) = 0.88, p(I7.~,) = 0.54, p(III 0.57 and p(IV+) = 0.54 considerably differ from p(~ = 0.23, and pl(I})= 0.3~ and pl(III+) = 0.38 do not overlap with p2(~ = 0.32. On1y pl(IV+) = 0.25 to some degree overlaps with p2(~ T.t can therefore be assumed that the distribution of precipitation in the region~.''I+, II+, III.}, and tn all probability, IV+ differs from the distribution in the negative regions of precipitation. Now we will compare the values of the p parameter for individual negative regions of precipitation with the p value for all the positive regions. It is found that � p(I_) = 0.05, p(II_) = 0.2~ and p(III_) = 0.31 differ greatly from p(~ = 0.64, and the values p2(I_) = 0.25, p2(II_) = 0.42 and p2(III_) = 0.46 fall below the values pl(E = 0.54. Thus, we obtained still a further proof that the distribu- tion of precipitation in positive and negative regions belongs to different sets. , Now we will make a similar analysis of data for positive and negative regions sep- arately for each direction of precipitation transport. Table 3 shows that virtual- , ly all the values of the parameters pl(~ fall below or extremely insignificant- . ~ - ly overlap the values p2(~ It can therefore be asserted that the distributions ~ of precipitation in positive and negative regions for all directions of transport of. precipitation belong to different sets. ~ Now we will attempt to clarify to what extent there is ~ustification of the hypo- thesis that the distributions of prec~pitation for positive and negative regions for individual directions of transport are not a result of random events but are caused by some constantly operative factors. For this we will compare the values of the parameter p(Table 3) with the values obtained from annual seasonal maps (Table 4). These latter values are the most reliable since they were obtained on the basis of a large nwnber of cases. It follows from this comparison that the p(~ and p(~ values for all direc- tions of precipitation transport are considerably greater than and less than the p(E ) values respectively. But at the same time, only for easterly and westerly directions of precipitation transport does the entire range of pl~~ +~-p2~~+) values fall outside the range of pl(~')-P2(~ ) values. For northerly and southerly directions of transport there is an appreciable overlapping of these ranges. A completely different situation is observed for negative regions of precipitation. For example, for northerly and southerly directions of transport of precipitation ~ the range of pl(~ _)-p2(~ values falls virtually outside the range of pl(~ p2(~ ) values, whereas for easterly and westerly directions these ranges almost completely overlap. From the comparison of the values of the p parameter on the basis of Tab~es 3 and 4 it follows that we have confirmation of the hypothesis that the distribution of precipi~ation over the territory of the experimental meteorological polygon is not 26 FGR OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a result of random events but is caused by constantly operative factors and with any direction of transport. However, the existing area of the network in the e~ perimental polygon is inadequate for determining all the local reasons for modific- ation of the distribution of preGipitation. .We point out in conclusion~that an increase in the duration of the series of used precipitation observations in the experimental meteorological polygon (which is now completely feasible) will make it possible to obtain more valid data for solir tion of the problems considered in this study. In addition, it can be assumed that the implementation of this type of research for the winter period of the year will make it possible to obtain an answer to certain questions. In particular, from a comparison of the distributions of precipitation during summer and winter it is possible to some degree to clarify whether the water bodies around the experimental meteorological polygon exert an appreciable influence on the distribution of pre- = cipitation since in winter such an influence must be virtually absent. We note - that an investigation of the distribution of precipitation during the cold season of the year in the experimental meteorological polygon is of independent importance, especially for studies in the field nf arti~icial modification and agrometeorology carried out in this territory. BIBLIOGRAPHY ' 1. Muchnik, V. M., Statistical Indices of Distribution of Precipitation in the Experimental Meteorological Polygon," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLUGIYA (Meteorology ~ and Hydrology), No 12, 1978. - 2. Stepenenko, V. D., RADIOLOKATSIYA V METEOROLOGII (Ra~ar and Meteorology), Len- ingrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1973. . 3. Khan, G. and Shapiro, S., STATISTICHESKIYE MODELI V INZI~NERNYKH ZADACHAKH (Statistical Models {n Engineering Problems), Moscow, Mir, 1969. ~ ~ 27 ~OR OFF7C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400080048-7 FOR OFFIC[A~, USE ONLY UDC 551.521.3 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CLOUDS Moscow METEOROL(fGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (ma.nuscript received 17 Feb 81) pp 4q-43 [Article by V. V..Kuznetsov and L. N. Pavlova, candidate of physical and mathemat- ical sciences, Institute of Experimental Meteorology] � [TExt] Abstract: The dependence of values of the _ linear depolarization ratio in a baclcscat- tered signal D,~ on the contribution of drop- ~ lets Pdrop to the volumetric scattering coef- ficient for a mixed cloud is examined. The auth- ors propose a semiempirical expression for de- termining pdrop for known D~ . The article gives measurements and computiations of the scattering indicatrices for media with a mix- ed phase content characterized by different D~ values. It is known that clouds with a mixed phase composition can consist in their entire thicknes~ of a mixture of suner~ooled droplets and crystals or of successive layers of droplets, crystals or their mixture. Clouda which are mixed in t'~eir entire thickness are encountered most frequently. The optical properties of mixed clouds should be determined by the optical charac- teristics of both liquid and solid particles which are present in the clouds. lte- searchers do not always have data~on the relative concentration and spectra of.. sizes of droplets and crystals in a mixed cloud. However, the relative contribution ~ of the droplets and crystals exerts a definite influence on the values of the lin- ear.depolarization ratio D~ in the backscattered signal [4-6], which can be deter- mined by remote sounding of a cloud, as a result of which it is convenient to use this parameter as a characteristic of mixed clouds. We will examine the influence of the liquid phase in a cloud with a mixed phase com- position on the values of the volum~tric scattering coefficient, scattering indica- . trix and D ~ . ~ We will introduce the following notations: idrop~ icr~8 ) and im~((~1) nor- � malized values of the scattering indicatrix for droplets, crystalline particles and their mixtures respectively; ~dxop~~~~ ~cr � ~ and dmix~7~~ are the volu- metric coefficients of scattering of. droplets, crystals and their mixtures; 28 FOR OFF'[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Pdrop ~a ~drop ~ a~~~mix~ a~ is the contribution of droplets to the volumet- � . ric scattering coefficient of a mixed cloud. the propagation of plane-polarized radiation through a mixed medium the polar- ized components in the backscattered signal can be written in the following way! [k = drop(let) ~ l-1 I~.) ;i~.. ("JP~ !~v '_PK~~�)11 e-�~'' ~ (1) ~ ' kp - cr (ys tal) ; / o~,~ l~�) i. (T ) PK ~i.) + i,;p , (r} (1 - p?: ~ e'.~,.> c~ cm = mix(ed).] ' where I,~ (7t) and I~~ (n ) are the components of backscattered radiation with a pol- arization perpendicular and parallel to the polar.ization of the incident radiation; oC(a ) is the index of attenuation of the ~ediwn; L is the backscattering measure- ment pafih. It is known that with the backscattering of polarized radiation by spherical par- ticles a state of polarization of the incident radiation is maintained [6]. There- - fore, the contribution of droplets idrop 1~ n~ Pdrop to the signal I 1(T! ) can be neglected. - Th~ linear depolarization ratio D~ for a mixed medium is determined as follows: 1 (r.) 1 -p. (x1 ~ D- ~ ~"---~,~i D- i_ p~(;,)(B_ _ i) (2) * where D~- = i~r j('rt' )/icr I) is the depolarizati~n ratio for radiation with the wavelength T in a crystalline medium: B ~r � idrop I) ~ ) /t~r ~ ~ ) . . It follows from (2) that by knowing I?f and B~ it is possible to determine the con- tribution of droplets to the volumetric scattering coefficient of the mixture for each D ~ ~S]: - DA-D; [k = drop(let) J P"~F~ ~ D. (B. - 1~~ D: when D~~ D~ . (3) And knowing the pdrop~~~ vaZues and the optical characteristics of the droplets and crystals, it is also possible to determine other optical characteristics of a mixed cloud, such as the scattering indicatrix: (4) [cm = mix(ed). ~~,~(y) =~~ly)P.(~�) iK~IF?)~t -P~~i.l~. kp = cr(ystal); k = drop(let)] Thus, it is of interest to measure the Dn and B~ values for crystalline media with a different microstructure, since it is impossible to compute tliese parameters. * For radiation with 0.63� m the Dn and B~ values were measured in cold chambers in (4, 7, 9]. On the basis of the results in [7] it can be assumed that D~= 0.5 for crystals of different size and shape. 29 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY ~o�v r P drop ~ ~ SO ~ i S - y � ~ q 1 0,? 0,3 Q4 D~ ' Fig. l. Dependence of pdrop on D~ for different B~ values (B~. are indicated by ths figures on the curves). At the present time there is no complete clarity concerning the B~ values. In in- vestigations in [4] for crystals of different shage measuring 10-200�m it was pos- si~le to obtain a value B~ = 1.5(f30~), which in j8] was confirmed by measurements _ of light scattering by hydrometeors. However, in [9] for ice crystals measuring less than ~O~.m the value icrll ~ n) = 0.0101 was obtained. This was substantially lower than'idrop 11 ) for models of a droplet cloud [2] (thus, for model S.1 _ idrop(?c 0.05 055). With these normalized values the scattering index for crys- tals and droplets is B~- = 5. It should be noted that the latest data [9J were ob- tained by the extrapolation of values measured with e= 175�. The discrepancy in the results of determination of B n- in [4, 8] and [9] can be at- tributed to the influence of the size of the crystals on the i~r~~ (st) values or a _ measurement error which has not been taken into account. Figure 1 shows how sensi- tive the pdrop~J~) values are to a change in D n- with different B~. In order to determine the Bn- value in a cold chamber with a volume of 100 m3 we carried out a series of ineasurements. The measurement method involved the follow- ing. Plane-polarized radiation with 0.63 � m was directed along a horizontal path into a chamber where droplet and crystalline fogs were created. A detector receiv- ed the radiatiou scattered at angles e= 178�40~ (t30') in the horizontal scatter- ing plane. At the same time we made measurements of the aptical thickness of the medium 'G 0.63� The Bn.value was determined as the ratio of the parallely polarized components of the intensity of radiation scattered in droplet and crystalline fogs with identical ~ 0.63 values. The measurements were made with vertical and horizon- tal polarizations of the incident radiation. In the case of vertical polarization of the incident radiation (the E vector oscillates in the vertical plane) the aver- aged B n values for crystals of platy and acicular forms are different: for prisms i:ieasuring from 10 x 10 to 40 x 150�m Bn = 1.5(f22X) (a total of 96 measurements), whereas for platelets (and "stars") B~~ 2.2(f40X) (164 measurements). In individ- ual experiments for platelets the measured B R values attained 3.4. In the case of horizontal polarization for platelets and prisms B,r = 1.3(t30%) (67 measurements). Thus, the measurements indicated that the Brr value is dependent on the relative orientation of the polarization plane for incident radiation and the plane of scat- ~ tering measurement. With their orthogonality the B~ value is sensitive to the form of crystals. 30 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFRtCtAL USE ONLY ~T B!/i; 10') . ~ ~ I ' . _ . 1}- ~ . ~ ~ I C ` ~1 G 2 c� o ^ - r I 1 � ~ r c � ? r,~, ~Q-? r ~ ~ ? j ~0 ~ ~ ~ so ~zo �e' F:g. 2. Comparison of computed values of indicatrix of mixed cloud (curves 1-4) with experimental indicatrices (5-8); 5) Dn-~ 0.08-0.15; 6) D~ = 0.22-0.27; 7) D~ _ U. 30-0.34; 8) D~~ 0.35. _ Figure 2 shows the results of computations and measurements of the relative scatter- ~ ing indicatrix for a mixed cloud with different Dn- values. The computations were made for D R = 0.1(0.1)0.4. In the computations use was made of the idrop~e) val- ues with a= 0.7� m for the S.1 value [2] and as i~r(B the experimental data in [1] (without allowance for the halo), B n = 1.5 and D~ = 0.5. As indicated by the computed curves, imix ~ e~~imix ~10�) with an increase reveals the greatest change in the region of lateral scattering angles. In addition, there is a smoothing of the maximum in the corners of the rainbow. In the experiments a mixed medium was created in the chamber by the introduction of AgI crystallization nuclei into a supercooled droplet.fog. As crystallization continued measurements were made of the D~ values (with B~ 179� and vertical polarization of the incident radiation) and the indica- trices in the horizontal scattering plane. The time required for measuring the in- dicatrix in the range of scattering angles 10-170� was ].0 sec [3]. The rela- tive error in measurements of imix~e ) and D~ did not exceed t10%. The experimental results agree well with the computed values, thereby~confirming the re~ults of ineas- urement of the Bn parameter. Thus, it was shown that the D~~parameter can be used as a basis for the classific- ltion of mixed clouds on the basis of the contribution of the droplet fraction pdrop~~`~ to the volumetric scattering coefficient and, knowing D n it is possible to determine the optical characteristics of mixed clouds. It should be noted that 31 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL [~SE ONLY this requires the making of ineasurements of B~ in natural crystalline and droplet clouds for specific optical systems of lidars and for different observation angles. The authors express sincere appreciation to 0. A. Volkovitskiy for attention to the c~iork. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Volkovitskiy, 0. A., Pavlova, L. N. and Petrushin, A. G., "Optical Properties of Crystalline Clouds," IZV. AN SSSR: FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA (News of the USSR Academy of Sciences: Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean), Vol 16, No 2, 1980. 2. I)eyrmendzhan, D., RASSEYA~~IIYE ELEKIROMAGNITNOGO IZLUCHENIYA SFERICHESKIMI PGLIDISPERSATYMI Cl~ASTITSAMI (Electrona~netic Radiation Scattering by Spherical Polydisperse Particles}, translated from English, Moscow, Mir, 1971. 3. Nikiforova, N. K., Pavlova, L. N. and Snykov, V. P., "'Rassvet' Velocity Instru- ment for Measuring tlie Scattering Indicatrix," TRUDY IEM (Transactions of the Institute of Experimental Meteorology), No 4(38), 1978. - 4. Pavlova, L. N., "~nvestigation of the Attenuation and Scattering of Laser Radi- ation in a Medium Containing Ice Crystals," Author~s Sumanary of Dissertation for Award of the Academic Degree of Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sci- ences, Obninsk, IEM, 1978. 5. Pavlova, L. N., "Method for Polarimetric Analysis of the Optical Properties of Suspended Partic?es," Author's Certificate USSR No 731363, BYULLETEN' IZOBRET. (Inventors' Bulletin), No 16, 1980. 6. Khyulst, G., RASSEYANIYE SVETA MALYMI CHASTITSAMI (Light Scattering by Small Particles), Moscow, IL, 1961. 7. Sassen, K., "Depolarization of Laser Light Backscattered by Artificial Clouds," J. APPL. METEOROL., Vol 13, No 8, 1974. . 8. Sassen, K., "Backscattering Cross Sections for Hydrometeors: Measurements at 6328 A," EiPPL. OPTICS., Vol 17, No S, 1978. 9. Sassen, K. and Liou, K. N., Scattering of Pclarized Laser Light by Water Drop- lets, Mixed Phase and Ice Crystal Clouds. Part I. Angular Scattering Patterns," J. ATMOS. SCI., Vol 36, No S, 1979. 3? FOR ORM7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR O~ICIAL USE ONLY UD~. 551. 521. 32 METHOD FOR COMPUTING EFFECTIVE RADIATION OF THE OCEAN SURFACE WITH ALLOWANCE FOR DIFFERENT CLOUD LEVELS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 4 Feb 81) pp 44-52 [Article by G. V. Gird~uk, candidate of geoRraphical sciences, and S. P. Malevskiy- I~alevich, candidate of physical and mathematical science.s, Murmansk Affiliate, Arctic and Antarctic Institute, and Main Geophysical Observatory] [Text] Abstract: The article gives the results of checking of a method for computing long-wave atmospheric radiation over the ocean, proposed by the authors earlier, using measurements of this parameter made on a number of voyages of scientific research vessels. The results of ~ measurements made it possible to refine this method due to separate allowance for the in- fluence of clouds at different levels. The ~ corresponding coefficients for different air temperature values are given. A method is pro- � posed for correcting the dependences for their ~ use in climatological computations. ~ . In [3~ we proposed a method for computing long-wave atm~spheric radiation and ef- fective radiation of the ocean surface. This method, in tabulated form, is given in a recent edition of the OCEANOGRAPHIC TABLES [13]. Its individual poin~s have been checked in a number of subsequent studies [4-9, 12]. According to [3], the atmospheric radiation Ea over the flcean is determined on the basis of data on the temperature of the near-water air layer and the tenths of total cloud cover. The characteristics of air humidity in explicit form are not taken into account as a result of the high correlation of temperature and absolute air humidity values over the ocean [3, 5, 11]. With conversion to standard units the expression derived in [3] for computing long- wave atmospheric radiation Ea in KW!m2 has the form E'� - (1,0?G T~,� iti-~ -0,~~1)(1 -E konGl. (1) 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFiC[AL USE ONI.Y w ~ o I a~ ~-i N~ tA C~1 ~1 ~~Y Q~ f~ ~O O N 1r1 N r-I f~ O~O ~O O ~O rl C~1 A ~ ~l u~O ~O v1 t~ ~O ~t O u1 ul a0 f~ .t ~ ~7 .7 ~ N M N 1~ E-~i ~ 01 N ~ N ~-i ~1 ~t ~T N ~t ~-1 N ~t N1 ~T r-I ~t C~1 z e ~ Q M~O O U1 t~ r-1 O a0 ~O .7 r-I ~O t~ 00 O~ N o0 ~7 r-I v1 . . . . . . � . . . � . � . � . � � U b~ M r-I ~7 Ul O N r--I ~ O N c'~ N1 N e-i ~7 ~ M erature-phenological nomograms, which is based on an allowance, on the one hand, for ttie dynamics of the mean 10-day air temperatures on the basis of long-term 69 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400080048-7 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY data and each specific year, and on the other hand, the biological requirements of spring wheat to a change in mean daily temperatures and moisture supplies by ;~hases of development. Table 1 Sowing Times, Crop Yield, Grain Quality and Agrometeorological Indices for the Growing Season of Spring Wheat, Saratovskaya-42. Sovkhoz imeni Frunze. In Ural'skaya Oblast, Northwestern Kazakhstan ~ ~ ~ ~ Index Phase > ~ > : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N ~ ~ O' o ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ { 19%8 1'. 1~ =0,5i I 1979 C. K=0,33 1~ 4ucao lttri~. ~r,oces - ~ = n ~BCC01L,1> 1~~ i i I ~ ~ tBCCJab1 I 1 >iI0�1H~A Cp?- :~ucr~~ S7 SO 73 S3 74 2~ C; ~aMa ~;acns co:i:~e~~� Kscxua~+ - !IOfO CIInHItA., ~ 1 )no.iiiaa cc:e� .~ocr~+ i4; 313 GS9 "r~~U ~90 673 3~ : mAP� 10' :l.~c' D~a~C!tv1t1 - . noi:+an cnc� nocr~� 97,~ 103,3 9~,0 86,3 9S,~ 33,0 4~~ ~'por~aCiHOC;~., y'r,~ ,2G,U '?9.? 21.8 G,S 15,7 17.5 5) 6eiox, �6 17,6�~ 19.1i 1;.:;2 1~,t2 15,83 14,4a .o ~ �~2 . : ' ~ 0 35 . � ~ii,1KF1Ha. ' � g,~ :3?,~;i,0 3~,C(9o 3",0~85 �8.0~55 Ofi:.eHadii ui~:cu.z x~~- G9 1I3 !V~ ~ N\'KN, iM3 4~1~ 11a~.�I J'~l) ~7:J 3~0 ~~1~ g) rP:nnw ar,~:~.iu,i~n~� ~:c::h~ix no~cas~re.icii f 11 I Il ( lil 11 I11 KEY: 1. Number of days, ~ n 6. Gluten. %/IDC-1 Sum of sunshine hours, ~;tp 7. Volumetric yield of bread from 100 g 3. ~ PAR�10~ J/m2 of flour, cm3 4. Yield, centners, I~ectare 8. Groups of agroclimatic indices 5. Protein, % 9. "Sowing-sprouting" 10. "Sprouting-total maturity" tln~an:ilysis of the yield of regionalized varieties of sprin~ wheat which we used, ti;ir:itovskaya-42 and Sarltovskaya-40 in experiments and production fields,indicat- ed ti~at tl~e shortest "sowing-sprouting" period (6-7 days) under the conditions of 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OF'F7CIAL USE ONLY the very continental climate of northwestern Kazakhstan corresponds to a stable ;nean daily air temperature of 14-15�C, which also determines the optimum sowing daCe. thts air temperature and reserves of productive moisture not less than 50% of the field moisture capacity in the soil layer 0-100 cm relatively favorable conditions are created for the early phases of development of spring wheat. According to long-te~m data, for the northern regions of the zone and the experimental field of the West Kazakhstan Agricultural Institute the optimum sowing date falls in mid-May; for the southern regions in the middle of the first 10-day period of May. During specific years, depending on the value of the meteorological elements, the optimum date of sowing varies in the range from the beginning of the second 10-day period in April to the end of the second 10-day period ln May. Table 2 Dependence of Yield and Quality of Spring Wheat Grain on Orientation of the Sown Rows. Sovkhoz imeni Frunze, Ural'skaya Oblast, Northwestern Kazakhstan Years ~Direction of Yield, `Protein,~ Gluten Protein yield ~sowing hpn*Aeps~ ~ ~ ~ kg/hectare 0 ~aratovskaya-42 1975 N-S 5,3 18,13 38,2 96 E-W 4,0 17,24 34,5 69 1976 N- S 22,8 16,00 34,8 365 E-W 21,3 14,88 31,6 317 197i N-S 8,0 17,98 33,8 144 E-W 7,0 17,64 32,2 123 ~978 N-5 30.4 19,97 37,5 607 F'-i+T 27,9 16,84 30,1 470 t4ea n [1- S I 6,6 18,02 36,1 303 j;-W 15.0 I 6,65 32,1 244 Increment 1.6 1,37 4,0 59 Saratovskaya-40 1975 I N-S 3,5 19,19 42,4 67 P:-4J 2,0 18,84 35,2 38 ~`~~b N-S ? 14,58 25,6 359 ~;-W 21.9 13,58 26,1 297 : :97; N-S 6.7 I ~,64 32,8 112 ~ r-y~ ~.0 1 F, i 2 30,4 84 P ~ 97~ ~J- S 30,3 14, I 9 34,0 603 F-W 25,~ 1 R,O~ 32,0 ~61 Mo~ln I PI-S 1G,3 ;'.G5 33,i 285 1:-(d ~ 13.G I 6,E 1 30,9 220 Increm~~nt ?.7 O.S4 2.R 65 71 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR UM FICIAL USE ONLY ~de feel that the last two years (1978 and 1979) warrant special attention. In 1978, according to the forecast, during the third 10-day period of April, the air tem- perature was to be 3�C above the mean. Therefore, according to our computations, the optimum sowing date was expected on 27 April (experimental field at the Agri- cultural Institute, Sovklioz imeni Frunze, Ural'skaya Oblast). In 1979 during the first 10-day period in May the temperature was close to the mean long-term value and the optimum date for sowing was 14 May. In the field experiments the earliest date for sowing was determined by the possibility of operation of the drill. Sow- ing cit l:ste times wz~ carried out tliree or four times each subsequent three da~s from the optimum date. An an:ilysis of the collected data ('Table 1) reveals that the optimum sowing date results in a minimum duration of the "sowing-sprouting" phase (7 days) and a maxi-. - r~~um duration of the "sprouting-gold ripeness"' phase during the season (in 1978 87 days; in 1979 83 days). ~uch a duration of the development phases prede- termines a high sum of sunshine hours (813 and 790), sum af PAR (103.3 and 9$.7� 10~ .T/m2), and as a result a higher yield (29.2 and 18.8 centners/hectare) and better technological indices of the grain. With early and late sowing times the - duration of the "sprouting-gold ripeness" period is reduced by 5 or more days, a5 a result of which the plants receive a lesser sum of sunshine h~urs and sum of PAR ensuring the photosynthesis process. The yield and quality of the grain in this case are reduced to the level governed by the agroclimatic indices of grouns - II and III. At the present time in the programming of yields of agricultural crups more and more attention is being devoted to photosynthetically active radiation [1, 3-5], since the mare the q~iantity of solar energy which plants can assimilate, the greater will be their yield. This, as indicated by our investigations, is iavored, on the one hand, by opti.mum sowing times, and on the other hand, by a north-south or{.entation of the sown rows. _ In rY,e cr3se of a N-S orientation of the rows, in comparison with W-E, all other conditians being equal (moisture supply, agricultural techniques, etc.) the plants it~ our experiments r.eceived a sum of PAR during the growing season which was 18.7� 10~ J/m2 greater, and this in turn ensures a bette~ developed lea� surface and root - system., liigher indices of elements of yield structure, an increase in the yield and teciinological qualities of the grain. Table 2 gi~~es the results of our four years ~f experimentation (1975-1978) carried out in an experimental field at the West hazakt~,tan Agricultural Institute with soft and hard wheats. The table shows that the mean increment of yield, protein, gluten and arotein yield from one tiectare of ~lheat of tt~e Saratovskaya-42 variety were 1.6 centner/hectare, 1.37%, 4.0% and 59 _ kg/hectare respectively, -1nd for the variety Saratovskaya-40 2.7 centners/hec- - tare, 0.84%, 2.8% and 65 kg/h.ectare. ~ The agrometeorolagical validation of the optimum sowing times for spring wheat, its sowin~ in rows primarily of a N-S orientation, are procedures ensuring the pl3nts the best agrometeorol.c~gical conditions and as a result of this give a considPrable ~conomic effect. This is indi~~ated by data from field tests carried out ~t a number of farms in northwestc.rn Kazak:hstan. The use of these procedures at the 5ovkhoz imeni Frunze in Zelenovskiy Rayon in Ura1'skaya Oblast during 1975-1979 ensured a � mean five-year yield increment of 2.7 centners/hectare, as a result of which , 72 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY ttie sovk:~oz without the slightest additional expenditures received an additional 26,173 centners of hi~h-quality Qrain of strong wheat, and converted to money thi~ i5 265,978 rubles. In 1979, with relatively unfavorable weather conditions, on ~~nly four f;irms in tt~e oblast the "Frunze" and "I:ushumskiy" sovkhozes in Zelen- ovskiy P,ayon, at the "Tel'man" kolkhoz in Burlins~iy Rayon and at the "Kuybyshev" ~ovklioz in Chapayevskiy Rayon, as a res~l~ of the use of these procedures the mean increment In yield was 1.7 centner/t~ectare and the farms without the slightest r~dditional expenditures received 9,~10 centners of apring wheat of the Sarat~~vsk- ;~ya-42 variety or more ti~an 8.1,367 rubles of additional income. In tljis c~nner_tion we feel that it is necessary to introduce the mentioned simple, out rather effective agrometeor~lagical reco~?endations into agricultural production more exter~sively and with greater vigor and thereby make a significant contribution to increasing the production of grain and an increase in its technological qualit- ies. BIBLIOGRAPHY l. :Vichlporavich, A. A., "Ways to Increase the Productivity of Photosynt~esis of Plants in Sown Fields," FOT~SINTE2 I VOPROSY PROBUKTIVNOSTI RASTENIY (Photo- synttiesis and Problems in Plant Productivity), Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1963. 'L. PSHENITSY MIRA (World idheats), edited by D. D. Brezhnev, compiled by V. F. Dor- ofeyev~ Leningrad, Kolos, 1976. 3. Timiryazev, K. A., "Ylants and Solar Energy," SOLNTSE, ZHIZN~, KHLOROF'ILL (Sun, Life and Ctilorophyll), Moscow, Sel'khozgiz, 1956. 4, Too~ning, Kh. G., SOLNECHNAYA RADIATSIYA I FORMIROVANIYE UROZHAYA (Solar Radia- tioa and Yield Formation), Leningrad, Gidrometeaizdat, 1977. 5. Shul'gin, I. A., SOLNECHNAYA RADIATSIYA I RASTENIYF (Solar Radiation and - Plants), Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1967. 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 ~OR (16FICIAI. I~CF QNi.Y UDC 551.509.313 DISCRIMINATION OF TRAVELLING WAVES FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA Moscow I~:TEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGI'~A in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript receivLd 29 Dec 80) pp 102-104 [Article by A. A. Krivolutskiy, Central Aerological Observatory] (Abstract] Global waves propagating along a circle of latitude, associat2d with the gyroscopic stability of the atmosphere (Rossby waves), are of great~interest to meteorologists. It is important to be able to determine the structure of such travelling waves and separate standing and travelling waves of the same period. R. J. Deland (J. METEOROL. SOC. JAPAN, Vol 50, 1972), for example, repre4ented a disturbance in the form of. sums of w~ives of the same period travellin~ tor~arZ one another (with summation for all periods). But tliat intuitive fortn of representa- tion did not take into account the possible influence of standing waves. This made it necessary for others to correct the method, which greatly complicated the procedure for discriminating the travelling wave. Thefore, the author has proposed a method which makes determination of the amplitudes of travelling and standing waves quite simple. Assuming that Y(t,~l) is thE distribution of a meteorological parameter at some level as a function of time t and longitude a, and representing Y(t, in the form of an expansion in a two-dimensional Fourier series, a serie~ of expressions is derived for representing the real field in the form of a series, thereby obtaining the amplitudes of the waves for discrete values of frequencies (periods). Formulas are then derived for separate determination of the time sg~.c- tra of travelling and standing waves for any s, whose value characterizes the con- tribution of variations with a different longitudinal structure to tiie total. var- iability. The described procedure was applied to analysis of real data: daily _ geopotential data for the circle of latitude 60�N at the level 100 mb for the win- ter of 1972/1973. During this period one-dimensional statistical analysis reveals variations with a period of 27-28 days in the zonal circu~ation index series. An e�fort was made to lscertain wt~ether these variations were associated with a prop- ;1Kc~tinf; Lr~netary w:~v~~. The length of the interval was about five montl~s. It was found that variati.ons with a period of 27-28 days cause a planetary wave with a longitudinal wave number s= 1. There were virtually no travelling waves with other s. For s= 2 there was a standing wave with a period close to 40 days. Figures 1; references 9: 2 Russian, 7 Western. 74 FOR ORF7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FnR OFFI('IAt. it~~ (1Ni.V ~ UDC 551.513 INVESTIGATING THE CONVERGENCE OF A DRY CONVECTIVE ADAPTATION SCHEME IN MODELS OF MACROSCALE ATTiOSPHERIC PROCESSES ',N~scow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received - 11 Dec 80) pp 105-107 [Article by I. V. Cholakh, West Siberian Scientific Research Institute] [Abstract] In models of general circulation of the atmosphere it is now common co use a scheme for dry convective adaptation which was proposed by S. Manabe, et al. ' In the review of this scheme it is pointed out that as a result of such adaptation there can be a disruption of stability of stratificatian of ad~acent layers and ' then the entire procedure must be repeated. In the models a limit is sometimes set on the number of such iterationg since the matter of the finiteness of the itera- - tion process or its convergence has not been studied. This question is examined here in a special case. It is assumed that the number of levels is 3 and it is further assumed that the initial distributioti of temperatures is such that only the lower layer requires ada~ptation and after its adaptation there is disruption of stratifi~~ation of the upper layer. It is shown that the process of convective adaptation will continue infinitely. Accordingly,~a mcdified procedure is p:oposed and it is shown under what conditions the convective adaptation procedure will con- tinue a finite number of steps. This improvement in the scheme is completely applic- able to a case when it is assumed that the convective adaptation is accomplished layer-by-layer, that is, whEn at each moment the temperature values are scaled only at two adjacent levels. References: 2 Russian. - 7~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLI' UDC 551.509.313 DETERMINING PARAMETERS OF CORRELATION FUNCTIONS DURING OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF IIYDROMETEOROLOGICAL FIELDS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian ivo 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received ?_8 Nov 80) pp 108-110 [Arricle hy B. Bakirbayev and V. V. Kostyukov, candidate of physical aad mathemat~ ic.aJ. sciences, West Siberian Scientific Research Institute and Computation Center, Siberian llepartment, USSR Academy of Sciences] [Abstract; Optimum interpolation is an effective means for describing and studying hydrometeorological fields. However, its use is possible only with the availability of statistical information on the elements to be analyzed, usually as a result of piocessing of a great number of ineasurements. Therefore, for elements in which in- terest has recently arisen, and accordingly, whose statistical structure has been studied p~orly, no interpretation can be made by the mentioned method. The authors ~ have therefore proposed a generalizatian of optimum interpolation making it possible to carry out objective analysis in the absence of precise data on the correlation function. It is only necessary to assume its general character, expressed by a func- tional dependence on distaiice. The specific form is determined in the course of the - analysis. The essence of the approach is that the minimum of the mean statistical error is sought using not only the values of the interpolation weights, but also the unknown parameters of the correlation function. Station measurement data are used as superposed correlations, which makes it possible to ascertain the sought-for val- ues of the parameters. The method evidently can be used in cases of complete absence oi statistical information on the analyzed element, for example, for the fields of contaminations by different ingredients, which may even have a unique character. The application of the method is il.lustrated for the geopotential field AT500~ surface temperature of the Black Sea and the concentration of radioactive contamination of Atlantic waters by 9USr. Tables 1; references: 5 Russian. 76 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 N'l)M2 (li~F'1('i:11. 1'tih' ()Ni.l UDC 551.575.551.576.11.551.465.7 FORMATION OF STRATUS CLOUDS AND FOGS ON HYDROLOGICAL FRONTS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 17 Nov 80) pp 11Q-112 IAYticle by V. V. Rossov, candidate of geographical sciences, Polar Scientific Re- search Institute of Marine Fishing and Oceanography] [Abstract] During recent years satellite information has come into use for determin- ing the position of hydrological fronts in the oceans. In addition to infrared sens- ing methods, it is also possible to use remote determination of the position of hy- drological fronts on the basis of cloud cover on images in the visible spectral range. It is assumed that if in a low-gradient pressure field over the ocean an air mass move~ in the direction of cold waters, the boundary of the stratus clouds or fog coincides with the position of the hydrological front, whereas with the move- ment of the air mass in the direction of the warm waters a cumulus cloud cover is formed over the warm waters. The author has endeavored to clarify (semiempirically) at what distance froin the front and under what temperature contrast conditions on the front there can be formation of stratus clouds or fog. The analysis reveals that in the first approximation it can be assumed that undar conditions typical for the ocean r0 ~ 80% and small T~ - T1 values (r~ is relative hwnidity, T~ - T1 is the dif- ference between the air temperature in the near-water friction layer and the sur- face tanperature of the underlying water mass) the dew point is attained at a rela- tively short distance from the front over cold water, but with a high T~ - T1 value and a broad transition (frontal) zone a fog or stratus clouds can also develop over the frontal zone itself. (The width of the transition zone for mean conditions is reckoned at about 25 km.) A table gives the results for different variables: Tp - T1 = 5, 10, 15� and rp = 50, 60, 70, 80, 90~. Figiires 2, tables 1; references: 5 Rus- sian. 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL IISE ONLY UDC 551.465.7:629.78 ROLE OF ADVANCED SAACE SYSTEMS IN IMPLEMENTING THE OCEANOGRAPHIC PART OF THE WORLD CLIMATE RESEARCH PROGRAM Moscow METE~ROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian tio 10, Oct 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 113-119 (Article by I. F. 13erestovskiy and S. V. Viktorov, candidate of physical and math- ematical sciences, USSR State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Mon- itorir~g and Leningrad Aivision, State Oceanographic InstituteJ (Text] Abstract: In this review, based on materials of the International Coordination Conference, the authors examine the problems related to the use of space information in the implementation of major oceanographic experiments planned within the framework of the World Climate Research Pro- gram in the late 1980's. Plans and programs for the creation of satellites and space systems of interest for oceanography are set forth. l. Introduction. A conference on the coordination of plans for future satellite . systems for sensing the earth and oceanic experiments organized within the frame- work of the World Climate Research Program was held during the period 26-31 Janu- ary 1981 near Oxford (Cngland) under the aegis of the World Meteorological Organ- ization (WMO), International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) dnd the Inter- govermnental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. This conference was called by the Joint WMO/ICSU Scientif ic Committee on the World Climate Research Program and the Program for Investigation of Global Atmospheric Processes and the SCORE/IOC Committee on Changes in Climate and the Ocean. The conference was attended by scientists from 12 countries, including special- ists of the USSR State Conmittee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The tasks of the conference were as follows: discussion of the problem of wl?attype of space system for remote sensing of the ~cean is the most acceptable for use in the implementation of major oceanographic zxperiments planned within the framework of the World Climate Research Program in the late 1980's; analysis of existing plans for the launching of satellites, data from which can be used for oceanographic research; ~ 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440080048-7 b'(1R (1FF1('IA1. I itiF. (1N1 1' f urmul~~~lun c~f rc~commendations for optimizing these plans for the purpose of ~c~t?ievinK t(~e maximum cffect when using advanced oceanographic space systems with- Ln the framework of the World Climate Research Program. 1'he conferees were famili_arized with the Preliminary Plan of the WorZd Climate Re- Search Program (WCRP) and with the existing plans for the organization of ma~or in- ternational oceanographic experiments within the framework of the WCRP. The repre- sentatives of the USSR, United States, Japan and. the European Space Research Agency told the conferees about the preliminary plans for creating satellites and space :,ystems which are of interest for oceanography. Also examined were the problems in- volved in the development of new methods and apparatus (including satellite equip- ment) necessary for implementing the oceanographic part of the WCRP and the prob- lems relatin3 to the rational joint use or space and traditional methods for ob- taining oceanographic data. 2. World Clim4~e Research Program (WCRP) The principal purpo~e of the WCRP is a determination of the degree of predictabil- ity of ~Zimate and the influence of mankind on climate. In order to achieve this Koal i.t is necessary to solve the fo7lowing problems: improve our knowledge concerning global and regional climate, variations of cli- n~:ic~~ and the mechanisms responsible for these variations; determine the presence of significant trends in global and regional cl3mate; develop and improve physical and mathematical m~dels capable of describing and predicting climatic phenomena of different spatial and temporal ~cales; study of the response of climate to possible natural and anthropogenic influ- ences and evaluation of climatic changes as a resul.t of such modification. The principal WCRP time scale is from several weeks to several decades. However, ttiis also includes processes of a synoptic scale. The spatial scale is from re- ~ional (about 1000 km) to global, the emphasis being on the desirability of devel- ~~ping methods ~naking it poss~ble to interpret macroscale results within the frame- work of local phenomena. In ttie Prelimir.ary Plan for the WCRP the terms weather, climate and climatic ch:in3es are defined and components of the climatic system are determined. This - ~yst?m includes the atmosphere (including the troposphere and stratosphere), ,~-e,~ns, cryc ~.phere (including the ice and snow of the oceans and cot.i-inents, land ~nd ~~lsc,~ the biosphere. Although there are no elements in the program which can h~~ ncxlected, amo-~g the many climato2ogically important processes it is pos- ~;ible to discriminate two which require special at~ention. This is attributable hutt~ t~> their special position as rhe factors determining th~, climate and to the !;+cr. that in order to organize experimental programs for their study it is neces- ;.~ry to invest a great amount of time. These processes include the process deter- ;,ininu> the .influence of cloud cover on the radiation energy balance of the climate -:ystet~ ,~nd the process determiniu~ the influence of physics and dynamics of the ~ce~i~~ on the global circulation of heat, water and chemical substances (especial- ~ c;~rhun) ~in the ~limate system. ''I,~ ~dCKP pruvides fur extensive theoretical and experimental s~:udies for investigat- - in~ oceanic processes. In the section "Oceanic Processes" of the Preliminary Plan ?~,~r tlie WCRP it is emghasized that in comparison with the atmosphere thE system 79 FO[t ~Olr FlCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY for observing and modeling the ocean is developed to a considerably lesser degree. Accordingly, the purpose of ccie oceanographic part of the WCRP should be an im- provement in our comprehension of the three-dimensional circulation of heat, water and chemical substances (especially carbon) in the world ocean, and thus a clarif- ication of the role of oceanic prc+cesses in the climate system. Particular atten- tion should be devoted to the factors which can exert an influence on changes in atmospheric climate at the principal WCRP time scales. In the Preliminary Plan for the WCRP it is pointed out that the collection of quite representative data concerning the world ocean is a grandiose problem which simply cannot be accomplished without using new methods. It requires a changeover from an almost complete reliance on scientif ic ships to a new era in the use of instrument- ation carried aboard regular ships, drifting and anchored buoys, on the sea floor and satellites. This process has already begun and should be accelerated for the successful implementation of the WCRP. 3. Major International Oceanographic Experiments Planned for the End of the 1980's Within the Framework of the World Climate Research Program It is noted that existin~; international and national programs for study of the ocear. will not be ahle to satisfy all [JCRP requirements. Therefore, the Prelimin- ary Plan for the WC1tP provides for carrying out special oceanographic projects for ensuring receipt of the most representative information. a) An experiment for studying glohal circulation of the ocean. The purpose of this experiment is a considerable decrease in the presently existinS uncertainty of our knowledge concerning macroscale oceanic circulation, including seasonal variations of circulation in the upper layer of the ocean (at least to a depth of 1 l:m). It is assumed that this objective can be attained with the joint use of~diagnostic models based on the geophysical "inverse" method aiid observations made using dif~ ferent new technical apparatus. The experiment, which is to be carried out in the late 1980's, will create an information base for the development of climatic mod- els of interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere. The principal role in ttlis experiment is to be played by satellite systems for measuring ~he level surface of the ocean. Professor C. Wunsch visualizes that by the late 1980's, beginning in approximately 1986, there will be ar? altimetric sat- ell.ite witti a~lifetime of several years in the necessary orbit (or more tlian one such satellite), with a small orbital inclinationz there will be an altimetric sat- ellite with a solar-synchronous orbit and also a gravitational satellite. The following requirements are being placed on the characteristics of apparatus for an altimet�ric satellite. Tt should ensure measurement of the distance from a satellite to tlie sea surface with an accuracy attaining two centimeters. The meas- urement system must determine the level surface of the ocean relative to the ter- restrial ellipsoid with an accuracy to 10 cm in segments of about 300~ km or shorter and the accuracy should attain 4 em in horizontal 30-km segmen~:s. The or- bital inclination wlll be about 65� with repetition of transit of the stiibsatellite ~ line through any point with an accuracy of tl km each 10 days. The minimeim life- time of the satellite will be 5 years. 80 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040400080048-7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Efforts must be undertaken for improving our knowledge concerning the sea geoid, especially at scales from several hundreds to several thousands of kilometers. The principal role in such work will evidently be played by a special gravita- tional satellite. It is supposed tr - it should be launched prior to ending of the five-year lifetime of the altimetric satellite. Using the data obtained from the gravitational satellite it should be possible to decrease the systematic errors in measurements by the altimetric satellite to the level 4 cm or less for any revolution. Then in segments of about 500 km or more the ocean level surface ~ caill be determined with spatial averaging with aa accuracy to less than 1 cm. Thus, it is expected ~hat general circulation and its variability (from mesoscale to interannual) will be determined with an accuracy to several centimeters per second, at least for most of the earth's oceans. Another important part of the planned experiment for the study of global circul- ation of the ocean is hydrographic investigations of the oceans in their entire depth. These wil~ be investigations resembling those which wEre carried out under the prog~am of the International Geophysical Year, but will be more extensive, with use of new methods for the collection and processing of data. The expendi- ture of shipboard time is estimated at eight ship-years during the entire five- year period. Altimetric measurements, in combination with improved evaluations of the geoid, will make it possible to localize the position of surface geostroph- ic currents in the ocean in regions of several hundred kilometers or more. Such a localization will mean that the hydrographic profiles for the first time can be used in such a way that they finally wi11 not require the introduction of velocit- . ies of the relative level. For the first time oceanographers will be able to cal- culate the absolute geostrophic currents without having recourse to arbitrary as- sumptions concerning the levels of a"zero current" and avoid the relatively poor spatial resolution resulting from the use of inverse and relative methods. ! Thus, the described concept of a global experiment assumes the collection of satel- lite and traditional data making it possible to determine the general circulation ' of the ocean, its annual and year-to-year variability with an accuracy which elim- , inates the existing uncertainties concerning the transfer of heat, salt and other ~ tracers. b) Experiment for i~tvesttgatinn of heat flo~v and water masses. The objective of this experiment is to decrease the uncertaint~~ in modern estimates of the velocit- ies of heat and water transfer in the world ocean. The main task is to compare the different estimates applicable to a region with a lar~e heat flow and (or) flow of water masses. According to the preliminary plan, presented by Doctor F. Dobson, for carrying out the experiment the subtropical region of the North Atlantic was sel- ected; this area has additional adv~ntages from the point of view of work organ- ization and data interpretation. The mean heat flow transported in this region in ~1 northerly direction is estimated at lO1SW at 24�N. Estimates of the flow di.ffer by almost a factor of 2, but the evaluations of the errors are still greater. With- in the framework of the experiment plans call for measuring the flow with a total ~ccuracy of. about t20%. The data obtained in the course of the experiment should m-ike it possible to determine the seasonal variability of the flow. I~ is supposed ~73t the experiment will begin in the late 1980's and will continue for several ;~ears. The code name of this experiment "Kletka" (Cage) reflects the fact that ai FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400480048-7 FOR ORF7ClAL USE ONLY with use of the difference method for estimating the velocities of transfer in the ocean it is necessary to employ a"cell" of ineteorological observations in order to determine the divergence of the flow of heat and water into trie atmospllere. ' An important role of satellite systems in this experiment is the supplying of reg- ular measurements of temperature of the sea surface with the maximum accuracies attainable in the late 1980's. The desirable accuracy is �0.5�K. (Model investiga- tions show that a temperature change of 1�K changes the quantity of the heat trans- fer between the ocean and the atmosphere in the middle latitudes over the area of the Atlantic Ocean by 20 W/m2 and in the tropics by 40 W/m2.) We note that the radi- ation balance over the entire zone of the experimen.t should be determined with an accuracy not less than �10 W/m2. Using satellites plans also call for determining the characteristics of the wind over the water for the zone of the experi- ment with an accuracy to �10� and �1 m/sec. The spatial averaging for all these measurements was not more than 120 km, the frequency heing once in two days. In addition, the desire has been expressed that a study be made of the problem of the possibility of satellite measurements af the vertical profiles in the atmo- sphere (the accuracy in determining temperature is tl�K, the accuracy in determin- ing wind velocity is t2 m/sec, the accuracy in determining humidity is f30%) along ~ the boundaries of the experimental zone. c) Time series of o~eanographic measurements. The purpose of the program "Time Ser- ies of Oceanographic Measurements" is the coordination of the activity of a number of countries for obtaining time series of oc2anographic measurements in key re- gions. The need for studying the processes of interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere in energy-active zones of the ocean follows from the theoretical studies of Academician G. I. Piarchuk. In the opinion of most scientists, the data obtained under the "Profiles" program will play an important role in comprehend- ing a number of problems relating to interaction between the ocean and the atmo- sphere, and accordir,gly, in the development of new, more perfect models of climate and methods for long-range weather forecasts. The approach involving the coordination of individual national and departmental experiments for the purpose of studying temporal variations in parameters of state of the ocean has received universal support; now specific plans are being develop- ed deteru.tning the recommended profiles and the necessary observation programs. Plans for Creation of Satellites and Space Systems of Interest for Oceanography ~ European Space Agency Program Within the framework of the European program for remote sensing of the earth the ESA during the period 1980-1990 plans to create two types uf satellite. The first (it is possible that there will be two) is intended for observation of the oceans, the second for investigation of the land. The program for the ERS-1 oceanograph- ic satellite provides for solution of the following tasks: the development of economic practical investigations in connection with the prob- lems arising due to the introduction of a 250-mile economic zone; ~ 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY improvement in understanding of dynamic processes in the ocean and in the coast- al zones; observation of the polar regions; ensuring a considerable contribution to the WCRP. At the present time the makeup of the on-board measurement complex has not yet been finally determined. Among the possible instruments are the following: 1) scanning microwave radiometer; 2) scatterometer; 3) side-view radar; 4) altimeter with an additional system for the prec3se determination of satellite position at individ- ual points in orbit; S) instrument for determining the color characteristtcs of the sea; 6) instrumentation for obtaining i~ages of the surface in the visible and near-IR ranges. Such an instrument complex makes it possible to determine the characteristics of the wind near the water (direction and velocity), waves (length and direction of ~;ravitational waves, wave height, direction of internal waves), ice, topography of the ocean surface, temperature of the ocean surface, and detect zones of increased concentrations of suspended particles of different origin. There are several var- iants for the combining of this apparatus. For example, there is a variant of an oceanographic satellite for global. observation of the ocean consisting of a scat- terometer, altimeter, microwave radiometer with spatial resolution of tens of kilo- meters and instrumentation for obtaining images with a resolution of several kilo- meters with a small number of ineasurement channels and also a variant o.` an ocean- ographic satellite for investigating the shore zone of the ocean consisting of a side-view radar, microwave radiometer and instrumentation for obtaining images with a resolution of about hundreds of ineters with narrow spectral channels. In general, with the selected orbit (solar-synchronous circular, altitude 675 km; local time of transit of satellite for 45�N 1130 hours) the width o� the scanning zone for the on-board instrumentation (other than the side-view radar) was determined in such a way as to ensure a global coverage in 3 days. USSR Program ~ System of "Meteor-2" Improved Operational Meteorological Satellites. SaGellite~ in this series are put into a polar orbit with an altitude of abAUt 900 km with'an in- clination of 81� and a period of revolution of 102 minutes. Information on the op- erational purpose and makeup of the on-board measurement complex has been repeated- ly published. The characteristics of the "*teteor-2" meteorological system during 1981.-1990 will be improved, which will make it possible to increase the effective- ness of the collected data. "rteteor" F.xperimental Meteorological Satellites. The "Meteor" experimental meteoro- logical satellites have the followinq purpose: takinK of multizon~il photogr.aphs of cloud cover and the underlying surface over Jimited regions; collection of data on the spatial distribution of zones of precipitation and their intensity, on the total liquid-water content of clouds, position of boundar- - ~~.s of the i.ce cover and their continuity; collection of data on the total moisture content of the atmosphere; collection of data on temperature of the underlying surface; 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFM7CIAL USE ONLY measurement of reflected radiation and its nolarization components for the pur- pose of determining the phase composition of clouds; measurement of the intensity of fluxes of corpuscular radiation. The "Meteor~l8" and "Meteor-25" were put into an orbit with an altitude of 900 km and an inclination of 81�; the "Meteor-28" and subsequent "Meteor" experimental artificial earth satellites were put into solar-synchronous orbits with an alti- tudr.,of 600 km. - The sensors included: scanning four-channel apparatus of the television type. Spectral inte~vals: 0.5- 0. 6 � m; 0.6-0. 7~,t m; 7-0. 8 � m; 0.8-l.l� m. Coverage on the surface of 1800 km with a resolution of 600 m at the nadir; scanning two-channFl apparatus of the television type. Spectral intervals: 0.5- 0.7Ntm and 0.7-1.1 � m. Coverage on the ground 1200 lun, resolution 250 m at the nadir; microwave radiometers; four-channel spectr.ometer for measuring the intensity of fluxes of corpuscular radiation; scanning IR radiome.ter for slant sounding for measuring thermal radiation of the upper atmosphere. Individual "Meteor" experimental artificial earth satellites are used in direct transmissions of images obtained in the visible spectral range in one of the spec- tral intervals. Five satellites of this series have now been launched. The program will be continued. Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellites. A Soviet geostatior.ary meteor- ological satellite will be launched into a geostationary orbit at an altitude of about 36 000 km and w:ill be situated over a point about 70�E. The ~perational pur- pose will be: collection of data on the distribution of cloud cover in the equatorial and tem- perate latitudes on the illuminated and shaded sides of the earth; collection of data on the wind direction and velocity at two or three levels; collection of data from surface ~~latforms (buoys), including international; dissemination of images of the cloud cover, diagnostic and prognostic weather maps on a regional and international basis; collection of data on temperature of the sea surface. ~ The sensors will include: scanning apparatus of the television type (visible part of spectrum), resolution 2-4 km; scanninR IR apparatus (in transparency windo~~ 8-12 ~ m), resolution about 12 km; receiving-transmitting apparatus. The system for the collection of data and the system for direct transmissions are Planned taking into account the recommendations of the coordination conf erence on geostationary meteorological satellites. 84 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440080048-7 F'OR OFF7CIAL USE ONI.Y Spsce System for Investigating the Earth's Natural Resources. In the USSR plans call for ctie creation of a permanently operating space system for investigating natural resources based on the use of space vehicles outfitted with instrumenta- tion for remote measurements of parameters of the land, ocean ar~d at~asphere. As the principal instruments for study of the earth's surface and ocear. plans call for the use of multizonal optical-mechanical scanning units with a high and inter- mediate resolution with the following characteristics: the extent of a resolution elem.ent on the ground is 50 m in the visible ranges 200 m in the IR range (for high.-resolution units) and 150-250 m in the visible range, 500-600 m in the IR range (for intermediate resolution units); scanning band 180-200 km and 500-700 lan respectively; number of spectral zones 8 and 4 in the spectral range 0.4-12.5 ~ m. The periodicity of scanning (along the equator) for one space vehicle of the opera- tional subsystem is 14-17 days with the use of multizonal units with a high resolu- _ tion and 4-5 days with the use of multizonal scanning units with an intermediate resolution. In order to study the ocean and the earth's surface plans call for radar apparatus ~~nd also scanning radiometric apparatus in the SHF range as operational tools. Plans call for the development of a system for transmis~ion via the space vehicle of information from surface and sea platforms for the collection of data used for refining the results of remote measurements. ~ For the reception, processing and propagation of the data from remote measurements provision is made for organizing regional processing centers: in Moscow, Novosib- i.rsk and Khabarovsk. The Moscow Data Processing Center will be the main center and will ensure control of operational subsystems. These characteri~tics of the system are preliminary and can be refined in the course of development of the system. Manned space stations of the "Salyut" type, meteorological satellites of the "Met- c~or" system, space vehicles of the "Cosmos" series and aircraft laboratories wi11 t~e emp]_oyed as components in the space system for the study of natural resources. The data obtained using the created system can be used for j.nternational exchange, in the impl~mentation of different scientific research progi-ams, including in the course of carrying out of. work under the oceanographic sect:~on of the WCRP. IJnited States Program (~ceanographic satellites. The objectives of the program for study of oceanic process- ~~s develoned by NASA 1p~.~4dE' ':he formulation of scientific principles for measuring ~~ceanoK:-aphic character:stics from satellites and demonstration of the userulness c,f information on the ocean received from space. In the 1980's the research aspc:ct ti~.~s program will 'ue directed to an improvement ~.n the understanding of the fol- lowin~z, problems: circul.:tion and heat reserve of the oceans, movem~ants and destruc- t~.u:l ~f sea ice, biological productivity of the 35 FOIt OF['ICiAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 , FOtt OFFICUL USE ONLY Plans call for the creatien of four space systems: National Oceanographic Satel- lite System, Topographic Experiment, Gravitational Satellite and a satellite witn a side-view radar staticn with a synthesi2ed aperture. The purpose of ttte National Oce-3nographic Satellite System is a limited operational dem~nstration of the use af satellites f~r determining the characteristics of waves, near-water wind, water temperature and color, ice and currents. In addition, these data wili help to solve two scientific problems: scatterometric measurements of the wind together with cont.~ct measur2ment:s of currents will be used in studying wind circulation, chlorophyll concer.tration, and with determination by use of a color scanner, tegether with shipbaard data, will be used in investigating the relationship between the productivity of p:~ytoplankton, variability of the ocean and other ele- ments o� the food cha~n. The Topographic Exp~riment an~d tne GraWitational Satellite are research programs. Data on the topography of the sea surface, determined by means of altimeters (Topo- graphic Experim~nt), and che results o~ measurements of the marine geoid (Gravimet- ric Satellite) w~.Il b~ used joantl.~ with shipboard gravimetric, hydrographic and other data for studying geostrophic circulation. In particular, it is planned tha.t images of the s~a surface anc~ ir_e from a satellite carrying a side-view radar will l~e used for investigating ttie influence af the wind effect and currents on the char- ac eristics of the ice cover on the seas. tJor~ will be continued for i.nvesti~ating iwproved methods for the collection of ref- erence (polygon) information both for cher_~king the functioning of space systems for Sensing the earth in general, anct ~.1so for obtaitiing information from tl.e deeps for the purpose of ordinary satellite two-dimensional information on the sea surface. Work is planned on the d~ve?opment of ineans for the collection and comparison of data from contact and satellit~ measurements, their joint storage, ~ompression of information, its disse~ination and analysis by different users. Meteorological satellites. In the 1980's plans call for three space systems whose - information can be used in the interests af oceanography: an experiment for inves- tigating the earth's radiation balance, a series of operational. meteorological sat- ellites (NOAA) ir polar orbits and geostationary operational satellites for study- ing the environment (known as GOES satellites). Tlie ~urpose of the exper:ment for investigating the earth`s radiation balance is measurement of the earth's radiation balance, including the total energy release of the sun. The experiment is based on the use of three satellites, including two of the NOAA type and one specialized satellite. It is planned that in the 1980's the NOAA satellite system will consist of 10 satellites. At present there are two satellites of this series in operation (altitude 870 km, orbital inclination 98.9�, time for intersecting the equator on the descending branch of the orbit 0730 and 0230 hours respectively). Each of the NOAA satellites has: 1) a radiometer with superhi~h resolution in the optical and IR ranges, 2) a block for determining the atmospt~eric profile, including an IR high-resolution probe, a block for sound- ing thE+ stratosphere (supplied by Great Britain) and a microwave sounding block, 3) a monitor of the solar radiation flux, 4) a system for the collection of data from sur-face platforms (buoys) of the ARGOS type (supplied by France) and 86 FOR OFFIC[AI. USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY S) a system for automatic transmission of i~aages. Beginning with the fifth satel- lite of this series they will carry an emergency searcli and rescue block, and be- ginning with the sixth blocks for measuring the components of the earth's radia- tion balance. During 1981-1990 plans call for the use of 8 satellites of the GOES series. Now there are two operational vehicles in service (altitude 36,000 km above the earth's equator, one at the point 75�W and another at 135�W). Each satellite of che GOES series has: 1) a monitor of the flux of cosmic radiation, 2) a block for the fac- simile transmission of weather maps, 3) a 12-channel scanning radiometer for the visible and IR ranges. Beginning with the fourth satellite of this series instead of the latter instrument they will be outfitted with improved radiometers capable of giving a multispectral image. Japanese Program ~ The preliminary plan for 1981-1990 provides for the creation of three satellites for remote sensing of the The first Japanese oceanographic satellite, the~ t�10S-1, is intended for determining the color characteristics of sea water (for the purpose of detecting cont~minations, the "red tide" phenomenon, and also for - observing fi~hing regions) arid+ocean surface temperature. In addition, the sat- ellite will be used for studying vegetation on the land. The on-board measurement complex will consist of a radiometer operating in the visible and near-IR ranges, a radiometer operating in the visible and thermal IR ranges, a microwave radio- meter and a system for the collection of data from surface platforms (buoys). The radiometer operating in the visible and near-IR ~ange, intended for detertnin- ing the color characteristics of the sea, is a four-channel scanning unit with a_ high resolution with electronic scanning, designed on the basis of instruments with so-called charging elements. The measuremerat channels are: 0.51-0.59, 0.61- 0.69, 0.72-0.80 and 0.80-1.1 N,m. The spatial resolution is 50 m with a scanning band of 100 km for each of the two optical systems. Each optical system consists of a Gaussian telescope and prisms separa~ing the incident flux into two parts in dependence on wavelength and two series of charging elements consisting of 2,048 subelements. The number of signal quantization levels is 64. The radiometer operating in the visible and thermal IR ranges, intended for deter- mining the temperature of the sea surface, is a four-channel scanning unit with optical-mechanical image scanning. The measurement channels are: 0.5-0.7; 6-7; i0.5-11.5; 11.5-12.5 � m. The spatial resolution is 0.9 km for the visible range and 2.7 km for the IR range with a scanning band of 1,500 km. For increasing the instrument reliability each measurement channel has two radiatifln detectors. The number of signal quantization levels is 256. 'I'lie microwave radiometer, intended for measuring the water vapor content in the at- mosphere, is a two-frequency scanning unit with conical mechanical scanning. The working frequencies are 23.8 and 31.4 GHz; the spatial resolution is 32 and 23 km respectively. The scanning band is 317 km, the radiometric response is 1�K (at 3UU�k), and the number of signal quantization levels is 1,024. 87 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For work with the MOS-1 satellite and the processing of data plans call for *_he use of the space center Tsukuba and three stations: Matsuura, Matsuda and Okinawa. The sQCOnd Japanese oceanographic satellite, the MOS-2, is intended for the invegCi- gation of dynamic phenomena in the ocean (near-surface wind, wave heights, oceanic geoid, c~irrents, ocean circulations, tides). The on-board measurement complex will probably consist of an altimeter, scatterometer, microwave ra~iometer and a sys- tem for the collection of uata from surface platforms (bunys). The third oceano- graphic satellite, the MOS-3, will differ from the second by the presence of in- strumentation for the all-weather collection of images of the sea surface (side- view radar and radiometer operating in the visible and IR ranges). In addition to the three oceanographic satellites, Japan within the framework of the WCRP is also planning to employ its geostationary satellite GMS-2, which it is planned will be launched in 1981 to the point 140�E. 5. Development of New Means and Methods for Studying Ocean From Space The conference noted that there is a great gap between the requirements for global - informar.ion advanced by the [dCRP and the modern technical possibilities for the collection of such information. This applies, in particular, to oceanographic data and meteorological information over the oceans. In many cases there is no hope for obtaining the necessary giobal infor:nation without the use of space observation systems. Emphasis should be on the development of on-board measurement systems, continuatien of efforts for the development of inethods for the processing, analysis and interpretation of space information, and the coordination of space programs fc;r the purpose of optimum organization of observations in time and space. In this connection, in the conference documents it is noted that in the past inade- quate attention was devoted to the problems of optimwn use of ~atellite data on a regular basis. The employed algorithms are possibly ineffective for the complete ~ extraction of useful information from the primary data of satellite measurements. For a number of characteristics which must be determined there is an inadequate volume of synchronous surface measurements and calibrations. Satellite data must be reinfor.ced by tra~ditional information serving as a comparative base for ascertain-, ing the reliability and accuracy of the space measurements; with this taken into account, in the opinion of Soviet specialists, there should be planning of future systems fur remote sensing of the earth and the warld ocean. It was noted that in the carrying out of satellite measurements in the intereat of oceanography within the framework of the WCRP it is necessary to organize special calibration experiments. It is possible that after some time it will become clear for all that the success of satellite measurements will require the implementation of calibrations by means ~f contact measurements on a regular basis. In a number of cases it will be useful to carry out a comparison of different :iatellite meth- ods and also to comUine experimental methods created at different lnstitutes which mutually supplement one another. It is recognized that for the successful realization of the ocean~~graphic part of the WCRF it is necessary to devote special attention to the formu.lation and develop- ment of space methods and facilities for observationa? purposes ~~ntended for the ~ 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY Klobal determination of temperature of the ocean surface and the near-surface wind over the ocean, measurement of rises in the sea suriace relative to tre geoid and determ~nation of pxessure in the near-water layer and the spectrum of surface _ waves. Also noted was the imoortance of bringiag the attention of specialists to the de- velopment of pr~miGing satellite methods, whi~h on a global and operational basis would make it ;~ossible to determine xhe air-water temperature (for the G~ilf Stream region an arcuracy of f0.4�K is required) and the moisture content of the near- water layer of the atmospiiere t0-20 r~) with an accura.r.q to ~.OS g/kg, as well as ~ the falling of precipit~tion over the ocean and the salinity of the water surface layer. In conclusion it should be noted that the l~oiding Qf th~e ranference on the coordin- ation of plans for future satellite systems for sens{.ng the eaith and oceanic ex- periments was an important and necessary stage in prep~r.a::ions for the W~:RP. The mutual exchange of information and opinions made it gossir~ie for the conferees to form a sufficiently complete idea concerning the at~ained lev~l and the prospects for the development of space methods and tec'tnical m~ans for de~ermining oceano- ~raphic parameters and characteristics of the atmo~phere over the ocean. The cuurse of the discussion indic4ted the enormous int~rest of sp ecialists in the field of climatology, meteorology, oceanograph�, hydrology, as well as other sci- enttsts in related fields in the use of the potentialities of existing, and espec- ially future sate~lite cr.ethods. We should also note tiie increasing attention to the characteristics of new noncontact methods on the part of represe.~tatives of trad- itional scientif3c fields. The nolding of this conference created the prerequisites for subsequent discussion of the pxoblems involved in the int~rnztional coordiiiation of national plans and programs for creating individual satellites and space systems, information from which will be a necessary element in implementing the oceanographic part of the Zdorld Climate Res2arch Program. 89 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOK OF'~t~'IA1. USN: ONLY ~ REVIF.W OF MONOGRAPH 'AGROPHYSICAL, AGRaMETEOROLOGICAL I?ND AGROENGINEERING PRINCIPLES OF CROP YIELD PROGRAMMING' ('AGROt~IZICIiESKIYE, A~ROMETEOROLOGICHESKIYE . I AGROTEKHNICHESKIYE OSNOVY PROGRAMMIROVANIYA UROZHAYA'), B~ I. S. SHATILOV AND A. F. CHUDNOVSKIY, LEIJINGRAD, GIDROMETEOIZllAT, 1980, 320 PAGES Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 pp 120-121 [Review by 0. D. Sirotenko] [Abstract] This book, for the first time f rom an integr~*2d point of view, exa.mines the agrophysical, agrometeorological and agroengineering aspects of yield programm~- ing. Takirig into account the increasing interest in this subject, which for many specialists is asso+;tated with the introduction of physicomathEmatica.l methods into agronomy, iC is probable that the book will be eagerly received. Na~�, as never be- fore, there is a need for generalizing works on yield programming. The continuous increase in the number of publications on this problem has revealed a broad spectrum of possible approaches to the problem of ensuring planned yfelds. A great many typer of mathematical models have been formulated f~r describing the processes of influence of weather, soil, agroengineering and other factors on yield formation, which in grinciple can be used in descriptive., predictive and cantrol work in the field of plant cultivation. Meanwhile, until now there have been virtually no generalizing works guiding specialists in the develapment and use of the most effective approach- es and models. The bcok consists of three parts and seven chapters. The first part gives a lengthy exposition of the fundamental problems involved in developing meth- ods for yield programming. The second part is devoted to the modeling of processes of energy and mass exchange in the soil-agrocoenosis-atmosphere system, that is, an inventorying 4f the concepts and models whi~ch in principle can be used in developing _ automated systems f.or the control of technological processes in plant cultivation. The third part of the book examines the problems involved in the mathematical and technica]. suppo~t of automated for the control of technological processes in yield programming. Despite a number of shortcomings, such as some unevenness in treatment of different aspects of the overall problem, the book is the beat of its kind on this subject. � 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY SIXTIETH BIRTtIDAY OF ANDREY SERGEYEVICH MONIN Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 pp 122-123 [Article by specialists of the Institute of Oceanology] [Abstract] Andrey Sergeyevich Monin, corresponding memb~r, USSR Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of Oceanology, marked his bOth bir.thday on 2 July 1981. He is characterized by an astonishing work capacity, bein6 the author of hundrede of articles and monographs; he is the chairman or a member of a great many commis- sions, the director of a seminar on geophysical hydrodynamics, has been a partic- ipant or director of many sea expeditions and an investigator of the sea floor. The principal ~tages in his career have been as follows: some 7 years at the Central In- stitute of Forecasts, 15 years at the Institute of Atmosgheric �hysics, 16 years at the Institute of Oceanology. In his years at the latter institute he was most re- sponsible for publication of the ATLAS OKEANOV (Atlas of t}.e Oceans)(1980). Recent- ly he was editor of the fundamental 10-volume publication QKEAN (The Ocean), which summarizes the ~~ost up~to-date information concerning the oceans: on the history of development of the oceans, the course of their n~tural evoluti~n, their geology and geography, chemistry and biology, on the dynamics of currents, wave and turbu- lent processes. His range of scientific interests is astonishing: from flying saucers to evaluatton of global productivity of the oceans. His principal mono- graphs (some with co-authors) have been: ~TATISTICHESKAYA GIDROMEKHANIKA (Statis- tical Hydromechanics), 2 volumes, 1965, 1967; PROGNOZ POGODY KAK ZADACHA FIZIKI (Weather Forecasting as a Problem in Physics), 1969; VRASHCHENIYE ZII~I I KLIMAT (The Earth's Rotati.on and Climate), 1972; IZMENCHIVOST' MIROVOGO OKEANA (Variabil- ity of the World Ocean), 1974; ISTORIYA ZENQ.I (History of the Earth), 1977; ISTOR- iYA KLIMATA (History of Climate), 1979; OKEANSKAYA TURBULENTNOST' (Oceanic Turbu- ience), 1.981. Figures 1. 91 ~ ' FOR OFFlCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400080048-7 FOR OF'I~7C[AL USE ONLY SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY OF SEMEN SII~IENOVICH GAYGEROV , Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 pp 123-124 [Article by personnel of the Cen~ral Aerological Obser.vatory] [Abstract] Professor Semen Semenovich Gaygerov, doctor of geographical sciQnces, head ~f the Laboratory of Meteorology of the Upper Atmosphere at the Central Aero- logical Observatory, marked his 70th birthday on 15 October 1981. Beginning his work in the Hydrometeorological Service in 1929, he progressed from observer at a meteorological station to a leading specialist in the field of experimental aero- logy and synoptic meteorology. He is now well known in the USSR and abroad. He was one of the organizers of the Central Aerological Observatory in 1940 before serving _ as a meteorologist in the armed forces. After the war ended he participated in unique investigations with balloons, making possible a quantitative evaluation of the principal meteorological parameters of moving air in the troposphere. As an ac- tive participant in the IGY, Gaygerov during 1955~1956 carried out aerometeorolog- ical investigations on the drifting station "Severnyy Polyus-4," and in 1956-1958 he participated in the Second Soviet Antarctic Expedition. The results of these studies were generalized in a number of articles and monographs and were included in the ATLAS OF ANTARCTICA. Beginning in 1964, Semen S~aenovich made studies of macroscale processes in the high layers of the atmosphere. He headed a number of expeditions at sea on which rocket measurements were made and with use of data from thermal sounding from satellites. He directed work at the Central Aerological Observatory for developing a new standard atmosphere for the layer 30-8U km. The results of thE mentioned studies were a component part of the COSPAR Reference At- mosphere of 1972. During 1971-1972 Gaygerov participated in the 16th Soviet Antarc- tic Expedition, heading the aerometeorological detachment. At that time investig~- tions of atmospheric circulation were made to an altitude of 90 km, the results being included in the monograph VOZDUSHNYYE TECHh~NIYA V MEZOSFERE ANTARKTIKI (Air Currents in the Antarctic Mesosphere) (1975). S. S. Gaygerov has published more than 100 scientific studies, including six monographs, which have received recog~� nition in both the USSR and abroad. His book AEROLOGIYA POLYARNYKH RAYONOV (Aero- logy of the Polar Regions) has been tr~nslated into English. FigurE.s 1. 92 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SIXTIETH BIRTHDAY OF NIKOLAY GAVRILOVICH LEONOV Moscow iMETEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 81 pp 124-125 _ [Article by specialists of the USSR Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Center] [Abstract] Nikolay Gavrilovich Leonav, candidate of physical and mathematical sci- ences, head of the Short-Range Weather Forecasting Division of the USSR Hydro- meteorological Scientific Research Center, marked his 60th birthday on 7 August 1981, tagether with the 40th anz?iversary of his scientific work. graduati:~g in 1943 from the Higher Military Hydrometeorological Institute of the Red Army, he was sent to the Administiation of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Far Eastern Front, where he participated in hydrometeorological and for2casting work. After the war N. G. Leonov went to work at the Central Institute of Forecasts, where he ad- vanced through the ranks to be deputy director. He is an outstanding specialist in dif.ferent fields of synoptic meteorology. Between November 1955 and August 1957 he participated ir_ the First Soviet Antarctic Expedition, data from which he general- ' ized and published in three scientific studies. While c~eputy director of the USSR Hydrometeorological Center, Nikolay Gavrilovich did much work directed to improv- ~ ing the collection, processing and preparation of routine materials and introduc- tion of advanced forecasting methods for the analysis and forecasiing of weather. At the USSR Hydrometeorological Center he was the f irst to prepare global maps of cloud cover on the basis of observations from meteorolo~ical artificial earth sat- ellites. He headed a section in the World Weather Service and directed the section - for the analysis of world weather and data dissemination. N. G. Leonov did muc.h work al.ung the lines of international technical cooperation in the field of syn- optic meteorology and is widely known among foreign scientists. He occupied a ser- ies of respunsible posts in the WMO Secretariat. He was Vice President and later President of the WMO Commission on: Synoptic Meteorology. For many years Nikolay Gavrilovich headed a working grou~ on codes at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center ' and devoted much attention to the development of new and i~provement of existing international meteorological codes. Figures 1. 93 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY AT THE USSR STATE CUMMITTEE ON HYDROMETEOROLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 1~, Oct 81 p 125 [Article by V. N. 7_akf~~ir.ov] [TextJ In accordance witt~ a decree of the Board of ttie USSR State Committee on Sci- ence and Technology, in April 1981 the Valday Scientj.fic Research Hydrological Lab- aratory imeni V. A. Uryvayev of the Srate Order of tt~e Red Banner of Labor Hydr~~log- ical Institute was transformed into the Valday Affilj.ate of that institute. Stepan Fedorovich Fedorov, doctor of geograph ical sciences, has been designated di- ructor of the Valday Affiliate of the State Hydrological Institute. In connection with the creation of the aff iliate its missions have been expanded considerably in comparison with those performed earlier by the Valday Laboratory. 94 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF'IC'i[AL USE ONLY CONFERENCES, MEETINGS, SEMINARS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russi~n No 10, Oct 81 pp 125-128 [Article by M. A. Butuzova, A. A. Zhelnin and N. A. Zaytseva] [Text] A session of the Scientific Council on the Problem '�Artificial Modification of Hydrometeorological Processes" of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring was held during the period 22-23 April at the Central Asian Regional Scientific Research Institute imeni V. A. Bugayev (Tashkent). About 25 members participated in the work of the Council, as well as specialists of the Artificial Modification Division of the Central Asian Scientific Researcti ~ Institute. The forum of scientists was opened by N. N. Aksarin, director of the Central Asian Scientific Research Institute. I. I. Burtsev, head of the Administration on Use of Artificial Modification in the National Economy, presented appropriate introduc- tory remarks from the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Enviro~ental Moni- ~ toring. He noted the principal problems facing the institutes of the State Com- mittee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring in the field of artificial ~ modification of precipitation during the current year and during the Eleventh Five- � Year Plan. In accordance with the worlc plan for the Council for 1981-1982, the session of the Scientific Council discussed programs for regulating precipitation in different regions of the Soviet Union. It was noted in the reports and communications that duri:~~ recent years the institutes of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology snd Environmental Monitoring have carried out a considerable volume of investigations in tlle field of artificial increase in precipitation in lowland and mountainous re- f;ions of the country. The Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute has developed and presented to the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring a method for the artif- icial augmentation of precipitation in the lowland regions. Beginning in the win- ter of 1980/1981 an experiment was initiated for increasing winter precipi*_ation over an area up to 500,000 hectares for the purpose of evaluating the modifica- tion effect. Gxperimental studies are being carried out for an artificial increase in prec�ipitation in the basin of the Iori River under a program bearizg the same nam~~, Investigations of the possibilities of organizing work for obtaining addi- tional. precipitation in Central Asia and the Lower Volga have been ~nitiated; be- ' ginning in 1980 regular work has been carried out oa an artificial increase in 95 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLV APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400080048-7 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY precipitation in the basin of Lake Sevan. There has been further development of work on methods for statistical evaluation of the results of experiments for an artificial increase in pr~~ipitation. A statistic