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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 _ FOR OFFICIAL L1SE ONLY JPRS L/ 10222 30 December 198 ~ - Worldwide Re ort p TEIECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - CFOUO 20/81) , F~IS ~OREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATI~N SERVICE FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014020-3 , NOTE JPRS publications conzain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original pnrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators ~uch as [TextJ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or follow~ng the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information wa~ processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the ~ original but have been supplied as appropriate in cozztext. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an it~m originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. - The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Governmetxt. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS G~VERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF Tfi?.S PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OiVLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014020-3 F(1R ()MFI('1.41, l4SF (1~11.\' JPRS L/10222 30 December 1981 ~ WORLDWIDE REPORT ~ TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, RESEARCH AI~OD DEVELOPMENT (FOUO 20/$1) - CONTENTS SUB-SAH,ARAN AFRICA INTER-AFRICAN A.FFAIRS Kuwait, Tunisia Sign Loan Agreement for Telecorranunicat~ons Project (MARCHE5 TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 6 Nov 81)............ 1 ~ USSR Methods for Locating Breaks in Optical Cables ~ (S. M. Vernik, A. M. Kuznetsov; EI,EKTROSVYAZ', Sep 81)..... 2 Clima,tic, Mechanical Tests of ~Iztok~ Communication System . (Ya. Ya. Silin'sh; EI,EKTROSVYAZ~~ Sep 81) 10 Development o~ Corrununications in Belorussia (I. M. Gritsuk; ELEKTROSVYAZ', Sep 81) 16 Rural Wire Broadcasting Discussed (ELEKTROSVYAZ', Sep 81) 21 Ways of Developing Rural Telephone Corrmiunication, Wire Broadcasting ~ (G. Monina; ELEKTROSVYAZ', Sep 81) 23 Automatic Telephone Exchange ~Kvant~ for Agencies, Industry Discussed - (G. Matlin; ELEKTROSVYAZ', Sep 81) 26 _ a _ [III - WW - 140 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 FOR OFFICIAL l1SE Ol~'ILY INTER-,.~FRICAN AFFAIRS KUWAIT, TUNISIA SIGN LOAN AGREEMENT FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROJECT Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in Fr~nch No 3878, 6 Nov 81 p 2812 [Text] Tunisian-Kuwaiti cooperation, details of which we have reported several times, has materialized again. In a ceremony held on 31 October, at the headquaxters of the Arab Fund for Economic anrl Social Development (FADES) ii~ Kuwait, the Tunisian ambassador to Kuwait, Mohamed Megdiche, and the president of the fund, Mohamed Imady, signed a loan agreement for a total of 3.7 million Kuwaite din~rs flr about 6.475 million Tunisian dinars. The loan--at a 6 percent intere5t rate and repayable in 15 years, with a 4-year grace period--will be applied to finance the outlay of foreign exchange required to build the Tunisian section of the fourth inter-Arab telecommunications pro~ect (Algeria- Tunisia) with an estimated cost of 6.4 m~llion Kuwaiti dinars. The project envisages expanding and improving the telecommunications network between the Magreb countries with the installation of coaxial cables and multiplex circuits for national and international communications. Oi}e should remember that the FADES has already granted several loans to Tunisia and t!~ese loans total 27.2 million Kuwaiti dinars. It should also be pointed out that, last week, the deputy director general of.the Kuwaiti Fund, Badr E1 Hamaidi, was in Tunis where he conducted talks with Tunisian officials, mainly with Minister of Plan and Finance Mansour Moalla, on the sub~ect of cooperation between Tunisia an3 the Fund, and on ways to increase this cooperation. Badr E1 Hamaidi also studied with the minister of transports and communications, Sadok Ben Jomaa, a pro~ect to modernize the basic infrastructure of the railroad line between Tunis and Bord~ Cedria and he mentioned that four other projects will be undertaken in 1982. These pro~ects are: the development of the Oued Siliana region, the drainage of thE Mateur region, the utilization of waste water for agriculture in Tunisia and, finally, the building of an asphalt road in Beja. The Kuwaiti Fund is reported to be also prepared to finance a project to build a 70-kilometer rail- road line between Gabes and Medenine. This railroad line, where construction work is scheduled to start next year, will cost in the region of 20 million Tunisian dinars. It was announced in Tunis that the crown prince of Kuwait, who is also the president of the Council of Ministers, will pay an official visit to Tunisia this coming December. COPY:IGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 8796 1 - CSO: 5500/5003 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410020-3 USSR UDC 621.372.8:535 ~lETAODS FOR LOCATING BREAKS IN OPTICAL CABLES Moscow ELEI:TROSVYAZ' in Russian No 9, Sep 81 pp 25-28 . [Article by S, M. Vernik and A. M. Kur.netsov, submitted 4 Aug 80] [Text] Successful operation of communication lines is determined to a considerable degree by the possibility of locating the exact point of their break. The solution of this problem is usually _ connected with great difficulties both in deve~oping measurement methods, and in developing measuring instruments. For optical cab?e communication lines (ORLS), particularly for long lines - with an attenuation of the order of 30-40 dB, the solution of this problem is connected with additional difficulties caused by the compl~exity of the processes of propagation and reflection of � light signals in optical fibers (OV). " Let us examine the possible methods of locating the break points of OV and OK [optical cables] as a whole and particularly the methods suitable for using on long lines. . As is known, not any actual breakdown of an optical fiber (OV) totally stops the pro- pagation of a signal, For example, a break of OV with a vertical shear and separa- tion of OV in the cable by 2-5 ~m leads only to an insignificant increase in the at- tenuation of the signal. Therefore, a break of OV will be considered a damage at which the propagation of light energy stops completely. There exist three methods for iocating the breaking point i~i OV. ~he method of ineasuring light energy radiated into the surrounding medium is used for quality control of initial semifinished products "moldings" from which OV are ~tretched, as well as for locating OV breaks and great (of the order of 2-3%) non- unifc~rmities. Quality control of moldings is accomplished by probing them with ra- diation of a gas laser of the visible spectrum ()1, � 0.62 ~m). Luminescence is ob- served at the points of OV nonuniformity. The quality of the molding can be judged by the intensity and the number of the luminescent points. By statisticsl process- ing of the results of visual observations, it is possible to establish the correla- tional connection between the quality of the molding and the OV nonuniformity. At the points of great OV nonuniformities, some of the energy of light signals is ~adiated into the surr.ounding space. In this case, the measuring signal introduced 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410020-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY into the OV cansists of powerful light pulsea (of t:.: order of 1-3 W) re~eated with frequency of 1-5 kHz. The lxght signals radiated into the surrounding space are ; picked up by the photodetector of the receiving device and arP transformed into ~ pulses of current (voltage) which are then amplified in the narrow-band amplifier which is characterized by a great gain factor and is tuned to the frequency of the repetition of the light pulses. In tt~.e process of ineasurements, OV moves in relation to the photoreceiver, and the ` intensity of the radiation in it becomes fixed. The function of the distribution of the power of the radiated signals along the length of the OV characterizes the dis- - tribution of nonuniformities. The OV break point usually corresponds to the high amplitude oE the emitted signal. A~ is.sho~.m by preli~inary results, this method can be realized if the dynamic range of the receiving device is 110-140 dB. The method of ineasuring intensity of the Rayleigh backscattering is used widely in ~ measuring the distribution functions of nonuniformities along OKLS and the attenua- ' tion equivalent of OV and OK. r--.~ : ~ , U / ~ , ~ ~ ' i ; ~ ; ~ ~ , T , _ ~x J ~ . ~ Figure 1. ~ The functional diagram af the mAasuring device used in this method is shown in Fig- ure 1. The OKLS S is probed by short (2-5 ns) high-power lighti pulsea (1-2 W) which are introduced into the ~JK through the differential device 4. The reflected back- scattering flux is received on the receiving device 6; the screen of the ELT [elec- tron-ray tube] 7(or some other fndicator) shows the dependence of the intensity of . the backscattering flux on the length of the line (or the time of signal propagation), as well as the point of OV nonuniformities. Th~ point of OV break is characterized by a sharp drop of the scattering power. The main drawback of this method is Che low level of the bac.kscattering f1ux, which makes it impossible to use this method for locating breaka in loug OKLS due to insuf- ficient sensitivity of the receiving device. Moreover, in the presence of relative- ly great nonuniformities (which is the case at the existing level of the man.ufactur- ing technology of OV and OK), t?_~ power of the counter flux of light p~alses could be considerably higher than the power of the Rayleigh scattering flux. This distorts the results of ineasurements. The location method of determining breaking points of OV ia identical to the pulse method of ineasuring the distribution functions of nonuniformities which is widely used nn cable communication lines. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 ~ � I . ~ - ~ ~l) - ~ 1 c1~�.r _ ~ . I ~ a _ _ _ - - ~ - - - - ~ . Figure 2. Key: 1, Break ThP functional diagram of the measuring device used in the location method is snal- ogous to the one shown in Figure 1. The generator of sounding light pulses 1 of 5-10 ns is triggered by the electronic driving oscillator 2 which, simultaneously or with some delay ('~g triggers the sCanning generator of the ELT 3, The sounding pulse passes through the differential system 4 to the OV 5 being measured. Part of the energy reflected from the OV nonuniforuiities creates a reverse light flux which arrives at the photodetector 6 and transforms into voltage pulses. Having been am- plified in the amplifier 7, they are delivered to the vertical glates of ~he ELT, causing the deflection of the electron beam upward or downward aiong the axis y from the middl~ line. The arrival time of the reflected pulses is registered in the scale of the scanning time s(t) which can easily be converted into the diatance, km, to the place of ref lection (Figure 2): - s=0,5s (f) c, ~1~ where v is the light energy propagation speed. Tk~e breaking point is determined by the distance x beyond which the reflected pulses do not arrive to the receiving device. - The main difference of the parameters of the circuit of Figure 1 which is uaed for measuring breaking points and distribution functions of nonuniformities by the loca- ~ tion method from the parameters of analogous circuics intended for measuring the in- tensity of the backscattering flux is that the receiving device used in the location method has a narrower operating frequency range. This makes it possible to have an ~mplifier of the receiving device with a dynamic range of 50-60 dB. Moreover, as was mentioned before, the signals reflected from the nonuniformities and breaking points usually are by several orders higher than the intensity of backscattering - fluxes. Thus, this method makes it possible to conduct measuremenCs on long OKLS. ~ It can be seen from examining the functiunal circtiit of Figure 1 and the description of its operation that it is analogous to the widely known circuits used in devices of the P5-type or UIP-type [3] which are intended for studying distribution functions of and for locating breaking points of cable conductors as one of the Preat nonuniformities in which the Yefle~cCion coefficient is equal or close to one. This fact is quiice important, because it makes it rather simple to design a device for locating OV breaks in the form of an attachment to the series-produced P5-type instruments, However, when measuring OK, it is necessary to consider the special ~~aracteristics of the propagation of optical signals and reflections of optical , fluxes in OV which lead to the appearance of additional errors. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010020-3 FOR OFFiClAL USE ONLY I.ocation Method Errors. 0*~tical signals attenuate when they are transmitted through OV due to Zosses in OV, which leads to a decrease in the energy of the sounding light pulse Wo at the end of an OK with length L to the value U'~ = A�~ e-o.c3a L , ~2) o~here a is the attenuation factor of OV, dB. The energy of the pulse reflected from the end of the line, when it is fully reflect- ed, measured at the b,ginning of the is ~ ~-~T~ = a-~ e-c a L ~3 ~ l~nowing the attenuation value of the regeneration section of the OKLS ~p eP , it is possible to determine the minimum dynamic range of the measuring device a Mxli ' 2 a~Pr . Ir. order to determine the dynamic range of the measuring device, it is necessary to increase a~ HH by the attenuation, ai oTp which characterizes energy - losses during reflection at a point situated at the distance Li from the beginning . of the OKLS. These losses are stochastic in nature and are a function "l~i of a set of stochastic values: modulus of the reflection coefficient at the i-th point Pi; distribution function of angles at which light waves of various modes reflect from the surface of the OV break ~Q i~, where p is the number of the mode of the light wave. Moreover, ai oTp depends on the aperture angle of the OV A and the conditions of the propagation of individual modes in the OV. Thus, er orp = y'; c Pr � 4; e) and is stochastic in nature. a ~ . . ~ ~ ~ :..._~1~ , i b� ~ ' L_ ~ ~ c ' ~ - - - - � - - - - - ~~~1~. i \ Figure 3. Key: 1, Breaking point 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014020-3 FOR OFFIC'IA1. USW: nN1,Y Figure 3 shows possible profiles of OV breaks and oscillograms of the rerlected sig- - nals corresponding to them. The smallest losses occur if the break surface is perpendicular to the OV axis (Figure 3a), and the largest losses occur if the angle of the break plane with the OV axis is equal to 45 degrees (Figure 3b); in the ca~e - of a complex surface of the break (Figure 3c), the value of the losses is stochaetic in nature. Besides the losses as a result of reflection, it is necessary to consider also the losses in the differential assembly of the measuring device a AR~ . Cons~e- quently, Qr~ _ ~per - ~cr~ - ezn~. (5) If we limit ourselves to measuring the point of OV break from two sides of the regen- eration section, then r.,,, ,.,,H - a~,~r ~6~ The maximum value of aHy achieved in practice is 80-90 dB for the power of the sounding pulse of the order of 1-2 W. Losses in the dif�erential device are usually equal to 8-10 dB [1], and the attenuation of the regeneration section is 30-35 dB. It follows from this that a oTp , if ineasured on one side of the regeneration sec- tion, can be not more than 0-10 dB; when raeasuring on both sides 25-35 dB, which makes it possible to locate the breaking point of the OV with a high degree of ac- curacy. The length of the sounding signal can also ~ffect the error in the determination of the OV breaking poinC [2]. When determining this error, it is necessary to consider the widening of the pulses in the line. When a light pulse with a duraCion o� to prcpagates along ttie OV, it widens at the beginning of the fiber due to dispersion of the OV material, due to tr.e dependence of the group delay time on the number of - the mode of the light waves, and due to the stochastic spread of values ~f the group delay time in the OV. These distoi~tions result in the widening of the sounding pulses as they get farther gway from the light source. As a result of this, the resolving power iaf this method is not the same: it has the highest value at the beginning of the line, and the low- est value at the end of it. The value of the widening of the pulse depends on the type of the fiber and the ch3racteristics of the radiatioil source. For example, when an incoherent light pulse with a duration of to is transmitted in - ~ multimode fiber, it widens toward the end of the regenexation section with the length L to the value [1] ~ _ , - - .1 i=~ ~ T= L'> , where L~'~ spread of the gr.oup delay rime per length unit in a multimode fiber due to the presence of various modes; Q ~d widening of the pulse per length unit due to dispersion in the material and dispersion of the naCural waves. When the natural modes are mixed on the irregularities of the fiber, the pulse at ~he end of the fiber widens to the valu~a[1] - 6 FOR OFFICIAL U~F ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 ~ FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY ! ~ -9r,;=L=-~T= ~ ` (8) where L~ is the average length of the OV on which the total exchange of energp be- tween the modes takes place. In practice, L~ Lc' Q2 ~ A T d, and the value of the pulse widening ~ t ia proportional to For example, at Qn/n d 0.01, the spread of the group - delay time LLt is 48.4 ns/km, and at a coherent light source, 24.2 ns/lan. For a gradient fiber, we have, respectively, 4.84 ns/km and 2.42 ns/km. Thus, with a sounding pulse af to 10 ns and a coherent light source, the pulae widens to 34.2 ns at the end of the firsr kilometer of the line. Theae data indicate that there is no point in decreasing the length of the sounding pulsea below 5-10 na. ~ I 1 a' a, - - _ _ ~ r _ % y q r ~ . - --~I ~ ~ j i ~ . ~ ' I ~ b~ , I ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ . i ' r ~.ry. c _ _ ...,z E -_;~i~..; ~ - Figure 4. Key: 1. Uniform The maximum value of the error in locating a break corresponds to the maximum value ~ of aoT p, when the reflected pulse is not observed at the breaking point of the OV ~ - on the screen of the measuring device (Figure 3b). In thia cease,the operator usual- ly assumes that the location of the break is the point of the closeat OV nonunifor- ~ mity on the side of the sounding gen~rator (Figure 4a) which, after the break, has the form shown in Figure 4b. In this case, Che measurement error will be determined i - by the section of a high uniformity IORH of the OV, where no reflected pulses are ` observed, ~ With the improvement of the OV qu~lity, L oAH will be increasing to the valuea of ' the OK factory lengths, because, as a rule, joint reflections occur at the points of ~ OK jointa which are registered by pulsed instruments. ; By using these reflections, with the aid of the iocation method, it is posaible ; - to determine the factory length of the OK where the break took place. ' - ~ ; ~ ( i . 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 Conclusions. The analysis of the location method of the determination of the break- ing point of OV showed that the possibilities of errors in measurements depend sub- stantially on a number of random factors which can lead to impermissibly grest " errors. In order to limit then in the process of the construction of OKLS, it ap- pears to be appropriate to measure the nonunifdrmity distrit+ution functions along � the length of the line and to include these characteristics in the operation manual of the OKLS, These characteristics measured on both sides of the regeneration sec- ~tion supplemented by actual data ab~ut the ~ength of the construction aections of OK, distribution of nonuniformities, values of reflections at the joints of the factory lengths, and actual attenuation of OK make it possible by their changes to judge about the c~nstancy of OK parameters by periodic measurement~ of the nonuniformity 'distribution functions and a more accurate determi.nation of the OV failures. In this case, the characteristic of the distribution functiona of nonuniformities ob- tained in the course of the latest measuremen~a can be used as a re~erence acale for the determination of the OV failure. Measurements of the nonuniformi~ty c~istri- bution functions on both ends of the regeneration section to the break point and after it will contribute to a more accurate determination of the failure point of the fiber. ' BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Unger, G. G. "Opticheskaya svyaz"' [Optical Communications), Moacow, Svqaz', - 1979. 2. Grodnyev, I, I., et al. "Koaksial'nyye kabeli svyazi" (Coaxial Communication Cables], Moscow, Svyaz', 1970. 3. Kuchikyan, L. I. "Fizicheskaya optika ~~olokonnykh svetovodov" [Physical Optics of Fiber Light Guides], Moscow, Energiya, 1979. 4, Muradyan, A. G. and Ginzburg, S. A. "Sistemy peredachi informatsii po optichea- komu kabelyu" [Gptical Cable Data Transmission Systems], Moscow, Svyaz', 1980. 5, Teumin, I, I. "Volnovo~y opt~cheskoy svyazi" [Optical Communication Waveguides], Moscow Svyaz', 1978. 6. Makhlin, R. Ye. and Titov, I, V, "Measurement of Reduced Factor of Reflection from the End of the Fiber When There is a Break in an ~ptical ~'iber Communica- tian Line," PIS'MA V ZHTF [Letters to the Journal of Technical Physics), Vol 1, - IVo 11, 1975. 7, Makhlin,R. Kh,; Ku~netsov, A. A.; and Titov, I, V. "Observation of Optical Pulses Reflected from the Far End of the Fiber," RADIOTEKHNIKA I EI.~KTRONIKA, Vol XX, No 6, 1975, 8. Guttman, J, and Krumphol~, 0. "L~cation of Imperfections in Optical Glass Fiber Wa.veguides," ELECTRONICS LETTERS, Vol 11, No 10, 1975. 9,~ Veno, Y, and Motoh Shimizu, "Optical Fiber Fault Location Method," APPLIED OP- TICS, Vol 15, No 6, 1976, 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 ~OR OFFICIAL USF ONLY 10. Personik, C. D. "Photon Problem an Optical Fiber Time Domain Reflectometer,'~ PSTJ, Vol 56, No 3, 1977. 11. "Detection and Location of Fiber Breaks in Optical Communication Lines," NTZ, - Vo1 90, No 11, 1977. COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO I SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 10233 _ CSO: 5500/1005 - 9 . - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014420-3 - ~ - USSR UDC 621.386.019.3.004:519.24:681.3 - CLIMATIC, MECHANICAZ TESTS OF 'IZTOK' COMNIUNICATION SYSTEM ~ Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian i~o 9, Sep 81 pp 12-15 [Article by Ya. Ya. Silin'sh, submitted 15 Nov 78] [Text] Series pr~c;uction of the integrated analog-digital communication system YeSS ATs "Istok" has been started [I]. In the process of the preparation of the _ documentation for series production, a complex system of production quality con- _ trol (RSUKP) of YeSS ATs was developed, guaranteeing a high quality of the atation equipment [ 2] . - The KSUKP YeSS ATs includes a complex of organizational, scientific, and technical - problems which are solved at all stages o� production and operation of the YeSS ~ - ATs equipment. This complex includes four groups of problems: general system pro- blems, problems ~f the stag~s of designing, ma.nufacturing, and operation. The general system problems provide for continuous control of the plans of ineasures for the purpose of quantitative evaluation of the quality of work and the provision - of unified metrological and patent-information means for the entire development of - the system. The problems of the designing stage include: the order of the quality control of the design and technical documentation and verification of this documentation by the reliability, metrology, and standardization services; safety program; methods of climatic and meclianical tests, etc. At the manufacturing stage, the quality of the equipment of YeSS ATs is ensured by the analysis of causes of defects and failures; organization of the optima.l input con~rol of ma.terials, semifinished products and components; certification of the equipment and techno~.ogical processes by quality leveLs; conducting Quality Days, _ etc. The problems of the state o� operation include the collection, processing, and sub- . mission of information to the designer and the plant about failures of the equip- ment during the operation in the experi:ciental zone, conducting controlled operation of series stations, establishing the exact amounz of spare parts, etc. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410020-3 FUR OFFICIAI. USE OR~LY The quality and reliability of the YeSS ATs equipment are gzeatly affected by ex- - ternal climatic and mechanical influences~ Moreover, in the process of the ma.nufac- turing of, there unavoidably occu.r hidden defects which are revealed only in the running-in process of the equipment. The developed methods of climatic and mechanical tests included in the KSUKP YeSB ATs it possible to check ra- pidly the operating ability of the equipment under various conditions and to reveal the causes of its failures and hidden defects. � Climatic Tests. The reliability of the functioning of YeSS A1's is affected the most by temperature, sincFS most of its electroradio elements (ERE) are sensitive to its changes. According to specifications for the equipment of this class, it should operate at a higher t~mperature of +40~C. However, loGal overheating occurs in some electronic - assemblies of the equipment due to the special characteristics of their design. - GDR specialists studied the dependence of the overheating temperature toverheat within the bay of YeSS A'Ts on the released thermal power Pt of individual assemblies located in a given bay [3]. The results of these studies for the middle (curve 1) and end (curve 2) bays of the set are shown in Figure 1. _ As can be seen from the curves, at the maximum power release within the bay equal _ to 400 W, local overheating of the bay located in the middle of the bay set will be '4 15�C. For this reason, tests of the YeSS ATs components, such as sections, celis, transfo~mers and other ERE, must be conducted at a temperature of +55�C, and not at ~+0�C . ~ ~1) - . - ~2~ � Figure 1. - Key: 1. toverheat - 2. W In temperature tests, in order to correCtly reflect real operational conditions and to select correctly the conditions of the tests, it is necessary to consider ther- mal balance of the objects being tested. It has been established that a specimen has to be kept in the testing chamber at the higher operating temperature of +55~C _ for four hours. But the casin~, for example, of the multipte integrated connector (MIS) used in the YeSS ATs reaches this temperature only after four hours, i.e., the time origin of MIS tests must be moved to that time. Heat-releasing objects ' (powerful transistors, resistors, etc) reach a higher operating temperature 11 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014020-3 - FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY - considerably earlier, and the stable temperature value of their casings even ex- ceeds the operating temperature in the chamber. All this is shown clearly in Fig- ure 2 which gives rhe dependence of the air temperature in the testing chamber (curve 1), temperature of the specimen surface (~:urve 2) and the surfa~es of power- ful transistors (r,~~irve 3) on the testing time. ~N:' _ - - ' ~1~ ~ i ~ ~ c 6 " ~2) Figure 2 Key: 1. Ttest = 4 hours 2. Hours Tests of equipment at lower operating temperatures are conducted in the same way. _ Moisture resistance tests of the equipment are also done in a special chamber, where real operating conditions are simulated. It is taken into consideration that under real conditions, the object is under an electrical load wraich affects the formation of dew on the casing of the object and lawers by one order or more the resistance of the insulation of the printed circuit plates, transformers, etc. The next test of the equipment for various transportation conditions is done in a cyclic mode, with varisble ambient temperature and humidity. After these tests, the equipment must be acclimatized under normal conditions at an ambient temperat�re of +25+10~C and humidity of 65�15% in the course of 6-24 hours. This is necessary, because all electrical parameters of the equipment must return to the initial nor- mai state. - It is considered that the equipment has successfully passed the tests, if its cer- tain electrical parameters did nat exceed the established limits during these tests. Mechanical Tests. In order to check the equi~ment completely under various modes of transportation and operation, it is tested for mechanical, vibration, and shock effects. The sample is placed on a special platform which is set into vibration _ with variable acceleration and frequency. YeSS ATs equipment can be transported by motor vehicles, railroad, sea and air. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the conditions corresponding to these types " of transportation. Figure 3 shows the dependence of acceleration g on frequency f _ for various types of transportation obtained in [4-6]: curve 1-- plane, 2-- ship, 3-- motor vehicle, 4-- container c~rrier. The same figure gives the dependence of g on f for shock (curve 5-- for packaged equipment, curve 6-- for unpackaged 12 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 - FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY eqt~ipment) :~n3 vibr:ition (curve 7) eFfects. Curve 8 corresponds Co [he exieting conditions of testing for vibration effects. The frequency range (10-500 Hz) was determined by the passband of the measuring instruments used. . - - _ - ~ . - ~ - - - ----------i~--:-- : r _ 1'f. - f~ . . . _ f - E' - v.~~\ . ~ � /.''~~:h~ 4 - ~ . ~ E.. ~ _ r~ f7.- - "~~`1- - - - ~4 C1, , f_ ~ 1: i: J`~ %i~C' 2J:.~ j~27 Figure 3. Key: 1. Hz . L L.~.._ - - ~ - - - .'.i - - \i~~._._..- = r�.- - - ~ `i ~t. ' , F c~, ~0 J~ ~J.' :t~. ;.~4 `1~ . Figure 4. Key: 1. Hz As can be seen from Figure 3, the greatest ac:celerations in the equipment occur during transportation by plane, and all type.s of transportation are characterized by an increase in acceleration from the fre-quency of lCl Hz. Tests of samples for sinusoidal vibration were conducted on a special stand. For such tests, it is necessary to use only a.n electrodynamic stand (for example, VEDS 400) which makes it possible to obtain a sliding sinusoidal signal with a speed of one octave per minute with automatic adjustment of the amplitude of movement and acceleration. Vibrat~on stability test:s were conducted with voltage turned on, i. e., under load, and those for vibratian strength under no-load conditions with visual and electrical checking of the.� sample after the tests. In the process of ' developing a sample, it is recommendedto use stiffer tests (by 30-50%; than the ex- isting ones for ensuring the margin of safety of the structure during periodic plant tests. . 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 - GDR specialists proposed to simulate transportation condition.s by means of 1000 _ pulse shocks of 4 mc at an acceleration of 100 g, unloading jobs by throwing th;e equipment fram a. height of up to 85 cm or by six shocks with an acceleration of up to 400 g. Figure 4 shows the dependence of g and f occurring in the YeSS ATs obtained in mechanical tests of a sample for its stability to external effects: curve 1-- dur- ing the switching of tumblers; 2-- during the replacement of cells; 3-- during accidental shocks during the operation of che equipment. Curve 4 shows the exist- ing conditions of testing for the detection of resonance frequency in the equipment; curves 5 and 6-- testing conditions accepted for YeSS ATs for shock and vibration " stability. As can be seen from Figure 3(curve 8) and Figure 4(curve 4), the ex- isting tESting conditions used at plants manufacturing ATS [automatic telephone ex- changes] cannot ensure qualitative checking of the YeSS ATs. Difficulties are caused also by discrepancies in the normative technical documenta- tion for ERE [8], where 20 degrees of rigidity are given for vibration effects which do not correspond to the effects occurring during operation. For example, rigidity degrees I, II and V for the frequency ranges, respectively, of 10-35, 10-HO, and 10-100 Hz have the same acceleration of lg, which is not substantiated scientifi- ~ cally at all. As was shown by the studies (Figure 4), tests for the vibration stability of cells and sections of the equipment of YeSS ATs should be conducted in the frequency - range of 10-500 Hz with an acceleration of up to 0.5 g. Shock stability test must _ be conducted at an acceleration of 2.5 g and the length of the shock pul~e of 6 ms. In order to ensure a high quality of standard replacement elements (TEZ) of the YeSS ATs equipment, they are subjected to accelerated reliability tests in the pro- cess of manufacturing, A method was developed according to which, after mechanical effects on TEZ, they are tested for nonfailure operati~n under a maximum electri- cal load in a special compact cham~er at a temperature of +55�C in the course of I000 hours, These tests showe~ the possibility of revealing design and technologi- - cal failures of TEZ. In the manufacturing process of the equipment, there unavoidably occur hidden de- fects which lead to running-in failures. Short-term forced climatic and mechani- cal eFfects make it possible to reveal these defects and reduce the running-in failures ~9, 10], which is confirmed by the tests of the experimental specimens of the YeSS ATs "Istok". BTBLIOGRAPHY 1, Adzhemov, S, A.; Misulovin, L. Ya,; and Parilov, V, P, "General Principles of Constructing an Integrated Quasi-Electronic Analog-Digital Communication Sys- _ tem," FLEKTROSVYAZ', No 10, 1975. 2. Kerr, W. A. "Nine Axioms for Quality Control," QUALITY PRO~RESS, No 3, Y974, 3. Markert, C. "Erwarmenysprobleme in elektronischen Geraten," Dissertation TU Dresden, Fakultat fur Elektrotechnik, 1967. 14 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 ~'nR nFFI('IA1. I1SF. nN1.Y 4. Reissmann, E. ~'Ein Beitrag zur Messung mechanischer Umwelteinflusse und wir- kur~gsaquivalenten Pruffung von Geraten," Dissertation TU Dresden; 1972. 5, Reis.smann, E. "Zusammenhang zwischen Feldbedingungen und Prufbedingungen." Anlage 2 zum Abschlussbericht TU Dresden, Sektion informationstedenik, 1973. 6. Lipmann, R., and Heinrich, Ch. "Schwingungsbeanspruchung von Packun~en," DIE VERPACKUNG, No 1, 1977. 7, TGL 2000-0051, "Stossfolge und Schwingungsprufung," 1971, 8. GOST 16962-72. "Electronic and Electrical Engineering Products. Mechanical and Climatic Effects, Requirements and 'Pesting Methods." - 9, Silinsh, Ya. Ya., and Yadchenko, K, I. "Accelerated Technological Run of Semi- conductor Equipment." NADEZHNOST' I KONTROL' KACHESTVA, No 4, 1972. 10. Silin'sh, Ya. Ya., and Yadchenko, K. I. Patent No 459745 (USSR). "Radio Equip- - ment Aging Methods" COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO I SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 _ I0233 CSO: 5500/1005 ~ ~5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 ~ FOR n~FIC1A1. II~F ONI.Y USSR , DEVELOPMENT OF COMMiJNICATIONS IN BELORUSSIA = Moscow ELETC~ROSVYAZ' in Russian No 9, Sep 81 pp 1-3 [Article by I. M. Gritsuk, ~inister of comn~unications of the Belorussian SSR: "Re- sults and Directions of the Development of Communications in Belorusaia"] [Text] Communications workers of Belorussia, just as all Soviet people, have started working on the fulfillment of the tasks of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Workers, engineers, technicians, and the entire personnel of the communications industry of the republic are concentrating their efforts on comglete fulfillment of the resolu- tions of the 26th CPSU Congress and instructions of the USSR Ministry af CQmmunica- tions, realizing that faultless operation of the means of communication is an esaen- tial condition for the intensive develapment of the entire national economic complex. This industry commenced the current five-year plan with fairly good technical equip~ ment which ma.kes it possible to conduct effective work on the improvement of the services to the population and the national economy of the republic with all types of communications, increasing labor productivity and reliability of the means of com- munication. The preceding Tenth Five-Year Plan was the years of further strengthening of the material and technical base of communications. It will suffice to say that the five- year target for the introduction of the fixed capital was fulfilled in Belorusaia in 4 years, and the value of the c~pital increased almost by 46%. Year after year, the allotted capital investments were used systema.tically, and their volume increased by 36% in five years. This made it possible ta increase the length of intercity telephone channels almost 1.7-fold and introduce new capacities of automatic intercity telephone stations. The industry was modernized on a new technical basis. Main lines were equipped with transmission systems K-3600, K-1920, K-1020, BK-960, and the intraoblast networks were equipped with.system R-300, K-60- P which replaced KV-24, KV-12, V-12-2, and ME-8 systems. , A large~ volume of work was done on the equipping telephone channels with semiautoma- tic and automatic equipment; the level of automation reached 92%. On the whole, this made it possible to automate tandem operation by 94%, and to handle outgoing calls, whose number increased by 65%, without increasing the number of operators. 16 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014020-3 FOR OF'F'ICIAL USE ONLY The number of intercity coin telephones (MTA) increased by 40% during the five-year _ plan, which provided addi~ional convenience for the population and guests of the republic's capital, the heroic city of Minsk, and other cities and produced a defi- nite economic effect. The 240 MrA of Minsk (includir.g automated intercity public call stations operating twenty-four hours a day) ar~ attended by 23 people. These NP."A nandle about 17,500 outgoing calls a day. The handling of such a number of c~ills through operators via Minsk MTS [intercity telephone exchange] would require a scaff of about 300 telephone operators. Telegraph communications were also developed. The capacity of the network of sub- scribers' telegraph exchanges increased by more than 40% during the five-year plan,; the first section of the data transmission network which was completed covers all rayon communication centers. Telegraph networks were equipped with DIJNIIZA, "Inter- val", KANP, and TAKT equipment and with auto~natic switching crossbar exchanges AT- PS-PD, ATR-PD, and ATK-20 U. The republic searched for ways of improving the organizaCion of telegram deliveries and lowering the costs of the delivery service. The experience of the Minsk post office in creating a reference telephone card file deserves attention. It makes it possible to transmit telegraph messages to the addressee by phone (including business phanes). In the republic, telephones were installed in about 75% of the apartments of the heads of rural communication departments (OS), which made it possible in 1980 to de- liver to rural residents and receive from them about 60,000 telegrams in the even- ings after the business hours of OS and during holiuays. The city and rural telephone communications were developing at an accelerated pace. For example, the capacity of GTS [city telephone networks] increased 1.47-fold and that of STS [rural telephone networks] increased 1.57-fold. Work was done on speed- ing up the operation of installed capacities. Their utilization factor as of 1 Jan 1981 was 94% for GTS and 80% for STS. The introduction of centralized repair services at the GTS of Minsk and other oblasC centers made it possible to perform up to 94.7% of repairs within the established time limits, to increase labor productivity and create additional convenience for the population by concent~ating transportation facilities and human resources. The number of coin telephones at GTS increased by almost 30%; the republic occupies the fourth place in the country with respect to their number per capita. 1'he automated rural telephone network is based only on crossbar exchanges. At more ~ than 900 kolkhozes and sovkhozes, telephone intercommunication facilities (VPTS) were reconstructed. At one half of these farms, these 3obs were combined with the organization of the dispatcher's telephone communication service, and the volume of ~ capital investments used just for these purposes was on the orde�r of 30.5 million rubles. The dispatcher's communication service organized between rayon centers and kolkhozes in 33 rayons of the republic proved to be highly effective for the national economy. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 _ The rural communication network uses many thousands of kilometers of KSPP-type cables - with T,~hich a considerable number of connecting lines were organized with the aid of - analog and digital channel-forming equipment during the years or the Tenth Five-Year Plan. However, under the conditions existing in Belorussia, it would be wrong to disregard the possibility of increasing the number of connecting lines by suspending . - additional aerial cables with i~heir subsequent multiplexing. The television network of Belorussi.a is based on the transmitting television stations of the metric-wave band of the types "Len", "Uragan", "Yakor and "Zona". During the past five-year plan, three powerful relay stations were built, which made it pos- sible to improve the reception of the f irst television program for 90% of the repub- lic's population, af the second (republic) program for 70% and of the third pro- gram for 16%. The wire-broadcasting rediffusion network has 3.6 million loudspeakers. More than 700,000 loudspeakers were install~d during the five-year plan, and their density in- creased to 37.6 per one hundred people, including 30.2 paid loudspeakers. In order to provide better postal services to the population, more than 250 new post offices were opened; 1500 out of 4400 post offices meet the requirements of "enter- prises of high standards". Twenty-eight new buildings of rayon post offices were built, six central enterprises, 210 shops and sections were fully mechanized, and 450 primary electronic machines were introduced for mechanizing pAStal money-handling ~ operations. Rural mailmen deliver more than three million pieces of mail a year to homes of the population, which contributes to the raising of the effectiveness of the utilization of rural labor resources. The introduction of a complex of organizational and techniaal measures made it pos- sib'.e ;.o increase labor productivity of the communicationa workers in the republic by 24%, save 5.7 million rubles against the goal of 4.5 million rubles and to relieve more than 5500 employees. The steps of the economic growth in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan are steep, and we = must take bigger strides than in the last five-year plan. In 1981 and during the - five-year plan as a whole, communications workECS of Belorussia are faced with ex- tensive tasks of technical improvement of networks, raising the effectiveness of the utilization of the fixed capital, and improvement of the operation of all types of communication. It is planned to increase considerably the length of intercity telephone channels, to build new AMTS [automatic long-distance telephone exchanges]in Brest (in 1981), Minsk, Gomel', Mogi.lev, to expand the AMTS in Grodno and to complete the automation of the zonal communications in the republic. The number of outgoing long-distance calls must be increased 1.6-fold with a staUle number of employees; the number of automated channels will increase more than 2.3- fold. The telegraph network will be developed further. New AT-PS-PD stations -�i11 be built in Mogilev and Brest, the subscribers' telegraph network will increase by ~lmost 25%, and the completion of the construction of a low-speed data transmission network will 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500010020-3 MOR OFFICiAI. USE ONLY - make it possible to cover the entire agricultural and industrial complex of the re- public. Provisions are made for considerable capital investr~ents for equipping this subbranch with new electronic devices. As the number ~f families having home phones increases, the method of transmitting telegrams by pl~one will be introduced ~more and more actively. In 1983, it is p lanned to complete the installation of telephones in the apartments of heads of rural com- munication departments, which makesit possible to create favorable conditions every- whers for delivering telegrams to rural residents after the business hours of OS and on holidays. The capacity of urban and rural telephone networks will increase 1.3-fold; in 1984, there will be moa~e than one million telephones. VPTS in more than 620 kolkhozes and - sovkhozes raill be expanded in combination with the organization of dispatchers' com- - munication at the rayon center kolkhoz level. The number of connecting lines in rural telephone networks will increase by 3590. In the Eleventh Five Year Plan, as a r2sule of the introduction cf progressive tech- nology, mechanization and automation of production processes, scientific organization of labor, reconstruction and reequipment of enterprises, labor productivity in the industry will increase by I8.8-19%, and not less than 81% of the increment of the production volume will be accomplished due to the growth of labor productivity. On the whole, i_t is planned to achieve conditional release of 11,700 people of - duction staff. We are continuing to search for methods of saving and effective uae of material resources, energy, and'fuel. The experiment on wiring of all city ATS [automatic telephone exchanges] by the me- thod of "free spread of station cables" yielded a saving of over 20% and will be the main method in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. In 1981, it is planned to complete the reconstruction of the Vitebsk Radia Television Station, to reconstruct the Grodno station in 1982, and buil.d two new television ata- tions during the five-year plan. As a result of these measures, it is envisaged Co cover 97% of the republic's territory by one television program, up to 85% by two programs, and up to 35% by three programs. The annual program of the "Belsv~yaz'stroy" Trust, which they are fulfilling by their own efforts, will be at a level of 2.5-27 million rubles, and thaC of the "Belremstroy- svyaz will increase by 40%, reaching 14-15 million rubles. It is planned to . strengChen substantially the material base of the conatruction industry. In order to satisfy the needs in special furniture for publ�Lc buildings, a furniture shap was built with a design output capacity of 650,000 ruble-worth of products. An auto~mated mortar plant with a capacity of 30,000 cubic meters of mortar is in operation, and its second section is under construction. The reinforced-concrete shop with a capa- city of 25,000 cubic mete=s will make it poseible in 1984 to produce about 45,000 reinforced-concrete supports and satisfy the needs in hollow and high-qual- - ity reinforced-concrete products. The production base of the "Belsvyaz'stroy" Trust will be expanded, which will make it possible to produce more than one hundred kinds of nonstandard parts and articles. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 Measures are being taken for a more effective utilization of the capital investments allotted for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan; however, in order to solve all problems of the five-year plan in the development and strengthening of the material and technical bZSe of the communication network of the republic, it will be uecessary to use also some a~bove-plan credits of the Gosbank and Stroybank of the USSR. Tre equipping of the communication network with new equipment, raising of the level of operation of the technical base, increasing labor productivity, expanding social- ist competitions at ~ommunication enterprises, and spreading advanced experience will make it possible to improve the services of all types of communication to the � population and national economy of the republic in Ele~enth Five-Year Plan and to realize the main directions of the economic and social development of Belorussia established by the 26th CPSU Congress. COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO ? SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 10233 CSO: 5500/1005 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY USSR RURAL WIRE BROADCASTING DISCUSSED Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian No 9, Sep 81 p 47 [Report on the meeting of the Scientific and Technica2 Council of the USSR Ministry ~ of Coimnunications] [Text] In December 1980, a meeting was held at the Scientific and Technical Council of the USSR Ministry of Communications on the subject: "Problems of Delivering Pro- " grams and Automation of Wire Broadcasting Facilities in Rur~l Areas." The discussion of this problem was brought about by the necessity of improving the quality indexes of the wire broadcasting networks and increasing the hours of daily operation of rediffusion stations. Research, design, and planning organizations and operating enterprisea of the USSR Ministry of Communications have done work on the improvement of the technical and economic indexes of wire broadcasting in rural areas by automating the equipment of radio wire broadcasting centers (RT~. Modern equipment has been developed for auto- matic control systems of RTU located in the zone of confident reception of ultra- shorC-wave f requency-modulated radio stations: remote control units (DTU) installed on ultrashort-wave transmitters; a device for automating Cube amplifiera with a power of 1 kW ("Duet-2"); low-powFr radio wire broadcasting centers TUPV-0.25X2, TUPV-05 X2 and TUPV-0.1; equipment for transmitting broadcasting progra~as over the rural tele- phone communication networks (AVSP), and atation-wide automation syatem (OSA); a unit for transmitting broadcasting programs in sysCems wiCh IKM [pulse-code modulation]. As a result of systematic introduction of new equipment, about 6000 rediffusion sta- - tions were changed to distant control and were fully automated in the last 10 yeara. Due to this, the qualiCy indexes of rural wire broadcasting improved, the length of daily broadcasting increased, and the number of the attending personnel was reduced. The Scientific and Technical Council reaolved; that Che projects directed toward in- tegration of rural statibns and exCernal plants af wire broadcasting and telephone communications, as well as measures for centralizing maintenance of rural wire broad- casting and telephone communicaCion facilities are promising; to transmit rayon bro~dcasting programs to rural radio wire broadcasting cent~rs located in the zonea of confiden~ reception of ultrashort-wave frequency-modulated broadcasting atations - through standard audio frequency channels; to conclude the development of proposal8 for reducing external plants of wire broadcasting in rural areas; to define apecifi- cations for main design projects necessary for enauring the integration of equipment 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410020-3 and centralization of maintenance of wire broadcasting facilities and telephone com- munications in rural areas; to give priority to the development of proposals f.or the operation of automated RTU and for devices for switching standard audio frequency channels for circular messages from rayon centers to automated RTU located in the ~one of confident reception of ultrashort-wave frequency-modulated radio stations; to develop proposals for improving the program transmission method and ensuring the - automation af RTU in sparsely populated regions located outside the zone of con- fident reception of ultrashort-wave radio stations; to develop standards for terms and their definitions in application to the systems, structures and devires of radio wire broadcasting centers; to develop standard designs for stations of rural radio wire broadcasting centers with consideration for the installation of new automatic equipment, COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO I SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 10233 CSO: 5500/1005 22 FOR OFFICI~IL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 ~OR OFFI('lAl, I?SE nNi.Y USSR ' . ' i WAYS OF DEVELOPING RURAL TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION, WIRE BROADCASTIN(~ Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian No 9, Sep 81, pp 61-62 [Article by G. Monina, from the materials of an industrial and technical seminar] [Text] In March 1981, an inciustrial and technical seminar was held in Chelyabinsk on the subject "T~Iays of Increasing the Effectiveness and Quality of Rural Telephone Communication ~nd Wire Broadcasting". It was 6rganized by the Main Administration of Rural Telephone Communication and Main Radio Administration of the RSFSR Ministry of Communicatior~,Ural Center of Scientific and Technical Propaganda of the RSFSR Suciety "Znaniye",Chelyabinskaya Oblast Production and Technical Administration of - Communication and Chelyabinskaya Oblast Adtininistration Board ~f NTORES [Scientific and Technical $ociety of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Communication] imeni A. S. Popov. About 200 specialists, members of the PTUS [Industrial and Technical Com- munication Administration) of the republic and representatives of scientific research and educational institutes participating in the seminar. A considerable role in the achievements of conanunication workers in the Tenth Five- Year P1an belongs to the communication workers of the Rusaian Federation, who did much for the implpmentation of the program for improving the effectiveness and qual- ity of production mapped out by the 25th CPSU Congress. ; Having opened the seminar, G. S. Voloboy, direcCor of GUSTS [Main Administration of , Rura1 Telephone Communications]~of the RSFSR Ministry of Communications, summarized the results of the fulfillment of the tasks of the five-year plan in the republlC. Pro- ~ gress has been made in its facilities of electrical and postal communications, tele- vision, broadcasting, and Soyuzpechat' [Main Adminstration for the Diatribution of Publications]. For example, the length of telephone channels on the oblast communi- cation lines of the Russian Federation increased during the Tenth Five-Year Flan by a factor of 1.6 against 1.3 of the p1an. The capacity of city and rural telephone stations in the republic increased almost by three million numbers. The task of in- creasing the number of receiving pointa of newpaper pages by the phototeleryr,~aphic me- thod was fulfilled ahead of schedule, ir? 1979. The five-year pZan of the introduc- tion of powerful television stations was fulfilled one year ahead of schedule. The five-year plan for increasing the capacities of telephone stationa in rural areas was overfulfilled by 4.6%. The task of the construction of telephone facilities in rural areas of the Nonchernozem Zone was fulfilled in 4 years and 9 months. The task for the construction of telephone intercommunication facilities (VPTS) in - kolkhozes and sovhozes was overfulfilled, . 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010020-3 Much work has been done to ensure smooth operation of rural communications and im- provement of the quality indexes of this subbranch, In May 1979, an All-Union con-. ference was held in Krasnodar on the problems of improving the operation of rural telephone communication (STS) facilities on the basis of new progressive metho~s (see "ELEKTROSVYAZ~~?~ 1979, No 9). As a result of this conference, "Basic Principles 'of Centralized Operation of Rural Telephone Communication Facilities" was prepared for publication, The development of a complex of equipment for technical control of STS facilities, the introduction of new equipment and improvement of the existing equipment contribute to the improvement of the effectiveness and operation quality - pf rural telephone networks. During the years of the last five-year plan, experimen- tal operation of an "Istok"-type ATS [automatic telephone exchange] was completed and the introduction of the following ,equipment was started: IKM-SVCh [pulse-code modulated-microwave) radio relay equipment of the "Radan" and "Oktaedr" types, trans- mission systems for cable lines IKM-15 and "Zona" and for aerial networks VO-12- Ye2. Experimental operation of cables KSPPZTs with signal conductors and TSPZPB - 5X2X0.9 with aluminum-copper conductors was conducted, In 1981, the republic's net- works received the first few hundreds of kilometers of this cable. The reliability of STS networks depends greatly on the condition of external plants, on their timely overhaul and maintenance. Unfortunately, not everyth, is satis- �actory in this area: not all PTUS of the republic fulfilled the plan for line re- pairs. There is insufficient cor~trol on the part of ETUS (RUS) [operational and technical communication centers (rayon communication centers)] over the correctness of the initial accounting and quality of services to the population with STS facili- - ties; muc~ damage to external plants is caused by other organizations; there is in- sufficient local control over the quality of the delivered equipment; no formal _ claims are presented to plants manufacturing substandard quality equipment. All these problems require serious attention of thE specialists in rural telephone com- munications. In 1981-1985, it is planned to build rural telephone networks for general use cover- ing rayon centers located in villages and VPTS [telephone intercommunication] net- works in sovkhozes and kolkhozes with a total capacity o� about 800,000 numbers, in- cluding about 300,000 numbers in the Nonchernozem Zone of the RSFSR. It is planned to put into operation ATS for general use in rural areas, including quasi-electron- ic, with a total capacity of 405,000 numbers; to replace manual telephone exchanges - with automatic exchangPS; to bring the level of automation in rural telephone com- munications to 98%; to construct, expand, and reconstruct VPTS networks in more than 4000 sovkhozes and kolkhozes. Work is continued on the introduction of a centralized method of STS services and a complex system of communication quality control in STS = networks. Successful solution of these complex problems will ensure the growth of effectiveness and quality of operation in rural telephone networks. V, L. Mikhalev, assistant director of the GRU of the RSFSR Ministry of Communications, - reported on the fulfillment of the tasks of the Tenth Five-Year Plan and on the pros- pects for the development of wire br~adcasting, He noted that the tasks of the Tenth Five-Year Plan for the development and iT~~rovement of wire broadcasting (PV) in the Russian Federation have been completed successfully. The plan for increasing the number of wire-broadcast loudspeakers was overfulfilled. They were installed in 1670 settlements, Multiprogram wire broadcasting was developed further and can be enjoyed by the population of more than 340 cities and city-type settlements of 2L~ ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010020-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONY.Y the republic. More than 3000 rural radio wire broadcasting centers (RTU) were auto- _ mated and changed to remote control, which made it possible to relieve about 3500 units of attending personnel, Great successes were achieved in the complex solution of problems of automating rural radio centers by the radio specialists of Tul'skaya, Gor'kovskaya and Kuybyshevskaya oblasts. However, there are some shortcomings in the organization of the operation of wire broadcasting facilities. The problems of automa,Cing rural rediffusion stations are not solved in an integrated manner everywhere, which lowers the effect of the imple- meiited measures. The~e are no clear recommendations for the optiraixation of the for- � mation of centers of wire broadcasting networks in the rayons for the purpose of re- ducing the length of the lines, There are loiig interruptions in the operation of - wire broadcasting loudspeakers due to the demolition of PV lines during the recon- struction of electric power networks and other construction jobs. Subscribers' loud- speakers are not produced by the industry in sufficient quantities. - In the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, wire broadcasting, including multiprogram broadcast- ing, will be developed further. It is planned to change all rural radio centers to _ remote control and complete automation. Long-range plans will be developed for pro- viding radio broadcasting services to the rayons with consideration for the optimiza- tion of the formation of centers in ~he networks, reducing the length of wire broad- casting lines, and organization of the delivery of programs of rayon broadcasting to the radio centers of the rayon, A wide dissemination of production experience will make it possible to increase the effectiveness and quality of operation of PV facili- ties. The problems touched upon in the reports were developed further hy the partici- pants of the seminar. The foilowing problems were discussed: improvem~nt of the ef- - fectiveness and quality of STS and PV operation in application to the conditions of various oblasts of the RSFSR; special characteristics of the sets of equipment of the system of centralized technical control of STS networks and the introduction of control systems; ways of introducing a complex quality control system for STS oper- ations; experience in the operation of transmission systems with pulse-code modula- tion for rural telephone networks; modern methods of cabling local telephone net- works; problems of the organization of rayon broadcasting at automated rural radio centers controlled through an ultrashort-wave channels; possibilities of reducing - the volume of external plants for wire broadcasting in rural areas. ~ There was a helpful exchange of opinions among the specialists in rural telephone communications and wire broadcasting, and recommendations were developed for solving urgent problems, such as the improvement of the quality of STS and PV and the growth of labor productivity of each enterprise. - COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO I SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 10233 - CSO: 5500/1005 25 FOR OFF[~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 USSR AUTOMATIC TELEPHONE EXCHANGE 'KVANT' FOR AGENCIES~ INDUSTRY DISCUSSED Moscow ELEKTROSVYAZ' in Russian No 9, Sep 81 pp 62-63 ~Article by G. Matlin: "Scientific and Technical Seminar on the Administrative and Industrial Automatic Telephone Exchange 'Kvant' of a Quasi-Electronic System"] [Text] The section of industrial communications of the Central Administration Board of NTORES [Scientific and Society of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Communications] imeni A, S. Popov held a scientific and technical seminar in Riga in April 1981 on the "Kvant"-type automatic telephone exchange of a quasi-electronic system developed and produced by the Order of Lenin Production Association VEF - [Electrical Engineering Plant] imeni V. I. Lenin to be used in agencies and industry in various sectors of the national economy, The seminar was attended by more than 150 specialists representing 14 union and re- public ministries, 35 largest industrial enterprises (Magnitogorsk and Nori1'sk me- tallurgical combines, Automobile Plant imeni Likhachev, and others), 30 research, design, and educational institutes, and other organizations. Opening addresses were given by P. 0. Vidoniks, deputy general director of the VEF Association, and V. N. Roginskiy, member of the board of NTORES imeni A. S. Popov. ~pecialists of the design bureau of the VEF Association reported on the special char- acteristics of the KE ATS [quasi-electronic automatic telephone exchange] "Kvant" - for agencies and industrial enterprises, the composition of its equipment, its pro- ~ grams, organization of additional services, procedures of its designing, installa- tion, and its start-up and adjustment work. The participants of the seminar familiarized themselves with the state of series ~roduction of the "Kvant" equipment. It was mentioned that its development and in- troduction signify a new qualitative stage in the deve].opment of the techniques of industrial communications which opens up fundamentally new possibilities in the ap- plication and operation of telephone exchanges at industrial enterprises, in trans- portation, and in construction. KE ATS "Kvant" is based on modern elements and con- trols the process of establishing a connection with the aid of specialized computers ~ on the basis of appropriate programs; its users are provided with a set of addition- al services most of which are accomplished by means of programs; the complex of pro- ~ grams makes it possible to determine failures without the participation of operating personnel. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONY.Y At the same time, it was established that the introduction of "Kvant" at industrial enterprises causes some definite difficulties some of which must be eliminated by modifying its design, and others by implementing organizational measures. "Kvant" exchanges require the presence of storage batteries i.e., a buffer mode of elec- tric power supply, because the executive program and the stored information are 1~sC if *he power supply stops even for a short time, The restoration of the executive program requires some time in the course of which the exchange cannot operate. The existing programs of the exchange do not provide for the automation of the process ~ of clearing the memory devices of erroneous, excessive, and other unnecessary infor- mation which accumulates constantly in the process of establishing the connections. Among other things, this necessitaees the presence of operators, which lowers sharp- ly the economic indexes of the exchange. The high initial cost of the equipment and the previously unforeseen taining operators lower the economic indexes of the exchange and complicate the pro- - cess of its introduction, The situation is particularly grave for the customers who were counting on the installation of a low-capacity ATS (64, 128, 256 numbers). Most likely, the delivery of an ATS of a new generation, to which "Kvant" belongs, cannot be approached from the same posiCion as the delivery of YATS-49 [universal automatic telephone exchange-49]or ATSK-100/2000 [crossbar automatic telephone ex- change-100/2000], The exchange cannot operate without a complete set of equipment including a special device for information input (output) to specialized:computers. Therefore, many specialists rightfully insisted that KE ATS "Kvant" should be deliv- ered with a complete set of its entire equipment regardless of the~manufacturers of ~ its individuai types, and this was reflected in the recommendations passed at the seminar. It was also noted that no optinal solution has been yet achieved on the problems of the organization of centralized operation of the exchange in the case of its mass ~ introduction, there is no sufficient information on the designing, installation and operation of the "Kvant", and there are no necessary materials for the buyers of the exchange, . The seminar recommended, among other things, to introduce a course on quasi-electron- ic automatic telephone exchanges in electrical engineering institutes and communica- tions tekhnikums. COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "RADIO I SVYAZ "ELEKTROSVYAZ 1981 10,233 CSO: 5500/1005 END 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010020-3