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APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/ 10214 23 December 1981 IJSSR Re ort p - EARTH SCIENCES CFOUO 9/81) - FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE N'OR UF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010012-2 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign _ newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadc~sts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or ieprinted, with the original phrasing and _ other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are suppli_ed by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerptl in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phor.etically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original bu*_ have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way reprQSent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI,ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE Oi7I,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFtC1AL USE ONLY _ JPRS L/I0214 23 December 1981 ~ USSR REPORT EARTH SCIENCES (FOUO 9/81) ~ - CONTEIYTS OCEANOGRAPHY Experiment for Determining Velocities in Sedimentary Laqer of Sea ~ of Japan Using Seismoacoustic Radiobuoys 1 ' Inter~pretation of Data on Oceanic Wave Movements Registered by Moving Sensors $ Influence of Sound Seattering on Depth Depe~dencp of Low-Frequency Oceanic Noise 13 EPM Marine Electric Field Meter 18 Electrokinetic Interference in Electrometric Work in Sea Areas.... 24 Articles on Dynamics of Fluid With Free }3oundaries 30 Collection of Articles on Ocean Dynamics 34 Callection of Ar*icles on Atmoapher6-Ocean Interaction in Atlantic Ocean 39 Tasks of Department of Oceanology, Atmospheric Physics and Geogrsphy, USSR Academy of Sciences, in Confo~cmity to _ Resolutians of 26th CPSU Congress 43 Collection of Papers on Marine Meteorology 53 TERR'ESTRIAL GEOPHYSICS Collection of Articles on Applied Ceophysics 59 Collection of Articles on Dynamic Theory of Seismic Wave Propagatiion 64 - a- [III - USSR - 21K S&T FOTJO~ FOR O~FFICiAT, USE ONi,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFF1C'lAl. USE ONLY PHYSICS OF ATMOSPHERE Cullection of Papers on Atmospheric ~ptics 69 Monograph on Geophysical Parametera of Ionosphere 73 ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC RESEARCH Collection of Articles on Geophysical Research in Antarctica 75 - b - F~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OF~IC[AL USE ONLY OCEANOGRAPHY UDC 550.834 EXPERIi4ENT FOR DETERMINING VELOCITIES IN SEDIMENTARY LAYER OF SEA OF JAPAN USING S~ISMOACUUSTIC RADIOBUOYS Moscow OKI;APlc)LOGIYA in Russian Vol ~l, No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript received 12 May ~J, after revision 8 Sep 80) pp 915-919 [Article by B. Ya. Karp, S. I. Medvedev ~nd V. P. Karman, Pacific Ocean Oceanolog- ical Institute, Far Eastern Scientific Center, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladi- vostok] [Text] Abstract: This article gives the results of exp~ri- r,iental-methodological work by the reflected waves ~nethod carried out along five profiles in the Sea of Japan. Tt?e work was done using a highly correl- ated observation system and employing an instru- ment complex based on "Sprut" seismoacoustic radio- buoys. The objective of the work was a clarifica- tior. of the possibilities of the developed appar- atus in investigations in the deep sea and a de- - Cermination of the velocities of seismic waves in the upper part of the earch~s crust of the shelf, continental slope and deep-water basin of the Sea " of Japan. The good capabilities of "Sprut" radio- buoys were established. Lxtensive use of seismoacous~ic radiobuoys (SARB) has come about during the last decade in oceanograpl~ic expeditionary work for clarifying the velocity structure ~~f the earth's crust in the seas and oceans [4, 5 and others]. The principal ad- = vantage of seismic work with SARB is the possibility of using a single vessel for carrying out investigations with highly correlated ~bservation systems over a rel- - atively short period of time. _ In the summer of 1979, during a geophysical expedition of the Pacific Ocean Ocean- ological Institute, Far Eastern Scien~ific Center USSR Academy of Sciences (TOI DVNTs AN SSSR) on the scientific research ship "Borey," specialists carried out ex- perimental-methodological work by the seismic method of reflected waves usi~ig high- ly correlrited observ~ztion systems and employing Soviet-produced SARB of the ";'prut" type [3J. TLe ob~ective of the experimental-methoc;olc,gical work was the testing of _ tl~e compl~x of apparatus developed at the Pacific Ocean Oceanological Institute,. I~ar I:astern Scientific (:enter, USSR Acad~emy of Sciences, the basis of which was _ standard-produced instruments, from the point of view of its suitability for carry- ing out invesrigations using the mentioned observation systems and determining 1 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY velocities in the sedimentary layer of the Sea of Japan for the pur~ose of inter- preting continuous seismic profiling records. 'Phe principles for constructing the apparatus complex for carrying aut seismic work in the deep sea using highly correlated observation systems, using SARB and nonex- i~losive s~urces, are well known and are ser forth in a number of studies [1, 5, aad o~ others]. These principles were used in creating a similar complex at the Pacific Ocean Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Scientific Center, USSR Academ~y of Sci- ences. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the apparatus. The complex consists of three blocks: reception and relaying block, registry block and radiai:ion block. SARB of the "Sprut" complex were used in the reception and relaying of seismic signals. In the radio~uoys there was a change in the suspension of the hydrophone, which made it possible to use them with sea depths greater than 120 m. The r~cepti~n of r:~dio signals from a buoy and their conversion is accomplished using the radio re~:eiver and demodulator (RD?. The signal from the demodulator output is divided into three channels by means of the band filters BF1-BF3. The filters have transmission bands 5-35, 50-150 and 150-30~ Hz, a flat frequency char- acteristic in the transmission band and a cutoff steepness 12 db/octave. The fre- quency separation of the signal makes it possible, using several automatic record- ers simultaneously, to register the oscillations propagating only in the water layer (a so-called "direct" wave), reflections from deep discontinuities, and ob- tdin a good resolution for the baundaries situated immediately below the sea floor ~1]. ~ n~~ y pAQ 7~ r ~ . 3~ 4~ . CMt l~ P6 2~ Ily 3~ n~z me 6. - 4) ~ n~J y ~K , 3~ 4~ 8~ _ 5~ r~ 4 y4 � No-B2 YyC Y38 ON9 � ~ k io> zi) iz> (~ig. 1. Block di~lKram of instrument complex. Explanations in text. KI?Y : .1.. (tl; r,td[c>huoy 7. DOR discrete operation recorder 2. Rll receiver-demodulator 8. FA facsimile apparatus 3. I3F band filter 9. NO-62 magnetograph 4. A-- ~ur?plifier 10. CSU control-synchronization unit 5, kI hydrophone 11. ESS electrospark source - 6. M-- mixer 12. PS pneumatic source ' 2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500010012-2 FOR OFF7ClAL USE QNLY The signal is fed from the output of the band filters through the~amplifiers A1-A3 and mixers to standard paper tape recorders: DOR (discrete operation recorder) and FAK-P (�acsimile apparatus). With simultaneous operation of both recorders a signal from the low-frequency filter BF1 is fed to one of them and simultaneously, with s lesser amplification, the total signal from the BF2 and BF3 filters~ whereas the - second receives divided. signals from the BF2 and BF3 filters. In order to en~ure the possibilities of further analog and digital processing of seismic information the signaZ from the output of the receiving unit is registered in one of the channels of the N062 magnetograph. Tae other channels are used in _ ehe registry of the oscillation radiated by the source and arriving at the magneto- graph from the output of the towed hydrophone (H), as well as the moment of radia- ti~n and the synchronizing pulses with a frequency of 1200 Hz. The control of radiation and signal r~gistry is accomplished by a control and syn- - chronization unit (CSU). The synchronization of operation of this unit is accom- plished using the FAK-P tuning fork osciliator. In addition, provision is made for the possibility of operation from an external source of synchronization with a frequency of 1200 Hz and a voltage of 1.5 V. Using the CSU the operator can sel- ect the ciecessary duration of functioning of the recorders (2, 4 or 8 sec) and radiation interval (from 2 to 20 sec with a discreteness of 2 sec). The CSU makes possible simultaneo~is radiation by pneumatic and elec~rospark sources (PS, ESS). _ Experimental method. The described instrument complex was used for seistaic invest- igations on five profiles in the Sea of Japan (Fig. 2). Since the geophysical ob- jective of the experimental-methodological work was a determination of the veloc- _ ities of seismic waves in the upper part of the earth's crust for the purpose of interpreting data from continuous seismic profiling, the radiobuoys were situated - on continuous seismic profiling profiles intersecting the shelf, continental slope and tl~e abyssal basin of the Sea of Japan. ' H~. P� ~a . ~ 4 ~ i lil~irnr . p . e . ~ooo~~=/ ~ . Fig. 2. Map of arrangement of profiles in Sea of Japan. 3 FOR OFF[CIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FaR OFFICIAL US~E ONLY In the working of profiles with sea depths exceeding 120 m, a SARB was placed at the center of the profile, then the ship moved to one of the ends of the proftle and moved along it at a speed of 4 knots, towing a pneLUnatic sound source. The observation system was inrended for obtaining individual trave?-time curves of reflected wave:.~. The total length of the profile was dependent on the depth (H) of the acoustic basement, discriminated on the continuous seismic profiling records, from the sea surface; it was (5-6)H. With such a relationship.between ~ the length of the profil~ and the depth of the discontinuity it is possible with a high accuracy to determine the mean velocity to the dis~continuity and its slope. _ The radiobuuy '.iydrophone was suspended at a depth of 36 m, which approximately cor- responds to one-quarter of the length of a wave with a frequer~cy 10 Hz. For separ- ation from the surface waves the hydrophone was connected to the buoy by a neutral _ buoyancy cable with a length of 15 m and an underwater "brake." This suspension , method made it possible to carry out woik with waves at sea up to 5 scale units. A pneumatic source (PS) designed at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Geophysics with a volume of 2 dm3, towed at a depth of 9 m, was used for the generation of elastic oscillations. In the experiments the radiation period was 8 sec, that is, with a ship speed of 4~cnots the "shots" were set off each 16 The high density of the radf.ation points made it possible to carry out reliable correlation of regular seismic waves with a low signal-to-noise ratio. The profiles on the shallow-water shelf (sea depths less than 120 m) ware worked using two SARB placed at their opposite ends. In this case the hydropiione was = situated on the bottom and the separation from surface waves was ensured by means of an anchor attached to the hydrophone cable at a distance of 20 m from the hy- drophone. The radiation period was reduced to sec, ~that is, the radiation points were situated at a distance of 8 m from one another. Othexwise the work method re- m4ined the same as in the first case. - A method was developed for processing the travel-time curves of reflected waves registered by means of radiobuoys. The method makes it possible with a greater accuracy and with a lesser expenditure of computer titue than the known algorithm published by Le Pichon, et al. I~] to determine the velocity and structural para- meters of the medium within the framework of this same model with plane slanting discontinuities. Another study has been devoted to a detailed -~~~.idation and ex- amination of ttiis method. Here we briefly deal wi*h the algorithm for the process- 3.n~; of. travel-time curves of reflected waves based an this methed. � The algorithm makes use of the perturbation and optimization methods. As the "per- � turbation" of the constant refractive index of the medium n0 = vp-1 use is made - of the small incremen~ nl as a func:tion of the coordinates x, z, where x is the horizontal coordinate directed along the line of observation; z is the vertical coordinate directed into the depth of the medium; vp is "unperturbed" constant velocity, that is, the refractive index of the medium is represented in the form _ n = np + nl(x,z). (1) 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR UFFIC[AL USE ONLY A travel-ti~e equation for a reflected wave for a refractive index in the form (1) was derived. On the basis of this equation it was possible =o form a so-called "purpose function" whose minimum is separated by the choice of four param~aters by means of the Fibonacci methcd [2J. As a result, it is possible to compute the depth of the reflecting ~b~undary, its slope and time of prnpagation,along the ray normal to the boundary (t~;. After determini~g these parameters for the upper and lower boundary for any j:ndividua~ layer it is possible to compute the mean velocity in the layer usina a formula derived from simple geometrical reasonings. ~ Results of investigations. Amang the five profiles worked on the voyage two were _ situated within the limits of the Primor'ye shelf, two on the continental slope and one in the abyssal basin ~f the Sea of Jap~n (Fig. 2). The seismic records to be interpreted were interpreted on all the nrofiles. Below, as an example, we give the results of processing of data along three prc~files, each ~f which character- izes one Qf the studied morphostructures (shelf, continental s~ope and abyssal basin). Profile I is or. the Primor'ye shelf on the traverse of Rqnda Gulf. Information on the velocity of seismic waves in the upper part of the earth's crust are complete- ly absent here. According to continuous seismic profiling data whicli were obtained - on this expedition, t}~e rocks typical of the acoustic basement approach the real surface of the bottam in this region. The profile was worked by means of two an- chored SARB situated at distances of 5.26 km from one another. The tot31 length - of the profile is 11.3 lan. The following were registered: the wave refracted at the water-bottoff. surface (Prefr~~ the "di;tect" water wave (Pdir) and uninterpret- able reflected waves from discontinuities below the bottom (Fig. 3). Along the bottom the profile is virtually flat and slightly inclined (sea depth under radio- buoy 1-- 105 m, under radiobuoy 2-- 75 m). The counter travel-time curves Prefr where processed by the constant ditference method. A b~undary velocity 4.4 lan� sec'1 was obtained. Profile 3 is situated along the continental slope of Primor'ye at sea depths 1.875 lan. In working the profile the ob~ective was to obtain a travel-time curve of re- flected waves from the principal discontinuities discriminated on thP continuous seismic profiling records and a determination of the velocity of seismic waves in = the layer covering the acoustic basement. According to continuous seismic profil- ing data, here beneath the sea floor there is a stratified layer wit:: a time "thickness" of 0.76 sec, underlain by an acoustically transparent layer with a "thickness" of 0.4~ sec, and the bottom of this la~ar is the acoustic basement. The investigations were made using a single SARB situated at the center of the profile. Travel times of waves reflecred from the floor and the discontinuities _ below the bottom and the travel time of the "direct" wave were r~_gistered. The travel times of the ref_lected waves were registered along the entire l~ngth of the profile; the travel-time curve of the "direct" wave was registered only to - a time 1.625 sec. On the record it is easy to discriminate the travel-time curves of the bottom reflection and the wave reflected from the acoustic basement. In addition, it was possible to discriminate the travel-time curve of a wave 5 FOlt OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR ORFICIAL USIE ONLY reflected from the top .,f the acoustically transparent layer and the travel-time curve of the reflection from one of the discontinuities in the stratified thick- ness of sediments. The travel-time curves of the reflected waves were processed using the algorithm - cited above. The dista~lces between the source and receiver were determined from the arrival times of the "direct" wave, whose travel-time curve was extrapolated - to the ma.ximum clistances of registry of reflected waves. The mean speed of sound in the water was computed using data on temperature and salinity 1.51 1~�sec'1. The total length of the profile is 15.3 lan (9.45 km left branch of the travel- time curve, 5.85 right branch of the travel-time curve). As a result of the processing it was possible to obtain the following section of the upper part of the crust. Immediately beneath the sea floor there is a layer wtth a thickness of 0.53 km with a stratum velocity 1.72 lan�sec 1; it is underlain by a layer with a thickness of O.I8 km wi*_h a velocity of 2.6 lan�sec-1. At the base of the section there is a layer with a thickness of ].17 km and the stratum velocity is 4.0 km� sec 1. The bottom of this layer (acoustic basement) slopes at an angle of 8.7� to the horizontal. _ t(sec) 2 Pn p 4'~ ~ A~ P~ 4,5 �P P~ 445 B 4 Z 0 2 4 B 8 R(KM) ' p~ Vc =1,S~rM/c 0,2 D~ V~= 4,4~ xM/c x~f . rig. 3. Travel-time curves of seismic waves and section of upper part of earth's _ crust on shelf (profile 1, see F'ig. 2). Pdir direct wave, Prefr the wave re- _ fracted at the water-bottom discontinuity. KEY: - A~ Pdir - B~ ~'refr C) Vmean - 1,5 lan/sec ~boun � 4.4 km/sec Profile 4 was worked in the abyssal basin of the Sea of Japan at sea depths 3.36 km. The.observation system here was also intended for obtaining travel-time curves of reflected waves using one SARB. Along the entire profile it was possible to dis- criminate the travel-time curve of a bottom reflection and the travel-time curve of waves r.eflected from the acoustic basement and from the first boundary beneath the bottom. Ttie distances, as on pro�ile 3, were determined from ~he extrapolated ar- riv:~l times of the "direcC" wave. The total length of the profile is 20.5 iau (8.7 km left branch of travel-time curve, 11.8 km right br4nch). The r.esul.ts of 6 FOR OFF[CIAL L.~~.E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r - processing on the basis of our algorithm a*'e as follows: immediately below the bot- tom there is a layer with a thickness of 0.11 lan and a mean velocity of 1.58 k.n� 5ec'1; the mean velocity in the layer between tne bottom of this layer and the acoustic basement is 2.12 km�sec-1 and the thizkness of the layer is 1.2~i i~. . BIBLIOGRAPHY l. Meinard, G. L., Sutton. G. H., Iiassong, D. M. and Kronke, L. LJ., "Study of the Velocitv Section of Sea Sediments by the riethod of Ref lected Waves With Slant Incidence," AKUSTIKA 2~ORSKII:H OSADKOV (Acoustics of Sea Sediments), Moscow, - i~fir, pp 89-119, 1977. ' 2. 24oiseyev, i~. N., Ivanilov, Yu. P. and Stolyarova, Ye. M., METODY OPTIMIZATSII (O~timization Mett~ods), Moscow, Nauka, 1978. 3. 1'usl?kiii, V. K., Kiktev, Yu. V., Toporkova, T. A. and Pugachev, V. I., "Seismic Radiob~ioy for ~Jork by tl~e Refracted Waves Method on the Shelf," APPARATURA I SR~llSTVA AVTOMATIZATSII DLYA SEYSMOAICUSTICHESKIKH ISSLEDO~J~+.NIY V nKEANE (Appar- atus and Methods for tlie A.utoma~tion of Seismoacoustic ~nvestigations in the Ocean), Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, pp 147-152, 1977. ~ G. Houtz, R. E., "Preliminary Data on the Speed of Sound 3n Wor1d Ocean Sediments Obtained Using Acoustic Buoys," AKLTSTIKA MORSKIKH OSADKOV, Nloscow, Mir, pp 481- 498, 19??. S. Houtz, R., Ewing, J. and Le Pichon, X., "Veloc~ty of Deep-Sea Sediments From _ Soundbuoy Data," J. GEOPHYS. RES., Vol 73, pp 2615-26~+1, 1968. 6. Le Pichon, X., Ewing, J. and Houtz, R., "Deep-Sea Sediment Velocizy DeteYtnina- ~ tion Made While Ref lection Profiling," J. GEOPHYS. RES., Vol 73, pp 2597-2614, 1968. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Okeanologiya", 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/28 ~ FOtt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE Oi~1LY UDC 550.834 INTERPRETATIOId OF DATA ON OCEANIC WAVE MOVEMENTS REGISTERED BY MOVING SENSORS ~ Moscow OKEANOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 21, No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript received 30 Jun 80, after revision 2A Jan 81) pp 911-914 [Article by S. V. Popov and K. D. Sabinin, Acous~ics Institute imeni Akad. N. I1. Andreyev, Moscow] [Text] Abstract: A study was made of some aspects of interpretation of evaluations of spatial-tem- poral spectra registered by m.oving sensors. A method is presented for comparing the measured spectra with the wave dispersion expression movement taken into account. The method is . illustrated by examples of ineasurements of in- ternal waves with the drifting antenna of dis- tributed temperature sensors and synoptic eddies in the POLIMODE polygon. When measuring internal waves in the ocean it is customary to use sensurs moving relative to the medium with the same velocity. If the measurements are made from i~obile or only slightly mobile ba~es, such as anchored buoys, bottom instruments, etc., it is assumed that ti:e information ob- tained over the course af a nore or less prolonged time will make it possible to evaluate the frequency spectrum of the waves. The spectra obtained in this way (moored spectra) will be denoted Sm(f). Tl~e spectra computed using data from towed measuring systems (towed spectra) will be denoted St(k). The choice of frequency f as an argum2nt in the first case and wave number k in the = second case, as is usually done, is based on the assumption that in the first case it is time sections of the wave field which are involved, whereas in the second case it is spatial sections which ar~~ involved. - }iowever, strictly speaking, in both cases it is some spatial-temporal field sections which ar~ involved. In actuality, on the one hand, the velocities of the currents - existinb in the ocean are not much less than the phase velocities of the internal ~ waves (especially the higher ma3es) and therefore it is essential to reckon with the effects associated with the transport of the wave field relative to the anchor- ed se~zsors. On the other hand, the velocities of towing are not so much greater than the velocities of waves (especially the lower mode) that the secti.~ns can be considered purely spatial. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Accordingly, the need arises for developing methods for interpreting the results obtained when using moving sensors. It is by no means always necessary t, know the "true" spectra, undistorted by movement, especially since obtaining such spectra from measurements is an ambiguous and quite eomple.~t procedure [1]. - We will examine the situation arising during the mpvement of srnsors, first from the theoretical point of view, and then in the example of ineasurements of internal waves and synoptic eddies. The value of the "towed" spectrum is equal to the value of the "moored" spectrum in = the plane f= fa + kV (where k is the wave vector, V is the velocity of towing; fd is the Doppler frequency): Gt(fd, k) = Gm(f d+ kV, k). Here Gt(fd, k) is the "towed" three-dimensional spectrum, Gm(f, k) is the "moored" three-dimensional spectrum. - The one-dimensional spectra are equal to: ' _ � � S< ~(e ~ ) + f ~z:)R ~ fs (B:~ zs) eXP~-R), . ~ (2) ~Bs. i:~ - V (Bs ) (J ~Zs)A + 1 ~ zs) eXP~- Q) � ~ 3 ) Here J( 8 1) = J~ cos 81 is the ray intensity of the dipole surf ace sources, V is the coefficient of reflection from the bottom and the subscripts 1, 2, s on the velocities, angles of incidence and depths correspond to the horizons: surface, bottom and scattering layer. Equations (2)-(3) were derived for those directions . e S along which the ray intersects the surface and bottom. If the ray does not reach the bottom, in equation (3) it must be assumed that V- 1, whereas if it also does not reach the surf ace, in equation (2) it must be assumed that Ji 0. By solv- ing the system of eq~iations (1)-(3) for thz ray intensities in the scattering hor- izon, we obtain - 1i~~s. z.r) - ~~~~1~:)'~ + PI ~zs)~1 + T~exp~-Q))~~~1 - VexP~-2R))� (q~ 1~~es. zs) _ ~~(~~1~:)'Jcxp(-R)+R~~zs)~1 + Vexp~-R))JI~1 - VexP~-2Q))+ (5) - ~(=s) _ (~ol6mh)(1 -~~~/~z)']'~2/(~ -(i -(~sl~z)')'~~]� t6> ~ I~or an arbitrary horizon z the ray intensities I1~2( e,z) are easily found from the expression c2(z)I( e,z) = const, which is correct along any ray [6]. Using this ex- pression and taking into account assumption 2 concerning the smallness of scatter- ing, it is possible to find the mean ray intensity I(z), proportional to the volu- metric energy density of sound, for any depth z: 1 c~ ~ 1+ V cS = 1+ 3V sinBdB + I(z)-- j JsinBdB + I(zj) j 2(c(z)) n, 1- V c(z) st, 1- V ~-'-l ~ J J sinBdU C'`-l 21(zs) j sinBdB . 2\ ~(z) / n, R \ ~(z)/ n~ 14 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 FOR OF'I~7CI~L USE ONLY The integration region for the �~1 angles corresponds to bottom rays, ~ cor- . ~ responds to rays incident on the surface and not incident on the bottom,~ g corresponds to all rays not incident on the bottom. It follows from formula (7) that the dependence on z anters only by means of the dependence c(z), that is, ths law of conjugate depths [4] is alao satisfied in the presence of scattering. In expression (7) the first and second terms correspond to the contribution of the bottom rays. The first coincides with the similar term in formula.(5) in [6]. The ~ _ third term characterizes water waves, but in ~ontrast to [6], instead of the at- tenuation value in the length~ of the ray cycle OL S the denominator contains at- tenuation due to scattering ~fj. The second and fourth terms in (7) correspond to the contribution of secondary sources of sound caused by scattering which disap- pear in the absence of scattering. Using assumption 3(smallnese of scattering /g in comparison with losses during reflection 1- V), we w~ll neglect the first and : second terms in formula (7) and after transformation of the angular vari~bles we obtain ' Jo * 12 cos2 B 1 sin B~ 1-(c,/c sin' B 1 d B i_ + I(z) = I'(z) + I"(z) = 2neh e 1-(c(z)l~i sin B 1 *l~ cos8,sin8:dBt ~ . (g~ + I(z,) e I 1-(~(z)l~~) sin2 B~ ' : Here e 1 and e i are the angles of emergence of the rays from the surface and from the scattering ~ayer for those rays touching the bottom. Formula (8) is suitable _ for depths ~ less than the critical depth z~(c(zp) = cl); for greater depths~as the upper integration limits it is necessary to use e 1= aresin(cl/c(z)) and e S= aresin(cs/c(z)). The integral describing the I'(z) value and representing the contribution ot the primary sour~es of sound at the surf ace is not expressed in known functions and can be computed only r?iLnerically. The s~cond term I"(z) represents the contribution ~of the secondary sources situated ii: the sound-scattering layer; for it we obtain f�~za=1(z,) 'j 1-(~(z)Ica) - 1-(~(z)l~,)~, ~(z) - t I ' - _ ~ ' f ~ ~~~~c~+-� % _ _ ' ~ ~ - a ~S?~' ~'1~~-' r_~ . . _ Fig. 2. The following notations have been used in this diagram: V is the potential differ- ~nce measured in the sea, U are the readings of the measurement instrument, e~ and e2 arP the characteristic emfs of the electrodes;?,Qis the internal resistance of the electrodes, 'z 0 is the resistance of the external measurement circuit, R/2 - is the resistance of the water circuit of each of the two tubes of the measurement base; Z is the resistance of tl:e electrically insulating switch; (Z 1-- with a closed electrically insulating switch and 22-- with an open switch; Z u is the in- put resistance of the measuring (recording) instrument. We note that in the cited scheme no attention was given to current leakage through - the instrument liousing and the tube walls of the measurement base, this Uecause - they were made from materials with a very high bulk resistivity and their geomet- rical dimensions ensure a}iigh total resistance to leakage currents. If one m~asurement of U1 is made with closing of thQ electrically insulating switch and a second measurement is made with the switch open, as follows from this equiv- alent cireuit and allowing some simplifications not giving rise to large errors 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [n m~�:i5ur~~m~~ntti ~li~~ developed design of the electric field meter [3, 4], it is pc~~sible to exclude ~he churucteristic emf of the electrodes and determine the elec- _ tric field strength V~ using the following formula [4] ~ Ul - U2 ( L i+ R) ( Z 2) + R) R~ zi - Z 2> cl> where ~,is the length of the measurement base and - , z z z2 zu z~~ _ ~ 2 = Z 2 + Z~ u For the successful implementation of ineasurements with this instrumen~ it is neces- sary to ensure an adequately high and constant degree ,of insulation 2i of the clos- ed ele~rrically insulatin~ switch. Since this switch must operate in sea water, the development of its design is the most important and difficult task in producing the entire electric field meter. _ In the first variant of the instrument both electrode chambers were joined together 1>y a rubher tube, by squeezing which it is possible to attain a high degree of in- sul~ition oC the closed switcti. The squeezing was accomplished using a knifelike pl,?Le controlled by tiie armature of an alectromagnet. iJsinb thi~ switch design the instrument was siiccess~ully employed in the Black Sea in making measurements of ttie electric field of the ship from aboard this ship [3]. Vertical measurements of rhe ship's field were made over the side from the horizon 5 m, where its hori- zontal component was about 600-900 ~.l,V/m, to the horizon 30 m, where this compon- ent was 20-30~.~V/m. The vertical component had values 40-50 �V/m and 1-2 ~,V/m. The measurement response threshold was about 1ftV/m. However, the described design of the switch, although according to ].aboratory test data it ensured an adequately high degree of insulation, was nevertheless inefficient and of a low reliability because the rubber tube required a rather complex design for its installatfon and could easily be contaminated by sand particles entering it during work at sea. Ir~ addition, during the entire time of work with an open valve it was necessary to keep a current flowing through the electromagnet, and this could create interference. Accordingly, in its next design we used a different type of electrically insulating valve as shown in Fig. 4. It consists of a rod 1 with a conical rubber tip 2 closing and opening a cylindrical channel connecting tt~e chambers wit':1 tlie electrodes 3 and the salt bridge tubes 4. In a closed posi- tion the rubber valvc is clamped by a; on the rod, this closing the upper ap- erture o~ ttie cylindrical channel. The cylindrical aperture was opened by means of the armature of tlie electromagnet 5, acting upon the rod and compressing the spring. The entire system was maintained in an open state by a special catch 6 ~~hich was set f.ree by another electromagnet 7. Usin~ this v~iri wtiere are the density of tlie electrolyte ar d the acceleration of gravity. In tlie measurements use was made of solutions of sea water of a stipulated salinity and tlle temperature in the cell was monitored. T'ie other characteristics of sea water entering into (7) were tabulated [11 + 13J, which makes it possible in pro- cessing the experiment to use (7) in the form ?.6 FOR ORRIGIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4(~z - ~i> - ~ = K L~ ~h2 ' hl) where K= K(S�/oo, t�) is a function of salinity S�/oo and temperature t~. The K values for s~~lutions of the sea water type were.tabulated and are cited in Table 1, where they have the dimensiona~ity ml. It was found that this coefficient has a very weak dependence on temperature. Table 1 - Computed Values of Coefficient K(S�/oo, t�) for Solutions of the Sea Water Type �C S�/oo 0.5 1.33 4 12 36 0 11.6 31.0 92.4 260 721 5 11.6 31.1 92.6 260 725 - 10 11.7 31.3 93.1 262 734 - 15 11.8 31.5 94.1 266 738 20 11.9 31.7 95.1 269 746 _ 25 12.0 32.2 96.5 272 756 30 12.1 32.3 96.9 273 758 In the processing corrections were introduced into the experimental ~I values for tak- ing into account the characteristic electrokinetic characteristics of the measure- ment system, influence of the gaskets and measurement cells if the material. of the latter did not coincide with the investigated material, for which the necessary aux- iliary measurements were made. Table 2 gives a summary of the ~(potential) values - for a number of materials. ' 4. A summary of tribopolarization estimates is given in Fig. 4, where the ~trib values have been normalized to the value (Lj/x For ceramic electrodes Aleksandrov used the values ~j =-37 mV [3, p 160]. As a comparison, Fig. 4 shoWS the tribopol- arization effects for three electrode pairs which we observed in the Caspian Sea (S = 12�/00, t� = 10�) in a specially formulated experiment using electrodes of the IELAN-IZMIRAN type [5] in shallow waters; the velor.ities of water flow around the electrodes were estimated on the basis of the depth of the site and the wave parameters [14]; the f', value ~_-9mV was adopted in accordance with Table 2 as the mean between the values for AgCl (packing) and plexiglas (electrode housing). T~'igure 4 sl?ows that tt~e data published by Aleksandrov and Zaytsev under those condi- tions under wliicti tliey were oUtained (noted by an asterisk) are close to our esti- = mate (3) for a porous housinR, which indicates a successful use of the potentialit- ies of this ~lectrode. The ~~LAN-IZMIRAN electrodes, close to an elect:rode with a - porous hor.sing, due to the presence of numerous openin~s in the housing [2, 15], have a tribopolarization considerably greater than the computed value. In these cases the source of interference in the electrodes is evidently other mechani.sms, such as ~nstability of the composition of the electrode chamber, entry of fresh portions of oxygen and other dissolved gases under the 3.nfluence of hydrodynamic pressure, especially under conditions of transverse flow around the housing, cus- tomary witt~ stationary placement [16]. At the same time, it can be seen that re- jection of a porous liousing in favor of a solid housing or in favor of an electro- lytic switcit filled with sea water [17] can result in a decrease in electrokinetic . 27 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR ORFICIAL US~ ONLY interference by 1 1/2-2 orders of magnitude. In addition, interference can be re- duced by an optimum choice of housing matQrial (or material for the salt switch). Table 2 Electrokinetic PoCe~:tials ~(mV) of Some Materials in Solutions of Sea Water Type S�/oo 0.58 1.34 4.08 12.2 36.2 cambric (fabric) -11.1 -8.5 -6.7 -4.9 -3.4 vinyl plastic (shavings) -39.7 -31.5 -22.2 -15.0 -9.9 caprylon (shavings) -24.7 -19.2 -15.9 -13.7 -9.5 foamglass (shavings) -21.0 -16.6 -12.8 -10.9 -6.6 polyamide-12 -26.8 -19.0 -13.2 -11.0 -7.5 polyvinyl chloride (hard)' -3.8 -9.9 -10.7 -7.9 -7.6 polymethyl acrylate.(shavings) -16.8 -10.6 -7.8 -7.0 -6.0 polystyrene (shavings) -17.2 -9.3 -7.3 -6.1 -5.1 polyethylene v density -16.9 -12.5 -9,9 -8.7 -6.2 polyethylene n density -24.7 -19.0 -13.8 -11.0 -6.8 ' silver chloride chemically pure -30.6 -29.6 -19.6 -11.2 -ii.~ rock glass (from electrode) -19.6 -17.3 -14.7 -11.6 -6.6 fluoroplastic-3 -18.6 -15.3 -11.2 -9.4 -6.2 f-luoroplcistic-4 (shavings) -30.4 -23.0 -14.3 -10.7 -6.3 mean temperature 1~.70 18.60 17.2� 15~.3� 14.8~ BIBLIOGRAPHY ' - 1. I:istyakovskiy, V. A., ELEKTROY.HIMICHESKIYE REAKTSII I ELEKTRODNYYE POTENTSIAL,Y NEKOTORYKIi METALLOV (Electrochemical Reactions and Electrode Potentials of Some Metals), St. Peterburg, p 36, 1910. 2. Mitrofanov, V. N. and Sevast'yanc>v, E. S., VOLNOVYYE PROTSESSY V KR.AYEVYKH OFi,~STY~,KII OKEANA (,:a~~ L i~~:esses in Boundary :~~ions oi the Ocean), ~~.-Sakh- alinsk, pp 122-131, 1979. 3. Grigorov, 0. N., LL~KTROKINETICHESKIYE YAVLENIYA (Electrokinetic Phenomena), LGU, 1973. , 4. Aleksandrov, V. V. and Zaytsev, L. V., IZMENCHIVOST' G'iDROFIZICHESKIKH POLEY V OZERAhH (Variability of Hydrophysical rields in Lakes), Leningrad, pp 215- 21.8, 1978. 5. Bc~gorodskiy, M. M., FUNDAM~NTAL'NYYE PROBLEMY MORSKIKH ELEKTROMAGNITNYKH IS- SL~DUVANIY (Fundamental Problems of Sea Electromagnetic Investigations), Mos- cow, PP 70-77, 1.979. 6. Bondarenko, A. L., Bychkov, V. S., Grinfel'dt, S. G., Lapshin, V. B., Monakhov, L. 1~, and Skryabin, S. A., MORSKOYE MAGNITOTELLURICHESKOYE ZONDIROVANIYE (Sea M.ignetotelluric Sounding), Moscow, pp 63-70, 1978. - 7. Van'y~n, L. L., Svetov, B. S., Sochel'nikov, V. V. and Fonarev, G. A., MORSK- OYE MAGNITUT~LLURICIIESKOYE ZONDIROVANIY~, Moscow, p 11, 1978. ?.8 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 8. Loytsyanskiy, L. G., MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA (Mechanics of Fluid and Gas), Moscow, 1973. 9. Volkov, V. G., TRUDY INSTITUTA OKRANOLOGIYA AN SSSR (Transactions of the Insti~ tute of Oceanology USSR Academy of Sciences), Vol 19, pp 88-106, 1956. 10. Bogorodskiy, M. M., FUI~DAMENTAL'NYYE PROBLEMY MORSKIKH II,EKTROMAGNITNYKH IS- SLEDOVANIY (Fundamental Problems in Marine Electromagnetic. Investigations), Moscow, pp 78-91, 1979. 11. Khippel', A. R., DIELEKTRIKI I IKH PRIMENENIYE (Dielectrics and Their Use), Moscow, 1959. 12. Bogorodskiy, V. V. and Rudakov, V. N., PRIMENENIYE RADIOFIZICHESKIKH METODOV V OKEANOGRAFICHESKIKH I LEDOVYKH ISSLEDOVANIYAKH (Use of Radiophysical Methods _ in Oceanographic and Ice Research), Leningrad, pp 21-30, 1965. 13. Zubov, N. N., OKEANULOGICHESKIYE TABLITSY (Oceanographic Tables)~ Leningrad, 1957. _ 14. Shuleykin, V. V., FIZIKA MORYA (Marine Physics), Moscow, 1953. 15. Solov'yev, L. C., TRUDY INSTITUTA OKEANOLOGII AN SSSR, Vol 39, pp 85-90, 1960. 16. Abramov, Yu. M., Abramova, L. M., Minasyan, S. M., Mitrofanov, V..N. and Shcherbakova, A. S., MORSKIYE ELEKTROMAGNITNYYE ISSLEDOVANIYA (Sea Electromag- , netic Investigations), Moscow, pp 22-40, 1976. 17. Novysh, V. V., GEOFIZICHESKAYA APPARATURA (Geophysical Apparatus), No 67, pp 17-23, 1979. COPYRIGHT: Institut zemnogo magnetizma, ionosfery i rasprostraneniya radiovoln AN SSSR, 1980. 5303 CSO: 1865/7 29 - FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ARTICLES ON DYNAMICS OF FLUID WITH FREE BOUNDARIES Novosibirsk DINAMIKA ZHIDKOSTI SO SVOBODNYMI GRANITSAMI in Russian No 46, 1980 (signed to press 4 Jul 80) pp 172-175 [Abstracts from ca:llection of articles "Dynamics of a Fluid With Free Boundaries", edited by L. D. ~strina, Institut gidrodinamiki SO AN SSSR, 500 copies, 177 pages] [Text] Abstracts ~ UDC 517.945 MIXED PROBLEM FOR THREE-DIMENSION.4L SYSTEM OF ACOUSTIC EQUATIONS WITH SHOCK WAVE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (Abstract of article by Blokhin, A. ti.] _ [Text] The artiicle gives the derivation of a dissipative energy integral in the mixed problem for a three-dimensional system of acoustic equations with shock wave boundary canditions. _ UDC 532.69 THERMOCAPILLARY EQUILIBRIUM INSTABILITY OF A FLUID LAYER BOUNDED BY FREE SURFACES (Abstract of article by Badratinova, L. G.] [Text] A linear formulation is used in examining the problem of the occurrence of thermocapillary convection in a weightless fluid layer bounded by free nondeform- _ able surfaces. UDC 556.3.001.57 ONE CLASS OF HYDROMECHANICAL PROBLEMS FOR REGIONS WITH MOVING BOUNDARIES [Abstract of article by Verigin, N. N.] [Text] The article defines the conditions under which there are self-similar solu- tions of one-dimensional filtering problems in the case of moving boundaries. Also examined is the problem of the need for and adequate number of independent condi- tions at a moving b~undary. The author gives a review of solutions of such 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY problems for moving boundaries of three different types. Some timely problems with a moving boundary for which the solutions are not self-similar are indi- cated. UDC 533.07:533.527 ONE MODEL OF CAS DYNAMICS IN THE AXIAL ZONE OF IDDY APPARATUS [Abstract of article by Zelenyak, T. N., Kislykh, V. I. and Provorova, 0. G.J [Text] An adequately complete mathematical description of heat and mass exchange in an eddy chamber meets with fundamental difficulties. The authors demonstrate the possibility of a quantitative description of the axial zone on the basis of an axisymmetric eddy model. . UDC 517.9 - DETERMINING EQUATIONS OF CONSERVATION LAWS FOR EVOLUTIONARY EQUATIONS [Abstract of article by Kaptsov, 0. V.] - [Text] In this article a method is proposed for systems of evolutionary equations which makes it possible to find conservation laws by solution of determining equa- tions. A study is made oF tlie correlation between the determinants of the equa.tion fur the conservation laws and for the admissible Lie-Backlund operators. UDC 517.9-532.5 VARIATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATING STATIONARY PLANE SUBCRITICAL GAS FLOWS [Abstract of article by Kucher, N. A.] [Text] The article represents an investigation of a variational inequality related to a nonlinear degenerate elliptical operator of the second kind arising in the theory of plane stationary gas flows. The theorem of existence and uniqueness is demonstrated, and an approximation of solution of the inequality of a series of solutions of some unlimited ellipt~cal problems is obtained. . UDC 517.946 SOLUBILITY OF THE BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM FOR A STATIONARY WT EQUATION [AbstracL- of article by Lar'kin, N. A.] [TextJ A study was made of the boundary-value problem for a nonlinear equation in partial derivatives of the third order describing small perturbations in a viscous stationary transonic gas flo~r. The theorem of existence and uniqueness of a"small" solution of ttie formulated problem is demonstrated by the "compressive mapping" riethod. 31 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR 4FF'1CIAL USE ONLY UDC 517.53 SOME CLASSES OF LIMITED REGULAR FUNCTIONS REPRESENTING A RING IN A DOMAIN WITH A QUASICONFORMAL BOUNDARY [Abstract of article by Mityuk, I. P. and Tul'chiy, V. V.] [Text] On the basis of the concept of a k-quasiconformal curve, the authors intro- duce some new classes of functions, regular in a ring, representing this ring in a domain whose outer boundary is a k-quasiconformal curve. Using the symmetrization method in these classes it was possible to obtain some coverage theorems and precise upward xnd downward evaluations of the absolute value of the function. , UDC 518:517.91/94 VALIDATING TH~ FITTING METHOD ON GRAPHS FOR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS [Abstract of article by Ovcharova, A. S.] [Text] A variant of the "parallel fitting" method is proposed for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with constant coefficients determined in a complex (graph). Evaluations of the fitting coefficients are obtained and the correctness of the method is demonstrated for systems of implicit difference equations whose ' matrix has a three-diagonal structure. UDC 517.946 A PRIORI EVALUATIONS OF SOLUTIONS OF DEGENERATE QUASILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS _ [AbStr.act of. article by Papin, A. A.] [TextJ The author obtained a priori evaluations of limited solutions of degenerate parabolic equations in the form -ut + div(a(t,x,u)pu) + f(t,x,u,uX) = 0, xE,~Rn, t E[O,T]. - For example, in the case of a very simple equation with a(t,x,u) = u, n= 2, an - evaluation is given of the Holder constant of the function u(x,t). UDC 532.546;519.632 NUMGRICAL SU1.U7'ION OH PROBLI:M OF HORIZONTAL SYSTEMATIC DRAINAGE FROM ZONE OF INCOMPLI:TG SA1'UI2ATION - [Abstract of. article by Sabinin, V. I.] [Text] The stationary filtration proble~n is examined. It constitutes a mixed boun- dary-value problem in a rectangle, close to the Neumann problem, for a quasilinear equation of an elliptical type. The article describes a numerical solution method 32 FO! OFF1C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFF7C[AL USE ONLY and a method for applying it to the nonstationary problem. For finding the dif- _ Cerence solution the author proposes a modification of one of the variants of an iteration method,for incomplete factorization. Examples are given which provide some idea concerning the effectiveness of the solution method. UDC 517.947 SOLUBILITY OF SOME CLASSES OF PROBLEMS WITH AN UNKNOWN BOUY~TDARY FOR EQUATI~NS OF THE PARABOLIC TYPE [Abstract of article by Yakubov, S.] [Text] A study was made of the following problems with an unknown boundary a(t,x)u~ + b(t,x)uX + c(t,x)u - ut = ~(t,x), uX(t,0) = �(t), u(t,h(t)) = A(h), uX(t, h(t)) = 0, . where A is some operator. The uniqueness theorem is demonstrated. When A is an integral operator it is possible to establish the existence thzorem and the asymptotic behavior of the unknown boundary x= h(t), with t--> + oo . If boundary conditions of the first kind are stipulated along the known boundary this will give the local and nonlocal theorems of existence for the considered problems. UDC 517.9 IIUYG~NS PRIPICIPLE OF THE ORDER (p,q) [Abstract of article by Zaytsev, V. A.] [Text] The problem of the presence of the Huygens principle was studied for equa- tions breaking down into linear factors. ~ UDC 519.46 BACKLUND TRANSFURMS FOR SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS IN PARTIAL DERIVATIVES [Abstract o� article by Krendelev, S. F. and Talyshev, A. A.] _ [TextJ A class of systems of equations in partial derivatives allowing Backlund transforms is formulated. COPYRIGIiT: Institut gidrodinamiki SO AN SSSR, 1980 5303 CSO: 1865/246 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE OA1LY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFIClAL USE ONLY UDC 551.461.2+526+551.465.15+532.59 CCLLECTION OF ARTICL~S OI1 OC~AN DYNAMICS Moscow TRUDY f~OSUDARSTVENNOGO OK]:ADTOGRAFICHESKOGO INSTITUTA: VOPROSY DINAMIKI MORYA in Russian 19�31 (signed to press 6 Apr 81) pp 120-124 [Abstracts from collection of articles "T.ransactions of the State Oceanographic Inst- itute: Problems in Dynamics of~the Sea", edited by B. Kh. Glukhovskiy, doctor of - tect~nical sciences, Moskovskoye otdeleniye Gidrometeoizdata, 530 copies, 124 pages] ( Text ] AI3STRACTS UDC 551.466.31 DETERMINING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SP~CTRUM OF MOVIIIG FIELD OF WAVES [Abstract of article by Trubkin, I. P.] [Text] A metl~od is proposed for determining the two-dimensional (frequency-directed) - spectrum of wind waves on the basis of data from measurements of the rises and slopes of the wave-covered sea surface. It is shown that it is possible to find an - evaluation of the two-dimensional spectrum of the moving field of waves by subject- ing the initial records to narrow-band filtering and determining the angular dis- tribution function of the mean square absolute value of the slope and the spatial filtering function introduced into consideration. The article gives experimental data characterizin~; the relatively high resolution of the described method using a space variable. rigures 2, references 5. UDC 551.466.31 CROSS-SPECTRA OF SLOPES AND RIS~S OF WAVE-COVERED SEA SURFACE - [Abstract of article by Trubkin, I. P.J [Text] ~)n the basis of experimental data obtained by the author it was possible to evaluate a linear theoretical model of wind waves for describing the cross-spectral characteristics of slopes and rises of the wave-covered sea surface. The results of the evaluation indicated the possibility for this case of a use of linear theory in the first approximation. An approximating expression is proposed for the two dimen- sional spectr~m of the moving field of waves, by means of which expressions are de- rived for the considered characteristics in relation to the parameters of the 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY angular distribution of energy and the ~requency spectrum of waves. The evaluation of the function introduced into consideration, obtained on the basis of experimental clata, characterizes tl~e movement of the wave field in space and is expressed through the spectra of slopes and rises of the wave-covered sea surface. Figures 1, refer- ences 4. UDC 551.466.31:551.465.7 SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF WIND WAVES AND ITS CORRELATION WITH WIND-WAVES ENERGY EXCHANGE [Abstract of article by Makova, V. I. and Trubkin, I. P.] [Text] Using evaluations of the two-dimensional spectra of waves it was possible to deter~rine the energy distribution of waves by frequencies and directions. There was found to be movement of a part of the wave energy in t;~e general direction of wave propagation. It was also possible to ascertain the features of energy exchange be- tween the wind and waves on the forward slope of the wave spectrum and its rela- tionship to evaluations of the moving field of waves. The values of the kinetic and potential energy of wind waves obtained on the basis of spectral data were close to one another. Tables 3, figures 2, references 15. UDC 551.466.78 VARIABILITY OF TIDAL HARMONIC CONSTANTS AS A RESULT OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS [Ahstract of article by Sgibneva, L. A.] [Text] A study was made of the possible reasons for the observed variability of the harmonic constants of. tides on the basis of their numerical computations for Penzhin- skaya Bay in the Sea of Okhotsk within th.~ framework of a nonlinear model of tidal movement in the shallow-water bay. It is shown that the nonlinear effects caused by ~he shallow water, the nonlinear form of bottom fric~ion and convective accelera- tions cause the appearance of secondary waves and change the characteristics of the nain tidal components. In addition, these effects are a cause of the seasonal var- iability of the harmonic constants. Cotidal charts are given, as well as the re- sults of numerical ~omputations for Penzhinskaya Bay in the Sea of Okhotsk. Tables 2, figures 4, references 4. UDC 551.465 COMPUTATIONS OF R~GIME-STATISTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LEVEL VARIATIONS IN THE SEA SHELF ZONG [Abstract of article by German, V. Kh., Rybak, B. Kh. and Filippov, Yu. G.] [Text] A method is proposed for computing the distr~bution functions of extremal - levels (frequency of recurrence once in T years) and the distribution functions (guaranteed probabilities) of all levels on the basis of data obtained by the hy- clrodynamic method. The Khips model was used in computing the levels. Computations for the northwestern part of the ~?ack Sea were made as an example. The Langbein: 35 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY expression was used for conversion from the distribution function (guaranteed prob- ability) of all levels to the distribution functions for extremal levels, 'r'igures 2, references 13. UDC 551.461.2 COMPUTATIONS OF DURATION OF SEA L~VEL POSITION DUR~NG ITS RISE AND FALL ' [Abstract of article by Zotin, M. I.] [Text] On the basis of an analysis of a great volume of data it was possible to establish the Peculiarities of distribution of level variations in threc guaranteed ~~robability ranges. A method is proposed for evaluating the duration of level posi- , tion for the upper and lower parts of the guaranteed probability curves. Tables 2, figures 2, references S. UDC 551.465 COMPUTATIONS OF REGIME CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA CURRENTS ON BASIS OF RESULTS OF USE OF NUMERICAL HYDRODYNAMIC METHODS [Abstract of article by Be1ov, V. P., Filippov, Yu. G. and Shkudova, G. Ya.] [Text] The article describes a method fo.r determining the regime characteristics of currents on the basis of statistical pr.ocessing of the results of hydrodynamic computations. A detailed examination is made of the problems involved in ensuring computations of t}ie initial hydrometeorological information. The fundamental for- mulas for ascertaining two-~iimensional density .re cited, as well as the distrib- - ution functions for currents. The organization ~f the program on an electronic com- ~~uter is discussed. The results of statistic~l computat3.ons for the Sea of Azov are given as an example. Tables 3, references 8. UL'C 551.466.3 STRUCTURE OF EMPIRICAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR WIND JELOCITY AND OTHER HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS [Abstract of article by Rzheplinskiy, G. V.] [Text] A stiidy of tl~e distribution functions for hydrometeorological elements is of great practical importance. Using them it is possible to determine the quantiles _ of the elements, allowance for whicti is necessary in the planning an3 implementa- tion of. different economic measures and studies. Also examined are typical distor- tions of the functlons caused by imperfections in the series of observations and ieading to erroneous evaluations of the quantiles. Procedures are proposed for con- struc.ting and extra1~ol~ting the functions. These procedures are intended for elim- ination of tiie ~nenttaned distorttons and make it possible to determine the values of the quantiles rloser to their mean long-term values. Under the condition that 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the long-term distribution of the element is known, by means of simple logical construction, it was possible to compute the probability of appearance of the long--term maximum of the element as a phenomenon in any stipulated time interval. lsxamples of such computations are given. Figures 1, references 7. UDC 551.465 _ INVESTIGATING CURRENTS IN THE SHELF ZONE OF A DEEP S~A [Abstract of article by Shkudova, G. Ya. and Yeremeyeva, G. V.] [Text] The authors analyze the vertical structure of waters in the shelf zone of , of the sea. A study was made of the influence of stratification on the circula- tion of waters during the period of winter convection for the purpose of taking it into account in a hydrodynamic computation model. P'igures 3, ref erences 25. iJDC 551.465.55 STOCHASTIC GENERALI7.ATION OF THE DYNAt4IC M~TIIOD FOR COMPUTING CURRENT.S [Abstract of article by Sc~kolov, V. A.] ~ [Text] Tiie proposed generalization within the framework of a geostrophic model of ocean currents makes it possible to compute evaluations of the mathematical ex- pzctations and dispersions of current velocities on the basis of the f irst two statistica] moments of the density field of sea waves, stipulated from observa- tions, bottom relief and the approximate values of currents at the reading hori- zon. The computations of velocities at a fixed depth are made from a solution of an overdetermined system of linear algebraic equations containing information on horizontal currents at the reading depth and the equation for the conservation of total flows. The use of a priori information on the errors in stipulating the in- itial data and the equations of conservation of total floWS makes it possible on - the basis of the generalized least squares method to stabilize the sought-for re- sults rel~itive to t}~e errors in stipulating the input parameters. Computations at cach investigated horizon are represented in the form of evaluations of the math- = ema.tical expectations and the standard deviations of current velocities. Tables 3, ref.erences 5. UDC 551.48.018 SOME RESULTS OF SP~CTRAL ANALYSIS OF CURRENT FLUCTUATI~JNS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN [Abstract of article by Lyash enko, A. F.] ~ [Text] The article gives the results of a spectral analysis of current fluctua- tions in the frequency range of internal gravitational waves on the basis of ineas- urements made in two regions of the Atlantic Ocean. The modal composition of the tidal semidiurnal fluctuations is investigated. Figures 2, references 9. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 _ FOR OFhICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.465.635 SHORT-TERM VARIABILITY OF GULF STREAM bYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS jAbstr.act of article by Baranov, Ye. I. and Mel'nichuk, N. S.] [Text] A study was made of the short-term variability of the positions of the Front, axis, southern boundary and width of the Gulf Stream, as well as the front _ of s1oPe waters along ~he line New York-Lrrmuda on the basis of the results of bathythermographic measurements made on a frequent schedule during the period 1 June 1973 tlirough 10 October 1974. Tables 3, figures l, references 4. UDC 651.465.752:551.510.522 hiETHOD FOIZ QUANTITATIVE ~VALUATION OF MACROSCALE DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN THE PLANGTARY BOUNDARY LAYER OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND THE OCEAN SURFACE [Abstract of article by Tarnopol'skiy, A. G. and Shnaydman, V. A.] [Text] The authors discuss different methods for stipulating the boundary condi- tions in problems of sea dynamics. It is proposed that the parameters of dynamic interaction between the air flow and the underlying surface be computed using the improved model of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer proposed by the authors. Also examined is a method for determining wind stress at the sea surface and the friction coefficient on the basis of data from standard hydrometeorological observ- - ations. The article gives the results of computations of the principal paramet~rs of in.teraction bet~aeen the ocean and the atmosphere with different combinations of the thermal and dynamic state of the moving air flow. Tables 2, figures 2, references 14 . CUPYRICI~iT: Gosudarstvennyy okeanograficheskiy institut, 1981 5303 CSO: 1865141 . ~ ~ 38 FOR OF~ICiAL USE U1~1LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY UDC 551.542.1+551.552(261)+551.465.15(261)+551.576 COLLECTION OF ARTICLES ON ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN INTERACTION IN ATLANTIC OC:EAN Moscow ATMOSFERNAYA TSIRKULYAT~IYA I YEYE VZAIMODEYSTVIYE S OKEANOM V TROPICHESKIKH I VNETROPICHESKIKH SHIROTAKH ATLANTIKI in Russian 1981 (signed to press 13 Apr 81) PP 286-287 [Abstracts from collection of articles "Atmospheric Circulation and Its Interactic~n - With the Ocean in the Tropical and Extratropical Latitudes of the Atlantic", respon- sible editor V. S. Samoylenko, professor, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1000 copies, 288 pages] [Text] � ABSTRACTS - UDC 551.579 EVALUATION OF ACCURACY AND REPRESENTATIVENESS OF METEOROLOGICAL DATA FROM THE TROPICAL EXPERIMENT [Abstract of article by Romanova, N. A. and Samoylenko, V. S.] [Text] The authors give a comparison of evaluations of the errors in measuring atmospheric Pressure, wind direction and velocity under marine conditions obtained by different authors on the basis of observational data from ships. A study was made of problems relating to the choice of a representative place on a ship for observations of the wind, the influence of the operating regime of the ship (on course, at drift) and its rolling on the readings of wind-gaging instruments. Fig- ures 3, tables 1, refer.ences 15. UDC not stated E'.q'IRICAL INVESTIGATION OF TIiE RELATIONSHIP OF FORCES DETERMINING THE WIND FIELD IN TH~ TROPICAL ZONE OF TIi~ OCEAN [Abstract of article by Romanova, N. A. and Romanov, Yu. A.] [Text] On the basis of scheduled meteorological and aerological observations of atmospheric pressure and wind at island and shore stations located in the tropical latitudes (25�S-25�N) the authors determined the values of individual terms of the ~ ' 39 FOR OFFECIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY equations of motion as a function of latitude. At the earth's surface and aloft in the zone from the equator to 15� latitude the force of the pressure gradient - is decisive and exceeds by an order of magnitude the value for the horizontal ad- vection of the wind. The possible reasons for the results obtained are analyzed. An evaluation of the terms in the equations of motion on the basis of observation- - al data from the TROP~KS-72 expedition indicated that in the equatorial Atlantic the role of advective acceleration is substantial; its individual terms are only 3 or 4 times less than the pressure gradient values. Figures 3, tables 8, refer- ences 29. UDC 551.511.465 THERMAL ENERGY OF ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES IN THE TROPICAL LATITUDES OF THE OCEANS. - HEAT BALANCE IN THE OCEAN AND ATMOSPHERE [Abstract of article by Lunyakova, L. G. and Samoylenko, V. S.] _ [TextJ On the basis of materials from a thorough aerological sounding of the atmo- s~here from Soviet ships participating in the tropical experiments of 1972 and 1974 it was possible to determine all ty~ues of heat flows penetrating the atmo- sphere at different levels in different spatial averaging scales as ~aell as to establish the dependence of the heat flows on atmospheric circulation. All the heat balance components in the atmosphere and ocean are determined for different types of atmospheric circulation. Figures 25, tables 9, references 79. - UDC 551.521.31 CLOUDS AS A REGULATOR OF THE RADIATION AND HEAT BALANCE IN THE TROPICAL LATITUDES OF THE OCEANS [Abstract of article by Voytova, K. V.] [Text] On the basis of continuous registry of the influx of solar radiation at the ocean surface, radiation from the surface and hourly visual determinations of cloud forms and the extent of their coverage of the heavens, made on shipboard. on vessels participatin~ in the tropical experiments of 1972 and 1974,it was pos- sible to establish the degree to which clouds in the tropical sone of the ocean regulate its radiation and heat balance. Figures 19, tables 5, references 17. - UDC 551.571 TURBUL~NT AND ADVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF WATER VAPOR IN TROPICAL LATITUDES OF OCEANS [Abstract of article by Yevseyeva, L. S., Samoylenko, V. S. and Snopkov, V. G..) - [Text] On the basis of materials from frequent aerological sounding of the atmo- - spilere, carr.ied out from vessels participating in the tropical experiments of 1972 and 1974, a study was made of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmo-, sphere, its full vapor content is determined and the reasons for its variability 40 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FOk OFFICIAL USE ONLY in different poly~ons in the tropical zone of the ocean are clarified. For this purpose computations are made of the advection and divergence of water vapor in the free atmosphere. Computations ar� given for the turbulent flow of water vapor from the ocea~i surface, condensation and the falling of moisture in the form of precipitation, which makes it possible to determine the moisture balance within the limits of each polyg~n. Figures 13, tables la, references 14. UDC 551.555..1 ~ Y CONVECTION, CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION OVER THE OCEAN IN TROPICS [Abstract of article by Zavel'skaya, N. A. and LebEdeva, N~ V.] . [Te~t] On the basis of hourly observations of clouds by Soviet ships participating in the tropical experiment of 1974, on the basis of aerological sounding of the atmosphere from these ships and records of pYuviographs aboard them it was possible to determine the degree of propagation and development of the process of atmo- spheric convection in the Trades zone and the ICZ, the thermodynamic factors gen- - erating it and the degree to which it is sub,ject to diurnal variation. Figures - 4, tables 10, references 15. UDC 551.521 DAY-TO-DAY VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RAD'IATION FLUXES IN TROI'ICS, MACRpSCALE CLOUD COVER VARIATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPARENCY [Abstract of article by Kislov, A. V.] [Text] A study was made of the day-to-day variations in the radiation regime in the tropical latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean with a period of 2-3 weeks and variations with a period of 4-5 days caused by changes in the cloud cover at different scales and the transport of aerosol mist from the arid regions of Africa. Figures 7, ref- erences 20. UDC 551.571 SEASONAL CHflNG}s'S IN VAI'OK CONT~NT OVER THE ENTIRE ATLANTIC OCEAN jAUstraet of article Uy Snopkov, V. G.] i [Text) Information on the total content of water vapor in the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean is generalized. Computations of the transport of water vagor across - the equator are presented. Maps of atmospheric vapor content over the ocean were constructed for February, May, August and November. IR observation~ wer~2 also used - for constructing these maps. Figures 5, tables 5, references 35. 41 FOIt OFFICIAL US~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.555 NATUR~ OF EQUATORIAL WESTERLY WINDS IN INDIAN OCEAN [Abstract of article by Krivelevich, L. M. and Romanov, Yu. A.] [Text] Within the framework of a zonal model of equatorial circulation of the atmo- sphere the authors made computations of the components of wind velocity in the low- er troposphere near the equator on the basis of stipulated meridional profiles of surface atmospheric pressure. The analysis reveals that with whatever meridional profile of surface pressure actually observed in the Indian Ocean it is impossible to obtain a westerly flow at the equator of such an intensity as is observed in nature. The conclusion is drawn that a zonal pressure gradient should not play a signif icant role in the formation of equatorial westerly winds in the Indian Ocean. = Figures 3, references 13. . UDC 551.555 ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION IN ICZ AT 23.5�W DURING TROPEKS-74 PERIOD , (Abstract of article by Romanov, Yu. A. and Romanova, N. A.] (Text] Th~ article gives an ar~alysis of riay-to-day changes in surface atmospheric pressure, divergence and components of ~he surface wind along a run 23.5� from 6�S to 12�tJ durin~ three phases of the TROPEKS-74 expeditior.. Figures 1, tables 1, referencas 17. - UDC 551.542.1:551.552(261.) VARIABILI1y OF THE EQUATORIAL WIND FIELD AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FIELD AND THEIR INTERRELP.'TIONSHIP ACCORDING TO TROPEKS-74 DATA [Abstract of article by Romanov, Yu. A.] [Text] On the basis of observational data from Soviet ships during the TROPEKS-74 expedition a study was made of the spatial and temporal variability of wind velo- city components, atmospl~eric pressure and atmospheric pressure gradients. An anal- ysis was made of the correlation between wind velocity and the pressure gradients at different dist~inces from the equator. Figures 8, tables 10, references 22. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel`stvo "Nauka", 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/44 42 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONGY _ UDC 551.46 TASKS OF DEPARTMENT OF OCEANOLOGY, ATMOSPHERZC PHYSICS AND GEOGRAPHY, USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, IN COidFORMITY TQ RESOLUTIONS OF 26th CPSU CONGRESS _ Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII tdAUK SSSR in Russian No 10, Oct 81 pp 46-53 _ [Article by L. M. Brekhovskikh, academician] [Text] The 26th CPSU Congress summarized the achievements of our country, outlined the program for its development during the next five-year plan and for the more - distant future. The attainments have been impressive, but the tasks are serious, requiring the unleashing of all forces. A highly important role will continue to be played by science, and especially by the scientific direGtions dealt with by the Department of Oceanology, Atmospheric Physics and Geography. In this connection it is fitting to review our achievements during the last five- year plan, during 1980, and also to analyze the tasks for the next five-year plan. In the "Principal Directions for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR During 1981-1985 and During the Period to 1990" in the section "Development of Sci- ence and Acceleration of Technical Progress" it is mentioned, in particular, that it is necessary to concentrate efforts on study of the structure, composition and evo- lution of the earth, biosphere, climate and the world ocean, including the shelf, ~or the purpose of rational use of their resources, improvement of inethods for weather forecasting and other natural phenomena, an increase in the effectiveness - of ineasures in the field of preservation of the environment; developrment of ecol- . ogY� Soviet scientists are carrying on work in all these directions on a broad front. Investigations of tl~e ocean. The ocean is the largest natural planetary formation. ~lttention to the ocean is dictated by its ever-increasing importance in the life of - mankind. In actuality, almost four-fifths of all world transportation of cargo is = by sea. The output of petroleum and gas from the bottom of the she:l.f zones of the world ocean and the seas adjacent to it at the present time is about one-quarter _ of the total output. In the very near future an expansion of the output of many min- eral resources from the floor of the world ocean, especially ferromanganese nod- i~les, l occiir. Tlie time is evidently not far off when the e;~traction of uranium se.i w,it~ r wl11 become _justifiable. 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFF'[CIAL USE ONLY _ One-sixtli of tlie food protein consumed by mankind comes from the ocean. Unfortun- ately, this fraction is increasing slowly. The rea$on is the incorrect, not sci- entifically validated catching of traditional species of fish in ma.ny regions of the ocean, which has led to overfishing. As a result, the existing volume of the catch about 70 million tons annually, is not far from the maximum. In mar- ine biology the direction associated with the cultivation of fish and other marine orgar.isms in the coastal zones of the oceans and sea~ suitable for this puxpose (aquaculture) is becoming promising. The ocean also exerts an enormous influence on the life of man because it determines _ wEather and climate on the earth. Meteorologists kno~~ that weather forecasting for (for example) more than 10 days in advance requires allow~ance for processes trans- piring in the ocean. This applies to a still greater degree to the formulation of the theory of climate of our planet. = During tl~e elapsed five-year plan investigations of th~ ocean developed successful- ly. They were Urought together in a multisided interdepartmental program consisting of 16 projects (nine of these were international). Each project provided for the solution of a definite problem; the work was done under the direction of and with coordination by a key organization. Participating in the pro~ects were 17 minis- _ tries and departments and 80 scientific organizations in the country. The key or- ganization for implementing the entire program was the USSR Academy of Sciences. Much attention was devoted to investigations of syi;aptic variability and frontal zones in the ocean. ~xtensive investigations were made under the POLIMODE project (Institute of Oceanology imeni P. P. Shirshov, USSR Academy of Sciences, Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Acoustics Institute). It became clear that in the upper kilometer of the ocean synoptic variability for the most part is governed by the presence of macroscale quasigeostrophic turbu- lence. Smaller eddies than before were discovered. In the deeper layers of the ocean the nature of the variability was governed for the most part by processes of the Rossby waves type. The investigations were made in cooperation with scientists of the United States and other countries. The results are still being processed. Interesting work was carried out by the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute for study of the Circumpolar Antarctic Current. It was possible to clar- _ ify its structure, meandering and also eddy formation in this zone. It was found that contr~iry to the earlier and less reliable resul~s the Circumpolar Antarctic Current does not have any wel.l-expressed deep countercurrent. 7'he scientists of tiie Soviet Union actively participated in the First Global Experi- u~ent GAItI' (Pro~;ram fur Investigating Global Atmospheric Prc~esses). In the course of this experiment tlie state of the ocean and atmosphere and their interaction was investigated on a broad scale. Interesting results were obtained as a result of study of structure of the ocean floor. Soviet scientists participated in the international project for deep-water drilling aboard the "Glomar Challenger." During the last 10-15 years these investi- gat~ions gave results of outstanding importance and made it possible to discover much new information concerning the geological history of our planet. In partic- ular, work has continued on refinement of the hypothesis of the tectonics of 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 FOR iDFFiCIAL USE ONLY lithosplieric plates. liowever, it should be noted that deep-water drilling is not the only method for studying the history of the earth's crust under the ocean. Re- sults of comparable importance can be obtained by the ordinary collection of samples on underwater ranges and in underwater rift zones. This research method has become especially effective when the scientists acquired underwater vehicles making it ~ossible to descend to the ocean floor and work at great depths like geologists work on the land, that is, visually examine samples, take samples, measure heat flows on the oceanf.loor, etc. An example of such effective work is the Red Sea ~xpedition of the Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of Sciences, em- pZoying the "Paysis" underwater vehicle.* Incidentally, these and other investiga- tions indicated that hydrothermal processes play a decisive role in the formation of inetal-bearing ores on the ocean f?oor. Significant results were obtained relating to the presence of petroleum and gas on ~ the ocean floor. This problem could be tied in to the tectonics of lithospheric plates. In particular, it was demonstrated at the Institute of Oceanology that for an understanding of the presence of petroleL.n and gas in the arctic regions of our northern shelf the tectonics of plates in this region in the Cenozoic is of consid- erable importance, and specifically the tectonics of the zone of underthrusting of plates in this epoch. The regions of presence of both petroleum and gas deposits are evidently related precisely to these zones. Important geological investigations of the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kurile-Kamchatka trench and Sea of Japan have been carried out by the Pacific Ocean Oceanological Institut2, Far Eastern Scien- � tific Center, USSR Academy of Sciences. ~ respect to the use of the biological resources of the ocean, here interest l~as increased in the open ocean..This is understandable. 0_n_ the one hand, most countries have declared the 200-mile zones adjacent to their shores to be zones of their nritiona] interest and the carrying out of fishing in these zones requires special permission and signed agreements. On the other hand, in the open ocean fair results can be obtained by fishing at great depths or in zones of upwelling asso- ciated with synoptic eddies. In addition, great attention is being given to less traditional objects of the catch Antarctic krill. The institutes of the Ministry of the Fishing Industry are concerned with all these problems. Our biologists have devoted great attention to experimental investigations and the farmulation of math- ematical models of life cycles and food chains of biological communities in the ocean. ' There are a number af advances in marine chemistry. The most important of these, pos- sibly, are methods for the sorption of different metals from sea water proposed by scientists of the Institute of Oceanology. These methods, as asserted by their auth- ors, make it possible, for example, to obtain rubidium from sea water less expens- than by other available methods. Investigations of the ocean from space have been Uroadened. It appears that ~ery much interesting inforr~~ation can Ue obtained from r?anned space stations by means of simple visual observation and photographing of the ocean. Frontal zones, mean- ders, eddies, and sometimes also internal waves are visible in the ocean from ~ See V. I. Voytov and A. S. Monin, "Investigations of the Red Sea Rift," VESTNIK AN SSSR (Herald of the USSK Academy of Sciences), No 10, pp 125-135y 1980. 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY space. Ttie study of ctie ocerin by means of artificial earth satellites is becoming more extensive. Four oceanological satellites have now been launched in our c~untry, two of them under ttie "Intercosmos" program. Artificial earth satellites are used in obtaining data on the temperature of the ocean surface, waves, surface wind, in determining the color of the sea, and in this connection, the biological productivity of waters, ice conditions, integral moisture content of the atmosphere, liquid-water content of clouds and many other parameters. The importance of sub- , satellite polygon investip,ations has increased, especially for the uppermost meter layer. The scientists of the Institute of Oceanology have obtained many new re- sults relating to t}le dynamics of this layer. Work has ended on publication of the multivolume monograph OI~EAidOLOGIYA (Oceanol- ogy). tiJith respect to the breadth of coverage of the material and the drawing iipon ' the talents of the best specialists in the creation of the monograph this event is of outstandin~ importance in world science. The first volumes of GEOGRAFIYA O~:EANA (Geography of tlie Ocean), begun on the initiative of the late Akademician K. K. - Markov, have now been published. During the new five-year plan Soviet scientists will work on a new complex program for invest~gating the ocean and the use of its resources. This program will bring . together 38 projects, and again the Academy of Sciences will be the key organiza- tion. Among the new projects is the "Razrezy" ("Profiles") program, this directed to the implementation of monitoring over those zones of the ocean which exert the most effective influence on weather and climate. It is based on modern concepts concerning macroscale circulation of ttie atmosphere and ocean and their relation- ship to one another, witli the use of mathematical models and representations fol- lowir.g from the ~heory of conjugate equations developed by Academician G. I. Mar.- chuk. Soviet scientists are making efforts to involve the aorld scientific commun- ity in ttiis sort of investigations and this will make possible a considerable in- crease in tlieir eff.ectiveness. Tlie ocean is great and experience shows that the ~ r~iost useful results are obtained with the joining together of the efforts of sci- ' entists of different countries. 't'lie "Uyum,incl" ~~rc~jc~r.t: is ;i15u new i.n the nu]_tisided pr.o~ram. It is. directed to im- plementation of. investigations preparatory for a major experiment in which the - ocean a~ould play the role of an optical and acoustic detector of muons and high- ener3Y neutrinos. A tliird new project is "Ocean Acoustics." Although the maximum information concerning tt~e state of the ocean evidently can be obtained only by the use of space vehicles, the state of the ocean layer can be determined remotely nnly ~ by the use of acoustic instruments, since only acoustic waves can propagate sig- tiificant distances under the water. At the present time plans are being considered C~~r the carrying out of preparatory work for creating systems for acoustic tomo- graphy of the ocean. As is well known, a system for x-ray computer tomography of the human body is extremely effective. Something of this sort can also be done with the ocean using relatively low-frequency acoustics. Over ocean areas of millions of square kilometers it is pc~ssible to obtain remote information on synoptic variabil- ity of. ocean waters, tt~at is, concerning the movement of fronts and eddies in these zones, to d~terminP the structure of tt~e ocean along profiles, both horizontally and vertically, etc. Finally, investigations of the ocean f.rom space will be considerably developed un- der the new multisided program. There will be an increase in the role of investi- gations which on the basis of the state of the surface layer, monitored from space 46 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFIC7AL USE ONLY vehicles, will provide information on the structure of the deep layers. In partic- ular, !n the field of marine geology there will be a broadening of study of ferro- manganese nodules. _ Professional oceanologists have an excellent scientific research fleet, but ita instrumental outfitting leaves much to be desired. In order to fill this gap it will be necessary to proceed as follows. Meteorology and atmospheric physics. Here it is possible to mention the following intensively developing fundamental directions. One of these is improvement in the reliability of forecasts of different types and for different times in advance (forecasts of weather, ice conditions, productivity, etc.). Another is study of climate, the theory of climate and the prediction of changes in climate. The pre- diction of climatic cl~anges is highly important. This can be demonstrated in an example. We are evaluating the feasibility and necessity for shifting part of the runoff of rivers from the north to south both in the European USSR and in Siberia. '1'he shifting of part of the runoff of Siberian rivers to Central Asia is a grand- iose undertaking which can evidently be fully implemented no sooner than in 20 years and the principal expenditures on its implementation will pay for themselves during the subsequent decades. It is clear that a reliable prediction of the feas- ibility of accomplishing the shifting of this runoff can be made oni~ by knowing what the climate will be like after 20-40 years. There are two other directions investioation of elementary physical processes in the atmosphere, integration of the results of these investigations in mathemat- ical models of circulation of the atmosphere and its interaction with the ocean; work on ttie artificial modification of hydrometeorological processeso Studies for improvement of forecasts were coordinated by the interdepartmental S,ci- entific Council, USSR Academy of Seiences, on the problem "Weather Forecasting," the chairman of which was Academician G. I. Marchuk. There are a number of signif- icant attainments. I will mention only some of them. At the USSR Hydrometeorological Center specialists have developed methods for the long-range forecasting of the fields of ineteorological elements (wind, geopotential) l~ased on solution of. the conjugate equations of hydromechanics within the framework of a barotropic model with a source. The Hydrometeorological Center, together with other institutes of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology, has improved synoptic methods for predicting the mean monthly temperature anomaly for the European USSR and Western Siberia. At the Main Ceophysical Observatory specialists have developed a physicostatistical - method for the long-range forecasting of multisided meteorological parameters de- termining the yield of agricultural crops for 15 consolidated economic regions of the Soviet Union. Specialists there liave also developed a hydrodynamic-statistical model for predicting pressure, temperature, cloud cover and precipitation over the territory of tiie northern hemi'sphere for intermediate times. At the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute specialists have developed a method for pre- dicting atmosplieric circular.ion and weather for three-ten days for the polar re- gions . 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE 011DLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OF~IC[AL USE ONLY The attack of our scientists on the climate problem is expanding. An all-union pro- ;ram has been developed for the investigation of climate, its possible changes and the influence of these changes on the national economy. The program has been ap- - proved by the State Committee on Science and Technology, the Presidium USSR Aead- emy of Sciences and the USSR Gosplan. The key organization is the State Committee on liydrometeorology and Isnvironmental Monitoring. It is also possible to mention some results of investigations made last year. Semiempirical methods for evaluating the response of climate to change in C02 con- tent in the atmosphere have been proposed and tested (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences,~State Hydrological Institute). In order to de- ~ termine the present trend in global climate, specialists at the Geography Institute, - USSR Academy of Sci~nces, have reconstructed the spatial distribution of paleo- mete~rological parameters for different epochs for which the state of the climatic system was comparable with its present-day state. - At the scientific institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the State Co~ittee on Hy3rometeorology and Environm~ntal Monitoring (Computation Center, Siberian De- partment, USSR Academy of Sciences, Main Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of Sciences) specialists have created and tested modern hydrodynamic models of climate. Using these models it was possible to obtain a ser- _ ies of results of practical importance. Investigations of atmospl~eric energetics have continued for the purpose of clarify- ing the role of different atmospheric components in the formation of climate: aero- sol absorption (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, Main Geophysical Observatory), nitrogen oxides, carbon halogens (P4ain Geophysical Ob- serva~tory, Institute of Applied Geophysics). General theoretical~investigations of the formation of climate have developed. For example, specialists at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics have proposed theoretical evaluations of the year-to-year fluctuations of global surface temperature. Important studies carried out for determining the structure of the monitoring of climate were initiated in the Labor- atory for Monitoring the Environment and Climate of the State Committee on Hydro- meteorology and Environmental Monitoring and the USSR Academy of Sciences. These and other investigations have made it possible to obtain preliminary evalu- ations of possible changes in climate caused by human activity. In general the evaluation coincides with similar evaluations made in the United States. These in- clicate the presence of a definite probability of an increase in mean global temper- ature at the earth's surface. At the same time, neither in the USSR nor in the _ ilnited S~ates }ias it yet been possible to obtain substantiated quantitative conclu- sions concernLng tl~e anthropogenic changes in climate possible in the future. In ~�~-der to obtain a reliable evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic factors on climate it is necessary to broaden still further investigations made with modern models (incl.uding joint models of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere). There must be a considerable strengthening of investigations of the effect of pos- sible changes in global climate on economic activity at the scale of our country, on tl~e world economy and on tlie natural resources of our planet. 48 FO[t OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 ' FOR O~FICIAL f1SE ONI.Y - With respect to study of individual physical pr.ocesses in the atmosphere and the integration of the results in mathematical models, I would like to note the fol- lowing studies. At the Institute of Atmospheric Physics a study has been made of the mechanism of generation of eddies in very simple systems. A model with few Parameters was formulated describing the results of e~:periments modeling cyclo- - genesis processes. A study was made of the phenomenon of parametric resonance in the atmosphere in relation to the problem of quasi-two year cyclicity. At the USSK Nydrometeorological Center work has been completed on numerical exper- iments for modeling of general circulation of the atmosphere in the northern hemi- spliere for different seasons on tlie basis of a finite-difference hydrodynamic mod- el. A model of circulation of the atmosphere and ocean was developed at the center with their inter:iction taken into account. Studies of this type are also being de- veloped at the Computation Center, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences, and at t}~e Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of Sciences. Interesting investi~;ations oE internal gravitational waves in the atmosphere with the use of radiometeor data have been made at the Institute o~ Physics and Mathe- matics, KirQhiz SSR Academy of Sciences. The iise of space vehicles for obtaining routine data on the a*_mosphere and the eartli's underlying surface is expanding (State Scientif ic Research Center for the Study of Natural Resources). At the Central Asian Regional Hydrometeorological In- :~titute of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring recommendations have been developed on the multisid~d use of satellite and surface data for routin~ determination of the productivity of agricultural crops. Geography, natural r.esources and their rational use; preservation of the environ- ment. Investigations in these fields are of primary importance. For the first time a special section "Preservation of the Environment" has appeared in the "Principal Directions." The Institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Academies of Sciences of tiie union republics, State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environ- mental Monitoring and colleges of the country are making investigations on a broad - front. The Geograpliy Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with the geo- graphy institutes of the Academies of Sciences of Bulgaria, Iiungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia have prepared methodological recommendations on the economic and noneconomic evaluation of the consequences of man's effect on nature - for use in the countries of the Soviet Economic Bloc. As a result of studies carried out by the institutes of the State Committee on Hy- drometeorology and Environmental t~Ionitoring during 1978-1980 it was possible to determine t}ie principal characteristics of a national system for observing and monitoring ttie state of the environment. A standard program for physical, chem- ical and biological observations is being developed and introduced at the back- ground stations entering into this system. At the Laboratory for Monitoring tlie Environment ~ind Climate of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring and the USSR Academy of Sciences speclalists have created t}~e fundamei~tal structure of ecological monitoring making 49 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY - it possible to evaliiate and predict changes in ecosystems under the infiuence of . anthropogenic activity. The laboratory has also formulated principles and approach- es to geochemical monitoring of the inf luence of anthropogenic activity on the naturai cycles of some structural chemical elements. Specialists at the Institute of Applied Geophysics have proposed and improved methods for monitoring the con-~ tent of different organic and inorganic pollutants in natural media, including highly sensitive methods for determining toxic metals, chlorina~ced and aroma.tic hydrocarbons in sea water, soils and other media. Seientific principles have been _ developed for expert environmental pro~e~tion for plans for major national econ- omic structures. A number of institutes have carried out much work for studying the natural, econ- omic and social conditions in the region of creation ot the Kansk-f~chinsk Fuel- Energy Complex. A prediction of the anticipated environmental change~ in this re- gion has been developed. At the Institute of Geography of Siberia and the Far East, . Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences, a prediction has been made of the changes in water quality along the route of the Baykal-Amur Railroad for the per- iad up to the year 2000. At the Pacific Ocean Institute of Geography, Far Eastern Scientific Center, USSR Academy of Scisnces, specialists have formulated a balance ecological-economic model of an industrial complex. A method has been developed for a cost estimate of the transportation-geographical position of complexes of importance to the national economy. The Geography Institute; USSR Academy of Sci- - ences, in collaboration with the institutes of the Academies of Sciences of the union repuUlics, on the basis of a study of the anthropogenically caused spreading of the desert in the Aral region, proposed a complex of water, land and phytomel- ioration measures ~or contending with this process. The study of the environmeiit by means of space vehicles is expanding. At the Geo- graphy Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, on the basis of materials from space surveys, specialists have created a method for landscape-typological regionaliza- tion of the Mongolian People's Republic. There also, using materials obtained from space vehicles, a geomorphological map of the USSR on 16 sheets was created. At ~ Mosco~a State University a method has been developed for visual instrumental and _ automated interpretation of multizonal aerospace photographs. Geocryology occupies a liig}ily important place in the geographical sciences, both with respect to fund~imental and practical importance. It is known that permafrost exists over almost half the territory of our country. It is also known that al- - lowance Eor tlie charzicteristics of the cryolithozone in the economic exploitation uf terri.tories is a fiigl~~.y important matter. The ignoring of the characteristics - of perm:ifrost can lead to extremely sorrowful consequences. At the Permafrost In- stitute, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences, specialists have prepared a map of permafrost-hydrogeological regionalization of Eastern Siberia. T.his is intended for solution of problems related to the rational use of ground water. A geocryological map of tl~e zone of the Baykal-Amur Railroad compiled there has also been published and a"Manual on Protection of Landscapes When Laying Gas Pipelines in the Far North" (RUKOVODSTVO PO ZASHCHITE LANDSHAFTOV PRI PROKLADKE GAZOPROVODOV NA I:RAYNI:M SEVERE) has bepn prepared. At Moscow State Universi*y special.ists liave developed a method for perrnafrost-engineering-geological inter- pretation of aerospace pt?otographs in engineering field work for nipeline 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY construction in the cryolithozone. Specialists there have also carried out invest- igations of the spatial patterns of the lithospheric permafrost zone in Western ~ Siberia. Water problems in their importance are becoming of equal rank with energy problems. . The problem of supplying water to industrial enterprises, for agriculture and household needs in adcquate quantities and of sufficiently high quality (stated simply, pure), in many parts of rhe earth and in our country is becoming very acute. A great number of institutes (several dozen) of diff erent departments are engaged in an examination of different variants of shifting of part of the runoff of north- ern rivers to the south both in the European USSR and in Siberia. An evaluation I~as been made of the influence of this measure on natural climatic conditions in the region affected by the shifting, on the hydrology of rivers, in their mouth zones and along the entire course, on the biological (fish reserves) , economi~:, and social conditions. Tl~e Institute of tdater Problems, USS~t Academy of Sciences, was the key organization for all this work. It carri~d out a great amount of work, all under rather complex conditions. The shifting of runoff is very expensi~-e. A demonstration of the feas- ibility of such shifting of runoff and an analysis of possible negative conse- ; quences is a very complex matter. This is dependent on the possible variants adopt- ed for change in climate in the coming decade, on the different scenarios adopted for the development of the national economy in the coming decade and on many other factors. It is also necessary to take into account the possibility of alternative means for supplying tlte national economy with water, in particular, improvement " in the technolog~ of water use. In the light of all tliese considerations we feel that what is written in the "Prin- cipal Directions" is extremely far-sighted and reasonable: proceed to the imple- mentation of preparatory work on shifting of part of the runoff of northern rivers into the basin of the Volga River, and also continue scientific and planning work on the shifting of part of the waters of Siberian rivers into Central Asia and Kazakhstan. At the sar~e time, provision is made for the implementation of necessary measures for the rational expenditure of water in agriculture; on improvement in ' the meliorated state of irrigated and drained lands, for increasing responsibility _ for their loss from the crop rotation cycle, for eliminating salinization and en- hanced acidity of soils. - A number of significant studies have been carried out on other, not so fundamental, but nevertlieless very important ~~spects of the water problem. At the Limnological Institute, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences water balances have been determined for tl~e 13ratskoye and Ust'-Ilimskoye Reservoirs from the time of their formation, indicating a reduction in the inflow of water from Baykal during recent years. The "I'rincipal Uirections" called for the continuation of work on the pres- ervation and rational use of unique natural complexes, especially Baykal. We know that the threat to I3aykal has by no means been removed, but on the con*_rary, is increasing. And the role of the Limnological Institute in the preservation of this unique complex from destructive anthropogenic effects is very great. At the Lake Science Institute, USSR Academy ^f Sciences, specialists have obtained the - 51 FOR OFFICI'AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFk'ICIAL USE ONLY ciiarar_~eristj_cs of the ten largest lakes in the USSR and their anticipated natural resour.ce changes up to the year 2Q00. - Everything stated above indicates that at the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Academies of Sciences of the union republics, at the USSR State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, at colleges and in other departments there has been extensive development of scientific research work = directed to the solution of problems outlined in the "Principa'1 Directions." In the "Principal Directions" there is mention of the need for broadening the auto- mation of planning-design and scientific research work with the use of electronic computers; timely determination and modification of the direction of resea.rch and ~evelopment; the organizational structure of scientific institutes in accordance with the requirements of the scientific and technical revolution. This is a very important indication. An inadmissible practice is when new directions at our in- stitutes ~an be formed and expanded only with an increase in personnel and out- dated themes for years continue to be developed by tradition and custom. The in- 5titutes of tt~e Department of Oceanology, Atmospheric Physics and Geography must very respons-Ibly di.scuss ttie "Principal Directions" and note the necessary meas- _ iires which each must take in its sphere of activity. COPYRIGtIT: Izdatel'stvo "PJauka", "Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR", 1981 - 5303 CSO: 1865/49 - 52 l~'OR OI~FICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - UDC 551.55+524 COLL~CTION OF PAPF.RS ON MARINE METEOROLOGY Moscow TRUDY ZAPADNO-SII3IRSKOGO REGIONAL'NOGO NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATEL'SKOGO INSTITUTA: MORSKAYA METI:OROLOGIYA. VETROVOY I TEI~IPERATURNYY REZHIPi SHEL'FOVYKH ZON MOREY SOVET- SKOGO SUYUZA in Russian No S0, 1981 (signed to press 10 t4ar 81) pp 12;-132 [Abstracts of articles from collection "Transac.tions oi the West Siberian Regional Scienttfic Research Institute: Marine Meteorology. Wind and Temperature Regime of Shelf Zones of Soviet Union Seas", edited by S. D. Koshinskiy, doctor of geograph- ical sciences, Moskovskoye otdeleniye Gidrometeoizdata, 430 copies, 132 pages] ABSTRACTS UDC 551.501:551.582 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BARENTS SEA WIND REGIME OBTAINED BY DIFFER~NT METHODS [Abstract of article by Zykova, G. G.] [Text] A comparative analysis of the statistical characteristics of wind directions and velocities obtained on the basis of observations by ships in the op~~n sea, at - shore and island stations using a vane (with the Beaufort scale) and al::o by comput- ~ ations for ttie surface atmosptieric pressure field is presented. An evaluation of the � errors is made when usin~ series of observations of different duration. Tables 3, figures 2, references 11. UDC 551.553:551.582 INDIRI'sCT MLTtiUllS FOR COMPUTINC I.UW-PROBABILITY WIIdD VELOCITIES OVER SEA [Abstract of article by Zykova, G. G.] [Text] On ttie basis of data from shipboard observations in the southern part of the harents Sea it was possible to determine the regional dependences between the stat- istical characteristics ef the distribution of wind velocities, by means of which, = using known methods, indirect computations are made of maximum wind velocities of different guaranteed probability over the sea. An evaluation of the errors in indir- ect computations of wind velocities is given. Tables 3, figures 2, references 6. 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.55 USE OF NORMAI, DISTRIBUTION OF RANDOM VECTOR LAW IN CHARACTERIZING WIND REGIME ON SHELF USING WIND GRADIENT DATA [Abstract of article by Bot'yanov, V. Ye.) [Text] The article gives the results of evaluation of applicability of a normal cir- cular law for computing the standard deviations of wind velocities and their fre- c~uency oi recurrence by directions on the basis af data on the regime of wind velo- cities and directions computed from the surface pressure fields. It is shown that there is an adequate consistency of the theoretical and empirical characteristics. An exception is the theoretical frequency of recurrence of directions, whose values, even with allowance for the ellipticity of the dispersion, can substantially differ from the actual values; the influence of the shore is evidently reflected to a strong degree. Tables 2, figures 3, references 8. _ UDC 551.553.8 COMPUTATION Or WIND VELOCITI~S WITH LOW GUAR.ANTEED PROBABILITY [Abstract of article by Koshinskiy, S. D.] _ j'Cc~xt] Tl~e article examines the problem of optimizing the computation of wind velo- cities which occur infrequently (possible once in a stipulated number of years) by indirect methods. For these purposes use is made of the mean annual wind velocity and the mean annual number of days with a storm wind, that is, with a velocity V~ 15 m/sec. An analysis is given of the reasons for the large errors allowed earlier - in preparation for the publication of the SPRAVOCHNIK PO KLIMATU SSSR, CHAST+ III. VETER (Handbook on USSR Climate, Part III. Wind). Approximate computations of Vg and an evaluation of the reliability of such computations were made using observa- tional data for stations located on the shore and on islands of the Far Eastern seas of the Soviet Union. Such methodological studies are assuming particular value in connection with the work carried out by the Service on the "Shel'f" theme. = Tables 2, figures 3, references 13. UDC 551.553.8 CUMPUTING WINn VI:I.UCITTIs'S OF INI'RLQU~NT FREQUEidCY OF RECURRENCE OVER OPEN PART OF 5 !?A [Abstract of article by Koshinskiy, S. D.] [TextJ A mettiod is proposed for computing the extrema of wind 1~elocities with a low guaranteed probability (possible once in a stipulated number of years) over the _ ~pen part of the sea wl~ere there is virtually always a complete absence of any ob- servations. For this purpose it is recommended that use be made of the results of earlier computations of gradient wind velocities at the earth on the basis of the i~ressure field in accordance with the recommendations of the State Oceanographic 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFF'1~[AL USE ONLY tnstitute prepared by S. Ve Rzheplinskiy in I973. The proposed computation method was tested in the example of the Kara Sea. The results were entirely acceptable and objective. In this connection the author assumes that such computations can also be made over other ~ireas of the internal and marginal seas of the Soviet Union. Tables 4, figures 2, references 10. - UDC 551.51 INDIRECT COMPUTATION OF CONTINUOUS DURATION OF STRONG WINDS OF DIFFERENT GUARANTEED PROBAEILITY OVER KAItA SEA WATERS [Abstract of article by Rudova, L. S.] [TextJ Tlie maximum continuous duration of the effect of wind velocities of differ- ent probability c~innot be computed directly over the waters of seas due to the ab- sence of information. An indirect procedure is proposed for computing this charac- teristic by the correlation analysis method. The resulting correlation dependence between the computed maximum continuous duration of the effect of great wind velo- cities and their guaranteed probability makes it possible to compute the extrema. of the continucus duration on the shore and islands, as well as over the sea surface. Tables 7, f:igures 2, references 9. UDC 551.583 - STATISTICAL MODELS OF LOCAL CLIMATOLOGICAL FORECAST OF BREEZES [Abstract of, article by Burman, E. A. and Stupina, F. Ya.] [Text] A study was made of the possibility of modeling conditions favorable for the development of breezes by means of statistical modeling of series of the amplitude of diurnal variatio:r of air temperature with subsequent computation of the char- ~icteristics of "sur~es" for definite levels. The article gives a comparison of the characteristics of a time regime of breeze circulations obtained from modeled ser- ies and by me,ins of direct samples. Tables 5, references 10. UDC 551.509.322 PREDICTION UI~ WIND VELOCITY IN THE VOLGA DELTA [Abstract of article by Voznesenskaya, L. M.] [Text] Wind forecasting occupies a special place in the hqdrometeorological support of the merchant marine and fishing industry. The basis for the proposed method is {cnown depende~ces of wind velocity on different components. The article gives curves of the dependence of maximum wind velocity in the region of the Volga delta on mean velocity in the layer ground - 900 m, on the sign and intensity of temperature ad- vectian in the layer ground - 850 mbar. Practical recommendations are given which can be used in preparing a short-range forecast of the wind and storm warnings for the Volga clel.ta and tt?e northwestern part of the Caspian Sea. Tables 1, figures 2, references 7. 55 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.51 FI.OODING CON1)ITIUNS [N TH~ NORTHWESTERN CASPIAN 10-13 NOVEMBER 1952 [Abstract of article by Koshinskiy, S. D. and Ryzhkova (Kravets), L. M.] [Text] The authors give an analysis of the meteorological conditions for the setting- in of a severe southeasterly storm on 10-13 November 1952 in the Caspian Sea, this resulting in flooding in the northwestern part of the Caspian. On 12 November the sea water spread over a series of sectors of the land into the depths of the contin- ent for a distance of about 20-35 km. The article includes a map of the zone of lim- " iting flooding. These materials are of great value in light of the work impending in the llth Five-Year P.lan for study of the hydrometeorological regime of the Caspian Sea. Tables 5, figures 5. UDC 551.55 - CLIMATiC PAI2A~iCTERS 01~ ~dIND ENERGY ON TH~ S~ASHORE [Abstract of article by Borisenko, M. M. and Sokolova, S. N.J [Text] A study was made of tiie climatic parameters of the wind used for evaluating its energy resources: velocity norms and annual amplitudes in the example of the shore and sectors of the Black Sea adjacent to it. It is shown that on the coast the mean long-term velocities are 10-40% greater than on the adjacent sectors of the land. On the otller hand, the amplitude of the annual variation of wind velocity on the shore is substantially less than in the depths of the land. The results ob- tained in this study can be used in evaluating the wtnd energy resources of sea areas. Tables 'l, figures 1, references 8. UDC 551.582 - ERRORS IN WIND V~LOCITIES READ FROM SURFACE SYNOPTIC CHARTS [~lbstr.i~�t c>f articl.e by Kravchenk~, I. K. ] [Text] Ttie author has eval.uated the errors in wind velocities read from annular syn- optic maps. A comparison was made of more than 2,000 wind veloGity values computed _ irom m~ips with TM-1 d~ita for meteorological stations on the shores of the Gulf of Finland 1111CI the Gulf ~~f Riga. It is shown that there are rather substantial differ- cnces between the wind ve:locity values. In the case of low wind velocities it is easy to trace a tendency to an exaggeration of the velocities read from synoptic c~t?arts in comparison with the TM-1, and with high velocities, on the other hand, _ .~n understatement. '1'he principal reason for the differences is the peculiarities of coding when plott~ing wind velocity on the m2tp. Tables 1, figures 1. 56 - FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010012-2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.524.36(268.5) MINIMUM AIR T1:MP~RATURES OV~R SOVIET ARCTIC SEAS [Abstract of article by Petrov, L. S.] [Text] Maps of the distribution of minimum temperatures over Soviet arctic seas are represented. The patterns of the regime of minimum temperatures for different time averaging scales are considered. A graphic form of representation of the generaliz- ing information on minimum temperatures is proposed on the basis of data for indi- vidual stations. Such schemes make it possible to give approximate evaluations of the regime of m3.nimum temperatures at any point in the Arctic. Tables 2, figures 1, references 4. UDC 551.524 RECOMMENDATIONS ON COMPUTING TH~ CONTINUOUS DURATION OF PERIODS WITH AIR TGMPGRATUR~ BT'sLUW STIPULATrD LIMITS USING "LOW-LEVEL" AUTOMATION METHODS [Abstract of article by Luchitskaya, I. 0.] � [Text] Due to the reoutfitting and replacement of electronic computers at the West _ Siberian Regional Computation Center, the introduction of programs for the computer processing of ineteorological information on electronic computers in the years im- mediately ahead cannot be accomplished. Accordingly, a simplified method is propos- ed for determining the continuous duration of periods with an air temperature below (above) the stipulated limits with respect to the minimum, maximum and mean daily , air temperatures. This method will make it possible to carry out computations using "low-level" automation methods and manually. It is adequately reliable and less time-consuming in comparison with tihe method based on use of the earlier proposed ~ empirical formula. Tables 3, figures 1, references 6. UDC 551.574.42 SOME RfsGIMl3 CHARACT~RISTICS OF CONDITIONS FOR ICING OF ABOVE-WATER FEATURES IN SHELF 7.UtJL OF ARCTIC SLAS [Abstr~ict of. article by Kolosova, N. V. and Panov, V. V.] [Text] Maps of the empirical probability of sea breeze icing for October in the ex- ample of the Kara Sea are given. Data are given on the duration of cases of icing, thickness and mass of. deposited ice from atmospheric icing according to observa- tions on a glaze wall at polar stations. Tables 4, fi~ures 2, references 6. 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY UDC 551.551.8 - FF.ATURES OF STRUCTURE Or ATMOSPHERIC NEAR-WATER LAYER IN NORTHERN SEAS [Abstract of. article by Garbuzov, A. V.] [Textj On the basis oE long-term data from shipboard observations the author exam- ines stratification conditions in the atmospheric near-water layer in northern ser;s. It is shown tliat it is necessary to take into account stratification condi- tions in the atmospheric near-water layer when computing exchange characteristics for different averaging periods. It is shown that allawance for humidity stratifi- cation when computing exchange characteristics in northern seas is necessary only for smal.l averaging periods. It was established that the relative variability of the parameters of the near-water layer of the atmosphere in the northern seas is close to the values obtained for the North Atlantic region. The author gives eval- uations of the errors in computing climatic values of heat flows when using in- formation on the mean values of ineteorological elements governed by the variabil- ity of tliese elements. Tables 2, figures 4, references 11. UDC 551.577.2.(268.5) FREQU~NCY OF RECURREIdC~ AND INTENSITY OF PRECIPITATION IN SOV_T.ET ARCTIC SEAS [Abstr~~ct oE article by Bryazgin, N. N.] [Text] For t1~e first time for arctic seas, on the basis of data from island and coastal stations and shipboard observations for 1936-1965, it was possible to con- struct maps of the frequency of recurrence of precipitation. For the poorly observ- ed areas of the seas, when constructing the mentioned maps, in addition to ship- board observations use was made of the empirical correlations of the probability of precipitation with meteorological elements. The computed values of precipitation intensity are cited. The annual variation and patterns of distribution of their fre- quency of recurrence are given. An evaluation of the accuracy of the constructed maps is given. Tables 5, fi~ures 1, references 9. COPYRIGHT: Zapadno-sibirskiy regional'nyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut Goskomgidrometa, 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/53 ~ 1 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY TERRESTRIAL GEOPHYSICS UDC 550.83 _ COLLECTION OF ARTICI.ES ON APPLIID GEOPHYSICS Moscow PRIKLADNAYA GFOFIZIKA in Russian No 100, 1981 (signed to press 14 Apr 81) ~~p 191-192 [Abstracts of articles from collection "Applied Geophysics", responsible editar Ye. ~V. Karus, Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", 1490 copies, 192 pages] [TextJ Abstracts UDC 550.834.5 DIFFERENTIAL PARAMETERS OF SURFACE TRAVEL-TIME CiJRVES OF REFLECTED WAVES [Abstract of article by Levin, A. N.J . - [Text] It is shown that the differential parameters of the travel-time curve of re- flected waves are interrelated to surface wave fronts and fictitious surfaces. Ex- pressions are derived for the curvatures of the surface travel-time curve, fic- titious surface and surface of the front of a xeflected wave. Figures 1, references 5. UDC 550.834.05 FEA'PURES OF PROCESSING OF EXCHANGE WAVE SEISMOGRAMS BY THE D-TRANSFORMS METHOD ~ [Abstract of article by Kondrat'yev, 0. K. and Orlov, V. P.] [Text~ The article examines an algorithm for D-transformation of records of the x- components in the transmitted exchange waves method into the image of a deep sec- tion. It is shown that in the "reconstruction" of inhomogeneous media it is desir- able that an algorithm for the automatic regulation of the summation base be in- troduced into the D-transform procec~ure. Figures 4, refer.ences 5. 59 F~OR OFFiC1AL USE ONI,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY UDC 550.834.53 INVESTIGATION OF WAVEGUID~ SURFACE NOISE IN SEISMIC PROSPECTING BY THE COMMON DEEP POINT METHOD [Abstract of article by Gil'bershteyn, P. G., Pochtovik, V. S. and Kopilevich, ~ Ye. A.] [Text] A study was made of. the spectral and energy characteristics of P~ interfer- ence waves in the case of different filtration parameters as a function of source- receiver distance and shot depth. On the basis of a study of the properties of P~ interference it was possible to develop a method for its subtraction. Figures 4, tables 2, references 9. UDC 550.834 ANALYSIS OF CONC~PTS ON ~XT~NT OF EFFECTIV~ REFLECTION REGION [Abstract of article by Zaval3shin, B. R.] [Text] This is a discussion of the contradiction arising in estimation of the ex- tent of the effective reflection region in frequency and time representatinns. The author demonstrates the arbitrariness of defining the concept of "effective reflec- tion region" on the basis of allowance for the role of edge diffraction. The fre- auency dependence of diffraction creates the impression that the extent of the ef- fective reflection region is also dependent on frequency. In actuality, this ex- ~ent is not determined by frequency, but by the duration of the wave process. Fig- ures 4, references 8. UDC 550.834.5 AUTOMEI7'~I) SYST~M r0[: PRUCGSSING SPATIAL OBSERVATIONS BY THE COMMON DEEP POINT MT;TIIOD [Abstract of article t~y Staykov, P. P., Minkovskiy, Kh. S., et al.] [Text) The a~ticle examines an automated system for the processing of spatial ob- servations in the common deep point method. The results of processing of field ob- 5ervations make it possible to conclude that in the case of spatial observations tliere is an increase in the reliability of discrimination of reflected wav~s due to tlie collection of w~zve energy in space. The principal advantage of spatial prccess- ing is the possibility of obtaining data on the behavior of the reflecting boundary _ in space. Figures 5, references 4. UDC 550.534.04 t:VALIJA'('TIJC Gl:OUNll ri~rl.C'.f TI:~L'. lOR SOURCE OF SEISMIC VIBRATIONS AT SURFACE [Abstr.act of. articlc by Mayorov, V. V.] [Text] On the basis of a diagram relating deformation of the ground and stresses, - it was possib].e to calculate *_he time t for introduction of tt:~ shock. mechanism of a surface soiirce into the ground. It is shown that t is determined by the 60 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONGY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY momentum of the shock mechanism and reaction of the ground. Figures 1, tables 1, references 4. UDC 550.83.05:519 USE OF C~OLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL DATA FOR DELINEATING PETROLEUM DEPOSITS IN THE SALYMSKOYE DEPOSIT USItdG THE POISK PROGRAM (Abstract of article by Khomenyuk, Yu. V., Maksimov, A. B. and Guseva, V. S.] [Text] The authors describe experience with the use of surface geological-geophys- ical data in delineating petroleum deposits in the argillites of the Bazhenovskaya suite of the Salymskoye deposit (Western Siberia) using the POISK program for the identification of images. The preliminary evaluation of the reliability of the forecasts is not less than 70%. Figures 3, tables 1, references 5. UDC 550.837.81 POSSII3ILITY OF USE Or CUNCEPTS OF QUANTUM PHYSICS Itd INDUCED POLARIZATION THEORY [Abstract of article by Balasanyan, S. Yu. and Kobyl'skiy, V. A.] [Text] A study was made of the possibility of using the concepts~of q-uantum physics in the theory of induced polarization. It is shown that in this case it is quite easy t~ explai:n sucti phenomena observed in actual practice in the induced polar- ization method as negative polarizability and polarizability exceeding 100%. Fig- ures 3, references 12. UDC 550.831.01 llEPENDENCE OF DIFFERENTIATION OF MASSES ON THE EARTH'S GRAVITATIONAL FIELD [Abstract of article by Veselov, K. Ye.] [Text] It is d~monstrated that any lengthening of the terrestrial day, secular shortening of the terrestrial year, periodic and irregular changes in the length of day and some geological phenomena can explain generation and change of mass. It is proposed that this effect be taken into account in computing the flight tra~ec- tories of space vehicles. Tables 1, references 14. UDC 550.831.017 ITCRATION-ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEM OF GRAVIMAGNETIC GXPLORATION FOR VERTICAL, CYLINDRICAL AND STRATAL BODIES BY NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION [Abstract of article by I.yubimov, A. A., Abramov, A. N., D`yachkov, N. P. and Ivanov, S. N.] [Text] This paper gives an iteration-analytical solution of the inverse problem in gravimeer.ic and magnetic prospecting in a class of vertical, cylindrical and strat- al bodies on the basis of the totality of the most informative points which is 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY obtained using an el.ectronic computer by the trial-and-error method by minimizing a nonlinear functional. Tables 4, references 4. _ liDC 550.831.017 COMPUTATION UF REDUCED POTENTIAL FIELDS WITH A PHYSICAL SURFACE ON A HORIZONTAL PL~1NE IN TH~ NEIGHBORHOOD OF TH~ KURSK MAGNETIC ANOMALY [Abstract of article by Lyubimov, G. A. and Lyubimov, A. A.] [Text] A method is described for the reduction of ma.gnetic and gravity observations with an arbitrary surface to a plane, which makes it possible to increase the ac- curacy i:~ reduction and reduce the expenditures of computer time in computations of any class. Figures 3, tables 2, references 4. ' UDC 550.831.05:519 - R(11L IZAT LUN OI~ FULL GR~IDIENT M~TIiOD WITHOUT SPECTRAL EXPANSION OF INITIAL DATA [Abstract of article by I3erezkin, V. M. and Otroshko, Ye. N.~] - [TextJ The authors propose a computation schemz for the full gradient method without spectral expansion of the initial data by means of transforming a Fourier series into a contraction integral. A program for a BESM-6 electronic computer is prepared on its basis. rigures 3, ref erences 4. UllC 550.831.016 SEPARATION OF GRAVITY ANOttALIES FROt4 BODIES SITUATED ABOVE ONE ANOTHER [Abstract of articte by Antonov, Yu. V.] [Text] A metl~od is ~~r~posed for the separation of complex gravity anomalies for the case of two anomalou5 hodies situated one below the other. Numerical schemes are - developed for determininR loccil anomalies from the distribution of a complex anomaly on the obser.vation pr.ofile. F:tgures 3, tables 3, references 6. UDC 550.831.017 ~?PROXIMATI's MLTHOD 1~UR SOLVING THE PLANE INVERSE PROBLEM IN STRUCTURAL GRAVIMETRY [Ahstr:ic:t oE article Uy Fedor;,va, N. V. ] [Text] An appr.oximate method is examined for solution of the two-dimensional in- verse problem in potential theory for the purpose of determining discontinuities which is b~~sed on use of an approximation of the observed fields of a new class of potentials. An algorithm for constructing a family of equivalent discontinuities ~ is described ~~nd is tested in model and practical examples. Figures 4, references 7. ~ 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 550.831 REDUCTION OF THE OBSERVED GRAVITY FIELD jAbstract of article by Mikhaylov, I. N.] [Text] In a theoretical example the author examines the problems involved in re- duction of the observed gravity field. The possibilities of reduction with the use of the apparent rock density values, determined from the results of gravita- tional logging, are pointed out. Figures 2, references 5. UDC 550.831 ERRORS IN TRIGONOMETRIC APPROXIMATIONS AND USE OF SHORTENED FOURIER SERIES WHEN USING FILON METHOD [Abstract of article by Yeliseyeva, I. S.] - [Text] It has been established that the degree of nonequal accuracy in computing the coefficients of a Fourier series by the Filon method is dependent on the number of reading points at which the initial function is stipulated. It is prop.osed that the o~timum length of a series be determined in the case of shortened approxima- tions on the basis of finding of the limiting expansion errors. Figures 2, refer- ences 3. _ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/13 63 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFiCIAL US~ ONLY COLLECTION OF ARTICLES OP7 DYNAMIC THEORY OF SEISriIC WAVE PROPAGATIOid Leningrad VUPROSY DINAMICHESKOY TEORII RASPROSTRANEPlIYA SEYSMICHESKIKH VOLN in Russian No 21, 198I (signed to press 5 Aug 81) pp 195-196 [Abstracts from collection of articles "Problems in the Dynamic Theory of Seismic Wave Propagation", edited by G. I. Petrashen', Leningradskaye otdeleniye, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1150 copies, 196 pages] [Text~ ABSTRACTS - UDC 550.344 RAY METHOD AND POLARIZATION OF SEISMIC BODY WAVES [Abstract of article by Petrashen', G. I.] [Text] The author inr.roduces the concept of a natural base ek(ti ) of a ray system of coordinates constructed at points (smooth segments) of a ray defining constant directions of polarization of longitudinal and transverse waves during their propa- gation in isotropic inhomogeneous media. On the basis of such a concept the article sets forth the formalism of the ray method in the mentioned media and this formalism is compared with the formalism of the ray method in cases of anisotropy of the medium. As a result it is clarified that with a tendency of the parameters of aniso- � tropy to zero the direct~ons af the polarization of quasilongitudinal and quasi- - transverse waves at e~cli point ~~n tl~e (limiting) ray tend to the specific direction of some natur~il base. A simple algorithm is given for constructing the base ek( t) simultaneously with construction of the ray. References b. UDC 550.344 SOr1E PROBLr.MS IN STUDYING SEISMIC WAVE FIELDS ON THE BASIS OF THREE-COMPONENT OBS~RVATIONS [Abstract of article by Kashtan, B. M.,.Kovtun, A. L. and Petrashen', G. I.] [Text] General information is given on the propagation of body waves in inhomogen- eous seismic media close to real media and on its basis there is clarification of the problem of approach to a description of the polarization of seismic oscilla- tions arising when waves of different types are superposed. The results are applied 64 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY to the problem of discriminating useful waves (and determination of their parameters) on the basis of computer processing of material from three-component registry of wave fields under seismic prosPecting conditions. Figures 7, references 19. , UDC 550.344 INVESTIGATION OF DISPERSION EQUATION ROOTS IN CASE OF PACKET OF TRANSVERSELY - ISOTROPIC ELASTIC LAYERS [Abstract of article by Molotkov, L. A. and Bayinagambetov, U. ] [Text] Analytical methods are used in investigating the roots of a dispersion equa- tion for a packet of transversa lly isotropic elastic lay ers with ~ree outer boun- daries. In the investigation us e is made of matrix repres enta~loYis of dispersion equations. On the basis of asymptotic expressions fo~ the left-hand sides of the _ equations it was possible to derive approximate fornmlas for the roots for small and large wave numbers. These resul ts make it fully pocsible to trace the movement of the roots with an increase in wave numbers and to clarify the nature of the change in phase velocities of normal waves as a function of fre quency. References 8. UDC 550.344 HEAD WAV~ RADIATED BY A THIN EL.EISTIC LAYER - [Abstract of article by Molotkov, L. A. and Smirnova, N. S.] [Text] The low-frequency head wave fzom an e?=.stic layer in a fluid is related to " the longitudinal-lamellar wave in a-~ elastic layer. If the elastic layer is in rigid contact with the surrounding e lastic medium, a longitudinal-lamellar wave cannot propagate in such a system. However, as indicated by an analysis of the correspond- ing dispersion equation, at some low frequencies a higlily attenuating head wave is also possible. Figures 3, r eferences 6. UDC 534.213.4, 550.934.013 THF.ORETICAT~ I:XPt'sRIM1:NTAL INV~STIGATTON OF WAVES GLANCING ALONG A CONCAVE BOUNDARY [Abst.ract of article by Krauklis, P. V., Koptev, V. I., Krauk.lis, L. A, and Yakuoov, V. A.] [Text] The article gives a cc~mp arison of asymptotic and p recise solutions of the problem of waves glancir~g a]_ong the concave boundary of an elastic medium. Theoret- ical seismograms are compared w ith experimental data in the case of a wave on the circular boundary uf a plane model. There is a good agreement between the observed and theoretical travel-time curves and amplitude curves. Figures 6, references 5. 65 ~ FOR OFFICIA3. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 550.834 DEPENDENCE OF INITIAL PARTS OF SEISMOGRAMS OF RII~10TE EARTHQUAKES ON PARAMETERS OF THREE-LAYER MODEL OF EARTH'S CRUST - [Abstract of article by Gal'perina, R. M., Ledovskaya, Ye. M. and Volin, A. P.] [Text] The article preser:ts an extremely effective method for computing the initial parts of full theoretical seismograms of remote earthquakes under the "Krat-3" and "Krat-S" programs. The authors discuss new possibilities afforded by the programs in the interpretation of seismic observations. On the basis of the results of computa- tion of the theoretical seismograms under th~ "Krat-3" program it 3s possible to an- alyze the dependence of the structuxe of the initial parts of the seismograms on the parameters of tlie three-layer ~nodel of the earth's crust. Figures 7, tables 2, ref- erences 7. UDC 550.834 SPATIAI, MODEL OF ANOMALOUS UPPER MANTLE ZONE IN ALTAY AND SAYAN REGION AS A RFSULT OF SEISMIC PROBING - [Abstract ~f article by Matveyeva, N. N., Rogozhina, 1l. A. and Antonova, L. N.] [Text] On the basis of data on earthquakes~ registered along the profile Pamirs-Lena River it was possible to study a zone of reduced velocity in the upper mantle. [?~th deviations Q t in the travel time of seismic waves from the standard Jeffreys-Bullen travel-time curve it was possible to ascertain the spatial position of the zone and the velocities within it. In this procedure only Q t~ 2.0 sec are taken into ac- - count. A theoretical probing of the zone is carried out. The travel times of waves in a three-dimensional tnedium are computed for different sources. It was found that _ the zone extends for approximately 2,000 lan and plur_ges in a NE-SW direction. The minimum depths are 150-200 and th~ maximum depths are 750-800 km; the propagation - velocity of longitudin:il waves on the average decreased by 0.5-0.8 km/sec. Figures - 7, tables 2, references 18. UDC 550.834.5 FGATURES OF THE WAVI's FIELD FUIt TRANSFORMED FAULT ZONE IN CASE OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF MI:DIUM [Abstract of article by Tsymbal, T. M., Neprochnuv, Yu. P. and Antonova, L. N.] [Text] A study was made of the kinematic and dynamic features of the wave field in - a three-dimensional model of a transformed fauit having a curvilinear bottom (fault canyon). It is shown that the curvilinear bottom, focusing the energy of the re- _ fracted and reflected waves, exerts a suhstantial influence on the wave pattern. For ~ the purpose of refining the nature of some observed waves the authors theoretical computations with experimental data. Figures 8, tables 1, references 3. 66 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 550.834 EVALUATION OF EFFECTIV~NESS OF COMMON DEEP POINT OBSERVATION SYSTEMS AI1D CHOICE OF OPTIMUM FIELD WORK METHOD ON BASIS OF EFFECTIVE SEISMIC MODEL METHOD [Abstract of article by Kurbanov, R. K. and Mametov, K. M.J [Text] An interpretation system is proposed which makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of in the common deep point method, to ascertain the optimum spacing of shot points and the optimum length of the travel-time curve. In the example of the Middle Syr-Dar'ya Depression of Southern Kazakhstan a study � is made of all stages in investigations by the proposed method and~the optimum field work method by the co~non deep point method is defined. Figures 6, tables 1, references 8. UDC 550.834.05 EXPERIENCE IN USING THE DYNAAiIC CliARACTERISTICS GF REFLECTED WAVES IN SELECT?NG CHARGE SIZ~ [Abstract of article by Pershina, R. A., Kosarev, V. K., Loginov, V. T. and 14akokin, V. I.] [Text] It is demonstrated experimentally that using the depen~lence of the effective _ absorption coefficient on the frequency characteristics of seismic waves it is pos- - sible to exert an influence on the structure of the observed field. In particular, �;ithin the limits of the Moscow syneclise in this way it is possible to achieve a relative attenuation of the most intensive group of multiple reflected waves with three reflecti~n events, one of which occurs in the near-surface part of the sec- tion. The attenuation of the mentioned group of waves causes a change in the dynamic characteristics of the registered field of reflected waves. Figures 3, references 3. UDC 550.834 SEISMOGRAM 1'RANSFORMt1TIUN WITFI USE OF CHANGE IN TTM~ SCALE OF PATHS [Abstract of article by Latyshev, K. P. and Ozerov, D. K.] [Text] A procedure is proposed for seismogram transformation which involves the lin- ear extension and compression of the paths along the time axis. It is shown that this procedure considerably reduces the sharply changing part of the wave form and this can be used in separating oscillations. Figures 8, references 1. - UDC 550.834 CONVERGENCE OF AN ITERATION ALGORITHM FOR SEPARATING INTERFERING SEISMIC WAVES [Abstract of article by Troyan, V. N.] [Text] The condergence of the iteratfon procedure for finding evaluations of para- meters of interfering seismic waves is demonstrated for the special (but of ~ 67 FOR ORF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY practical interest) case of separation of two waves. The author examines two vari- ants of stipulation of signal shape: the shape is known with an accuracy to the am- plitude factor; the s hape is unknown but the effective duration of the signal is stipulated. Formulas are derived for the residual term. These can be used for prac- - tical evaluations of tlie accuracy of the n-th approximation and maximum probability evaluations. Referenc es 2. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel's tvo "Nauka", 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/38 ~ 68 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010012-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500010012-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PHYSICS OF ATMOSPHERE - UDC 551.593+551.510.536 COLLI~.CTT_ON Or PAPI;KS ON ATMOSPHERIC OPTICS Moscow TRUDY INSTITIJTA CKSPEI2IM~NTAL'NOY METEOROLOGII: OPTIKA ATMOSFERY in Russian - No 10, 1981 (SiKned to press 28 Jan 81) pp 103-105 [Abstracts of ar~icles from collection "Transactions of the Institute of Experimen- tal Meteorology: Atmuspiieric Optics", edited by V. N. Lebednits, doctor of physic- � al and mathematical sciences, Moskovskoye otdeleniye Gidrometeoizdata, 430 copies, 105 pages] [Text] ABSTRACTS UDC 535.345.67 APPARATUS FOR FABRICATING WEDGg INTERFERENCE FILTERS (Abstract of article by Vasil'yev, A. S. and Davletshina, R. A.] [Text] Apparatus is described which makes it possible to employ the UVN-71p-3 stan- dard-produced vacuum