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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540010015-9 1~()R OHFI('IA1. l1SF ~NI.Y JPRS L/ 10217 28 December 1981 ; i - aharan Africa Re ort Sub S p ; FOUO No. 755 ~ ~ , ; ~ 'I ; I ~ ~ ; ~ ~BIS FORElGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE i _ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 NOTE JPR~ publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; t~~ose from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. - Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the origina~ information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are - enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses wer~ not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notF-s within the body of an item originate with the sourc~e. Times within items are as g~ven by source. The coatents of this publication in no way represer~t the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. ~ - COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWI\TERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUC~D HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE Oi~I.Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10217 28 December 1981 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA REPORT FOUO No. 755 CONTENTS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Improvin~ Economic Situation, Long Term Austerity Reported (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDTTERRANEIIVS, 6 Nov 81) 1 ~ ~ CHAD French Actions Said To Have Helped Goukouni (Jean-Louis Buchet; JEUNE AFRIQUE, Nov 8~) Details of GUNT's Aid Request t'o France Reported (Jean-Louis Buchet; JEUNE AFRIQUE, 4 Nov 81) 7 Meeting Held To Coordinate International Reconstruction Aid (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, c~ Nov 81)..�~�������������� 9 Briefs ~ Request for Tunisian Assistance 12 Goukouni's Daughter Marries Qadhdhafi's Cousin 12 CONGO Briefs EEC A~d 13 MALAWI Foreign Trade in 1980, Trade With France Reviewed (MARCHES TROPICAiTX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 9 Oct 81~ 14 MOZAMBIQUE Briefs - Fertilizer Plant Pro~ect 16 - a- [TII - NE & A- 120 FOUO] FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . NI GER ~ Briefs Construction of Islami.c University 17 Cooperation With France 17 FED Road Aid 17 Road Loan 17 NI GER IA Increase of Air Traffic With Europe Reported (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET NIEDITERRANEENS, 6 Nav 81) Improvemen~t in P~rt Situation Reported ~ (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET N~,DITERRANEENS, 6 Vov 81) 19 ~ Over S,YO~J New Compatties Established in 1980 (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET P~;DITERRANEIIVS, 6 Nov 81) 20 ' Briefs ~ Shagari To Run Again 22 More Pir~zcy Feaxed 22 Insecurity Ou~side Capit al 23 Su~ar, Tobacco Difficulties 23 Identity Caxds ~ 23 RWANDA Briefs . Cooperati~n With Yugoslavia 2~ _ SENFGAL Two Export-Promoting Bodies Set tT~ (MARCH~S TROPICAUX ET M~~ITERRANEENS, 8 Nov 81)..����������������� 25 Briefs BEI Loan for SOCOCIM Decline in Customs Receipts ~7 ~ ' SOUTH AFRICA ' Homelands, Townships Harbor Seeds of Discontent (Francois Sourian; JE[TNE AFRIQUE, 11 Nov 81~ 28 Gold Swap Wi~;h Foreign Banks _ (J.D.F. Jones; FINANCIAI, TIMES, 10 Dec 81) 33 - b - FOR OFF[C[AL USE O1V"LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tiGANDA Briefs S~riSS Aid for Coffee 3~ European Financing for Coffee 3~ ~\gricultural Equipment Poultry Pro~ect 3~' ~ - c - FOR UFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CF.~TTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC IMPROVING ECONOMIC SITUATi~N, LONG TERM AUSTERITY REPORTED Paris MARCHES TROPI ~AUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2831 [Text] Economic Policy Reported to Be Improving The AFP [French Press Agency] recently reviewed the political and economic situation , in the Central African Republic [CAR]. Ttao months after the military coup, this - n`ws agency does not think that a return to the multiparty system is very likely to take place in the near future. It seems that the parties opposed to Dacko support " the moves made by his succes or such as reorganizing the civil service and taking legal action against a former minister of national education, Nicolas Gotouas, who is charged with embezzlement. With the exception of Patasse (Central African People's Liberation Moveme:it, MLPC), the other politicians are willing to cooperate with General Kolingba. They have rejected the MLPC's proposal to hold presidential elec- tions in the CAR next month. Yet, pamphlets are reported to be circulating in Bangui denouncing both the military and the politicians. In the economic sphere, the accession to power of ~.he military brought about, accord- ing to the AFP, a"relaxation of tensi.on" in publi.c life which has led to a resump- tion of industrial and economic activity. While they do not epeak ~f a"genuine recovery," experts from the International Monetary Fund (~MF') and from the r^rench _ Ministry of Cooperation and Development, currently on assignment in Bangui, indicate that there has been a"slight improvement" in the Central African economy since 1 September this year. ' There is a clear resumption of activity in moQL local businesses, they note. ~tao Central African agents, representing French manufacturers of commercial vehicles and light motorcycles, saw their sales for the month of September goin~ up by 50 percent and 10 percent respectively compared to the same period in 1580. The only shoe manufacturer in the CAR increased hir~ retail sales by 30 percent and had to engage more employees. During the first 8 months of this year, that same manufacturer had a 17 percent drop in his sales. However, financial experts consider that they will have to Wa~t "at least" 6 months before they can make an "indicative" initial evaluation of the economic situation in the CAR. In their viEw, the current economic trends are the result of a climate of confidence which the military regime was able to create in a country where corrup- tion and popular dissatis�action had become a"fact of daily life." _ 1 FOR OFFIC.[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540010015-9 roH oFFtct,~~ usH, oNi.ti~ The same experts also point out that the prompt introduction of an economic program based on relaunching agr-iculture and cutting back on public expenditure (salaries accouret for two-thirds of the national budget; will be as important for the future of the country as maintaining the present political climate. In particular, they mention the fact that in 1980 the national public debt amounted to 62 b.illion CFA francs (1.24 billion French francs) which included 10 millions worth of debts to private enterprises established in the country. Only 40 percent of these liabil- - i~ies can be met at best. Pensioning off 1,000 civil servants, out of the 24,000 which exist in the CAR, between now and January next year is one of the conditions set by the IMF to put the economy on a sound footing. The a:inounced decision to reduce levies and taxes as an incentive to local Uusiness is also intended to boost productivity, according to the experts. The campaign against fraud and corruption which the government has started, has also encouraged consuniption. These experts also point out that for more than a year, the insecurity prevailing in the neighborhoods of Bangui and in the provinces and the fear of being the victims of looting had curtailed consumption just as much as the higher cost of living. ~ To successfully get the economic activity ~oing again, the Military Co~i.ttee has adopted a far-reaching program. -Its main ob~ective is to improve the road infra- structure and to de~elop the rural and social sectors. A pro~ect involving 1,800 kms ~ of roads which will be built, mostly in the dixection of Cameroon and Chad, or re- _ paired will be implemented between now and the end of 1983 at an estimated cost of 18 billion CF'A francs. So far, financing has been found for oniy one-fo~rth of this project. The military regime is in favor of increasing before 1985 the acreage of four zones of production to boost cotton farming, since cotton is the country's main export crop The estimated capital required for that pro~e~ct is 16 billion CFA francs. The cotton crop for the 1981-1982 agric~ltural year, financed by the development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC), is expected to yield 15,000 to~s of cotton. The 1970 crop was 27,000 tons. A Policy of Auaterity . Gen Andre Kolingba, the CAR's head of state, announced in a radio and television address, on 1 November, that austerity will be the cornerstone of the budget in coming years and that public expenditures will be severely curtailed. The president explained that there will be no salary increases for state employees in 1982 and that the major task of the private sector is to create new jobs. Ztao months after his accession to power, General Kolingba painted a dismal picture of his country's economic situation and explained it with the help of some figures. The gross domestic product (GDP) has declined by 5 percent since 1977. There is good reason to fear, the head of state pointed out, that it will drop eve.n further - in 1982. One out of five workers has lost his ~ob since 1979, he added. More than one-third of the budget is paid by foreign aid. "This state of affairs," General Kolingba said, "seri~usly undermines our dignity and ~eopardizes our national independence and any possibility of recovery for our econou~y. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044500010015-9 FOR oN~ic~nt. u~M: ~?vt.v _ The Central African Government ia also committed to restoring a climate of confi- dence in the country. "No threat of nationalization will be allowed in Central ~ Africa," General Kolingba said. Finally, the Central African head of state urged his compatriots to accept long-term - sacrifices: "It is only at the cost of great efforts that we can hope to anjoy moderate prosperity in a few year's time," were his closing words. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 8796 CSO: 4719/216 . ~ 3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 NOR OFFIC1Ai. USE ONLY CHAD FRENCH ACTIONS SAID TO HAVE HELPED GOUKOUNI Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1087, 4 Nov 81 pp 56-58 [Article ~y Jean-Louis Buchet: "What is Fran~e's purpose?"] [Text] Some of the actors are differe*~t but the same drama is still being played in Chad. Mitterrand's France is now following on the footsteps of Giscard's France: under the tenuous cover of a powerless OAU, F.rance's purpose is to neutralize Qadhdhafi. ~ First came tr~e surprising news in Gancun, on 22 October, that the French president hac~ sent a message to the OAU chairman, Arap Moi of Kenya, asking him to set up immediately an inter-Af rican force as pr~vided for in the Nairobi Resolution and to send it to Chad without delay." Francois Mitterrand added that his country was - prepared to participate in this undertaking "in the materialy financial and logistic j spheres. To the exclusion," he expl~ined, "of any military participation." Was ~ this a public relations move? A reminder of Fr.ance's "responsibilities" in its area of influence? A signal to the Americana who consider Qadhdhafi as a permanent threat in that area? None of these theories is consistent with France's new diplomacy. i There is more to it. ~ _i The embarrassed and conflicting explanations put forward by Claude Cheysson and Jean- Pierre Cot have not cleared the mystery. The minister of foreign affairs answered ' witti platitudes: "We are only repeating what has already been said. We want the - OAU resoluti~n on Chad to be implemented and we are underlining our willin;ness to , help. This matter is draggin~ on. The Nigeriane are prepared to send troops an so are the Senegalese. There are long-term financial difficulties. The French contribution could expedite the arrival of the first troops of the inter-African force in Nd~amena." In fact the French attitude is nothing new. Also, it is shared by the Ameri~cans who are determined to contribute toward the setting up of an African force. When Chadian Minister of Economy and Finance Michal Ngangket Kosnaye met, at the end of September, in Washington, with James Biahop, assistant undersecretary of atate for African affairs, he is reported to have been given reassurances on that point. But what is the re3son for France's "urgen.*_" call to acLion now and from Cancun? Cheysson resorted to the argument of "rumors" usually carried by the press in connection with Chad and of the "double-dealing" also commonly attributed to ~rance with regard to that country. - ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 l?h. ~~c1'1t,1r~L uJC~ u1VLY For his part, the minister of cooperation and development dramatizes: "The situation in Chad has deteriorated even further," Jean-Pierre Cot tells us. "France wants to count on public opinion in Africa and in the world to prevent Libya from carrying out an actual annexation." This makes things clearer but he is still avoidinb the basic facts. The truth is ttiat the threat hanging over Chad has taken shape in recent days. Actually, Qadhdhafi has not abandoned his plans for a"merger." ~aice, before and after Goukouni's visit to Paris, he tried to win over ;:o his idea the president of the GUNT [Transitional National Union Government] alternatfng pressure and persuation. All to no avail. Then he deliverad his master stroke. In mid-October, he persuaded the Chadian president to travel again to Libya and come to Sehba. Goukouni did not - meet with the top Libyan leader. Instead he was given an ultimatue: the merger must take place "without delay." He is repor*ed to have refused or, according to other sources, to have asked for a few days to think it over. In any case, his attitude was interpreted in ~ripoli as amounting to a refusal. The news reached Paris sim;:ltaneously with other alarming reports coming from diplomatic sources and from intelligence agencies. They reported renewed clashes between the various factions. The usual thing? Not exactl;, since the reports add that "Goukouni's troops are being systematically eliminated." Finally, on Tuesday 20 or Wednesday 2~ October, the French Government was told that the Libyans were preparing to replace Goukouni. Foreign Affairs Minister Acyl Ahmat, who continues to stay out of the country, was mentioned as his possible successor. He is reported to be the most "pro-Libyan" member in the GUNT team and his differences with Goukouni are well known. It is thought that the operation will be carried out very soon or, at le~st, before the French-African summit meeting in Paris (3 and 4 November). The French, who since Goukouni's v~Lsit to the Elysee are convinced that he is a nationalist, view him as the last line of defense against the Libyans. Therefore, they made their move to help the president of GUNT. As early as the 21st [October] the decision is made to provide "logistical support." For the time being, this support will consist of light weapons and ammunition. This will enable Gat~kouni to strengthen his troops' position but, naturally, it will not allow him to stand up to the Libyans effectively. Therefore, it became necessary to launch a diplomatic offensive. Paris got confirmation from Dakar that Senegalese troops will participate in the inter-African force. In C~ncun, the French delegation wrung out of Shagari his agreeme:it to send Nigerian troops and got Algeria's support' it made contact with the Americans. Mitterrand could now send his message to Arap Mo~. It then became obvious that if Qadhdhafi neant to act promptly, he could not be pre- vented from doing so by the OAU force which will require some time to get organized. Meanwhile Libya has further consolidated its milit~ry hold over the country. Entrusted with training the future Chadian Integrated National Army, Libla has four bases in the country: Douguia, Largeau, Biltine and Abeche. The Libyans are far from behaving like spectators during *_he clashes bezween the various opposing factions in the GUNT and they support Acyl Ahmat's troops. This is what ttiey did in August when President Goukouni's troops r_lashed with those of the minister of foreign affairs in Abeche and in Adre. And again in October when Acyl Ahmat's supporters fought against the supporters of Minister of Interior Abba Said. 5 FOR OFFICIAL L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 _I FOR OFFICIAL USE: ONLY But, more pazticularly, the Libyans are fighting against Hissein Habre's troops who are trying to consolidate their positions in the Sudanese frontier. After capturing three small towns situated northwest o~ Abeche in September, Habre was forced to fall back behind the border of that neighbaring country when he faced Libyan artilYery. Qadhdhafi's troops did not hesitate to cross the border and bomb camps where Hissein Habre's army (of 2,000 men) was stationed. But Mitterrand is hoping that the top Libyan leader will interpret his message to Arap Moi as a warning and that he will abandon his plan of a merger. At issue is the reconciliation with France which the leader of the Jamahiriya could find useful now - that he 1-~as become, more than ever, Washington's bete noire, and, ultimately, the holding o� the OAU summit scheduled for 1983 in Tripoli. It seems that Qadhdhafi , was quick to realize this and on the 26th [October] he sent a letter to Mitterrand through the French Embassy in Tripoli. In that message, he denied that he had tried to force the merger. Therefore, things are back tc where they started with the slight difference that the creation of the OAU force finally seems to be underway. In any case, this is a"hot" issue which wi11 impart a feeling of de~a vu on the Fxench-African conference while Mitterrand wanted it to be a"new type" of conference. (Research by Jos-Blaise Alima) = COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPIA 1981 8796 CSO: 4719/214 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500010015-9 FOR OFFI( IAI. Util~: ON1.1' - CHAD DETAILS OF GUNT'S AID REQUEST TO FRANCE REPORTED Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1087, 4 Nov 81 pp 58, 59 [Article by Jean-Louis Buchet: "From Needles to Peugeot 505 cars"] [Text] Political problems and military tension notwithstanding, life is reasserting - its demands. It is a question of mudding along. There is a positive development: in thz late af ternoon of Monday, 5 October, the population of Nd3amena saw a commercial aircraft land in an airport where only military planes had arrived since March I980 when air traffic was suspended a few weeks after the "battle ~or Ndjamena" started. As for the telecom~unications system, a team of French technicians is working r.ound the clock to get it back into operat~on. Moreover, in June the Bank of the Central African States (EEAC) reopened its offices in the capital. The Bank would have preferred to start by reopening its branch in Moundou where busines~ activities were continued during the war which destroypd ~ Ndjamena. But for political reasons, President Goukauni decided in favor of re- opening the branch located in the capital hoping to inspire confidence among foreign invE~tors. Meanwhile, the Paris National Bank and the Lyon Credit Bank do not seem to be prepared to resume their activities until a settlement ia reached in the matter of their dispute with the Chadian state. A moratorium was signed to enable rhese French banks to be compensated for war damages, but for ~he time being, the government cannot relieve th~ state of insolvency of � the companiPs, not even of state-owned companies. . The GUNT (Transitional National Union ~=overnment) "does not have the required military or fir.ancial resources and this is the ma~or obstacle to an effective and overall recovery af the administration." This diagnosis is given by the patient himself and it is the main theme of a bulicy Memorandum on Urgent Aid for Chad prepared by the GUNT and presented to the French by President Goukouni when he visited the Elysee (1~3 Septmmber). The memorandum also states: "Exp~nses are huge and the prospects of revenues for Chad, in the iummediate future, have been signed away due to the total - lack of ~rganiza~ion in the tax anZ customs services. The total figure for this "urgent aid" is established at 62 bill~on CFA francs. Although this amount represents "as much as three times the national bud~et in normal times," it is not enough to cover the real needs. E~ien before the civil war started, the annual operating budget of Chad--which has put all its investment programs on the back buiner--only amounted ta some 20 billion CFA francs. But the current problem is one of reconstruction. 7 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR (yNFI('lAl, l~til' ONi,l' Nothing has been left out of that fully detailed list which includes military equipment, power-generating sets, bicycles, tank trucks, typewriters and even needles, notebooks, household utensils and so on. The lion's share, almost 23 billion CFA francs, goes to the army, The army has top priority, according to the Chadians who explain: "W~ must integrate and regroup all those~:aho are in possession of military weapons to prevent them from regrouping either for political purposes or to continue their plundering." It has been estimated that the ~Iinistry of E~onomy and Finance needs around 21 billion L CFA francs. Spread ov~:r a period of b mont`~s, starting in June 1981, these expen- ditures cover the salaries of civil servants (8.4 billion), the operating expenses of the various government departments (4.5 billion), repairs 3r~rl equipment of govern- - ment buildings (7.778 billion). No sector has been lef t out and the Ministry of Public Health, with 5.8 billion CFA francs, takes third place in the list of priori- ties. It is followed by. Tourism (3.8 billion), Rural Development (2.656 billion), National Education (2.556 billion). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs comes last and looks like a poor relative with an - allocation of 150 million CFA francs. Which does not mean that the GUNT does not believe in the effectiveness of diplomacy. But its f irst concern is to establish a fleet of cars. "When we receive guests of our country," the memors~ndum explains, "the ministry has to appeal to the civic spirit of our compatriots, asking them to let them have a few cars." Peugeot cars seems to have a particular attraction for Chadian diplomats. In fact they want France to provide 20 Peugeot 504, 10 Peugots 604 and 10 Peugeots 505. All tk~is based on the premise that the civil war is over. And over for good. COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPIA 1981 ~ 8796 CSO: 4719/2I4 ~ 8 FOR OFF[CIAL USE aNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 - FnR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY CHAD MEETING HELD TO COORDINATE INTERNATIONAL RECONSTRUCTTON ATD Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1880, 20 Nov 81 p 2954 [Text] As we announced in our issue of the 13 November, p 2892, a coordination - meeting on international aid for reconstruction in Chad was held in Paris on 12 and 13 November. The meeting, which was scheduled a long time ago, in the be- ginning was to be attended by representatives of the UNDP, the FED (European Development Fund), and France, who in facC have been granting economic assistance to Chad since the end of the figtiting in Ndjamena. Other possible aid donors expressed their intention to participate in this meeting; the meeting was there- fore enlarged and its new importance was marked by the fact that it was chaired by Mr Tahir Souleymane, Chadian planning and rec;onstruction minister. In addition to the rrench, Chadian, and UNDP and FED delegations, the meeting was attended by representatives from the FRG (Economic Cooperation Ministry), Canada, the United States, Italy, the ADB, the BADEA (Arab Bank for African Economic Development), the IMF, the World Bank, the BEAC [Bank of Central African States], The the BDEAC [Development Bank of the Central African States], and the WFP. - French delegation included representatives of the cooperation and development minister, of the Ministry of Economy and Finances (Treasury Directorate), the Foreign Relations Ministry and the CCCE [Central Fund for Economic Cooperation]. Positive Record - The Paris meeting led to specific commitments which were called "encouraging" by Mr Tahir Souleymane who told AFP [French Press Agency] that the participants, particularly France and the international organizations, had announced a certain number of specific commitments in the areas of food aid and the restoration of his country's infrastructure. The discussions revolved around an aid program for needs estimated by UN and the Chadians at between $200 and $300 million over a period of three years. "The Americans," Mr Souleymane added, "were content to listen although their partici- pation in this meeting was already a positive step." "Their representative indi- cated that the United States can con~emplate aid to Chad only if there are no longer any Libyans in the country," the Chadian minister explained. Mr. Souleymane emphasized that financing for the Inter-African Force was not taken up in Paris but "it seems that the United States and France are ready to contri- bute to its financing." It was noted in the Ministry of Foreign Relations that the - logistic aid which France was ready to give to the Inter-African Force would amount to several tens of millions of francs. ~ 9 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,Y Tl~e meetinfi was prtmarily concerned with the revival of Chadian administration, ttie infr:istructure J:acilities (roads, transportation, water, electric power, communications), rural development, and animal husbandry. Chad wants this to - be followed by a similar meeting at Ndjamena within 5 to 6 months. France pledged to step up its aid to Chad in the areas of health and agriculture. It is also to furnish 5,000 tons of cereals,to restore the Chadian Ministry of Finances and the public works school, as well as the Ndjamena--Abeche road and the electric power plants in that latter city. It will participate in the res- - toration of telecommunications and the electric power grid. Among the international organizations represented at the meeting, the UNDP promised aid in the amount of $4.5 million for infrastructure facilities in the city of Ndjamena, the FED promised food aid amounting to 4,000 tons of cereals plus a sum of 5.5 million European ECU (highway network, water pipelines, infrastructure). The WFP is to furnish aid in the amount of $5 million, the ADB is to give $Z7 ~ million (electric power and water) with the possibility of becoming active in the areas of telecommunicatianG and the road net. The IMF has basically approved compensatory financial assistance and will take care of Chadian demands. The ADB will support the Ministry of Public Works and the water supply system for Ndjamena. International aid for the reconstruction of Chad would thus come to a total of Fr 800 million--not including France. ~ French aid in progress comes to Fr 4~ million with Fr 30 million earmarked for aid to restore the Chadian administration. For the 1982 program, the restoration of the Abeche electric power plant alone was estimated at Fr 2 million. In detail, the French aid probram for 1982 calls for the continuation of operations in the southern part of Chad and new activities in the polders of Lake Chad and rice cultivation at Doba under the heading of agriculture, rural development, and animal husbandry. Technical assistance to the laboratory at Farcha will b~ re- sumed, as will health protection for Sahelian cattle. The resumption of technical aid will involve the sectors of finances and education, as well as health (major endemic disease service and continuation of aid in the form of inedical teams at Ndjamena and Moundou). It will also be manifested in telecommunications and electricity. Chadian Needs In his speech on 20 November at the opening of the meeting, the Chadian planning - minister drew a detailed picture of Chad's needs. Ttte Ctiadian program is set up around the main topic, that is to say, the revival of the central administration ~ich requires major financial and logistic resources whicli the GUNT (Transitional National Union Government) does not have at this moment. Tlie administrative buildings, where 15 percent of the total volume are currently beyond recovery, would require a financing effort on the order of 10 billion CFA. - 10 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540010015-9 NOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tl~c ve}i[cl~ needs would be 1.3 billion C~A, with 117 million for reproduction equi~~ment, 7 billion Lor specific technical equipment, to which we would have to add 1.7 billion Cor office furnishings and supplies. In addition to the administration's need for technical assistance, Mr Tahir Souleymane also pointed out the considerable shortage in cereal output expected far this year and asked the international conununity for emergency aid amounting to 100,000 tons of cereals. He estimate3 ~he cost of rebuilding homes ix~ Ndjamena at 2 billion CFA. For rural development, the total amount of desirable efforts (correction of food production shortage, restoration of cereal stoc~Cpiles and cattle, effort to stop the advance of the desert) would come to 2 billion CFA. The information and telecomanunications sector would need 880 million while ed~ca- tion would require 2.9 billion. The l?ealth situation, w}~ich is mediocre even in peacetime, has deteriorated and the needs of this sector would come to 3.2 billion (destruction o{ infrastructure facilities, shartage of inedications and personnel). To guarantee the maintenance of ttie basic road net for the airports and the cleanup of Ndjamena, the planning minister has come up with an estimated figure of 9 billion which Chad needs. ~ COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 5058 CSO: 4719/293 11 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAD _ BRIEFS REQUEST FOR TUNISIAN ASSISTANCE--Tunisia/Chad: Technical Assistance. Chad is said to have asked Tunisia to send technical assistants. It is however not certain - that Tunisia, which has a strong need for qualified personnel for its own develop- ment, can respond to the wishes of thQ Chadian officials. Logistical problems are present besides: means to put at the disposal of the technical assistants, vehicles, etc. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81] [COPXRIGHT: Rene Moreu~c et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 GOUKOUNI'S DAUGHTER MARRIES QADHDHAFI'S COUSIN--The daughter of Chadian President Goukouni Oueddei got married at the end of August to Col Abdelaziz Messaoud, a cossin of Qadhdhafi. This colonel is none other than the commander in chief of the _ Libyan troops in Chad. Was it with this happy mind that Goukouni was given the rank of honorary Libyan colonel? [Text] [Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1087, 4 Nov 81 p 42] [COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPIA 1481] 8796 CSO: 4710/214 J y 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 ~ i F012 OFFiCIAL USE ONLY ~ ; CONGO BRIEFS - EEC AID--The European Development Fund (EDF) is providing 2.5 million ECUs [European currency unit] to continue financing the improvement pro~ect in the M`Foa, in Brazzaville, as well as 400,000 ECUs worth of technical assistance to the BNDC [National Development Bank of the Congo]. For additional details, see under the heading "Courrier de Bruxell~s." [Textj [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 5 Nov 81 p 2833] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 ~ CSO: 4719/216 ~ 13 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE CNLY I MAI+AWI ~ i FOR~IGN TRADE ~N 1980,TRAD~ WITH FRANCE REVIEWED _ Paz~is MARCH.F.S TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRAN~ENS in ~ench No 187l~, 9 Oct 81 p 2582 ~Tex~ 7 Showin~ a chronic deficit, Malaxi~s balance of foreign trade has seriou~y deteriorated since 1977, with the changing situation in fo~eign trade as follows, in millions of' lsxachae (1 lswacha equal].ing roughly 6.30 French francs): 197? 1978 1979 1980 Imports 209.8 287.? 326 355�b - F~rports 180.3 155�? 189.8 238.9 Deficit - 29.5 -129 -136.2 -116.7 ~ Rate of Coverage 85.9 54�? 58.2 6?.2 In 1980 imports, raw mat~riala for industry, including petroleum products, - make up 31 percent of the total; transport materiel amounta to 17 percent; then semi-finished produ~cts (16 percent); i~dustrial ma~teriel and equip- _ ment (1!~ per~ent), and conaumer gooda (12 percent). South Africa is Malawi~s main supplier, witn 38 percent of all importe; it ia folloxed by Great Britain (19 percent) and West Germany (6 percent), the Netherlande (1~ percent), . the United States (3�5 percent), and Zimbabwe (3 percent). Agricultural products malce up the esaenti8l part of eaports from Malawi, with tobacco and tea providing 71~ percent of exporte in 1980, or tobacco, 101t.8 million kwachea; sugar, 36.3 million; tea, 30.3 million; peanute, 15�9 mil- lion; co~ton, 4.6 rai].lion; rice, 3 millionj miscellaneoue praducts include dried vegetables, tung oil, coffee, cashe~? and macadamia nuts (~hich have been sho~ring a marked increase the past feW years) The United Kingdom is Malawi~s main customer, xith 26 percent of the 1980 tetal; after it are included the United States (16 percent), West (lermany (8 percent), the Netherlands (8 per- cent), and Zimbabwe (L~.5 percent). So far as F~ance is concerned, in 1980 it Was ~Ialawi~a 11th ranking supplier i0.9 percent of imports) and ita 7th ranking cuetomer (2.? percent of the country~a exporta). Fren~h auppliee are comprised mainly of equipment goods 1~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL L`SE ONLY ~36 percent), semi-finished products (1tLi percent), and ~onsumer goods (20 percent). 1979 deliveries were increased by helicopter sales. As for F~ench purchases, 97 percent of them were made up of agro-alimentary products: prin- cipally tobacco and sugar. ~ The evolution of French-Mala~rian trade since 1977 is swmnarized as follows, in millions of French francs: - 1977 1978 1y79 1980 French sales 12.8 23.9 46.9 18 French purchases 3L?.9 35 30.6 35�8 In December 1980, a contract for 39 mjllion francs, concerning the supply of meteorological equipment, was signed with Malawi: the delivery of materiel was to be spread over 2 years, so these supplies will be reflected in French- Nialawian trade in 1982 and 19~3� COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 121Lt9 CSU : 1~? 19/ 249 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MOZAMBIQUE BRIEFS FERTILIZER PLANT PROJECT--Maputo has entrusted the stud}~ of a pro~ect to manufacture fertilizer from local natural gas to the U.S. Fluor Corporation. 'i:here is ane hitch: Mozambique is thus resorting to a firm which has been put in cha~ge of the expansion of the South African plant transforming coal into oil. [Text] [Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1091, 2 Dec 81 p 63] [COPYRTGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1981] CSO: 4719/331 16 FOR OF'FICIAL USk: UtiL~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 NOR OFFIC7A1. l1SF: ONLY NIGER BRIEFS CONSTRUCTION OF ISLAMIC UNIV~RSITY--An agreement concerning the construction of the first section of the Islamic University of Niger was signed on 14 November in Jiddah by the secretary-general or the OCI (Organization of the Islamic Conference), Mr Habib Shatti, ambassador of Niger to Saudi Arabia, and by the representative of the United Arab Emirates and current president of tt?e Islamic Solidarity Fund, Mr 'Izz-al- Din Ibrahim. This first section, whose cost comes to $18.5 million, calls for the construction of an Arabic language teaching school, an administrative complex and - housing for the students. The work, which is to be started during the next several days, is to be finished in 24 months. The total estimates for the pro3ect of the Islamic University of Niger come to $60 million. The Second Islamic Summit in Lahore had decided on this in 1974. This university is to serve Central Africa. The con- struction of a second Arabic-Islamic University is also planned in Uganda for East Africa. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1880, 20 Nov 81 p 294i] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 5058 COOPERATION WITH FRANCE--Col Seyni Kauntche on 7 November, concerning French-Nigerian cooperation, welcomed the fact that the mixed commission, which me.t after the con- ference of heads of state of France and Africa in Paris, gave satisfaction in the areas which Niger considers to be priority areas, that is to say, rural development, communications, health, and education." Concerning uranium, Niger's pr~.ncipal export raw material, the president of Niger eatimated that initial negotiations on the sales price charged France in 1982 seemed to indicated a"turning point" compared to 1981. The major drop in earnings deriving fxom uranium in 1981 had "slowed down Niger's development effort." The Nigerian chief of state finally welcome "the very good dispositi~n of the new French authorities" in settling "the injustices of which numerous veterans were victims" after Niger achieved independence. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPIC~IUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1880, 20 Nov 81 p 2947] [COPYRI~HT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 5058 .F'ED ROAD AID--The FL'D (European Development Fund) has granted Niger nonrepayable - aid amounting to 5 billion CFA [African Financial Community] to finance two road cr~nstruction projects on National Highway 1, linking Niamey to Lake Chad. This involves asphalting a section of 21 kilometers on this road between Zinder and Mirria and the widenxng of 97 kilometers cf highway in the Maradi region. [Text] Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1880, 20 Nov 81 pp 2947, 2948] [COPYIiIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 5~5a ItOAD LOAN--A loan agreement with the West African Development Bank in the amount oF 900 million francs CrA [African Financial Community] was signed at Niamey on 11 NovemUer. The loan will be used to finanr_e a modern poultry operation project in NI.ger and Urtngs rhe WADE cotmnitment volume to that country to a figure of 4,749 million CFA. [Text] Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No ;~'F;Q, ?Q ~I~~~ �il. 2948] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Mo.rFux et : Pa.ris 198i~ 5058 CS~: 4719/293 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON1.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA INCREASE OF AIR TRAFFIC WITH EUROPE REPORT~D Paris MARCHES T~tOPICAUX ET MEDITFFtRANEENS in ~ench No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2829 /-Text 7 Nigeria Airtaa~ys freight traffic betxeen Nigeria and Europe last ye~r amountea to 1,600 tona, of which 72.9 percent wae in connections with Great Britain alone. In the seme year, traffic with Italy showed 154 tons aad with the Netherlands, 267 tons. In 1980 also, the company~s passenger traffic with Europe amourited to a total of 138,517 psasengers, of which the ma~ority, 108,1~59 were outbound from, or i' passengers to, areat Britain. The Netherlands took the second place, as for freight, with 30,058 passengera, closely folYowed by Italy, with 28,899 pas- il sengers. ii The passenger traffic for the first aix months of this year, with no separs~ tion of coruiections with Europe, has already reached 91~,876 passengers. The traffic permits prediction as of now of a large increase.~for'the~12 months - of 1981 over the 12 months of 1980. ~ The freight traffic for the six-month period of this year between Nigeria and Great 9ri~ain alao permits the prediction of a large increase in general _i traffic between Europe and the federation for this year over last year's. ~ Indeed, the London-Lagos trafYic for the first six months of 1981 totalled ; 8S9 tons, whereas during the first a~c montha of 1980, it ~~ras only 298 tons. j July, September, November, and December being the heavy traffic months,'a record 3,000 tons is expected for the year. Zt should be noted that on this link, the second six-month period of 1980 showed a figure over twice as high as the one for the first six-month period, with 725 tona, which amounted to a total ior the 12 months of about a thousand tons. ' The London-Lagos link is the busiest. The one from Kano to London, which comes second, achievea only one-t~nth of the figure for the first. In third - place, but much farther behind, ia the Port Harcourt to London link. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. ~2~49 CSOs 1~719/248 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA IMPROVF1~lENT IN PORT SITUATION REPORTED Paris N~A.R(:HES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, b Nov 81 p 2828 /-Text 7 Nigeria's ports, which a few years ago experienced very heavy conges- tion, are reportedly under-utilized at present. The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) prefera to think of this situation as closer to normal, and attribu~es it to the refittir~g of the handling equipment and the development of contain- er transport and roll-on roll-off .vessel traffic ~which make load- ing and unloading opera~ions easier and qutcker. i The ports of Lagos, Tin Can Island, and Port�Harcourt thus seem less crowded, although they are the busiest. On the other hand, the ports of Warri and , Calabar are experiencing clearly insufficient traffic compared to their capa- I city. The port of Calabar, especially, ie the least attractive to ships, and I - it is even estimated that since it was put into service, it has never func- _ tioned at full capacity really. ' Containerization has completely changed the look of the ports. The unpacking of goods, often badly stored, is no longer seen in them. It ~s true that a few dld containers are found hung up in traneit, but generally speaking the empty containers are reloaded onto the ahips. Container Consultants (Nigeria), Limited (CTC) ia believed to receive some 350 containers a day, sending back 330 of them empty. The monthly container traffic is said to be between 10,000 and 11,000 units of about 20 tons of merchandise each, which would amount to an annual tonnage of containerized _ goods of 2.5 million tons. The ahipping lines serving Nigeria at present, it ia recalled} are the Far East-West African Conference (F'EWAC), the American West African ~eight Con- ference (AWAFC), the Continental West African Conference (COWAC), the Aesoci- ation of Indigenous Confer~nce Linea (ANICL), the United Kingdom West African Line (UKWAL), and the Mediterranean West African Conference (MTGIAC). COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. - 1211~9 - CSO: 4719/2l~8 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY NTGERIA OVF,F~. 5,l~00 NEW COMPANIES ESTABI,ISHED IN 1980 Paris MARCHFS TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in Fre~nch No 1878, 6 Nov 81 g 2829 ~Text 7 The number of companies established in Nigeria in 1980 was supposed ~o be, we reported, 5,455 (MARCHFS TROPICAU% ET MEDITERRANEENS 30 October, - page 2766). This figure xas given by the First pank of Nigeria, I.imited (formerly Standard Bank Nigeria, Limited) in its latest q}~rterly report. The bank also gives ~ome interesting details about the sub~ect. Indeed, according to the bank, theae 5,1~00 companies are divided into activity sectors as follows: cormnercial companies: 2,080; engineering and construc- tion companies: 1,095; service com anies: 1,088; menufacturing companies: 566; agro-alimen~ery companieas 36~; financial and investment companiess ' 262. What can be seen from these figures ia that the moat important sactors for ~ the development of the local econon~?, the manufacturing, agro-indu~'~rial, . and financial sectors, are the onea which have attracted inves~ora the least. This is a result of their lack of financial assPts, as the ~moun~.;c3f theae- new companies~ capital indicates. Indeed, still according to the First Bsnk, 50 percent of the new companies in question were set up with capital below 50,000 naira, 22 percent with capital between 50,000 and 100,000 naira, and less than 3 percent claimed capital in excess of y00,000 naira. It is understandable, in these conditiona, that the federal government ahould have considered liberalizing investments by granting increased opportunities to present ~oint venture eompaniee associating Nigerian capital and foreign capital (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET I~EDITERRANEENS 30 October previously quoted, page 3765). In addition, it is probable that government promises to grant supplementary assete to the Nigerian Industrial Devslopment Bank (NIDB) and to the Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI) will in future years be bene~icial to productive investments of enterprises, ~ust as they will benefit from the future industrial development centers planned for esta- blishmer.t in each state for the promotion in particular of small and medium 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY industries. The First Bank also points out that the state of Lagos is first in rank for � establishment of new companies. In 1980, 3,052 az'e said to have been estab- lished, c~r 58 percent of the total numbe~. In second pl$ce, but with a much lower figure: only 292 companies (5.3 percent of the total) com:~s the - state of Kano. COP'YRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. ~2t49 CsO: 4719/248 I ~ - I ( ~ ~ ~ 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500010015-9 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY - PiIaF~EtIA BftIEFS SHAGARI TO RUN AGAIN--Addreasing ~ournalists on 1 November, Chief Adisa - Akinlaye, chsirman of the ruling party, the National Party of Nigeria (NP'N), stated that the head of state, Alharji Shehu Shagari, xould seek another term of office at the 1983 electiona. Chief Akinl~ye specified that the constitu- tion provided for such a possibility, and added: "Whea a man has been satis- factory, he ahould b~e given a chance to ahine again." According to this poli- tic~l leader, it is unlikely that a coalition of the four other official per- ~ ties can be formed because of the antagonism betxeen at least t~ro of them: the Nigeria People~s Party (NPP) and the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN). He therefore did not feel that the prospect worried his party. "If one of the parties wanta to cooperate with us, the door is open," he added for the bene- fit of the NPP, Which has broken off its accord with the NPN. When asked about the former leader of the Biafran secesaion, Odumegu O~ukr~a, living in exile in ivor~ Coast, Chief AkinlB~ye stated that in his party~s opinion, a man who has committed an error need not necesearily pa~y for it xith lifelong = exile, adding, however, that the free pardon issue d~e ended aolely on the president, according to the conatitution. /-Text 7/ Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX -i ET MEDITERRANEII+iS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p~182$ 7/-COPYRIGHT: Rene ` Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 7 1211~9 MORE PIRACY FEARED--There is already concern in Nigeria over a poaeib~e re- currence of acts of piracy during the year-end holidays, especially since after a lull due to the security measures imFlemented, there have been fresh - repeated attacks over the past fex wesks. The well-equipped~ armed pirates still seem to be receiving, all too often, the benefit of connivance, especi- ally in finding out about shipa~ manifests. It is true that unlike last year and the beginning of this year, there is no longer~. an average of 12 attacks a day, but recent examples do arouse legitimate concern. The radio alarm sys- tems are felt to be inadequate, even defective, and the 2l~li private wharves in- sufficiently protected. In addition, several organizations have auggeated that ships waiting to be unloaded anchor at least 20 to 25 miles off shore, rather then 5 or 6 miles, where they are much more exposed. Among vessels recsntly attacked are mentioned the �Taifun, "Pean Piraeus," "Pia Danielsen," "Atlan- tic Maru," "Rafaela," ~~African Maru," "Tendai Maru," and "Chai Varu." The "Taifun" was even attacked three times, on 3 consecutive days, 15, 16, and 17 September. /~Text 7/-Paris MAFtCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in F~ench _ No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 282~ 7/-COPYRIaHT: Rene M~oreux et Cie Paris 1~81 7 1211~9 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INSECURITY OUTSIDE CAPITAL--E~ren though the insecurity prevailing in Lagos is bften denownced (see MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 23 October, page 2697), it appears that the capital has no raonopoly in this domain. Indeed, attacks are often noted in other localities and other states. They are reparted as news items in the press or by travelers passing through. A few recent examplea bear witness to the general insecurity. Thus, in Kaduna, the wife of a British officer was violently attacked on 15 October.~.In Ilorin, " all assemblies have been forbidden since 11~ October because of the insecurity resulting from political rivalries. In the state of Qyo, according to the police commissioner of that state, Alha~i Umaru Omolowo, about 30 13-year-old girls were kidnapped during the month of September alone, xhich amounts to one per day. /-Text ]/-Paris MARCHES TROPICAU% ET MEDITER,RANEENS in F~'ench No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p'f82S 7~COPYRI(}HT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 7 121l~9 SUGAR, TOBACCO DIFFICULTIES--Z~ro large Nigerian companies, the Nigerian Sugar Company, Limited, of Hacita, in the state of Kawara, and the Nigerian Tobacco Company, Limited, of Ibadan, in the stat~ of Oyo, currently grappling with serious financiel difficultiea, to the extent that they are considering l~ying off some 3,700 persons between them. The first company has appealed to the federal government for help, as i~ did, incidentally, in 1978 when it found itself in an identical situation. That appeal, supported at ~the time by the t~ational Union of P'ood, l~everage, and Tobacco Dnployeea xas heard. The union nas jus~c given its support to the sugar company again, while, however, request- ing the authorities in Lagos to hold an investigation into the company~s man- agement this time. The union, whose secretary general is S.K. Qyeban~o, feela indeed that the company has been mismanaged, having, in particular, made some purchases that were not necessary at all. As regards the second company, also receivin~ the union~s support in its dealings with the government, and whose lay-of~s reportedly affect only 700 peQ~le, the difficulties are believed to - stem Yrom the high le~rel of contrab~nd activities in the cigarette market. The contraband goods are said indeed to deprive it of nutlets. The uni~n does not oelieve, tnough, that l~ying off 700 persons wou].d be the best solu- tion to the company~s pr~blem. /-Text 7 Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITER- RANEENS in French No 1$78, 6 Nov 81 p 2829 7/-COP'YRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie - Faris 19~1 7 1211ty IDF.NTITY CAl~tDS--The Nigerian federal minister of the interior, Professor Iya Abuba~car, announced during October that the national identity card will be - required at the next electiona, planned for 1983. /-Text 7`Paris MARCHFS - TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in ~ench No 1878, 6 Nov 1981 p 2829 7/-COPY- RIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 7~211~9 , Cso: 47i9/248 - 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONT.Y RWANDA BRIEFS COOPERATION WITH YUGOSLAVIA--In Belgrade, Rwanda and Yugoslavia have signed a cooperstion agreement in the areas of science, technology, education and - culture, tYia Yugosla~v agency TANJUG announced on 30 October. The agr~ement provides for exchanges of experts and study g~oups between the two countries, the training of students a~d various Yugoslav and Rwand~n cultural events in both countries. /-Text //-MARCHFS TROPICJIUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in ~ench No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2837 7/-CppYRI(3HTs Rene Moreux et Cie Paxis 1981 ? 12149 cso: ~+7i9/248 - 24 - FOR OFFICIAL LiSE OTILY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500010015-9 MOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SENEGAL TWO EXPORT-PROMOTING BODIES SET UP = Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2818 [TPxt] In its issue of 12 September, the JOURNAL OFFICIEL of Senegal published two - dec.rees. One (No 81-635), dated 6 July 1981, deals with the creation and organiza- tion of the National Commission of Export Credit and Credit Discount Fund. The introductory statement emphasizes that Senegal's foreign trade suffers from _ chronic deficit due to the sharp and constant climb of imports and the slow and fluctuating increase of its exports. This situation made the government decide to launch a coordinated program aimed at promoting Senegalese exports to eventually correct the trade balance without having to cut back on imports beyond a level compatible with the country's development targets. However, to effectively encourage exports one must have easily availab]:e financing, credit that is not too costly and protection against the riska inherent in export operations. As a matter of fact, the economic situation has now reached the point where it is becoming difficult to get export orders unless prospective clients can be offered conditions of deferred payment similar to those offered by competitors in the international marketplace. That is the general idea behind the creation of the bodies described below. --The National Commission of Export Credit and Credit Insurance is the first link in the system of exp~rt credit and export credit insurance. Its function is to eval- uate whether export operations are eligible for preferential credit and ~for credit - insurance. In a broader context, the commission participates in the process of _ deciding and directing Senegal's policy on export credit. - Its membership indieates that pains were taken to associate all the parties involved in the process of deciding and implementing the national policy on credit and in- surance. Its secretariat is entrusted to the Senegalese Agency for Foreign Trade Insurance (ASACE) attached to the Senegalese Center for Foreign Trade. --The Export Credit Discount Fund will be in charge of the compensation granted when preferential rates are assigned to exports guaranteed by the Senegalese Agency for Foreign Trade Inaurance (ASACE) and will also act as the underwriter of ASACE. The financial resources required by this fund have been estimated at 240 million CFA francs after assessing the financial needs of the Senegalese export enterprises. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 NOR OFFICIAL USE ONLti' These resources will be provided by stand-by credits earmarked in the 1980-1981 budget to subsidize exports. The amount of funds required for the balanced trade subsidies and for the interest discount will be determined every 6 months on the basis of estimated figures sub- mitted to the Ministry of Economy and Finance by SONAGA [expansion unknown]. The discount Fund will be managed by a special office of the SONAGA to facilitate the financing of export operations through endorsements, acceptances, discounts or any other loan and credit instruments. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 8796 CSO: 4719/216 26 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 HOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SENEGAL BRIEFS BEI LOAN FOR SOCOCIM--In the framework of the Second Lome Convention, the European investment Bank (BEI) has granted the Republic of Senegal a loan of 10 million ECUs [European currency Unit] (3 billion CFA f rancs) to help modernize and expand its ~ cement plant. The SOCOCIM-Industries [West African Cement Company] gets a 12-year loan at 8 percent interest rate taking into account an interest discount on the resources of the European Development Fund (EDF). This company, with a capital stock held by Senegalese private interests, operates the country's only cement plant which is located 30 kms from Dakar near limestone deposits. With an annual capacity of 380,000 tons, the plant can no longer satisfy the local market. The investment pro- ject, in which the BEI will be participating, wi11 increase the plant's capacity to 825,000 tons by installing equipment that requires advanced technology (precalcina- , tion method) but will result in signifiGant fuel savings (savings of about 30 per- ! cent). The total estimated cost of the project is around 18 billion CFA francs. After the cement plant is modernized and expanded its production will be enough to satisfy the local demand and possibly to export to neighboring countries (Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and even the Cape Verde Islands) which do not have sufficient production capacity. Part of the investments required for the project will be supplied by the Cen~ral Fund for Economic Cooperation. [Textj [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2817] [COPYRIGHT: ' Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 DECLINE IN CUSTOMS RECEIPTS--Customs receipts brought in 55 billion CFA francs to Senegal's national budget of 125 billion CFA francs, said Serigne Fall, director general of the Senegalese Customs Service in a recent interview with the Dakar daily LE SOLEIL. These receipts, which had been growing by 10 and 12 percent a year, have now dropped 1.2 billiin CFA francs below their expected level, Fall added. This decline is mainly the result of a drop in exports (particularly exports of peanuts) and of more liberal tariff ineasures adopted to boost the exports of local industries. Fall announced that the Senegalese Customs Service, a paramilitary force of 1,800 agents, will receive some 100 new vehicles and is also going to computerite its operations and improve its radio aquipment. In addition to this, coastal surveillance will be strengthened with two new fast patrol boats ordered by the Senegalese Navy, while air surveillance will be carried out in cooperation with the ~ Air Force. (Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 2818] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 - CSO: 4719/216 27 _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SOUTH AFRICA HOMELANDS, TOWNSHIPS HARBOR SEEDS OF DISCONTENT Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No. 1088, 11 Nov 81 pp 52, 55-56 [Article by Francois Socdan: "Journey Through Apartheid."] [Text] It was a iuly day in a Paris restaurant. A French � ~ businessman, the o�fieial Paris representative af the interests of an "independent" South African Bantustan, Bophuthatswana, had invited a JEUNE AFRIQUE ,journalist, Fr~ancois Soudan, to lunch. Curious, on who knows what kind of trial, our associate accepted. Vaguely suspicious, he would soon become flatly skeptical when - the "commercial counselor" (that is his title) said to him, in the most serious tone in the world: "We invite you to come visit Bophuthatswana, we will pay for everything, airfare and hotel." The deuce! The embassy of South Africa in Paris has always refused any visa to JEUNE AFRIQUE, and one of our ~ournalists - could, ~ust like that, visit one of these homelands, these "Bantu reserves" with fictitious independence, down there where no one--or almost no one--goes, short of being an inveterate propagandist for apartheid. However, Soudan went. And, furthermore, not alone, since Pascal Maitre photographer, accompanied him. Why? Basic. When a country--even a phantom one--invites a journalist to visit and pays his hotel bill, it is always under the impression (sometimes with reason) that an article let us say a favorable one overall, will result. This is what is called "returning the elevator." In the specific case o� Pretoria and the rather pitiable chiefs placed at the head of the Bantustan, the anticipated benefit was incalculable: a "positive" article in JEUNE AFRIQUE was a possible introduc- tion to the OAU and the UN, in short, a step towards inter- national recognition of the homelands and the legitimization - of the policy of separate development. For Soudan and Maitre it was the unique chance to delve into South Africa, even in its most disgraceful aspects, its most hidden faces. Of course, they were followed, guided, "listened to," questioned and searched. But all of South Africa would have had to be 28 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 - FOR OFFICIAL USH: ON1.Y covered with a blac~c veil to prevent them from seeing. When reality is this violen t, it no longer hides itself. As for those who believed that a jorunalist could be "influenced," they will understand that this is not done. No doubt they were unaware of Aubert Beuve-Mery's, the founder of LE MONDE, quip, when he advised his associates to accept invitations, but not to forget to "spit in the.soup" afterwards. For 5 million whites south of the Lim~opo, between Beitbridge and Cape Town, the press is free. That is, almos t. The only restrictions: pornography and military secrets. For the res t, everything is told, displayed, photographed. And this is not the least of the p aradoxes--or of the ingenuity--of the South African system that it does not permit those who have forged it and who live by it to be unaware of any of the conditions imposed on 20 million blacks. Example: one week at the end of this year 1981, a randon selection from the news- , papers. In Johannesburg, Well ington Mpalweni9 age 22, an unemployed youth from Soweto, appeared before the regional court for "possession of subversive literature," in this case, a copy of DAWN and one of AFRICAN COMMUNIST, the magazines published by the African National Congress [ANC]. In Cape Town, Washiela Brown, age 29 years, black and female, is fined 20 rands (or the choice of 20 days in prison) for having dared to cross a beach reserved for whites. In Pretoria, a 27-year-old black I guitarist, Abey Mahlobo, and a 23-year-old white student, Vivian Epstein, were ' just arrested in the middle of the night. Reason: they were making love, an infringment of the Immorality Act which may cost them dearly. In Florida, in Transvaal, a drum majorette competition was interrupted by about ten young whites' with crewcuts brandishing placards such as "kaffirs not welcome" because two competitors--Rita and Rena Nene, age 15 years--had the scandalous nerve to be African. These various happenings, rou tine in "deepest" South Africa, reported in minutest detail by a liberal press which limits itself to recoxding the most blatant effects of apartheid, but does not exp lain them, show, if there is still a need to, that nothing basic has changes with in the pale fortress. Nothing, or very little: 3 years later, the resounding sp eeches on the need to "liberalize" apartheid with which Pieter Botha inaugurated his term as prime minister in 1978 have only been followed by the "desegration" of certain restaurants and some nightclubs in Johannesburg and Cape Town. Elsewhere, rural South Africa has not even known the slightest breath of change. In Ba~erton, for example, a small village in Orange Free State, "bantu bashing," a favorite sport of Afrikaaner farmers which consists of beating blacks suspected of the very with tree stumps b efore taking them to the police station, is still practiced. In Brandfort, where Winnie Mandela, wife of the leader of the ANC who is imprisoned for life at the Robben Island penitentiary, has been placed under house arrest, the stores always have two doors and two counters: one for blacks (with black cashiers) and one for whites (with white cashiers). And the "homelands" policy, the ultimate goal of the "great apartheid" theorized a quarter of a century ago by Hendrik Verwoerd, has ended in such a disaster that an official commission of inquiry, the Riekert commission, was able to recongize its "total failure" in the conclusions of its recent report. 29 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY However, those who imagine South Africa as an ocean of misery punctuated with islands of white prosperity are wron~: a black middle class, rich enough to be able to furnish itself with glittering BMW's and 7,000 rand (more than 2 million CFA francs) weddings exists, and its growth is one of the rare "suc cesses" with - which.the Botha team can flatter itself. This comfortable middle class, this generation of supposed "Uncle Toms" intended to serve as a buffer between the white power and the black mass, is recruited from among the several hundred thousand Africans authorized to live outside the homeland;: permanently. In Soweto, for example, small black businessmen have financed--and live in--the 300 spacious villas of the Selection Park quarter, while the large majority of the inhabitants of this immense suburb of Johannes'ourg are still crowded into their brick boxes without ruaning water or electricity. Each _ township of the major cities of South Africa thus has its "chic" quarter with gardens and swimming pools where black doctors, professors and businessmen live. However, the constitution of a privileged urban black class, ardently hoped for by white business interests--who see in it the possibility of increasing their markets--, has a strong chance of turning a ainst its instigators: "You luxow, the _ best way to oppress men is to keep them in misery and ignorance," smiles one of - the members of a civic group in Soweto, seated in a leather armchair below a. portrait of Mar~in Luther King in a villa in Selection Park; "If you let them live a little better, then they realize that they could live a lot better; and it is theae people who create the revolutions. If the whites believe that we are Uncle Toms, it won't be long before they change their tune." - The non-violent civic reaistance groups which have arisen over the paet 4 or 5 years within the non-white community are, indeed, most often led by the most active members of this African middle class. Comparable to a certgin extent to the Black American Community Action Groups in the 1960's, they refuse any coopera- tion, any contact with power; they preach passive resistance, selective boycotts or rent strikes. "We practice the tactics of harassment," explains Nthato Motlana, 55 year-old salt and pepper goateed founder of the "Committee of the Ten" in Soweto, first of these civic groups, "and we trap apartheid in its own contradic- tions." One case among others; last 21 September, Motlana and two of his friends appeared before the Johannesburg court for having illegally arganized a meeting against evictions in an Anglican church in Soweto. With great dignity and in a slightly ironical tone, Motlana told the 3udges in powdered wigs that he didn't understand the reasons for his indictment very well: "The law prohibits political meetings for blacks, this is true. But you know as I do, Your Honor, that under the con- stitution the blacks have no political existence in this country. Therefore, you can call this meeting what you will, but it would be unconstitutional to term it a political meeting since it was a meeting of blacks." The ~udges, red with embarrassment, had to interrupt the hearing for time to find a rep ly. The ideological support for these resistance organizations very naturally arises from the black consciousness movement, whose founders-�such as Steve Bantu Biko, dead due to torture 4 years ago--also belong to what is r_alled the African elite. 3~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Black ConsGiousness Movement [BCM] has inundated an entire generation of young blacks in thz townships, giving them back this cultural pride which, quite often, their parente.had lost. Its influence is enormous, many-faceted, felt as much in ~ clothing styles, in music--two of the singers most popular with blacks, Steve Kekana and Patience Africa, are directly inspired by the "Movement"--as in the posters hung along the townsiip streets ("Go black to naturel," "Straight black and beautiful!"). For the South African p~licP, who watch it and penetrate it with a certain degree of effectiveness (through the intervention of the "Z squadron," security services) to the point that Nthato Motlana willingly affirms that "when three black militants meet, one of this is an informer, the BCM is an informal group without defined structures, manipulated by the ANC and the Pan Af ricanist Congress [PAC]. - In fact, although it is certain that the ANC, which operates more and more precise sabotage actions from Swaziland and Mozambique, benefits from active and plentiful support (almost each township conceals a cache of arms), nothing proves that if manipulation does exist, it is going in this direction. After the events in Soweto in 1976, alr~^st 20,000 young blacks, supporters of black consciousness, in effect clandestinely left South Africa to rejoin the ranks of the ANC (and to a much lesser extent, the PAC) before its structures and mode of operation as too archaic and modeled on the Western communist parties. Regen- erated, the ANC today, after 2 decades of paralysis, has become an active movement in spite of its lack of "sanctuaries" (neither Zimbabwe nor Botswana authorizes the use of its territory as staging areas). For 6 to 8 months, searches and roadbloeks have been routine on the major access routes to Soweto, without the South African - police having succeeded for the moment in dismantling the infiltration of the "boys." Symbolically, many of the A13C raids take police stations and the administrative offices of the three homelands which Pretoria recongizes as independent (Transkei, Venga and Bophuthatswana) as priority targets. For them, the leaders of these Bantustans are collaborators, types of "harkis," whom any struggle for liberation . must eliminate as a priority. And it is ~rue that if you cross Bophuthatswana, for example, it is impossible to believe for a single instant in the reality of this state cut 3.ike a puzzle into seven dis~ointed parts separated by the rich lands of white farmers. The border here is a simple sign on the edge of the road and independenee is reduced to two or three external signs: flag, national anthem and official language, Tswana, on the same level as English and Afrikagns. There is, of course, a capital in this phantom state, Mabatho, with its p.efabricated _ Government House, its ministers (about 15), its mini army (in orange and green uniforms, strictly led by white officers),.its head of foreign affairs who displays on his desk a photo where he is seen chatting with Leopold Sedar Senghor in Kakar. Of course, legal apartheid was abolished in Bophuthatswana, and when Lucas Mangope, 58 years old, with the face of an ascetic, the head of this fairy tale state, says that he "hates" racial discrimination, he is no doubt sincere. Plainly, he and his friends, who sometimes greedily share the cars, villas and ott~~er flashy symbols of political power, through weariness or ease, have made the wrong choice of the "third force" which we know in advance is inevitably doomed to 31 FaR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY oblivion. Worse, to infamy. For the moment, they content themselves with dreaming and not believing too much in a consolidation--with Pretoria will never accept--of their piecemeal state and of an impossible recognition of their "independence" by rhe OAU and the UN. This bureaucratic bourgeoisie in fact, whether it wants to or not, serves as a link between Pretoria and the black popu~ation of the Bantustans (13 percent of the territory, 70 percent of the African population), and the apparent steadfastness which it dzmonstrated in its negotiations with Pxetoria only serves to legitimize its existence in the fac~ of those it is supposed to represent. Until now, only Israel (through security services), Austria and Senegal (through cultural aid) and, of course, South Africa have been cooperating with the homelands. This system of homelands presents Pretoria with a triple advantage: it permits her to legally discharge herself of her economic and social responsibilities with re- gard to the Africans, most of whom in South Africa are now no more than migrant workers. It then enables the transformation of the black-white conf lict into fictitious inter-state relations. Finally, since apartheid no longer exists in these homelands, it permits the use of these territories without puritan restric- tion as "escape valves" where everything which is prohibited in South Africa, for whites as well as for blacks, is permitted: prostitution, pornographic mov~ies, g:ambling. Sun City, in the heart of Bophuthatswana, is probably the most intol~rable example of the use of these Bantustans by the white power. This immense complex built with hundreds of millions of rands, where casinos alternate with hotels, ~ackpot halls, erotic films shown 24 hours a day, golf courses and swimming pools in a superb site in the middle of the bushveld, is the first so far of these "pleasure complexes" which the Southern Sun and Holiday Inn hotel chains want to build in each homeland. The projects are unbounded: an international airport is planned for 1990, not f ar from Sun City; it will enable the reception of the Japanese and American tourist charters that they hope to attract to this "fun caFital of Southern Afxica." Three thousand blacks work here, as bell boys, waitresses, caddies. Their average salary: 110 rands (less than 890 French francs) per month, while the lowest level white employee, a swimming instructar, for example, earns 700 rands with room and board. Every Friday evening, endless lines of caxs converge on Sun City from Pretoria. ~In the township of 10,000 inhabitants, modestly hidden in the shelter of. a hill, where the black workers from Sun City and their families live, a very aimple ceremony took place on a September evening in the diffuse fight of oil lanp. A priest and about 50 faithful people of all ages commemorated the fourth anniversary of the death of Steve Biko by singing gospel songs from the South African ghettos: "When the white man come, our brothers became children. When the white man came, our mo~hers became slaves. Freedom will come, Mum, when all the "baas"1 have gone." 1. Boss in Afrikaans. COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1981 9693 CSO: 4719/256 32 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOIt OFFIC'IAL tISE ONI.Y - ~ SOUTH AFRICA ~ GOLD SWAP WITH FOREIGN BANKS PM101223 London FINANCIAL TIMES in English 10 Dec 81 p 4 [Dispatch by J.D.F. Jones: "South African Gold Swap Worth $200M"] [Text] Johannesburg--South Africa has completed a further series of gold swaps with foreign banks--the second in 2 months--to help pay for its soaring current account deficit on the balance of payments. Although details are never released, it appears from the latest monthly statement I - of the Reserve Bank that approximately 500,000 oz of &old were involved, ~n return for something under $200M of foreign exchange. Last month the swaps were thought to exceed 2.6M oz, worth approximately $1Bn. News of the move, which amounts to new borrowing by the Reserve Bank, comes after a warning by the prime minister's Economic Advisory Committee that foreign exchange reserves will remain under pressure f ollowing an expected R4Bn (2.2Bn pounds) current account deficit in 1981. South Africa's external accounts have undergone a remarkable turnaround of some R7Bn, following a current account surplus of R3Bn in 1980--in spite o� significant depreciation of the rand against the dollar. This week the rand reache~ a record low of $1.02, compared with a rate of $1.34 one year ago. The Economic Advisory Council blamed the turnaround on weak export performance ~ because of the international recession--although imports have also shown a large increase. The decline of the gold price to nearly $400 an ounce has been a I major factor. The South African gold swap technique is to sell gold for cash to for~ign banks, but to undertake its forward repurchase by the Reserve Bank at a price which includes the equivalent of an interest payment to the foreign banks. The Reserve Bank's total gold and foreign assets stood at R3.76Bn at the end of November, a decline of R404M on the previous month. COPYRIGHT: The Financial Times Ltd, 1981 CSO: 4700/410 33 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y UCrATTDA $RIEFS SWISS AID FOR COFFEE-- Uganda'a Coffee Marketing Board has aigned a contract with Buhler Brothers Company Limited, of Uzxil:(Switzerland), for the menu- facture, delivery, installation, and stert-up of equipment intended for the modernization of the coffse processing plant at Bugolobi. The pro~ect is in two phasea, and delivery will b~ made in the apring of 1982. The contract, concluded after thorough research to avoid so Yar as possible any equipinent stoppage and to assure maximum hygiene, mainly consists of 32 MTRA sorters, 16 DST7, drum calibrators, 28 MVSB ~ortera; 16 MVRS jet air filters for dust removal throughout the facility, 17 truck scales, and a large number of inechanical and pneumatic transport devices. _ This facilit for reen coffee processing will be the largest and most modern ~ in Africa. /~Text ~~Parie MAR.CHFS T~OPICAUX ET MEDITERRJINEII~iS in F~ench - No 187I~, 9 Oct 81 p 2580 7/~COPYRIt3HT: Rene Morewc et Cie Paris 1981712149 EUROPEAN FINANCIN(i FOR COFFEE--The E~ropean Development F~nd Will Pinance up to 25 million ecus, some operatiQns connected with the first phase of the , Ugandan coffee induatry recove rogram. See details above, in t~he "Bruasels Correspondence" section./-Text~J/EPsri~+ MA~CHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in ,French No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p'f8~6 7/-COPYRIQHT: Rene ~Qorewc et Cie Paris 1981 7 1211~9 AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT--The Central TendEr Board of Ugenda has isaued a nex call for bids, this one valid until 11 December, for the supplying of varioua types of equipment and materials (eapecially 1~,000 tons of steel) for the re- furbishing of Uganda Hoes, Limited, in Jan~a. The pro~ect is also financed by the EDF, so the bid file can be obtained from the same Eliropean Community information offices. ~Text 7/-Paris MARCHFS TROPICAU~ ET MEDITFRKAI~EENS in ~ench No 1878, 6 Nov 81 p 283b 7/-COPYRI(}HTs Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] i 21 L~9 POULTRY PROJECT--The Central Tender Board of Uganda (Post Office Box 39~5, Kampala) has i8sued a call for bids valid until 11~ Jan.uary, concerning various supplies, notably poultry arad concentrated feedatuffs, for the developa~?ent of local poultry-raising. This pra~ect is being financed by the E~iropean Devel- opment Fund. The file may therefore be obtained from the F.~ropean Comaunity _ information offices, 61, rue des Bellea-Feuilles, Paris 16./-Text7 `Paria MARCHES TROPIGAUX ET MEDITEftRANEENS in French No 1878, 6 n~v 8~ p 2g36 7 /-COFYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 7 1211~9 CSO: 4719/249 END J FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010015-9