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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/Q2/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FnR nFF~('IAI. 11SF nN1.Y JPRS L/ 10224 30 December 1981 - ~JSSR Re orfi p - ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT CFOUQ 8/81) Fg f;~ FC~F~EIGN BROADCAST INFORIVIATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/Q2/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 I10TE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspaners, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the ~irst line of each icem, or following the last line of a brief, indicate hflw the original in�ormation was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar nam2s rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the ' original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. _ Othei unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- ~ cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GQVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCFD HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION - OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FO.T'. OFFICIAL USE OidI:Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10224 30 December 1981 , USS R REPORT ENGI(~EERING AND EQUIPMENT (FOUO 8/ 81) CONTENTS MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING ~ Design of Hydr~foil and Hover Craft 1`' NUCLEAR ENERGY Operating and Repairing Nuclear Power Stat3ons 8 Optimization Models of Breeder Reactors 11 Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Engineering 13 Practical Problems of Operating Nuclear Reactors 15 Calculating Compres~ion of DT-Mixture by Electrically Imploded Cylin3rical Shell 17 NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY Development of Turbogenerator Construction in USSR 26 Remote Measurement of Ele,:trical Energy and Average Power in Power Systems 37 ~ Current State and Problems of Transformer Construction Development 47 INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Classifying Industrial Robots ..............................o...... 55 - a- [III - USSR - 21F S&T FOUO] R(1R OFFT~'TAi i1CF l1NT.V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 EOR OFFI~:IAL USE ONLY NAVIG~TION AAID GUIDANCE SYSTEMS Dynamics of Nonlinear Gyroscopic Systems 57 Programmed Angular Movements of Gyrostat When _ Quaternions Are Used To Determine Its Orientation 63 Inverse Problem of Gyroinertisl Measurement Systems.........�..... 68 - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL LJSE ONLY _ MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING _ UDC [629.](031) D~SIGN OF ~IYDROFOIL AND HOVER CRAFT Leningrad SPRAVOCHNIK PO PROYEKTIROVANIYU SUDOV S DINAMICI~SKIMI PRINTSIPAMI - P ODDERZHANIYA in Russian 1980 (signed to press 15 Jan 80) pp 2-5, 467-471 [Annotation, foreword and table of contents from book "Manual for the Design of Ships with Dynamic Principles of Support" by Boris Aleksandrovich Kolyzayev, Anatoliy Ivanovich Kosorukov and Vladilen Aleksandrovich Litvinenko, Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 4000 copies, 472 pages] [Text] Fundamental information on the thenry and practice of designing hydrofoil and air-cushion ships (SPK and SVP) is systematized. Methods are proposed for de- termining the principal dimensions of these ships, their propulsive and seakeeping qualities, and their economic characteristics: Methods of optimizing a design solution are indicated and an analysis is given of errors in calculating the basic = characCeristics of SPK and S VP. The principles for prescribing design ma,rgins are substantiated. Questions on the reliability and safety of these ships are eluci- dated. The manual is intended for engineers and shipbuilders, specialists of NII [Scien- tific Research Institutes], KB [design bureaus] of shipbuilding enterprises and of t~he fleet. It may be used by graduate students and students of the senior courses . of higher educational establishments and schools of shipbuilding. - Foreword. Ships with dynamic principles of support (SDPP); namely, SPK and SVP ~ are winning widespread acceptance as 'convenient and profitable means of fast trans- portation. To further perfect SPK and SVP, to improve their seakeeping qualities and increase profitableness, research has been conducted over ma.ny years. In recent years works have appeared which were devoted to the hydrodynamies of hydrofoi~.s, the aerody- namics of air cushions, the theory and practice of designing propulsors, the de- _ scription of the power plants (EU) of SD'PP, general and local strength, structural mate=ials, and the analysis of experience in operating SDPP. Among recent works, there is great interest in the books of I. T. Yegorov, N. A. 2aytsev, G. P. Zlobin, I. I. ?sayev, N. V. Mattes, Yu. A. Netsvetayev, A. A. ~ Rusetskiy, Yu. M. Sadovnikov, V. T. Sokolov, A..N. Kholodilin, A. N. Shmyrev and others. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONT.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 NUN UN'btl.lAL U,r. VIVLY In the development of the theory of SVP, great contributions were made by Yu. Yu. Benua, A. N. Ba~no, K. P. Vashkevich, A. D. Volkov, V. K. D'yachenko, G. P. Zlobin~ V. K. Z oroastrov, T. A. Zaytsev, V. V. Klichko, B. P. Kuzovenkov, I. A. Lyubomirov, V. A. Lukashevskiy, Ye. 2. Novikov, I. V. Ozimov, V.,M. Puzyrev, S. D. Prokhorov, - A. A. Rusetskiy, V. N. Treshchevskiy, V. I. Khonzhonkov, V. P. Sha,drin, V. V. Shatalov, V. A. Tsarev and others.~ Of works, however, emuracing comprehensively all the knotty problems of designing SPK and SVP, there is a total insufficiency. The book by the authors of this manual, �'Features of the Design of Ships With New Principles of Support", which came out in 1974, because of an insufficient ~rinting of copies became a bibliographic rarity and could not satisfy the inquiries of _ engineers and shipbuilders, teachers, graduate and undergraduate students special- izing in the area of the theory of the design of ships. The text book of A. M. . Vaganov, "The Design of Fast Ships", published in 1978, is a useful contribution to edscational literature, but it does not cover the basic questions in the design of SPK and SVP sufficiently completely. The manual being offered for the attention of readeL~s ma,kes up for the deficiency of literature on the general design of SDPP. The amount of material necessary for exploratory design studies is systema.tized in the book,fulfilling in the process the formation of the conception of the ship and the substantiation of the design proposal. In addition to general methods of design, recommendations are given for the forma.tion.of the function of social usefulness, for the technical and economic - basis of an optima.l solution, and for the design of the hydrodynamic systems, the aerodynamics of the air cushion, propulsors, astd for th~ determination of the Ex- ternal forces, the stresses acting in the hull, hydrofoils, and the flexible en- closures. Recommendations on the choice of the type of power plant are given ar~d specif ic numerical examples. In many cases formulas are presented for the determi,~ation of the same quantity. This was done on purpose. Basically, it does not work~out well to give preference to any one formula when the accuracy of several of them is approximately - the same. In this cases the designer, in ac~ordance with the problems before him and an amount of initi~.l information, can select independently from those presented the most convenient formula, or ccmpute the sought after quantity as the average from several formulas. The formulas and charts are based on both theoretical de- velopments and on statistically processed data from many sources. Reference data on SPKs and SVPs are presF~nted. The main attention was given to the choice of the gcneral type, the principal di- mensions, and the fundamental characteristics of an SDPP at the beginning of design when the fundamental properties of the ship are being defined,such as seakeeping ability, economy and others which rema,in essentially uncha.nged in the later design stages. In the first stages of design, it is not always possible to give preference to any one type of SDPP. In a number of cases, a desi~n is developed in several vari- ants and only comprehensive, objective evaluation permits ma.king a final choice foi~ the further direction of the work. This is why it is advisable to combine in one book, data for the design of SPK and SVP. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR OFFIC'IAI, USE ONI.Y The book has two parts. Part I is devoteci to the design of. SPK, and part II to the design of SVP. Part I was written by A. I. Kosorukov. Part II, (chapters I and II)were written by B.A. Kolyzayev. Part II, (chapters V, VI, VII, and section 6 of chapter III) were written by V. A. Litvinenko. Part II, (cha.pter ~II, sections 5 and 7 of chapter IV and section 20 of chapter VI) were written by S. A. Smirnov - who also assembled the material on SVP of the skeg type presented in chapter II. The recommendations adopted by the Assembly of the International Maritime Consul- taLive Organizati~n (IMKO) and of the Code, which was coming into effect in 1979_, on The Safety of Ships with Dynamic Systems of Support and which have dn influence on the characteristics of a ship, are re~lected in the manual. The principal characteristics of SPKs and SVPs of foreign construction are pre- sented in tables, charts, text, and drawings taken from foreign periodicals. The book was written on the t~asis af the results of investigations carried out by - the authors, and on the correlation of data presented in domestic and ~oreign litera'ture . _ The authors convey their thanks to the reviewers, candidates of technical ~ciences V. K. D'yachenko and B. A. Tsarev for valuable comm~n.ts and recommendations di- rected toward improving the book. The authors also consider it necessary to ex- press their gratitude to L. V. Ozimov, I. V. Ozimov, Ye. Z. Novikov, T. N. Belyayev, Yu. M. Mokhov, A. N. Bagno, Ye. G. Finkel'shteyn, V. K. Zoroastrov, and G. D. Baranov,whose ma.terials and recommendations were used in writing the book. The authors will gratefully receive comments about the contents of the manual di- rected to the address of the publisher, Sudostroyeniye, 191065 Leningrad, Ulitsa Gogolya 8. Contents Page Foreword 3 Introduction 6 Part I. The Design of Hydrofoil Ships [SPK] ~ Nomenclature li Division I. The Bases ot~ the General Design of SPK Chapter I. Problems in the building and trends in the development of SPK.... l. Trends in the develupment of SPK 2. Features of SPK hull design 18 3. Features of the design of the hydrofoils 21 4. Structural materials 25 5. The fundamental characteristics of the EU [Power Plant] 28 Chapter II. Theoretical bases for the design of SPK 33 6. The methodological bases of design _ 7. Establishing the social usefulness funetion 35 3 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 ~ E'~l)R UH~Nl~I:IAL USN. U1VLY . Cha,pter II (continued) Page 8. Tt~e method of determining the fundamental characteristics of an SPK ta a first approximation 39 8.1 The propulsion equation 41 8.2 The capacity equation (functional) 47 8.3 The equations of unsinkability, buoyancy, and strength 53 8.4 The weight equation (functional) 56 9. Predicting the construction and operating costs of SPK 65 _ 9.1 The construction cost of the ahip 9.2 The net cost of transporting ~assengers (cargoes) ~68 ~ 10. Optimization of the characteristics of SPK 70 11. Recommendations on the scheme for calculating the characteristics of ~ SPK to a first approximation (sample calculation) 72 12. Calculating the characteristics of SPK to a second approximation 84 12.1 Selecting the characteristics of the hydrofoil system 12.2 The more ~xact definition of hull weight 85 12.3 " " " " "*he composition and weight~of the power plant 86 12.4 Determining the composition of the electrical system 12.5 The more exact 3efinition ~f fuel and lubricating oil supplies 12.6 Provisions for the safety of SPK 87 - 12.7 Rema.rks on the adjustment of SPIC cha.racteristics in the second approximation Division II. The Design of the Fandamental Parts of SPK 89 Chapter III. Design of the hydrodynamic system 13. The selection of the arrangement of the hydrofoils and their geometric characteri~tics 13.1 Hydrofoil area .......e 90 13.2 Load distribution among the hydrofoils ' 91 13.3 Determining the geometric characteristics of the hydrofoil system. 95 . 14. The hydrodynamic design of the hydrofoil system 104 14.1 Calcul~ting hydrofoi2 lift 105 14.2 " " resistance 108 15. Estimating the effect of cavitation on a supporting hydrofoil 114 16. Calc~slating the trim and resistance of the ship when moving on the - hydrofoils 1.20 17. L~ngitudinal and transverse~stability of SPK when moving on the hydrofoils 121 18. The design and calculation of propulsors 130 19. The seaworthiness of SPK 137 _ 20. The maneuvering qualities of SPK 150 - Chapter IV. Features of the hull design 152 21. i~evelopment of the lines drawing 22. Development of the general arrangement drawing 155 23. The problem of the external forces .......................e.......... 159 23.1 The impact of the hull on a wave 160 - 23.2 " " hydrofoil on the water 166 - 23.3 Hydrodynamic forces on a hydrofoil in regular waves 170 ~ 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter IV. (continued) page 24. Features of calculating the genersl strength of SPK 172 24.1 The bending moment in displacement condition 24.2 " " " when moving on the hydrofoils in qu~et water . 173 24.3 in waves Z75 24.4 The shapP of the elastic line and the natural frequency of the first tone 177 24.5 The main coordinates of the bending moment and ~he shear fosee 180 24.6 Approximate methods of determining the bending moment in wav~s 181 25. Features of calculating the strength of the hydrofoil system ~ 182 26. Determining the strength ma.rgins 185 Part II. The Design of Air-Cushion Ships [SVP] Nomenclature 191 Division I. The Bases of the General Design of SVP 195 Chapter I. Problems in the building of SVP Chapter II. Theoretical bases for the generzl design of SVP 2~2 1. Methodological bases for the design of SVP 2. Determining the funda.mental characteristics of SVP to a first approxiniation 203 3. Determining the principal charactesisLics ~f ~VP to a second aPProximation 211 3.1 The weight equation ............................e.................. 212 3.2 The stability equation 220 ~ 3.3 The power equation 3.4 The equation af seaworthiness 221 3.5 The equation of unsinkability 222 3.6 The capacity equation 4. Optimization of the characteristics of SVP 224 Chapter III.The provision for propulsive and seaworthiness qualities in the design of SVP 229 5. The transverse and longitudinal stability of SVP 5.1 Evaluating the stability of SVP in the different modes of operation 5.2 The approximate design evaluation of the static stability of SVP 236 6. Calculation of the resistance of SVPA [amphibious SVP] 248 7. " " SVPS [SVP with skegs (rigid - side walls)] 276 Division II. Features of the Design of the Fundamental Parts of SVP 285 Chapter IV. Hull design 8. Features of SVP hull strt~cture. Structural materials 9. Development of the structural strength system for an SVP hull. The . calculation of gei:eral and Iocal strength 289 Chapter V. The design of the flexible eiiclosures of the air cushion of SVP 298 - 10. The design of the flexible enclosures for SVPA 10.1 The classification of flexible enclosures ~ 10.2 External flexible enclosures 29q 10.3 Sectionalizing flexible enclosures 306 10.4 Fundamental operational requirements ~or the structure of - flexible enclosures 307 - 5 FOR OFFIt~IAL UCE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter V (continued) ~age 11. Materials for flexible enclosures 309 11.1 The covering material for flexible enclosures 310 11.2 The textile foundation of the rubberized fabric of a material for a flexible enclQSUre 12. The design of the shape of f?.exible enclosures 313 12.1 The design of the shape single-sheet monolithic elements for flexible enclosures 314 12.2 The design of the shape of two-sheet monolithic el~ments - for flexible enclosures 317 12.3 `The design of the shape of balloon type flexible enclosures 13.Principles for evaluating the strength of flexible enclosures 319 ~ _ 13.1 Features of the materials of flexible enclosures as strength members ~ ~ 13.2 Examples of ca3culating the strength of a single-sheet monolith 321 13.3 Vibrations of flexible enclosures 322 14. DEtermination of the flow-rate and pressure characteristics of the flexible enclosure of an air cushion 323 14.1 The lift characteristics of a nozzle-type flexible enclosure on an SVP with the ship hovering without list or trim above a hard surface 326 14.2 The lift characteristics of a flexible enclosure on an SVP _ hovering without list or trim above water 329 - 15. The influence of the design of flexible erclc?sures on the propulsive and seakeeping qualities of SVP .......................................336 15.1 Amphibious SVP - 15.2 SVP with sk~gs 339. Chapter VI. Fundamental questions on the design of an SVP power plant 341 16. ~eatures of SVP power plants 16.1 General informa.tion 16.2 Design arrangements of the puwer plant 343 16.3 The main engines of SVP 345 16.4 Power transmission 346 16.5 Calculating the tbtal engine power necessary for SVP operation 347 17. The design of the special systems and equipment serving the power plant of SVP with GTD [Gas T~rbine Engines] 350 17.1 The engine air-supply system 17.2 The gas-discharge equipment (GW) for GTD on SVP 362 17.3 Noise suppressing equipment for a gas turbine power plant 363 18. Designing propu3sors for amphibious SVP ~ 18.1 Air propellers 364 ~8.2 Air-jet propulsors (propulsor-ventilators) 371 19. Determining the characteristics of SVP lifting systems 372 19.1 Determining the forced air system characteristics 373 19.2 Calculating air duct resistance 382 20. Peculiarities of t:~e design of the power plant of an SVP witY: skegs 383 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE 4NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 HOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY Page Chapter VII~ The selection of the means of maneuvering and control of SVP and providing for stabili'~y of motiori 386 21. SVP maneuvering qualities 21.1 General information on SVP maneuvering qualities 21.2 Means providing for SVP directional control 389 21.3 Maneuverability of SVP 392 ~ 21.4 The means of directional control and maneuvering adopted on 9 ~ several foraign SVP 21..5 Some recommendations on the arrangement of instruments and mechanisms for the control uf SVP 396 22. Providing directional control of SVP 3'~7 22.1 Evaluating SVP stability on course 22.2 The turning ability of SVP 4U5 23. Providing dynamic stability in the spatial mation of SVP 411 23.1 The drawing in under the hull of the flexible enclosure 412 . 23.2 The behavior of the rigid hull when being buried in the sea 415 23.3 The capsizing of SVP 416 A.ppendices to Part I. Appendix I.The principal characteristics of domestic SPK 420 Appendix II. The principal characteristics of foreign SPK and KPK [Military Hydrofoil] 422 Appendix III. Weight, size, seaworthiness, and mane~vering character- istics of SPK 438 Appendix IV. The principal characteristics of the main en~ines and propulsors of SPK 442 Appendix V. The mechanical properties of structural ma.terials 446 Appendix VI. The genera:l arrangement of dom~stic and foreign SPK 449 Appendices to Part I~. Appendix I. The principal characteristics of SVPA 460 Appendix II. The principal characteristics of SVPS 461 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudestroyeniye", 1980 9136 ' CSO: 1861/37 ~ 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 rt~~c ~rr~..~r?t, u~c u,vt,t NUCLEAR ENERGY UDC 621.039.56 OPERATING AND REPAIRING NUCL~AR POWER STATIONS MoscoNr OSOBENNOSTI F.KSPLUATATSII I REMONTA AES in Russian 1981 (signed to press 11 - May 81) pp Z-4, 168 [Arinotation, table of contents and introduction from the book "Chai�acteristics of the Operation~and R.epair of AF.S's," by Leonid Mikhaylovich Voronin, Energoizdat, 3,5u0 copies, 168 pages] _ [Text] Specii'ic conditions and b2sic regimes for the operation of AES's with reac-- tors of various types and the technical and economic inr~i~:ators of AES's are exam- ined. Much attention is paid to radiation safety and to methods for processing and ' burying the radioacLive wastes of AE~'s, as well as to problems of monitoring the - working order of the equipment and the condition of �he metal of~pipelines and of - the basic equipment during operation. The basic requirements for the manipulabili- ty of AES's and the prerequisites for providing for reliable and stable AES opera- ~ tion within power-engineering systems ar~e set forth, along with the main problems of organizing and carryirig out equipinent repairs at AES'~ and questions of deacti- vating equipment and of inechanizing repair operations,. Th~~ publication is a se-- quel to the book, "Osobennosti proyektirovaniya~i scoruzheniya AES" [Characteris- tics of th~ Design and Erection ~f AES's] (Moscow, Atomizdat, 1980). _ For specialists who arc woz~king in the areas of the design, construction and opera- tion of AES's. Can be used by students of power-engineering and engineering- physics faculties where courses in the design, construction, assembly, tuneup and _ operation of AES's are being studied. Table of Contents Page Introduction 3 Chapter 1. The Operation of an AES 5 i.i. Specific prerequisites for the operation of an AES 5 1.2. An AES's main operating regimes 1.3. Characteristics uf' AES operation associated with the fuel cycle and the need tu recE~rge the reactors with nuclear fuel 47 - 1.4. Basic tasks and methods fo^ pr~viding for reliable and safe operation - of AES's 53 1.5. The treatment uf radioactive wastes during AES operation 73 1.6. Radiation safety during AES operation 83 1.7. The organizational structure for operation of an AES 92 8 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 _ FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY Page Chapter 2. The Itepair of AES Equipment 94 - 2.1. Characteristics of AF.S equipment repair 94 2.2. 'ihe deactivation of equipment at an AES 96 2.3. The organization and execution of equipment repair at AES's......... 108 2.4. The supplying of materials and equipment to AES's for equipment - repair 119 2.5. Problems of. the centralization and specialization of repair work at . AES's 122 2.6. The main directions for raising the effectiveness and quality of repair at AES's 125 Chapter 3. The Ope ration of an AES in a Power-Engineering System........... 129 3.1. The requirements for manipulability of an AES 129 - 3.2. The manipulability characteristics of an AES 134 3.3. Ah;S operating regimes in power-engineering systems 143 Chapter 4. The ~conomics of an AES 146 4.1. Characteristics of the economics of an AES 146 4.2. The technical and economic indicators of an AES 149 4.3. Way~ to raise the technical and economic indicators of an AES....... 158 Bibliography 162 Alphabetical subject index 164 ~ Introduction A new branch of power-engineering--nuclear--has made an enormous leap in its devel- ~ opment in a comparatively short time (a little more.than a quarter of a century). The electrical power of the First AES, which was started up on 27 June :.954 in Obninsk, Kaluzhskay a Oblast, was about 5,000 kw. At present the installed capacity of the world's nuclear electric-power stations is about 150 million kw. This rapid - development of nuclear power was occasioned primarily by the limited nature of fos- sil-fuel reserves ar.d the unevenness of their distribution about the globe. More- over, during AES operation, pollution of the air basin with the sulfur compounds and various combustion products that are di.scharged in large quantities by power stations that operate on fossil fuels is precluded. "...Today, throughout the whole world, power plants are discharging into the atmos- phere annually 200-250 million tons of ash and about 60 million tons of sulfur dioxide. In the long term, prior to the year 2000, these discharges can grow, re- spectively, to 1.5 billion and 400 million tons. But nuclear power stations do not need oxygen and do not contaminate the atmosphere with ash, sulfur and other com- bustion products. These are 'cleaner' stations...."* 1)uring thc lOth Fiv~-Year Plan a major step was taken toward the construction of AES's. New capacity was introduced at the Kurskaya, Chernobyl'skaya, Lenin- grad, Beloyarskay a, Novovoronezhskaya, Armyanskaya, Rovenskay~ and Bilibinskaya - ~ AES's. The erection of large power units is in the completion stage at the Smo- lenskaya, Yuzhno-Ukrainskaya and Kol'skaya AES's. - *Aleksandrov, A. P. "Budushcheye energetiki [Power Engineering of the Future], KON;MUNIST, No 1, 1976. 9 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 - rvt~ vrrta.YNY. UJL' Vl`VL1 At the end of 1980 the total power of the USSR's nuclear power stations had r~eached 12.5 million kw. The generation of electricity at AES's is constantly increasing. Thus, in 198U alone, the country's nuclear po~rer stations produced 73 billion kw-hr of electrici- ty. This is more electricity than was generated at AES's during all the years of the Ninth Five-Year Plan. During the period 1976-1980, more than 230 b illion kw-hr were generated at AES's. During the lOth Five-Year Plan the erection of prototype power units wi th WER-1U00 and BN-60U reactors was completed. The startup and mastery in 1980 of the V Linit with a VVER-100U reactor at the Novovoronezhskaya AES enabled conversi.on to the intense construction of a large series of power units with unified WEP.-1000 re actors. Ex- perience ir. the erection and start of the III unit with BN-600 reacto r at the Beloyarskaya AES is of enormous significance for the further accelerat i on of the construction of nuclear power stations with breeder reactors. Analyses are now being made of reactor installations with BN [breede r] insialla- tions with sodium coolant, with a single-unit electricity power of 800,000 and 1.6 million kw. During the llth Five-Year Plan, in accordance with 26th CPSU Congress d ecisions, the pace of introduction of new capacity at AES's will almost double in comparison with the preceding five-year plan. In 1981-1985 new power units will go into operation at the Kalininskaya, Zaporozhskaya, Rovenskaya, Khmel'nitskaya, Yuzhno- Ukrainskaya, Rostovskaya and Balakovskaya AES's with VVER-1U00 reactors. New power units with RBMk-lUUO reactors will be introduced at the Kurskaya, Smolenskaya, Chernobyl'skaya and other AES's,.and also at the Ignalinskaya AES wi~h RBMK-1500 reactors. All this will enable the generation of electricity at AES's to increase - still more and to be brought up to at least 15 percent of all the country's genera- tion of electricity by the end of 1985. , - In the next few years most AES's will operate at the base-load regime. �In this case, the largest possible amount of secondary fuel--plutonium, which i s necessary = for supporting the fuel cycle for the next stage of development, which will be - based on nuclear power stations with breeder reactors--will be turned out. , The nuclear Power stations that are operating in the USSR demonstrate reliable and - safe operation. However, the increase in their number and their siting in regions of high population density require that society give serious attention to ques- tions of AES safety. Questions of the reliabilii.y and safety of AES operation require paramouni: atten- Lion. AH:S designs theref'ure call for a set of' protective, localizing and other - arrangements and systems for averting major accidents, as well as measures that - preclude the release of radioactive substances outside the AES. The wide construction of AES's requires reliable and, what is very impo rtant, eco- nomical solution of the problems of processing and the later burial of radioactive wastes. COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, 19$1 11409 CSO: 1861/44 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 FOR OFFICIAL l1SF. ONLY UDC 621.039.526.001.573 OPTIriI'LATION MODELS OF BREEDER REACTORS Moscow OPTIMIZATSIONNYYE MODELI REAKTOROV NA BYSTRYKH NEYTRONAKH in Russian 1981 (signed to press 28 Jan 81) pp 2, 232 [Annotation and table of contents from the book "Optimization Models of Breeder Reac- ~ tors," by German Borisovich Usynin, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Karabasov and Vladimir Anatol'yevich Chirkov, Atomizsat, 1,100 copies, 232 pages] [Text] A mathematical model of a breeder power reactor with sodium coolant is de- scribed. The sequence of computations for the reactor's characteristics, k,eginning with analysis of the fuel element anci ending with derivation of in-kind and eco- nomic indicators, which can serve as an efficienGy function for solving problems of nonlinear programing, is set forth. Computed data that enable engineering evaluations to be made during the development of a breeder reactor are rited. For specialists engaged in the design of power reactors, students of senior cour- ses, and post-graduate students who are specializing in the area of nuclear power, _ and also for mathematicians who are interested in applications of the theory of extremal problems. Table of Contents Page - Foreword 3 - Introduction 5 Chapter 1. The General Mathematical Model of a Reactor 9 1.1. Fundamental design and technological solutions for m~dern breeder ' reactors with sodium coolant.. 9 1.2. Status of the development of mathematical models of breeder reactors. 28 1.3. Choice of' optimization parameters 37 - 1.4. Choice of system for the model 45 Chapter 2. Analysis of the Central Fuel Element and of the Assembly with the Greatest Heat Stress 49 2.1. An approximate calculation of fuel-element efficiency 49 'L.2. Analysis of the geometric characteristics of the TVS [hot-water sup- ply] and the volumetric composition of the operating unit.......... 63 2.3. Thermal and hydraulic analysis of the TVS 68 ~ _ Chapter 3. Simulation of a Reactor's Neutrcn-Physics Characteristics........ 74 3.1. A method of approximate simulation 74 11 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 _ rutc ~rr~~in~ u~G uivLY - Page 3.2. Regressive models of physics characteristics 86 3.3. The use of small-groun methods 106 - Chapter 4. The Simulat~on of Devices for ~ontrolling Reactivity............ 110 4.1. Basic p:inciples for choosing control devices 110 ~ 4.2. Balance of reactivity 115 4.3. The simulation of SUZ [safety and control rods] devices 121 Chapter 5. `fhe Reactor's Thermal and Electrical Gapacity 125 5.1. Characteristics of the field of heat release in the core and breed- _ ing blanket 125 5.2. Computation of the reactor's thermal capacity 149 5.3. Computation of the installation's KPD [efficiency] 156 _ Chapter 6. Optimization Criteria 177 6.1. In-kind criteria 177 6.2. Economic criteria.~ 184 Chapter 7. Some Results of the Use of Mathematical Models of a Reactor with an Oxide Fuel 19U 7.1. Formulation of a problem for nonli~ear programing and methods for _ solving it . 190 7.2. The results of the optimization of various criteria 201 7.3. The effect of the indeterminacy of the initial data on the optimiza- tion results 209 Bibliography 222 r . COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1981 ' 11409 ' CS~: 1861/40 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.039.58+621.039.7 ' P,AIIIATION SAFETY IN NUCLEAR P0~�)ER ENGINEERING Moscow RADIATSIONNAYA BEZOPASNOST' V ATOMNOY ENERGETIKE in Russian 1981 (signed to press 13 Jan 81) pp 2, 117-118 [Annotation and table of contents from the book "Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power ~ Engineering," by Lev Aleksandrovich Buldakov, Dmitriy Ivanovich Gusev, Nikolay Gri- gor'yevich Gusev, Viktor Aleksandrovich Knizhnikov, Oleg Anatol'yevich Pavlovskiy and Rita Yakovlevna Sayapina of the Editorial Board of the Deputy �JSSR Dtinistry of Public Health, Atomizdat, 5,000 copies, 120 pages] . [Text] The book, which has been prepared by leading specialists uz~der the Editori- aI Board of the Deputy USSR Minister of Public Health, cites the results of work to . provide for radiation safety in nuclear power engineering. The main attention has been devoted to the state system for protecting the health of workers and preser-- ving the external environment, to questions of radiation hygiene, to the creation of systems of sanitation legislation for operation and handling o~ sources of ion- ~ izing radiation, to providing for the radiation safety ~f personnel at nuclear- industry enterprises, to evaluation. of the radiation situation in rsgions where AES's are sited, to the thermal effluents of AES's, to problems of radiation safety of the population where nuclear power is used for the district heating of cities, and to the problems of the processing and burial of radioactive wastes. The book is intended for workers who are associated with solving problems of radia- tion safety during the a.ndustrial use of nuclear energy in the national economy. Table of Contents Page - Introduction 3 Chaptcr 1. Thc Statc System i'ur Protecti~~g the Health of the Population and for Preserving the Environment 7 Chapter� Problems of' Hadiation Hygiene for the Populace 10 2.1. Radiation hygiene--a ncw branch of science 10 2.2. The radiation situation in the country 12 , 2.3. The biological effects of small doses znd their significance in set- ting standards for hygiene 18 2.4. Pressing problems of radiation hygiene in nuclear power engineering.. 19 13 FOR OFFICIAG USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 e~Vn vrr~~.~ti1. ~JG V~~LI Cha~ter 3. 'fhc Creation of a Sysi:em of Sanitary Norms and Rules for the Use Page = of Sources of Ionizing Radiation 20 ~ _ 3.1. USSR Norms for Radiation Safety, NRB-76 21 3.2. Basic sanitation rules for work with radioactive substances and o*her sources of ionizing radiation 28 3.3. Sanitation Rules for the Design and Operation of AES's, SP-t~ES-79... 31 Chapter 4. :he Provisioning of Radiation Safety for Personnel at Nuclear Power-Er_gineering Enterprises 37 _ 4.1. Ore-mining enterprises 38 4.2. The processing of ores and the manufacture of nuclear fuel.......... 40 4.3. Nuclear reactors of AES's 43 4.4. Work hygiene during the regeneration of.fuel elements and the reuse of nuclear fuel 48 Chapter 5. Gas and Aerosol Discharges of AES's and the Radiation Situation . in Regions Where They are Sited 51 5.1. Reactors as sources of the formation of radionuclides 51 5.2. Measures for limiting radioactive discharges into the environment... 53 5.3. Radioactive gas and aerosol discharges from AES's 55 5.4. The radiation situation in a region of AES siting caused by radioac- tive gas and aerosol discharges 60 Chapter 6. Radioactive and Thermal Effluents of AES's and the Preservation of Water Bodies from Pollution 69 Chapter 7. Nuclear District Heating of Cities and Raciation Safety......... 8? Chapter 8. Radiation Safety During the Processing and Burial of Radioactive Waste 95 Chapter 9. Evaluation of the Possible ConsequencPS of Exposure of the Popu- lace to Radiation 106 ~ Bibliography 115 COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1981 11409 CSO: 1861/43 M 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FnR nFFICIAI, USE ONI,Y UDC 621.039.5 FRACTICAL PROBLEMS OF OPERATING hJCLEAR REACTORS ~ Moscow PRAKTICHESKIYE ZADACHI PO EKSPLUATATSII YADERNYKH REAKTOROV in Russian 1981 (signed to press 24 Mar 81) pp 2, 288 [Annotation and table of contents from the book "Practical Problems in the Opera- tion of Nuclear Reactors," by Vladimir Ivanovich Vladimirov, Energoizdat, 3800 copies, 288 pages, third edition, revised and supplemented] [Text] Questions of the physics of power reactors from the point of view oi their operation are examined. The main attention is devoted to the physical meaning of the processes that accompany reactor operation and that determine a reactor's ener- gy capabilities and manipulability characteristics. Standard procedures are cited, , and examples of the solution of practical problems are given, along with problems for independent solution (with answers) and monitoring questions for checking on assimilation of the material. Certain questions on providing for nuclear safety of the reactor and for efficiency of the core, and also on standard procedures for making neutron-physics measurements and refinements of the reactor's characteris- " tics during physical startup and during the operating process,are examined. The first edition of the book was published in 1972, the second in 1976. I~or scientists, engineers and technicians who create and operate nuclear power- - engineering installations, and also for those who are preparing for this work. Table of Contents Page Introduction ~ 3 Basic Abbreviations 7 Chapter 1. The Nuclear Reactor as a Source of ~,nergy and Ionizing Radiation 8 1.1. The atom. The atomic nucleus. Atomic energy 8 - t.2. The chain reaction. The multiplication factor. Reactivity........ 15 ~ 1.3. The reactor's power. F:nergy release in the core 22 1.4. 1'he reactor's ioniiin~ r~adiation 29 - Chaptcr 2. The Physical Processes That Accompany the Reactor's Operation... 43 2.1. Burn-up and slagging of the fuel 43 2.'L. Fuel breeding 49 2.3. Steady-state xenon poisoning of the reactor 52 'L.4. Nonsteady-state xenon poisoning 61 - 2.5. Steady-state samarium poisoning of the reactor 93 2.6. Nonsteady-state samarium poisoning 97 is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 P'OK l)NMI( IA1. UtiN l)NI.Y ~ Page 'L.7. '1'hc temperature effect 107 - 2.8. Reactor life 115 Chapter 3. ~ontrol of the Nuclear Reactor 128 3.1. The parameters that detexmine the reaetor's capacity and the speed of~change in capacity 128 3.2. Subcritical and critical states of the reactor 129 ?.3. Supercritical state of the reactor 14U 3.4. Devices for reactor regulation 149 3.5. Startup of the reactor, heat-up and operation at the power level of t.he capacity...........o 169 3.6. Stopping and shutdown cooling of ~he reactor 182 Chapter 4. Nuclear Safety of the Reactor and the Thermal-Engineering Reli.a- bility of the Core..o ............................o............ 194 4.1. Characteristics of the nuclear reactor as an energy source......... 194 4.2. The provisioning of nuclear safety for the reactor 197 4.3. The provisioning for the thermal-engineering reliability of the core 216 Chapter 5. Neutron-Physics Measurements During Reactor Operation........... 223 5.1. The necessity for and the amount of neutron-physics measurements (NFI) 223 5.2. Determination of the critical charge 224 5.3. Calibration of the regulating devices 229 5.4. The plotting of differential and integral characteristics.......... 240 5.5. The determination of temperature and power effects and.the coeffi- cient of reactivity 245 5.6. Determination of steady-state and nonsteady-state xenon poisoning of the reactor 248 5.7. Refinement of the power-generation curve . 251 5.8. Determination of the distribution of energy release 252 5.9. Refinement of the physical characteristics of the regulating . devices 254 . Monitoring Questions and Problems for Independent Solution 256 Answers to the Monitoring Questions and Problems for Independent Solution... 267 Appendices 271 Bibliography 287 COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1976 Energoizdat, 1981 - 11409 CSO: 1861/41 16 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 - !~'7R OFF1C'lAl, I1SF, ON1,Y ~ UDC 533.92;i~21.039.61 CALCULATING COMPRESSION OF DT-MIXTURE BY ELECTRICALLY IMPLODED CYLINDRIC~:,~ SHELL Novosibirsk 'LHURNAL PRIKLADNOY MEKHANIKI I TEKHNICHESKOY FIZIKI in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 80 (manuscript received 8 Oct 79) pp 3-1Q [Article by V. I. Afonin, Yu. D. Bakulin and A. V. Luchinskiy, Chelyabinsk, Tomsk] [Text] One way to solve the problem of controlled nuclear fusion is to heat a target containing a DT mixture as it is compressed by a dense shell accelerated ta velocities of the order of 10~ cm/s or more [Ref. 1]. One of the ways to do thi~ is by using megagauss magnetic fields (Ref. 2]. An attractive feature of this technique is the capability of getting a comparatively high (>1%) coefficient of transfer of initially stored energy to the shell. In this process, kinetic - energy is picked up both due to magnetic fi~ld pressure, and due to dispersal of matter from the surface of the shell. Both mechanisms of acceleration operate in electric implosion of the shell by an intense current pulse. Ref. 3 gives the calculation of electric implosion of a thin cylindrical shell when a megajoule capacitor bank is discharged across it. The calculation yields compression rates of up to 3�10~ cm/s; however, because of the comparatively slow rates of increase in current provided by capacitor banks, it is necessary to take a very low initial relative thickness of the shell of ~10-5. The heating of the gas filling the shell and the conditions of the fusion reactions were not considered in Ref. 3. - Ref. 4 gives the results of numerical calculation of compression and thermonuclear ignition of a DT mixture as it is compressed by a cylindrical shell. It is found in the calculations that combustion of deuterium-tritium with positive energy yield - is possible when a constant power of ~3 10~~` W is released in the shell. Although it is pointed out that an electrodynamic method can be used for releasing such power, the matter is not pursued further, nor are magnetohydrodynamic effects in the shell and plasma considered. Our paper is an attempt at a computational evaluation of feasibility of attaining nuclear fusion by electric implosion of a shell. Consideration is taken of processes in the electr9_c circuit of the facility, magnetohydrodynamic processes in the target, and the course of fusion reactions. Compression of the shell is taken as ideally . symmetric. Problems of the stability of compression [Ref. 5] are not considered in this paper. An analysis was made in Ref. 6 of electrophysical facilities from the standpoint of their capabilities for setting up energy densities of the order of inegajoules . 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR QEFIC[AL USE ONLY per gram in a wire upon electric explosion. It was shown that such a capability can be realized if line.s connected in parallel k*i*_h distributed parameters are discharged into a load in the shape of a cylindrical shell. Therefore in the fol- J_owing we will limit ourselves to consideration of electric explosion of copper shPlls located in the center of a disk collector to which a system of lines is connected in parallel. ~ To describe electric explosion of a cylindrical shell, we have used a system of one-dimensional equations of magnetogasdynamics (MGD) with thermal conductivity, where the la~ter is accounted for in the diffusion approximation. The coefficient of thermal conductivity was taken as proportional to the 5/2 power of temperature, i. P. it was assumed that heat is transferred by electrons. It there was gas inside the shell, the enfrgy of bremsstrahlung arising upon compression of this gas did not r~turn to the shell, but wa~ extracted from L-he load by the appropriate heat sink function. The energy of alpha particles of thermonuclear origin absorbed in the gas was also disregarded. As in Ref. 7 in calculations of processes in copper, we used an interpolation equa- tion of state [Ref. 8] describing the vaporization of copper and the region of the vapor-liquid mixture. The way that electrical conductivity of copper depends on density and thermal energy was also described as in Ref. 7. In the temperature region up to a few electron-volts and at densities greater than 0.1 g/cm3, the electrical conductivity was selected on the basis of experiments on electric explo- sion of wires. In the region of densities loiaer than 0.01 g/cm3 and temperatures of 10-100 eV, the data on electrical conductivity were taken from Ref. 9, where - they were calculated from the Saha and Boltzmann equations with consideration of shielding. In a certain region of states of ~opper, electric conductivity was interpolated between calculated experimental values and data of Ref. 9, and in isolated cases was even extrapolated to temperatures greater than those considered in Ref. 9. Naturally, the accuracy of interpolation and extrapolation requires experimental verification. However, calculations show that such states of copper are reached only in the last phases of compression., and e.rrors in the description of electrical conductivity even by two orders of magnitude do not cause any appre- cialbe change in the compression process. The equation of state of an ideal gas with y= 5/3 was used in calculating gases of D2 or DT enclosed in a shell. On the other hand, if the DT mixture was frozen, it was taken into consideration with the following equation of state: ~ l~ = pX - ~~~i a (~i" - 1) 1'PoSET, r f' = Ex + ET~ - - .1 padt~, '~o ~ - n,, if b< 1- ~T~? , if er Q, where po and co are the initial density and speed of sound, 8 is relative density, p is pressure, e is specific energy density, v is specific volume. In accordance with the experimental data given in Ref. 10, the constants in this equation of state were taken as equal to the following quant~ties: - 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Po = 0.2 g/cm3, co = 1.73 km/s, nl = 3, n2 = 2, al = lo, a2 = 1~0, rH= 2/3, Q= 0.27 kJ/g. The gas compressed inside the shell was taken as ~~.onductive. In this assumption, consideration was taken of heating of the gas bo,:h due to the work done by the shell, and due to joule heat released during passage of current. The electrical conductivity of the gas was determined from formixlas of electrical conductivity of completely ionized hydrogen plasma from Ref. 11. The possibility of arisal of individual channels of electric breakdown was disregarded In the calculations. The system of MGD eqLations for calculating the lo~d was salve~ on a computer to- gether with the system of equations of the electric circuit. Line length and storage of energy in the lines were determined after completing calculation of the process based on its time. The collector of the facility was treated as a disk line with wave impedance depending on radius. If the time of wave propagation through the collector is much less than the time of wave propagation through the main lines, then the current in the line-collector- load system (at constant load resistance RZ) varies exponentially from a value of Uo/(R~ +RZ) to Uo/(RZ+ Ro), where Uo is the voltage to which the lines are charged, Ro is the wave impedance of the coaxial line system, R~ is the circuit resistance, i. e. the sum of Ro and the collector resistance. Therefore a fairly good approxi- . mation of the equivalent circuit of the facil~ty is that shown in Fig. 1, where Req is taken as -1~T Req = Ro + (R~ - Ro ) e , where T is the time of wave passage through the collector. _ geQ ~ = LZ r u ' o , . RZ Fig. 1 - A series of calculations has confirmed the validity of the relations derived in Ref. 6. MGD calculations showed that dependence of the rate of acceleration~of the imploding copper shell and the energy input on voltage Uo is comparatively weak. With an increase in Uo from 0.75 to 2 MV, there is a slight reduction in the time of collapse of the shell and an increase in energy input. A further in- crease in Uo has practically no effect on these quantities, but apparently should lead to complication of the construction of the facility. A reduction of Ro in- creases the rate of current rise in the load, and hence also increases the rate of energy input. The latter is a decisive factor in achieving nuclear fusion. - Unfortunately there is a limit below which no change in Ro can increase,the rate of energy input. This limit is the load resistance RZ that begins to determine 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 ~nR OFFT('IA1. 11,SF, t1N1.Y the rate of energy input to the conductor at Ro< RZ. Nor does it muke any sense to reduce Ro below RZ from the standpoint of energy expenditures, since the energy - stored in the lines at fixed Uo and process time 0 is inversely proportional to RQ, and the process of energy input is determined by the quantity RZ. RZ can be reduced only by either reducing the length of the cylindrical conductor, - or by increasing its radius. Of particular significance for the process is an increase in the radius of the shell. Such an increase leads to an increase in acceleration (due to an increase in the rate of ~urrent rise) as the shell is ac- celerated by the magnetic field; to an increase in the base of acceleration of the shell (as mass remains constant); to an abrupt increase in the maximum velocity of dispersal of the shell (due to the first~two factors); to a reduction of heat losses in the gas (due to a reduc- tion in the time of compression). The aggregate of these factors produces a sharply nonlinear rise of maxim~n temperature of the compress~:d gas with increasing radius and decreasing relative thickness of the copper shell. The calculations showed that with other parameters fixed, the maximum temperature - of the compressed gas is most significantly dependent on its initial densfty po. To get temperatures in the gas of the order of several keV necessary for the be- ginning of a thermonuclear reaction, the conductor must be filled with gas at pres- - sure of the order of atmospheric or less, i. e. po< 0.0002. An increase in po by two orders of magnitude led to nearly cold compression of the gas. The results of calculations show that the length of the lines can be taken such that the double time of wave transmission through the lines is somewhat less than the time of shell compression. In this case, the second part (in time) of the process takes place with somewhat lower voltage across the lines, but this has little effect on the final result since most of the energy consumed by the load is already in its magnetic f ield. These research calculations were not intended to optimize the ?~ad on any given - facility. The main purpose of the calculations was to determine the laws governing the process of compression of matter in electric implosion of a cylindrical shell, and to demonstrate the feasibility of this method from the standpoint of achieving nuclear fusion. Several variants of calculations of various systems are given below. Variant 1. A copper shell with length of 1 cm and thickness of 0.01 cm and with outs~de radius of rt~= 1.25 cm is filled with a gaseous DT mixture with initial den.:~ity po = 3�10-5 g/cm3. The shell is connected through a collector to a system - of lines charged to Uo = 2 MV with total wave impedance of Ro = 0.005 S2. Preliminary calculation showed that maximum compression of the gas occurs at - t= 0.33 us� On this basis, the length of the lines was taken as equal to 280 cm, which corresponds to energy storage of 34 MJ. At time t= 0.17 �s, the voltage across the lines had fallen to 1.8 MV. 'Phe calculation showed that the maximum velocity of the ~hell was reached at its inside boundary, being 20 cm/us. Fig. 2 shows graphs of the time dependence of the inside radius of the shell rB and the average gas temperature T~. Profiles of temperature T and density p in the shell 20 F~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR OFNI('IA6. US~~. UNI.Y ~ I T, keV ~ Ip.~ g~~m3 c^' T, keV 0, 2 4' ! I - t I ~ 'Tc q 200 i ~ . ~ I 0.' ~ 7 ~ rP 2 100 I ! I I h-----r- i i I I ~ I P ' ~ oL~ Jc ,o J. ~04 U.324 t a 11S 0 0.0~ r, cM . ~ Fi~. 2 Fig. r- ; ~ r~ cv � , t I ~ i_ ~ P~ g/a~3 T, keV 2 ioo , ; i ~ i i ~ ~ I `~g TN I I I S~ ~ �I L f~ I ~ ~ . i ~ I _ y,~ I T ~ I r' ' ~ . 0 r .0,'JS 0,1 0 0,~ 0,2 t~ ug A r, ch+ ~ Fig.._4.. . Fig. 5 ~ ; f N�~"+ g~~m3 ~M i i i 0 1. 0 ' I r" fPd~ ' I . I I , _ r ~B i I ~ ( ~ I I ~ I I ~ ' I i I , ~ I i~. S ~ r t~ u S _ I Fig. 6 - 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR O~FiC(AL USE ONLY and gas system as shown in Fig. 3 refer to the instant near the time of maximum ' gas compression. Temperature and density are nearly constant in the gas. Since the thermal conductivity i*~ copper falls sharply with increasing density, the high density peak near the inside boundary of the copper abruptly reduces the heat trane- fer from the gas. This explains the rapid drop in temperature in the narrow layer of copper ad~acent to the boundary. The quantity rB on Fig. 2 d~notes the posii:ion - of the interface.between gas and shell. The energy transferred to the shell and gas was 10 and 0.06 MJ resp~ctively. Maxi- mum energy in the shell was 20 MJ/g. The neutron yield of the system was 6�1017 neutrons, and the energy of the alpha particles absorbed in the gas was three times the energy of the gas transferred to it by the shell. However, we cannot expect any intense thermonuclear flare here [see Ref. 12] as the maximinn I p dr in the _ gas raas 0.03 g/cm2. ~ " Variant 2. The mass is reduced in the copper shell as compared with variant 1. Its outside radius is increased to 2 cm with shell thickness of 0.001 cm, and the length of the shell remains 1 cm. Inside the shell to a radius of 0.17 is DT gas with density of 10-`' g/cm3, surrounded by a frozen layer of DT (0.17 ~ r~ 0.2) with density of 0.2 g/cm3. Between this layer and the shell is a gap filled with gas of low density p= 2�10-6 g/cm3. The voltage across the lines was taken as 2 MV and the wave impeda~:zce of the lines was Ra = 0.0075 Sl. At time t= 0.135 us the voltage had fallen to 1.71 MV. ~ Fig. 4 shows time dependences of the outside rH and inside rB radii of the shell, - and also of the outside rK and inside rr radii of the frozen DT layer. After im- pact of the shell along the DT layer, the velocity of their interface was 37 cm/us, and the inner surface of the layer was accelerated to 42 cm/Itse Within 3 ns after impact the gas is compressed to rr = 4.3�10-5 cm, and its average temperature rises to 8.5 keV. A little prev3.ous to this instant the temperature and density in the DT layer have the profiles shown in Fig. 5. We note that within 0.4 ns the UT layer is compressed, the prof iles in the layer are equal{zed, and the average values of temperature and density are 0.6 keV and 40 g/cm3. Of the 21 MJ originally stored in the lines, 7 and 1 MJ respectively are transferred to the shell and the DT. The maximum values of the internal energy in the copper close to its inner boundary - reach 70 MJ/g. The energy of the alpha particles absorbed in the gas was 7 times the energy from compression of the gas by the shell, the quantity !p dr was 0.4 g/cm3 and the neutron yield was of the order of 1017, half of this amount falling to the DT gas, and the other half to the initially frozen DT layer. Variant 3. DT gas with density po= 0.07 g/cm3 is enclosed in a copper cylindrical shell 0.012 cm thick with outside radius rH = 1.2 cm. Length of the shell is 3 cm. - A system of lines with voltage Uo= 2 MV and wave impedance Ro= 0.03 S2 is discharged across the she11. The problem was considered to ascertain the consequences of compressing a gas of high initial density. T::e compression process took place comparatively slowly: rate of dispersal of - the shell did not exceed 4 cm/us. Maximum compression was only 220. The gas was practically unheated. By the instant of maximum compression the gas was a thin column of high-density cold matter. The quantity Ip dr rose to 0.92 g/Gm2� Shown on Fig. 6 are graphs of the time dependence of the outer rH and inner rH radii 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 rok aFru'IAL USE UNLY of the shell and the quantity Ip dr. Calculation shows that of the 2f~ MJ of initial energy, 21 MJ is tran sfeired to the shell+ gas system. Of this energy, 4.2 MJ make up the energy of the shell, 3.5 MJ comprise the energy of the gas, and the remainder is in the taagnetic field of the system. It should be noted that the required initial energy store in the lines is appreciably dependent on the maximum value of I p dr. For example, only 12 MJ of the initial energy store is needed - to get a value of 0.67 for this quantity. One thing that all calculations have in common is that when the impedances of the load and lines are sufficiently well matched, a large percentage of the energy stored in the lines is transferred to the load and its magnetic field. In calcu- lation of one system with energy store of 2.5 MJ, this fraction came to more than 90%, the load energy proper exceeding 30% of this store. Let us note that for = this system we cannot expect self-heating of the gas due to a thermonuclear reaction; however, the neutron yield found in the reaction was rather high: ~1015. It is interesting to note a characteristic feature of gas compression with electric implosion of a shell that is associated with the change in distribui~.ion of conduc- tivity in the conductor during the process of electric implo^ion. ":n the initial stage, due to the sk in effect the maximum current density falls to the region of the conductor that is adjacent to its out~ide boundary. The magnetic f ield prevents outward dispersal of the conductor; however, a slight density reduction and the contribution of ~oule heat still result in a drop in conductivi*yo uf the outer part of the conductor by about two orders of magnitude. This intensifies th~ pro- cess of penetration of the magnetic field and maximum current density into the conductor. The magnetic field approaches the inner boundary of the copper shell with a large gradient. A rapid rise in ma gnetic and hydrodynamic pressures (due to high current density and release of ~oule heat) causes abrupt acceleration and = load relief of the in side part of the shell. The gas with low density and pressure located inside the shell does not hold back this pressure. As the density of the inner part of the conductor drops, its conductivity decreases and becomes minimum - (with respect to the cross section). The current density curve drops sharply with decreasing radius. Contributing to this behavior is the distribution of density (and accordingly of conductivity) that is set up in the shell, falling off from the outer boundary toward the inner boundary. From about this moment, the inner layers of. the shell continue to travel by inertia, while the outer layers, and gradu- ally the entire mass of the shell begin ro be accelerated by the magnetic field. This process continues until the inner layers begin to decelerate due to resistance of the compressed gas. After this, the densities are equalized, and consequentl~~ so are the conductiv ity and density of the gas over the cross section of the conduc- tor. The current density g~adient remains high only in a narrow neighborhood of the inside boundary of the conductor. This produces an additional impact on the gas near the instant of maximum compression. This is illustrated by Fig. 2, where we can see that the inside radius of the shell acquires additional inward accelera- - tion near the instant when it stops. Let us say a few words about the effect that the current passing through the gas has on the process of compression of the gas by the shell. The behavior of the process in all calculations was the same. Appreciable conductivity in the gas was noted at times c lose to the instant of maximum compression of the gas, when its temperature rose to a value of 1 keV. As the gas was further comp~essed, 23 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500010022-1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' its conductivity increased rapidly, becoming several orders of magnitude greater than that of copper. Current began~to flow through the gas, but despite the dif- , ference in conductivities of the materials pointed out above, the current density iit the gas was comparable with the densities of current flowing in the copper be- cause of the small radii, and hence the large inductive reactance. And since the cross sectional area of the gas at these instants was several orders of magnitude - less than the cross sectional area of the copper, nearly all the~current went through the copper conductor. The difference of maximum temperature reached in the gas with ~ and without consideration of conductivity was no more than a few percent. The pfficiency of r.hese installatio~s may be comparatively high. For example in variant 2 a comparatiJely small fraction of the DT (about 1%) needs :o be reacted = to get an overall efficiency greater than unity ( respect to the initial energy store in the lines). ~ Assumptions to simplify calculations are: one-dimensional approximation, consider- ation of heat conduction in the diffusion approxin?ation, one-temperature plasma, and some others that idealize the described results. Therefore the calculations only illustrate the maximum capabilities of these systems. More complete consider= ation of the physical phenomena that occur in electric implosion of cylindrical sh~ells may make considerable coorections both in the results of the calculations - and in the choice of parameters of the systems. However, the calculated results and data published in Ref. 1-5 show the aduisability of further research on con- pression pLocesses in electric implosion of cylindrical shells. REFERENCES 1. Linhart, J. G., "Very-High-Density Plasmas for Thermonuclear Fusion", NUCLEAR FUSION, Vol 10, No 3, 1970. 2. Linhart, J. G., "Rocket-Driven,Liners for Fusion Triggers and for Very-High- Density Reactors", NLTCLEAR FUSION, Vol 13, No 3, 1973. 3. Turchi, P. J., Baker, W. L., "Generation of High-Energy Plasmas by Electro- ~ magnetic Implosion", APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol 44, No 11, 1973. 4. Varnum., W. S., "Electrically Imploded Cylindrical Fusion Targets", NUCLEAR . FUSION, Vol 15, No 6, 1975. - 5. Harris, E. G., "Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities of a Collapsing Cylindrical Shell in a Magnetic Field", PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol 5, No 9, 1962. 6. Bakulin, Yu. D., Luchinskiy, A. V., "Estimates of Feasibility of Getting High Energy Densities in Electric Implosion of Cylindrical Shells", ZHURNAL PRIKLADNOY MEKi~IANIKI I TEKHNICHESKOY FIZIKI, No 1, 1980. - 7. Bakulin, Yu. D., Kuropatenko, V. F., Luchinskiy, A. V., Magnetohydrodynamic - Calculation of Exploding Wires", ZHURNAL TEKHNICHESKOY FIZIKI, Vol 46, No 9, 1976. 8. Kuropatenko, V. F., Nechay, V. Z., Sapozhnikov, A. T., Sevast'yanov, V. Ye., "Doklad na Vsesoyuznom seminare po modelyam mekhaniki sploshnoy sredy" [Report 24 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 ~(1R (1FF1('lAl, II,~F: (1N1.Y to the Al1-Union Symposium on Models for Mechanics of Continuous M2dia], ~ Novosibirsk, 1973. 9. Kalitkin, M. N., Kuz'mina, L.V., Rogov, V. S., "Tablitsy termodinamicheskikh f unktsiy i transportnykh koeffitsiyentov plazmy" [Tables of Thermodynamic ~unc- , tions and Plasma Transport Coefficients], Institute of Problems of Mechanics, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1972. 10. Grigor'yev, F. V., Kormer, S. B., Mikhaylova, 0. L., Tolochko, A. P., Urlin, V. D., "Equation of State of Molecular Phase of Hydrogen in Solid and Liquid States at High Pressure", ZHURNAL EKSPERIMENTAL'NOY I TEORETICHESKOY FIZIKI, Vol 69, No 2(8), 1975. 11. Braginskiy, S. I., "Voprosy teorii plazmy" [Problems of Plasma Theory], Gosatomizdat, 1963. 12. Mason, R. J., Morse, R. I., "Tamped Thermonuclear Burri of DT Microspheres", NUCLEAR FUSION, Vol 15, No 5, 1975. _ COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Zhurnal pr~.kladnoy mPkhaniki i tekhnicheskoy fiziki", 1980 6610 CSO: 8144/0238 25 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ NON-~iUCLEAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT OF TURBOGENERATOR CONSTRUCTION IN USSR Kiev TEKHNICHESKAYA ELEKTRODINAMIKA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 80 (manuscript r~- ceived 11 Aug 80) pp 29.-38 ~ ~ [Article by Ya. B. Danilevich, doctor of technical sciences, deputy director of All-Union Scientific Resear~h Institute of Electric Machine Construction, Leningrad] - [Text] In 1920 with proclamation of t'he GOELRO Plan [Gosudarstvennaya komissiya po elektrifikatsii Rossii; State Commission on Electrification of Russia], our nation was producing 500 million kWh of per year. In 1979 we pro- duced 1200 billion kWh, i. e. 2400 times as much. Abdut 75% of our electric energy is produced in fossil-fuel plants. In the ensuing years we have built such large GRES's as those in Zaporozh'ye, Uglegorsk and else- where. Development of nuclear power has advanced considerably in recent.years. Powerful AES's have been built: Beloyarsk, Novo-Voronezhsk, Kursk, Leningrad and so on. Keeping pace with the development of fossil-fuel and nuclear electric plants has been the development of Soviet turbogenerator construction. The power of the first Soviet turbogeneratcr was 500 kW. At the present time the first turbogenerator set with power of 1200 MW and speed of 3000 rpm has been put on-line at the Kostroma GRES, and the Elektrosila Plant has tested the first 1000 MW, 1500 rpm turbogenerator - for an AES. The development of turbogenerator construction is directly related to the largest electric machine building plants of L~ningrad Industrial Power Association: Elektrosila, Elektrotyazhmash and Sibelektrotyazhmash, and to the leading scientific research centers: the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electrical Ma- chine Building, the Scientific Research Institute of the Elektrotya2hmash Plant, the Scientific Research Institute of the Sibelektrotyazhmash Plant, and the Insti- tute of Electric Motors, UkSSR Academy of Sciences. . ~ Let us examine the principal stages of development of turbogenerator construction. Prewar Stage of Development. Preparation for turbogenerator production was started in 1923 at the Elektrosila Plant. The first turbogenerators with power,of 500- 3000 kW were made in accordance with blueprints of the Vol'ta Plant that were trans- ferred to the Elektrosila Plant during World War I. Ten turbogenerators of this ' type were built in 1924 with total power of about 12,000 kW. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010022-1 NnR nFFI('IA1, USF. ONI,Y From 1924 through 1928 production wa~s mastered on a series of turbogenerators in- cluding 14 types of machines with power from 300 to 16,000 kW. In 1929 this series was updated with a reduction in number of types to a, the power ran~e of the machines being from 500 to 24,000 kW. Structural components were welded rather than cast in the new series, and the bearings were improved. The rotors and banding rings - were ordered from abroad. Class A insulation was used for the rotor windings with the exception of machines with power of 24,000 kW. Active steel sheets were paper- - insulated. The stator winding in the groove section was insulated by a micanite sleeve, the end sections of the windings were evolute, turned back at an angle of 90� and insulated by varnished strips. A tangential-radial (pocket) cooling system was used for the stator, while an axial cooling system with subslot channels was used for the roror. Air circulation in the machine was provided by squirrel- cage blowers on the rotor, the ventilation system was ~closed with the use of air coolers. A great advance in the thirties was mastery of four-pole turbogenerators of 50,000 '~.W power with introduction ofnew technological processes at the Elektrosila Plant ~Ref. 10]. Stator winding insulation was continuous, impregnated, made from micatape. Impreg- ~ nation was with asphalt under pressure in special impregnating autoclaves. The end sections began to take the shape of a tapered basket, appreciably reducing the additional short-circuit losses; nonmagnetic stator pressure plates were first used for the same purpose. The rotor winding had class B insulation. The insulation in the slotted section was made in the form of a micanite sleeve; the end sections were insulated by mica- tape and asbestos tape; aluminum saddles were placed over the insulated end sections. The turbogenerator had a radial multi-jet cooling system with all cooling air blown through the gap. ~ In 1938, the Khar'kov Turbogenerator Plant made the first turbogenerator (four- - pole) with power of 100,000 kW. This unit had a compound (three-piece) rotor with mass of 100 metric tons. This turbogenerator is even now in successful operation at the Zuyevskaya GRES. The development of Soviet turbogenerator construction subsequently has taken the - road of two-pale turbogenerator construction. In 1937 the Elektrosila Plant developed a new series of T2 turbogenerators with power from 750 kW to 100,000 kW. A turbogenerator with power of 100,000 kW was made in 1937 for the Novomoskovsk GRES. The mass of the rotor forging was about 50 metric tc,ns. The forging was made from an ingot with mass of 150 metric tons. The yield stress of the material was 55 kg/mm2, relative longitudinal extension was more than 16%. The generator was cooled by four free-standing blowers. The rotor had surface cooling. Turbogenerator Construction in the Forties and Fifties. In 1946 the Elektrosila Plant made the first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator with power of 100,000 kW. The generator had ~he same geometry of active sections as the air-cooled turbogenerator. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY The housing of the machine was made gas-tight and strong, and the machine was equipped with hydrogen cooling units. According to test data, generator efficiency was raised by 1%. The next stage in development of turbogener~tor construction was a 150,000 kW hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator made in 1957. This unit now took full advantage of hydrogen cooling. The turbogenerator was built for a voltage of 18 kV and - power factor of 0.9 with excess hydrogen pressure of 0.7 atm. The rotor diameter was 1075 mm, and the yield stress of the material was increased to 60 kg/mm2. Nonmagnetic steel with yield stress of 90 kg/mm2 was used for the banding rings of the rotor. Axial blowers were used, situated to either side of the rotor barrel. , The rotor was cooled from the outside of the barrel, and in addition the gas was fed beneath the end sections of the rotor winding. The stator was cooled by a multi-~et radial arrangement. For cooling the gas, eight gas coolers were provided, installed vertically in sets of four on each side. This 150,000 kW turbogenerator was the largest in Europe at that time, and was at the limit of overall dimensions. In 1954, turbogenerator construction was transferred from the Khar'kov Turbogenerator Plant to the State Union Plant of Diesel-Locomotive Electric Equipment, today's Elektrotyazhmash Plant imeni V. I. Lenin. In 1955 the Elektrotyazhmash Plant worked out an original design for type TGV-25 turbogenerator with indirect hydrogen cooling at a hydrogen pressure of 0.03 atm. This design used welded stator shields with built-in bearings, a disk hydrogen seal with low oil flowrate, vertical placement of the gas coolers, fan coolers on the shaft, and cantilevered rotor banding rings. In 1956, on the basis of the TGV-25 turbogenerator, the first TVS-30 turbogenerator was built with power of 30,000 kW with hydrogen cooling at pressure of 0.03-0.5 atm. Weight was lower and heating of the end sections of the rotor winding was reduced as compared with the TGV-25 turbogenerator. Turbogenerators With Power nf ~nn;nlln and 300,000 kW. At the same time that turbogenerators with indirect hydrogen cooling were being produced at the Elektro- sila and Elektrotyazhmash plants in 1954-1957, considerable research was being done to develop new cooling systems. At the Elektrosila Plant, based on research that had been done, a system was de- veloped for direct cooling of the rotor winding by hydrogen drawn from the gap between rotor and stator. At the Elektrotyazhmash Plant, the TVO-30 turbogenerator with power of 30,000 kW, voltage of 10.5 kV was developed, manufactured and tested. This turbogenerator used direct hydrogen cooling of the stator and rotor windings at a hydrogen pressure of 3 atm. The stator core had an axial ventilation system. A compressor was used to develop the necessary hydrogen head. An oil end seal for the shaft was used for the first time with piston rings between the yoke and the insert of the seal. In 1957, on the basis of research that had been done, the Elektrosila Plant starte~i making 200,000 kW turbogenerators type TVF-200 with voltage of 11 kV using indirect hydrogen cooling of the stator winding and direct cooling of the rotor winding with hydrogen drawn off from the gap. An original multi-jet hydrogen cooling system with improved technological properties was used for cooling the rotor winding. An advantage of the system is the comparatively low nonuniformity of heating of . 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the winding with respect to the length of the rotor. Besides, ttiis system does not require high gas pressures, and therefore ordinary axial fans can be used that ensure overall circulation of the gas in the machine. Lengthwise of the rotor, - sections with input arifices on the surface of the active part alternate with sec- - tions of output orifices, groviding the multiple jets in the system. The end sec- tions of the winding are cooled by gas that flows through internal channels milled - in the turns of the winding. Ths winding and core of the stator are cooled by hydrogen circulating through radial chaznels in the core and in the zone of the end sections of the winding. The stator is cooled by a three-jet radial system. The sectioning of the rotor is matched to the stator ventilation arrangement. After making two TVF-200 turbogenerators, it was deemed advisable to use water- cooled stator windings for 200,000 kW machines. Therefore the TVF series was sub�- _ sequently retained for powers of 60,000 and 100,000 kW. The construction and technology for manufacturing water-cooled windings were studied on an experimental 30,000 kW turbogenerator. Tests of the machine showed high efficiency of the system, and therefore it was used for turbogenerators of 150,000 kW or more. The first turbogenerator of the TW series with power of 150,000 kW and voltage of 18 kV with water-cooled stator winding and direct hydrogen cooling of the rotor winding was made by the Elektrosila Plant in 1959. Subsequently, TW-21~0-2 turbo- generators were built with powers of 200,000 kW, 15 and 75 kV, and the TW-300-2 with power of 300,000 kW, 20 kV. These units were series produced. Water cooling of the stator windings is accomplished by forcing water through in- ternal channels in the conductors of the cores. The hollow conductors in the cores alternate with solid conductors. The ends of ea~h rod are soldered to polepieces that have lugs for current connections and a chamber for the cooling water. The _ cooling water is fed to the chambers of these polepieces by insulation hoses from a ring-shaped header. Cooling of the rotor winding is by direct water feed of the TVF type. In connection with the reduction in hydrogen consumption, a single-~et draft system was used for cooling the stator core with bilateral drawing of the gas from the _ gap between rotor and stator. Turbogenerators of the TW type are made on pedestal bearings. The bearing inserts are self-leveling with spherical support surface. Unitized housings are used in 150,000 and 200,000 kW machines with openings for the gas coolers, which are hori- zontally placed. A takedown housing is used in the 300,000 kW turbogenerators. . In these units the length of the central part is approximately equal to the length of the active part, and the end sections of the housing, which are rectangular in shape, cover the end parts of the stator winding and accommodate the gas coolers and leads. The end parts are secured to the middle section. 'The 200,000 and 300,000 kW turbogenerators use an elastic suspension for the stator core. In the ribs of the stator on which the stator core is assembled, at the points where they ' are fastened to the wa11s of the housing, slots are cut through in the tangential direction so that the core is joined to the housing through a system of�spring= like supports. 29 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 Fc1R (1Ffiir1A1, lr~fi (1N1.Y ~ Th~e stator core is assembled of sheets of cold-rolled transformer steel with spe- cific losses of the order of 1 W/kg. The stator has a two-layer bar winding. The elementary conductors are transpoaed by 5~40� along the active -}rt of the bar. All fastening components of the end sections of the stator winding are made of nonmagnetic materials to reduce losses. A shield in the form of a copper ring is placed under the pressure plate. The teeth of the end stacks are made with slots. ~ The rotors are made of one-piece forgings. The rotor windings are made in the form of half-coils that are connected as they are placed in the rotor slots. Duraliunin wedges are fastened in the grooved part of the winding, and nonmagnetic banding rings are fastened in the end sections. The banding unit is doubled-seated in the TVV-200-2 and TW-320-2 turbogenerators with seating on ~he rotor barrel with ar. elastic centering ring secured to the rotor. The oil seal of the rotor shaft is an end seal with adjustable pressure of the seal insert. In 1959 tne Elektrotyazhmash Plant made the f irst TGV-200 turbogenerator with power of 200,000 kW, and in 1961 produced the TGV-300 turbogenerator with power of 300,000 kW. These generators were based on the TVO-30 experimental turbogenerator. ~ The rotor winding is cooled in a bilateral axial arrangement of internal cooling of the conductors. The cooling gas is forced into the zone of the end sections, - from which it flows through lateral input apertures ir_to inner channels of the conductors through which it goes to the middle of the rotor and is thrown through a system of radial channels into the gap of the machine. The stator winding is cooled by a stream of gas flowing through metal tubes in bars situated between two vertical rows of elementary conductors. To ensure circulation of hydrogen in the machine, high-pressure squirrel-cage blowers are installed on one side of ~ the rotor, and low-pressure fans are placed on the other side. The stator core in TGV-200 turbogenerato~s is cooled in a radial arrangement, and 3n the TGV-300--in an axial arrangement. The TGV-200 and TGV-300 turbogenerators are made on shield bearings. The bearings are installed in end shields with a horizontal split. The shields are secured to the stator housing. - The stator core is fastened in the stator housing on elastic hangers in the form of plate springs. The core is assembled in a comparatively light housing that is connected to the machine housing by steel plates. A single-seated banding unit is used in the TGV-200 and TGV-300 turbogenerators with seating of the banding on the rotor barrel. , 30 FOR OFFICIA~. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Novosibirsk Sibelektrotyazhmash Plant beganproducing;turbogenerators in the fifties. This plant mastered production of the TVF turbogenerators developed by the Elektrosila Plant with powers of 60,000 and 100,000 kW. In 1952 the plant made an experimental turbogenerator type TVM-60 with power of 60,000 kW of original design with oil-filled stator, water-cooled rotor winding, oil-paper insulation and internal oil-cooling of bars. TVM-300 turbogeneraL.ors with power of 300,000 kW [Ref. 8] were developed and put into production on the basis of the TVM-60. The 200,000 and.300,000 kW turbogenerators were updated and improved during use. The most important changes involved using thennosetting insulation of the stator winding. At the same time, the systems for fastening the stator winding were im- proved, semiconducting wavy side liners were introduced in the grooved section, in the end sections, liners were used that were made of molding materials filling i~ tha gaps between the bars and fastening components, self-seating Dacron cords wure used. Equalization of stiffness with respect to axes of symmetry was used in the rotors of the 300,000 kW turbogenerator. The double-seated banding arrangement in turbogenerators of the TVV s~i'2s was replaced by a single-seating arrangement with seating on the rotor baxrel, the banding ring being fastened by a special sleeve nut. At the same time, a damper system in the form of a short-circuited lug was used on the rotor in TW-320-2 turbogenerators. Turbogenerators With Power of 500,000 kW. In 1954, the Elektrosila Plant made the first TVV-500-2 turbogenerator with power of 500,000 kW [Ref. 1]. The TVV-500-2, like other turbogenerators of this series, had direct water cooling of the stator windings, a single-jet draft arrangement for hydrogen cooling and direct hydrogen cooling of the rotor winding with gas takeoff from the gap. - Centrifugal blowers were used rather than axial fans, and the radial ventilation channels in the stator were 5 mm wide.~ The end sections of the rotor winding were - cooled in a two-jet arrangement. . To reduce losses, the rotor winding had trapezoidal rather than rectangular slots, and the small coils of the winding were made with a reduced number of turns. To improve the thermal stability of the rotor in asymmetric regimes, a shorting ring was installed in the form of a two-layer copper lug overlapping the insulation covering the end sections of the rotor winding from the outside. The banding ring of the rotor was seated only on the barrel and was prevented from axial displacements by a sleeve nut. Subsequently during series production of turbogenerators, the system of fastening ~ the stator winding in the end section was improved, and a tangential ventilation arrangement was introduced far the stator core. In 1965, a TGV-500 turbogenerator with power of 500,000 kW and speed of,3000 rpm was made at tihe Elektrotyazhmash Plant. 31 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 - FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY In contrast to the lower-power turbogenerators of the Elektrotyazhmash Plant, the ~ TGV-500 had water-cooled rotor and stator windings. Supply and return of the water to the stator winding was through special feed- through insulators. The connecting lines and end leads of the stator winding were also water-cool.ed. A special end seal was used for cooling water supply to the rotor. The water was fed through central orifices of the exciter and generator shafts to a distribution header, from which water lines brought it to the coils of the rotor winding which was connected in parallel with' respect to water flow. The current feeder of the rotor was also water-cooled. The generator used a single-~et radial core ventilation system.with distribution from the gap. The pressure plates of the stator core were water-cooled. Vibration isolation of the stator core was by leaf springs. As opposed to other turbogenerators of the TGV type, the springs were placed only in the vertical plane, and connected the sealed inner housing of the stator directly to the foundation. The end sections of the stator housing were covered by shields with elastic coupling to the core housing. The generator bearings were accommodated in shields resting on the foundation. - Subsequently in putting the TGV-500 turbogenerators into series production, improve- ~ ments were made in the system of fastening of the stator winding and core in the housing, and in the technique of soldering the rotor coils. In 1978, based on experience in developing turbogenerators of the TVM series, the Sibelektrotyazhmash Plant made the first TVM-500 turbogenerator with power of 500,000 kW for increased voltage of 36 and 75 kV. Like the TVM-300, this turbo- generator has an oil-cooled winding and core in the stator, and a water-cooled rotor winding. The stator winding has oil-paper insulation. The end stacks in the TVM-500 generator are beveled. The core is tensioned in the axial direction by bolts running through the back. Axial channels of rectangular shape are made in the core for cooling purposes. The stator winding bars are made up of solid conductors of short height. A cooling channel is formed between the conductor colinnns. The winding is held in the slots of the core by opposed wedges. The - generator rotor has a hollow damping system formed by copper strips laid in the rotor slots and closed by copper lugs. The gap is cooled by the distillate circulat- ing through tubes in shallow slots at the crowns of the teeth of the rotor barrel. . Turbogenerators With Power of 800,000 kW. In 1970 the Elektrosila Plant made the first turbogenerator with power of 800,000 kW type TW-800-2 [Ref. 12]. In this turbogenerator there was a considerable improvement in the ventilation system, the design of the fastening for the stator winding and core, the damper system of the rotor, operation of the brush equipment, and the oil seals of the shaft. - A hydrogen gas tangential ventilation arrangement with countermotion of the cooling hydrogen in the stator compartmenrs was introduced for cooling the statqr core. - Internal channels were used in the rotor for the multi-~et system instead of the side channels in the 500,000 kW turbogenerator. Rotor cooling efficiency was 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONY.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY considerably improved by installing axial barriers in the gap, and by improving cooling of the end sections of the rotor winding coils. Opposed wedges and liners.of molding materials were used to hold the stator wind- ings in the slot. Monolithic fastening of the end sections of the winding was effected by using molding materials, epoxy cements, self-seating cords and massive fiberglass plastic rings. The design provided for continuous pressing of the end sections of the winding by wedges and titanium springs, and also by the capability for axial displacements of the winding with changing loads. Core vibration was additionally reduced by increasing its elastic modulus, and by much better fastening of the core in the housing. To reduce heating of the end stacks, the number of stepped end stacks of the core was increased, and cooling was improved. - Now in series production are 800,000 kW turbogenerators with hydrogen-water cooling. Seven of these generators are now being successfully used in power systems. In addition to producing turbogenerators with water-hydrogen cooling, the.Elektro- sila Plant is doing research on completely water-cooled turbogenerators [Ref. 7, _ 11]. This work was started in 1968 when the first experimental turbogenerator with power of 63,000 kW and speed of 3000 rpm was made. Successful operation of the experimental generator, and the results of studies on prototypes and models led to production of the first TZV-800 turbogenerator in 1978 with power of 800,000 kW and speed of 3000 rpm, totally water-cooled without hydrogen filling. The gener- ator has direct water cooling of the windings of stator, rotor, and damping winding, stator core, structural components and brush apparatus. The volume of the machine is filled with n~itrogen at low excess pressure. A distinguishing feature of the system is the use of a self-pressurized arrangement for water-cooling of the rotor winding. Water r~uns freely into a ring header open to the shaft, is picked up by the turning rotor, goes to the lower leads of the coils, flows through the coils and leaves through the upper leads. The stator core is cooled by flat silumin coolers containing coiled stainless steel tubfng. The coolers take the form of active steel segments and are pressed between the stacks. The core is elastically fastened only on the side walls of the stator. The end sections of the stator winding are held between fiberglass plastic rings. Compression of the end sections is by springs and a system of tension members and thrust blocks. The end sections are held together by cold-setting epoxy cement. The generator uses a complete damper winding placed beneath the slot wedges of ~ the rotor. In the vicinity of the end sections, the bars of the damper winding are shorted by copper segments. The winding is also cooled by a self-pressurized arrangement. The turbogenerator has been successfully tested on a stand in the Elektrosila Plant and has been put into experimental operation at a GRES. 33 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Turbogenerator With Power of 1.2 Million kW. In 1976 the Elektrosila Plant produced the largest two-pole turbogenerator in the world. Like the s~ ~ies-produced TW-800-2 turbogenerator with power of 800,000 kW, the TW-1200-2 (power of I.2 million kW) has direct hydrogen cooling of the rotor winding in a multi-~et arrangement, the stator housing is filled with hydrogen, and the stator winding is made with direct water cooling. Cooling in the generator is intensifed. in the end sections of the core. To ensure high reliability of the generator with increased use of the active vol~ne, a six-phase configuration of the stator winding for the first time has replaced the traditional three-phase arrangement. In connection with an increase in the excitatian winding current,(to 7720 A as compared with the 3800 A in the 800,000 kW turbogenerator), a brushless excitation system has been used. The exciter is made with two armatures and two magnet systems as part of a system for noncontact monitoring and measurement. ~ The turbogenerator has been successfully stand-tested at the plant, and has been put into operation. Turbogenerator With Speed of 1500 rpm. In 1976, the Elektrotyaihmash Plant - finished making the first modern TGV-500-4 four-pole turbogenerator with power of 500,000 kW [Ref. 9]. The turbogenerator is designed around the features of � the TGV-500 turbogenerator with 500,000 kW power and speed of 3000 rpm that is made by t'ne same plant, and likewise uses direct water cooling of the windings of the stator and rotor and hydrogen filling of the stator housing. ~he stator housing of the generator is made in three sections: the core with wind- ing is assembled in the middle section,,and the gas coolers and oil seals of the rotor shaft are accommodated in the end sections. The oil seals are of ring type with self-aligning inserts. Fastening of the stator windings is rigid with the. use of molding materials, bracing wedges and cleats. The generator rotor is composite. Banding rings of nonmagnetic steel are made with single seating. The end wedges of the rotor are of opposed type, made of bronze, fit tightly into the slot, and are driven into the slot with tight fit. The wedges overlap the joints in the region of the 3oints between rotor parts. The generator uses a brushless exciter consisting of a synchronous inverted generator, rotating rectifier and inductor generator. The turbogenerator combined with the brushless exciter has been stand-tested at .the plant and is now in power plant operation. In 1980 the Elektrosila Plant made and tested the first TW-1000-4 turbogenerator with power of 1 million kW at a speed of 1500 rpm. The generator has the same cooling system and design as the series-produced TW-800-2 with power of 800,000 kW. The rotor winding and stator core are hydrogen-cooled, and the stator winding is water-cooled. The turbogenerator has increased current volume in the stator slot (up to 26 kA), and therefore particular emphasis has been placed on the fastening of the winding. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The fastening of the winding in the slot was tested on a prototype. The design of the end stack of the core was improved. The number of core stacks was increased, and their cooling was improved. Improvements were also made in the cooling of the rotor windings, and subslot wedges were introduced in the zone of transition from the soltted section to the end section. - The rotor forging was of welded and forged construction. Outlook for Future Development of Turbogenerator Construction. The next power - stage will be turbogenerators with power of 1.6-2 million kW at 3000 and 1500 rpm. Analysis has shown [Ref. 2, 3, 4, 13] that generators of this power can be built on the basis of turbogenerators that have already been made and tested in the power range of 800,000-1,200,000 kW. It will be necessary to use rotor forgings of greater mass, and to do research on further improvement of cooling systems and the design of individual machine components. A still further increase in power would have to be based on .using the effect of superconductivity [Ref. 5], which is completely realistic, given the rapid progress in de~?elopment of generators of this type. REFERENCES 1. Borushko, V. S., Gnedin, L. P., Danilevich, Ya. B. et al., "500-MW Turbogener- ators Produced by the Elektrosila and Elektrotyazhmash Plants", ELEKTROTEKHNIKA, No 1, 1970, pp 2- 6. 2. Borushko, V. S., Glebov, I. A., Danilevich, Ya. B., et al., "Developmental Outlook and Ways to Improve Turbogenerator Design", Vsemirnyy elektrotekh- nicheskiy kongress [International Electrotechnical Commission], Moscow, 1977, IEC Report No 1.04, Moscow, 1977, 12 pp. ~ 3. Glebov, I. A., Danilevich, Ya. B T~, where Tm is the maximum time fro~m the moment of query appearance (a change in the state of the out~ut resiter digits) until the completion of the transmision of the group of telemetry signals, in which E(Tp) is transmitted. Power measurement precision can be characterized by the referenced total mean square error [lJ. When using transducers with a standard analog output signal, the mean square reference error for remote power measurements is: ~2) S!'- ~at/~ ~~U~ S n~ ~~n.a ~ s~o.n~ STK ~ s~~ ~2rrp. The components of the overall referenced mean square error indicated in (2) are _ due to the following: dI and dU of the current and voltage instrument transformers; dn f ram the tranducer which converts the parameter being measured to a standard analog signal; Sp,n and 6~,,~ from the level quantization of the sensor signal dur- ing transmission and the back-conversion of the digital code to analogz form at the receive end (the static error); 8k fram the cammunications channel; dA from the time quantization of the sensor signal (the dynamic error); d~P from the analog meter. When the measurements are fed into a digital computer, there is no need for con- verting the received code to analog form or the corresponding meter. In this case, one can use do..~ = d~P = 0. - The codes employed in modern remote control units pro~~ide for a~~sufficiently high level of protection of the transmitted data against interf erence in the channel . and make it possible to not only detect, but in a niunb er of cases correct distor- _ tions which appear. For this reason, it can be assumed that in those cases where the remote measurements, following transmission through the communications chan- . nels, are not rejected by the interference protection system, 8k = 0[2]. The overall mean square referenced error of a measurement on a unit is: ~ ' 88 - S' S' S' S'~; S~i = r-Y-,+ u+: _ s',-~- S'~-i- S'�p -I- S'a.~, 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY where 3E corresponds to the analo~ ?neasurement, while dE to the digital measurement; S~ is the mean square referenced error in reading the analog meter readings; dA,~, ie the dynamic error which is due to the discrete nature of the renewal of the _ readings of the digital meter. _ For analog measurements, d~ fluctuates in a wide range and is independent of the f orm, dimens.ions or linearity of the instrument scale, as well as the distance and ~ angle of observatian, periodicity and time of readout, skill level of the personnel, , etc. When using digital instruments, d~ = 0. If the~measurements on site and the remote me~surements are made from co~on instru- ment transformers and the precisian class of the analog meters used on site and those for reproducing the remote measurements match, then the measurement error is equal in all levels of the dispatcher hierarcy if: ~ : s n~ s~n.n~ ~=o.n a-~ c� When digital meters are used an the unit and tihe remote measurements are fed to the digital comput~r with a subsequent digital display, equal precision of the measure- ments at all leve~~ of the dispatcher hierarcy is assured if: S~n~ S=n.n ~ ~=a = O~nP ~r ~ a.n� 7'he dynamic error of a remote power measurement is [2]: . Tn+Tu ~ ~~A = ='Da~,~ ~ 1 - Tu' ,f K. dS = in = Dx~~ 2 (Tu -~-�`un) T~ � ~3~ where DX and Tk are the dispersion and the time constant for the normalized auto- correlation function of the parameter being measured; ~ is the measurement range; Tn = Tur-1 is the time f or transmitting one remote measurement via the comaunica- tions channel, when r parameters are transmitted during each update cycle of length Tu. The overal referenced mean square error in a measurement of E(Tp) transmitted to the output register of the interf ace is: S=, = j/ a',-}- a'~-~- s',.~-~- a'. , , where d~,p, is the mean square referenced error of the measurement unit of the electronic counter, which is determined by the precision class of the instrument; dp is the component of dg~ which is due to the digital manner of obtaining E(Tp). In the case of a f ixed number of output register bits, dp depends on the length of Tp, the chosen value of the pulses CSe = Si1COe and the time interval tbl, during ~ 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY which the SB blocking unit blocks the feed of the power metering pulses to the inputs of the directional counter. If the values of E(Tp) within the time inter- val between two successive power metering pulses are distributed uniformly, then: So = ~{Cg~ ~3 ~f ~x.w ~oN.M~ Utl~T~~-~}~+ 3 ~f6n~~ ~4~ where IN,M, and IN,M. are the maximum possible absolute current values for the instrument circuit, which correspond to the forward and return electr~cal power transmission directions; UN is the nominal instrument circuit voltage. To avoid bidirectional counter overflow during the measurement period, the value of a power metering pulse should be chosen Lrom the condition: 1~3 (1 ~x. r+ ~OH.M) U~xT. < 512C~,. The number of pulses in the initial state of the bidirectional counter, specif ied by the SU reset circuit: Ny = e' j/3 I p.�UBdT~. The average value of the power over the measurement period Tp is: lt'~ (T,) = K,K~ (N~ - N~) C~,To '-1(,1(~ (N~ Ny) Cam, where Cst~ = CSeTpl =[Cs3T~1] is the value of a pulse in the conversion of the output register readings to power units. - Since the master crystal oscillator of the counter provides for high stab ility in T~, the error in determining W(Tp) is practically equal to the measurement error = for the energy increment transmitted to the output register. When measuring W(Tp), the actual power graph will be represented at the receive end by a step function, the ordinate of each step of which is numerically equal - to the average power over the preceding ongoin~ measurement period. For this reason, the referenced dynamic mean square error of the measurements of the average power values is to be understood as: . ~ A~' ~X 2~~lXN-XT~ ~~x2 ~IXf-1~-~JJ* - . = ex'M (X',_, - 2Xr-,X~ -f- X'r)~ (5) where M is the universal mean value; XH and XT are the measured and precise values of the parameter; Xi_1 ~~,1_ _ TO ~ is the ave~age value of ~ ~~._T~ _ 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the power in the preceding measurement period; X~ =1Y~ (1) I~t?+r� is the current value of the power 3n the i-th (current) period. ' - Taking the adopted symbols into account, M(Xi)2 = DX is the dispersion of the randan quantity Xi. � In steady-state modes, the autocorrelation functions of the power [3] are: Kx ~z) = DXe s~T". In accordance with this, the spectral :iensity of the parameters being measured is ~2) : S ~~)=D:Tx[n(1 +T2H~~) . The following mutual relationships exist between the dispersion, the autocorrela- ~ tion function and the spectral density: (6) Dx = KX (0) = 2~ S(~) d~; . o . ~ Kx(S) =2 ~~S(~)cosmtd~. (7) o . - If it is assumed that the integral portion of the measurement unit of the elec- tronic counter has the characteristics of an ideal filter, then there will be no frequencies in the spectrum of the random quantity Xi_1 which have a period less _ than Tp. Then, when determining the numerical characteristics for Xi_l , the upper limits of the integrals (6) and (7) will be equal to t?~aX = 2'~T~I. Taking what has been presented.above into account, the dispersion of the random quantity Xi_1 is: 2,~ro t M ~1?'r = DMX = ~DxTKa~-' f (1-r- T'~~o*) dn~ - (8) 0 2Dx~-' arcig 2~TKT""~. ~ . Since it is expedient to measure W(Tp) aver periods of Tp � Tk, while the inte- gral portion of the electronic counter is not an ideal high pass filter, it fol- lows from (8) that DmX = DX, i.e., the dispersions of Xi_1 and Xi are numerically equal to each other. It can be proved in a similar manner from (7) that when Tp � Tk, the autocor- relation f unctions of Xi and Xi_1 coincide. In this case: . _t/TK M (X~-~X,) = Kx (~)=D~~ ' (9) 44 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010022-1 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Substituting (9) in (5), taking into account the delay during transmission and readout of the measurements in the digital computer memory, we obtain: ' ~~+To S~u = 2Dx~~ l- To ' f e-L~T ~ d~ . ~n Consequently, the total referenced mean square error of remote measurements of the instantaneous values of the power and W(Tp) are the same if they are made fram cammon instrument transformers, where the sensors and the electronic counters are of the same class of precision and the reset cycles and averaging period are equal. The practical realization of ineasurements of E(Tp) and W(Tp) is primarily expedient on the units where the electronic.counters are installed for purposes of inetering and there are remote control units with back-up subchannels. Measurements of W(Tp) can be treated as the equivalent of remote measurements of instantaneous power values. For this reason, it is expedient to transmit them with periods close to the renewal cycle, with which the remote measurements of the parameters needed for automated control and monitoring are ~ransmitted. It is expedient to transmit E(Tp) with periods of TD = 1'i hours, where i is any integer. If it is necessary to trans~mit W(Tp) and E(Tp) from the same unit, two identical interfaces are connected to the ele:tronic counter. A value of Tp, . close to T[T~y~], with which the remote measurements of the other pazameters are transmitted, is set on one unit by means of the switch P. Then, based on precise time signals, the position of the switch P is set on the second unit which provides the requisite periodicity for the measurement of the energy increments. When using remote control units which provide only for the cyclical transmission of the remote measurements and telemetry signals, one subchannel each is set aside for the transmission of W(Tp) and E(Tp). The energy increment is transmitted as many times as the specified time interval is greater than the reset cycle of the remote control unit. In the sporadic case, W(Tp) and E(Tp) are transmitted until the arrival of signals via a feedback channel which confirm the correctness of the reception. In both cases, losses ef E(Tp) are ~c,ssible because of failures of the remote control unit and the communications channels only in the case of failures which last longer than the measu�~ement period. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Lozitskiy B.N., Mel'nichenko I.I., "Elektroradioizmereniya" ["Electrical Radio Measurements"], Moscow, Energiya Publisher:t, 1976, 224 pp. 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOit OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. Malov V.S., Dmitriyev V.F., "Kodoimpul'snyye~teleizmeritel'nyye sistemy" ["Pulse Code Telemetry Systems"], Moscow, Energiya Publishers, 1969, 192 pp. 3. Bogdanov V.A., Sovalov S.A., Chernya G.A., "Teleinformatsiya v avtomatizirovannykh sistemakh dispetcherskogo upravleniya" ["Remote Telemetry Aata in Automated Die- patcher Control Systems"], ELEKTRICHESTVO [ELECTRICITY], 1974, pp 1-6. COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, "Elektrichestvo", 1981 8225 . CSO: 8144/059 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CURRENT STATE AND PROBLEMS OF TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION DEVELOPMENT Kiev TEKHNICHESKAYA ELEKTRODINAMIKA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 80 (manuscript re- ceived 21 Aug 80) pp 38-45 [Article by I. D. Voyevodin, director of the All-Union Institute of Transformer Construction, and 0. I. Sisunenko, deputy director of the All-Union Institute of Transformer Construction, Zaporozh'ye] [Text] The resolutions of the Twenty-Fifth Congress of the CPSU emphasize the importance of ongoing development of the power industry in the USSR. One of the sectors of the national economy of the nation that ensures development of the electric power industry is transformer construction. ~ Progress in transformer construction is based on perfecting designs, considerably improving the properties of the magnetic and insulating materials that are used, - perfecting production technology and developing pre~~nt-day production capabilities. Fig. 1 shows the growth in power of three-phase transformers and groups consisting - of single-phase units. Ml 2s0'KVA /ZSO ~-pha~o J000 ~o~ 6671 Phabe t510 SJJ ~00 ~~y ~ soo ~o ?SD ~ a,p 110 � ~ ~ I20 - ~950 1955 1960 1965 I970 ~975 LR`f0 years Fig. 1 . 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICiAL USF ONLY At present in the Soviet Union transformers with high voltage up to 330 kV inclusive are being made only in the three-phase version, for voltage of 500 kV--in single- phase and three-phase modifications, and for 750 kV and up--only single-phase. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan, industry has mastered production of a 1000-MVA trana- former for voltage of 330 kV. In 1978 the first autotransformer with power of 667 MVA (2000 MVA in a three-phase group) and winding voltage combination of 1150/500 kV was made and delivered for experimental operation in a s~ecial power- grid stand. The development of high-power transformers is tied up with a rire in generator power, since the most economic solution for electric power plants is the develop- ment of generator-transformer units. But since the energy produced by the electric power plants has to be transformed to different voltages, there has been a sharp rise in the research and development of transformers. Table 1 shows the gowers of transformers for energy-producing units of different voltages. TABLE 1 Power of I Transforraer power (MVA) at vol~.age (kV) - unit, MWI ito I iso ( 2so I a~o � I sao I 7eo 300 400 400 400 400 400 - 500 _ - 630 630 630 - gpp - - 1000 1000 f000 - Ippp - - - T250� ' 3X417 1200 - - . - . - 3 X 533 - ~In the staee of assimilation. To proti~ide coupling and interflow of energy between systems with different voltages, - . a number of autotransformers of different power must be made with different voltage combinations. � kV Experim n al operation, 1~5~ tcV ro Industr3al ~ ~d77 operation ~ S00 ~ � JTO 25 270 ~ . ~1950 19SS 1960 1965 /970 1975 /9B0 ~ . years Fig. 2 ' 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY Fig. 2 shows the increase in nominal voltage of transformers in the postwar period. The sixties saw a period of intense development of 330 and 500 kV power grids. Electric transmission lines of 750 kV were built in the seventies. Autotransformers with power of 333 MVA and voltage combination of 750/330 kV, and with power of 417 MVA and voltage combination of 750/500 kV were developed and produced for these lines. Industrial delivery of autotransformers for electric transmission lines of 1150 kV is planned for the beginning of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. In the seventies, industry mastered production of transformers and a reactor for power transmission lines on a voltage of �750 kV. These are in experimental opera- tion on a test stand in the city Qf Tol'yatti. These transformers are essentially ready for use in �750 kVDC power transmission lines. However, to improve trans- mission economy, work is now in progress on higher-power transformers (320 MVA instead of 175 MVA). The production of transformer equipment for 500, 750 and 1150 kV has covered the prospects for development of the electric power industry. On the other hand, solu- tion of the problem of material inputs in.transformer construction depends primarily on the technical level of transformers in classes of 6-10, 35 and 110 kV. The demand for materials in these classes makes up more than 80% of the total require- ments of transformer construction. Therefore in recent years considerable attention has been devoted to development of 110-kV transformers. Industry has inastered production of the first types of three-phase 110-kV transformers with load-switching regulator in which wood laminate plastics are used, as well as lead-ins with solid insulation, and also reinforced wire. This has reduced the inputs of ferrous metals _ by 35% and cut open-circuit losses by 28%. Full-scale introduction of this series will in future keep the parameters of 110-kV transformers at the level attained by the leading non-Soviet companies. The Eleventh Five-Year Plan calls for introducing a new series of 35-kV transformers with power of 1000-6300 kVA. Material fnputs for transformers of this series have been reduced by a factor of 1.5. The savings in rolled ferrous metal stock will amount to 500 metric tons per million kVA of output~. A new series of transformers for voltage of 10 kV at power of 25-630 kVA has now been designed and is being put into production with technical characteristics on a level with analogs of leading non-Soviet companies. A distinguishing feature of the design of these transformers is the coiled spatial structure of the magnetic circuit. On the first stage, introduction of the new series is tieing done on the - basis of traditional aluminum wires with paper insulation and radiator tanks. Any further increase in the technical level of this series presupposes the use of alu- minum enameled wires and corrugated tanks. � - Development of present-day transformers is based on advancing development of re- search on the various aspects of transformer construction. To develop transformers with prospective voltages, a ninnber of steps are being carried out to severely limit lightning and commutation surges, including the devel- opment of new arresters. Based on generalization of studies on permissible field intensities in oil-barrier insulation, permissible field strengths have been established in the channels adjacent to the windings, and requirements have been worked out for the design, 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY technological processes and testi.:~ of an experimental transformer. The experi- mental ORTs-135000/S00 transformer is intended for replacement of OTsG-135000/500 - transformers at the Volzhskaya GES to verify the method of selecting the internal insulation with respect to prolonged action of the working voltage under orerating conditions. - A considerable reduction in test voltages of the 500 kV winding as compared with - State Standard GOST 1516.1-76 (by 30-40%) has enabled a reduction by more than 30% in the dimensions of the main insulation between windings and to grounded sec- tions, as well as reducing the dimensions of longitudinal insulation (see Table 2). TABLE 2 Unit of OTsG- ORTs- ORTs- Characteristic 135000/500 135000/500 135000/500 measurement 1960 1978 (plan) (experimental) Nominal power MVA 135 135 135 Nominal voltage kV 525/3 525/3 525%3 - Test voltage of the - high-voltage winding: total lightning stroke kV 1500 1550 900 clipped lightning stroke kV 180 1650 1000 commutation pulse kV 1300 850 Short-circuit voltage % 12.9 13 13.3 - Open-circuit losses kW 44$ 160 110 ' Short-circuit losses kW 425 450 385 Mass of copper tons 15.7 18.3 17.7 Mass of transformer steel tons 108.4 91.3 66.7 Mass of transformer oil tons 86 40 23 Total mass tons 296 200 145 Transport mass tons 140 127 without with - oil oil The encouraging results of work withthe ORTs-135000/500 transformer opens up the possibility of considerably reducing material inputs of transformers for high vol- tage classes. Construction quality is determined to a great extent by the availability of reliable design methods. Development of new methods of calculation and improvement of exist- - ing ones is one of the important areas of research and development over the last decade. Techniques have been developed for calculating magnetic and electric fields, additional losses in structural components, lightning and commutation surges - in complex windings, current distribution in multiparallel windings. Development is nearing completion on an improved method of calculating the electrodynamic strength of transformer windings, a nEw technique has been developed for mechanical calculation of complicated components like the tank and pressing beams. Methods are being developed for optimization calculations in selection of variarits. Exten- sive computerization of engineering calculations has considerably facilitated the 50 - . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY work of the designer, provided more in-depth computational analysis of itams being designed, and improved the reliability of design features. The same can be said of the wide use of inethods of physical and mathematical modeling in feasibility studies and also in research and development. At present, work is near completion on development of a computational subsystem, and by the end of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan the graphic subsystem of the syste:n for automated design of transformers is t o be put into operation. Improvements are continuously being made in design of the major components of transformers, which is conducive to the contst~ant improvement of the technical charac- teristics, reduction of material inputs and increased operational reliability. The magnetic circuits of power transformers are o~ grain-oriented rolled trans- former steel 0.3-0.35 mm thick with loss es of P1.5 =0.95-1.02 W/kg. The use of fiberglass plastic banding has eliminated the holes in the steel for rods, reducing the level of losses and the open-circuit current. Currently work is being done - in cooperation with metallurgists to develop transformer steel with iow residual stresses, in the future will eliminate process annealing of steel at trans- ' former plants. Open-circuit losses can be further reduced by making a magnetic circuit with complete diagonal joining, further improving the quality of transformer stee:L (reducing the specif ic losses to P1S = 0.8-0.82 W/kg) . In tra~isformers with power of 25-630 kVA the open-circuit characteristics are con- siderably improved by introducing a three-dimensional design of magnetic circuits made of coiled elements. At the presenr time in power transformer s the windings for voltages up to 35 kV are helical with a large number of paral lel conductors, the 110-330 kV windings are continuous coils, for. 500 kV or more the windings are looped~ Special steps to reduce intercoil gradients with pulse factors in continuous windings have obvi- ated the need for shields and additional coil insulation. In looped windings, arrangements have been developed that give good distribution of voltages between individual sections and segments of the windings with resultant high pulse strength of the entire insulation structure. Transposed wires have been extensively intro- duced, reducing additional losses in the windings and improving labor productivity in making them. Further research should be aimed at find ing a lightning-proof design for transformer _ windings at the power limit, i. e. windin gs that have good distribution of pulse voltages and c4n pass a current of 3 kA. The improvement of high-voltage transformer insulation involves further studies ~ of oil-barrier designs, the use of rigid specially shaped insulating components For inhomogeneous field sections. A con siderable part is played in this question ~ by development of improved equipment and techniques for making such companents, cleanliness and dust-free conditions in production departments, technology for drying insulation. Research aimed at improving the main insulation of transformers is an ongoing process involving the entire arsenal of scientific and technical capabilities, computer calculations, ma~hematical modeling on semiconducting paper - 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and in an electrolyte bath, testing prototypes of components and complex models of insulation in full scale. Multifaceted studies result in reliable design solu- tions tn the area of electric insulation for transformers. - A primary part in development of transformers at the limit of power is played by expert designing of components from the standpoint of eddy losses caused by leakage fluxes of the windings. Any failures in this aspect will result in considerable heating. - At present fairly reliable methods have been developed for calculating and modeling these effects. In the development of new designs, use is made of physical scale-modeling of the entire transformer and individual structural components, enabling detection of points of concentration of additional losses at an early stage, so that means can be worked out for avoiding overheating. In designing txansformers of maximum power, shunting of massive metal components by stacks of transformer steel and other design features are used to reduce heating. In connection with the growth of capacities of energy distribution systems in recent years, the problem of dynamic stability of transformer~ under short-circuit con- ditions has been especially acute. For a number of years ~esearch has been in = pr~gress on all major f actors that influence dynamic stability: methods of calcu- ' lation have been improved; new design features have been researched and introduced; _ improvements have been made in winding manufacture ensuring retention of geometric dimensions after drying; stiffer insulation cardboard with less shrinkage is being used. At the same time, new struc:tural components are being developed and introduced for pressing the windings of power trnasformers, ensuring the required force even with some shrinkage of insulation materials. A promising direction is the use of hydraulic 3acks; enabling adjustment of pressing of the windings during operation - without raising the bell (upper part of the ta.r.'~.) . Simultaneous research is being done on using reinforczd wires. At present, the Ministry of the Electrical Engineering Industry has no special stand for electrodynamic tests of transformers, obviating experiments on this problem. The construction of such a stand is a major problem for the transformer building subsector in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. _ At the present time considerable work is being done on perfecting internal and - external cooling of transformers. More precise methods have been developed for temperature calculations of windings with natural and forced circulation of oil through the windings. Transformers of maximum power use mainly directional circu- lation of oil. Cooling devices of the DTs type have been considerably modified (forced movement of oil through an air-blasted cooler). New coolers have been introduced with low-speed blowers, submerged pumps with shielded stator, and new bimetallic cooling tubes with cut ribbing (to tuxbulize the airflow). Cooling devices ma~~be either suspended or indi~~idually installed. Transformers for large - generating facilities chiefly have a water-oil cooling system. One of the factors that guarantees accident-free operation of transformers is stable up-to-date technology for making components and subassemblies, assembling and drying 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - at the manufacturing plant. Considerable advances have been made in this area in the last 10-15 years. With the switch to rolled transformer steel there has been a considerable reduction in the labor inputs for making magnetic circuits and an improvement in their quality. Outages involving fire in steel have practically disappeared. This is the result of development and introduction of automatic lines in transformer of the subsector for longitudinal and transverse cutting of transformer steel, special stands for assembling and edging magnetic circuits. A series of machines, lines and fixtures have been developed and to a considerable extent introduced that improve the quality and productivity of labor in manufacture of insulation components and windings. The windings of large transformers are made on vertical winding machines. Devices have been introduced for axial and radial pressing of windings as they are wound, as well as devices for pressing during drying of windings. This stabi- lizes the dimensions and density of the winding. A number of lines are used for cutting sheets of carboard, making piercing racks and spacers. Manufacture of insulating components of complex configuration from celluloid and electrical-grade cardboard has been mastered. The reliability of high-voltage insulation for oil-filled transformers is determined to a great extent by the quality of drying. Vacuum drying is the conventional method for cellulose insulation. This process has been thoroughly worked out in transformer plants. The vacuum in the drying ovens goes down to 0.1 mm Hg. The conditions for heating up the active part before evacuation have been optimized. A new method of dryiug ~n hydrocarbon vapor has now been adopted in Soviet trans- former construction. In this technique, the active part of the transformer is heated up by saturated or slightly supersaturated vapor of an organic liquid similar to kerosene at a temperature of 125-140�C with subsequent vacuum drying at a residual pressure of 0.1 mm Hg. The time for drying transformers in hydrocarbon vapor is cut in half, and the quality of drying is improved. - Tests of power transformers are continually being improved for detection af flaws in construction and manufacture. For purposes of checking the quality of insulation in recent years, tests by commu- tation pulse have been introduced, as well as protracted (hours-long) testing by voltage on industrial frequency with measurement of the level of partial discharges in insulation. Work is continuing to perfect protection facilities and methods of troubleshooting - transformers during operation. The main protective insulation of high-voltage transformers is the spark-gap arrester. The protective properties of this device are principally what determines and limits the electric effects to which the trans- former insulation is subjected. Therefore the improvement of arresters is one of the decisive factors in raising the technical level of the transformers that they protect. Another major protector of oil-filled transformers is the gas relaq _ that has been successfully used for 60 years. . - At the present time, all transformers produced in our nation have gas relays made - in East Germany, the CEMA nation that specializes in making them. 53 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 HY)R ()NI~I('IA1, t1tiF: (1N1,1' Rubber containers in the expander keep the oil from getting wet and oxidizing. Pointer-type indicators are used for checking the oil level. New devices are now being d eveloped for keeping track of the condition of trans- formers during operation. These include a short-circuit counter that accounts for the currents that act ~n the transformer over a prolonged period, using a special sensor to monitor the temperature of the winding under load with fiberglass optics to transfer the information to an external measuring device. Among the new facilities for troubleshooting transformers, mention should be made of an acoustic converter of partial discharges. This is a portable instrumEnt that can monitor intensity and determine the point of origin of partial discharges _ in insulation during factory tests of transformers as well as under operating con- ditions. In recent years, a method of spotting initial damages by gases dissolved in the oil has been widely used for troubleshooting transform~rs. The method is used both by factory testers and operational personnel. - Experience in developing a 667 MVA transformer on 1150 kV, and feasibility studies on transformer equipment with power up to 2000-2400 MVA have shown that a fur.ther in,;rease in unit power beyond 1000-1250 MVA will require development of assembly plants with cranes having a hoisting capacity of more than 500 metric tons and the.necessary transport facilities. Moreover, the equipment for new superhigh- y voltage classes will require an increase in the level of technology and production culture, as well as setting up the necessary test stands at the manufacturing plant. To realize the prospects of development of transformer construction, and to satisfy the needs of the electric power industry for maximimm-power transformer equipment at superhigh voltages, it has been decided to build a new transformer construction shop at Zaporozh`ye Transformer Plant equipped with cranes having a hoisting capacity of up to 1000 metric tons. The new shop is being designed with a view to making transformers with voltages - up to 1800 kVAC and �1500 kVDC at unit powers of up to 3000 MVA. The forthcoming Twenty-Sixth Congress of the CPSU will give new jobs to the energy workers of the nation. The subsector of transformer construction must make its contribution in handling these ~obs. Cumulative production experience, the scien- tific and engineering background and the availability of highly skilled specialists inspire confidence that these problems will find a timely solution. COPYRIGHT: IZDATEL'STVO "NAUKOVA DUNIICA", "TEKHNICHESKAYA ELEKTRODINAMIKA", 1980 6610 CSO: 1861/24 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLO~Y UDC 65.011.56 CLASSIFYING INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS Moscow 0 TIPIZATSII PROMYSHLENNYKH ROBOTOV in Russian 1976 (signed to press 21 Jul 76) pp 2, 88 [Annotation and table of contents from book "Classifying Industrial Robots", by Leonid L'vovich Podkaminer, Lyudmila Grigor'yevna Kuznetsova, Nikolay Stepanovich Norkin, Pavel Vasil'yevich Markin, Georgiy Naumovich Rappoport, Levan Kantimirovich Baskayev, Yuriy Viktorovich Solin and Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Krasnikov, Izdatel'stvo standartov, 10,000 copies, 88 pages] [Text] The need for using manipulators with programmed control (industrial robots) is currently becoming more and more apparent in many types of plants. However, the capabilities f~r using manipulator models now under development for large- scale automation is restricted by the fact that they are being designed as indi- vidual structures. In this book, based on systematization of the range of problems covering the f ield of robotics as a whole, the authors demonstrate the feasibility of classifying industrial manipulators, arranging them in unified-design series, and standardiza- tion, which will aid not only in expanding their range of application, but also in si.mplifying design, shortening development time and reducing cost. This book is intended for sc3ent-ists, engineers and technicians. Figures 27, tables 12, references 19. Contents page From the editors 3 Introduction 5 I. Sequence of performance of stages of developing unif ied-design series of industrial robots 10 II. Structure of automated production sections serviced by robots 13 III. Classif ication of objects of manipulation and objects of processing by industrial robots 28 IV. Influence that configuration of the automated technological unit has on design of the servicing industrial robot. Classification of industrial robot designs in current use 41 V. Transport robots ' 60 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 ~FOR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY VI. Actuation robots . 61 VII. Classifying structural arrangements of systems foc controlling indi- vidual roh~ots and sections made u~ of robots 72 VIII. Developing unif ied-design series of industrial robots 82 Ref erences 87 COP`IRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo standartov, 1976 6610 . CSO: 1861/38 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY NAVIGATION AND GU~DANCE SYSTEMS UDC 629.7.051 DYNAMICS OF NONLINEAR GYROSCOPIC SYSTEMS _ Moscow DINAMIKA NELINEYNYKH GIROSKOPICHESKIKH SISTEM in Russian 1981 ~signed to press 4 Jan 81) pp 2-6, 223-224 [Annotation. foreword and table of contents from book "Dynamics of Nonlinear Gyroscopic Syatems", by Sergey Akimovich Chernikov, Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", 1195 copies, 224 pages] [TextJ Problems of analyzing and synthesizing nonlinear gyroscopic systems of _ arbitrary order on the basis of frequency methods are explained~ The main atten- ~ tion is devoted to exposition of the results of investigating self--excited gyro- scopic system oscillations caused by dry friction in cardan auspension axles, play in mechanical transmission, dead zones~ limiting and hysteresis in control cir- cuits. etc. The results of investigating the stability of gyroscopic systems with nonlinear elastic and elastic-dissipative coupling are analyzed. Specific examples according to the applied theory of nonlinear oscillations of gyroscopic systems are given. - The book is intended for engineers involved with gyroscopic systems. Foreword A.great deal of work has been devoted to the~solution of nonlinear problems of the dynamics of gyroscopic systems (GS). However~ this wor.k i~ timited either to the framework of precision movement, inaignificant "smooth" nonlinearities. Neither such nonlinear phenomena as self-excited oscillation nor problems of the stability of aignificantly nonlinear GS have been treated sufficiently in the literature. The main direction of the book involves investigation of self-excited oscillation processes caused by the nonlinear nature of the elastic-dissipative coupling in the mechanical part of GS and the nonlinear nature of the amplifying and con- verting circuit of the control coupline. 57 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Wide fluctuation of perturbing e~fects and o~ GS parameters can cause the - excitation of self~sustained oscillations with unacceptable amglitude and - frequency which often result in a nonstandard GS operating condition. Since there is now no general way to determine the asymptotic stability of nonlinear systems as a whole~ and since instability is manifested in practice in the form of aelf--excited oscillationg~ finding the conditions for self- excited oscillation is one of the basic problems of GS planning. Furthermore~ it is necessary to establish both the fact that self-excited oscillations occur and be able to change the parameters of the system, r~e well as its structure if need be, in order to eliminate the self-excited oscillations or change their . parameters in the required direction if a self-excited oscillating condition is standard for the GS. It is important to know how a particular rea.l nonlinearity affedts the dynamic properties of the system, tiow to compensate for the harmful influence of "parasitic" nonlinearities and to use ~he positive proper- ties of nonlinear elements as concomitant as well as specially introduced elements. In this connection, the problem arises of discovering tfie general mechanisms - by which the influence of various nonlinearities is felt and of developing recommendatiqns to improve dynamics which do not involve specific system param- eters or the placement of the nonlinear element within th~ GS structure. The basis of the problems which are solved is"a'dynamic model of a multichannel GS with arbitrary placement of the gyroscopea~'which makes it possible to allow for the nonlinear nature of elastic and elastic-diesipative coupling between the kinematic branches and elements of kinematic pairs. In contrast to existing ~ models of nonlinear coupling between elemen~s of a kinematic pair with play, - the proposed model allows for omnidirectional properties of the nonlinear branch, the input and output of whir.h change as a function of the state of the energy _ levels of the parts of the system separated by a gap. Among nonlinearities, dry friction~ which significantly degrades GS accuracy and reliability~ deserves special att~~ntion. A great deal of work, which is reviewed in detail by N. V. Butenin [11]~ t;as been devoted to its influence on the opera- tion of gyroscopic devicea. Howevei; most of the work devoted to the influence of friction on GS stability investigates apecial probletas corresponding to the stable region of a nonlinear GS. The natural outcome of these investigations was confirmation of the damping effect of dry friction on a system within the indica-- ted region of the GS phase space. In addition, consideration~ e.g.~ of the inertial properties of an amplifying circuit makes it possible to detect the de- stabilizing effect of dry frictton, i.e., to discover the self--excited oscilla~ tion region located within the stability region of a linear system. Furthermore, for GS with dry friction and a doubly astatic driven linear part~ there is no stable region~ since dry friction unavoidably causes self-excited oacillations. Another important nonlinear factor which exerts a destabilizing influence on GS, and usually causes self-excited oscillations, is play in mechanical transffiissions. The problems associated with investigating the influence of play on the dynamic properties of GS have been far from exhausted, particularly in connection with 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the inadequacy of the mathematical model of play. The arsenal o~ methods for suppressing self-~excited oscillations is also insufficient. In addition~ the - influence of other concomitant ~ianlinearities of pa~sive coupling on the dynamic characteristica of GS with play has been little studied. Yet another of important problems of GS dynamice involves nonlinearities of the measurement and amplifier--converter circuit of control coupling with their influence on the stability and precision characteristics of GS~ as well as the effect of cross-influence between concomitant nonlinearities of active (control) coupling and passive elastic-dissipative coupling of the mechanical part of a GS. The combined influence of several nonlinearities on the dynamic character- istics of GS has been far frrnn completely studied. Only the first steps have been made in this direction. The difficulty of the problem ia the limited capabilities of existing methods of studying nonlinear systems. Precise methods are valid only for the simplest cases in which the order of the equations does not exceed 2 or 3~ and are inap- plicable in the case of the complex dynamic model of high--order GS. The simplest, and sufficiently precise, approximate method is the harmonic linearization method developed by Ye. P. Popov, wh3ch has recently become wide- spread because of its exceptional simplicity and effectiveness j55]. However, a condition for applicability of the harmonic linearization method is filtering - properties of the reduced linear part, which are often not satisfied for GS, Examples of GS with an unfiltered linear part are systems with dry friction, sys- tems with tachometric feedback, etc~~ in which the order ~f the numerator of the reduced linear part is less only bg unity than the order of the denominator, as well as systems with clearly defined resonance properties and low-frequency _ (pre-resonant) periodic conditions. The formaZ application of the harmonic linearization method in these cases may yield quantitative errors and even - qualitatively incorrect results j51, 96, 97). In addition~ a special type of periodic movement--so-called slippage or stop motion---caused by ~umps in the derivatives of the argument of the nonlinear function ia characteristic for GS - with dry friction. The presence of ~umps at the input of the nonlinear element makes it un~ust~fied to apply the harmonic linearization method to the investiga- tion of periodic solutiona~ if only because the form of the oscillations is significantly nonsinusoidal. In connection with this. one of the chapters (the third in the present book) is devoted to developing a method for investigating nonlinear systems with an unf iltered linear part which can be used to conduct qualitative investigations of distinct types of periodic condition8--slipging, partially slipping and self--sustained oscillating conditians with atop--which are not subject to investigation using the first harmonic method, and to investi-- gate periodic modes in critical cases of low oscillation amplitude to which the applicability conditions of the harmonic linearization method do not extend~ being based on estimating the sensitivity of a periodic solution to higher harmonics and small parameters. Finally, the problem of increasing the precision characteristics of GS is inseparably associated with the problem of damping their oscillations which~ as we know, consiats of the incompatible requirements of high static and dynamic FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY accuracy on the one h$nd~ and sta6ility on th.e oth,er. ~uxthermore~ increasing t~he damping moments respect to cardan suspension asles and improving the stabality of GS simultaneously degrades its constrained motion cfiaracteristics. The elastic compliance of construction elements further exacerbates this problem, since additional resonant frequencies appear. Furthermore~ if these resonant ~ frequencies are close to one another~ it is extremely difficult to provide good stabilization throughout the entire frequency range with the~help of linear correcting devices in the feedback circuit. The problem of synthesizing nonlinear correcting couplings which improve the dynamic properties of the system arises in this connection. The book also considers control procesaes in GS in which a self-~excited oscil-- lation condition is normal. Problems of nonlinear dynamics of GS are solved in the book on the basis of frequency methods, particularly the harmonic linearization method, which have recommended themselves in engineering practice. The book is based on the author's work on the dynamics of nonlinear GS j83, 86, _ 97]. . Table of Contents~ ' - Fore~;ord 3 Chapter 1. Equations of nonlinear gyros}*stems and dynamic models a~ nonlinear coupling ~ 1.1. Motion equations of GS with nonlinear coupling 7 1.2. Nonlinear models of dissipative coupling 13 1.3. Nonlinear models of elastic an3 coupling 16 1.4. Models of coupling with play 18 1.5. Generalized model of nonlinear coupling 23 Chapter 2. Frequency characteristics of reduced linear parts of GS with nonlinear coupling 2~ ' 2.1. Linear GS motion equations 27 2,2, Frequency cliaracteristics of reduced linear parts of GS with "external" nonlinear coupling (unidtmensional nonlinear GS) 31 2,3. Frequency characteristics of reduced linea~r parts of GS with internal nonlinear coupling (two-dimension~l nonlinear GS) 38 2.4. Characteristics ef reduced linear part~ of GS with active nonlinear coupling 48 Chapter 3. Method of investigating nonlineur gyrosystems with unfiltered linear part 53 3.1. Periodic modes in nonlinear gyrosystems.. "Jump" equations 53 3.2. Affine-equivalent conversions of nonlinear systems 57 3.3. Unification of nonlinear structure 65 3.4. Harmonic linearization of dynamic nonlinear sections 69 3.5. Harmonic linearization of relay-cont~rolled dynamic sections 78 60 FOR "F.'~iCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010022-1 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 4. Self-excited oac3,llat~,ons o~ GS w~th nonl~neax d~ssi.pat:ive coupling 85 4.1. Destabil:Czing e~fect of ~r~:ctt,on. Qualitative analys�is 85 4.2. Determ,~nation o~ par~meters o~ xelay-contxolled per~:odic tnodes. Tsolation of stabili:ty regfion 94 4.3. Relayed self-excited oscillations oE GS w3th external nonlinear dissipattve coupling 98 4.4. Relayed se1P-excited os~cillations o~ GS wlth intexnal nonlinea,r dissipative coupling 109 4.5. Allowance for higher harmonics and jumps~ of relayed self- excited oscillations of GS dry fr~ct~.on 114 Chapter S. Relayed-slipping self-excfited osci.llat~ons and staliility of GS with dry frictton 12~ 5.1, Characteristics of converted equivalent linear parts of GS with nonlinear fri:ction 12~ 5.2. Determination of parameters o~ relayed-slipping periodic modes. Isolation of stability regions 131 5.3. Relayed-slipping self-excited oscillat~ons of GS with dry fxict~,on 142 Chapter 6, Self-excited oscillations of GS with play and nonlinear elastic-disctpative coupling 151 6.1. Self-excited oscillations and stability o� GS with nonYinear elastic coupling 152 6.2. Self-excited osctllations and staliility of GS with nonltnear _ elastic-dissipative coupling 162 6.3. Determination of parameters of self-excited oscillations of GS with nonlinear elastic couplir~g in case of unQiltered linear part 169 _ 6.4. Asymmetrica~l self-excited oscillations and stability of GS with nonlinear elastic coupling with external perturbation 173 Chapter 7. Self-excited oscillations of gyrosystems with concomitant nonlinearities of control circuits 185 7.1. Influence of concomitant nonlinearities of orthogonal con~rol circuits 185 7,2. Influence of concomitant nonlinearities of local control circuit 193 Chapter 8. Damping of self-excited oscillations 196 8.1. Damping of self-excited oscillations of GS with play using forces of dry friction 196 8,2. Damping effect of concomitant nonline~rities in control circuits 206 8.3. Nonlinear active damp~:ng 209 A. Nonlinear control 209 B. Nonlinear correction 211 - 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410022-1 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY 8.4. Correction o~ static character3.stics on nonlineax coupling 212 ~ 8.5. Inertial dam~ing o~ GS oscillations 214 ~ ReEerences 219 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye"~ 1981 6900 CSO: 1861/36 , 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIaL USE ~ONLY - UDC 531.383 PROGRAMMED ANGULAR MOVEMENTS OF GYROSTAT Wf~N QUATERNIONS ARE USED TO DETERMINE ITS ORIENTATION = Kiev PRIKLADNAYA MEKHANIKA in Russian Vol 17, No 5, May 81 (manuscript received 18 Feb 80) pp 113-116 [Article by A. Ye. Zakrzhevskiy, Institute of Mechanics, UkSSR Academy of Sciences, Kiev] ~ [Text] The problem of setting up programmed motions of a controlled ob~ect about its center of mass is currently of considerable practical interest in connection with the intensive development of modern technology. Resolution of this problem involves either construction or closure of a system of equations of motion control with respect to a given special solution (Ref. 1, 2]. The stability of such solu- - tions can be ensured by constructing a stabilization system that is optimum in some sense [Ref. 4, S, 6]. The use of Euler-Krylov angles for determining the orientation of a solid in space precludes the creation of a non-Cardan orientation syste;~ based on integrating the equations of motion. This is due t~ degeneration of kinematic equations at certain values of the angles of orientation. The use of direction cosines leads - to a considerable increase in the order of the system of the equations of motion. In sucli a case it is most convenient to use quaternions, and specifically Rodrigues- Hamilton parameters [Ref. 1] as the orientation parameters. Let us consider a method of producing stable programmed motions about the center of mass of a solid moving in a central force field. We will take the Rodrigues- Hamilton parameters as the orientation parameters. In this way when angular veloci- ty sensors and computers are available we can create a mathematical "platform" as a result of integrating nondegenerate kinematic equations. The actuating ele- ments of the control system are three one-degree gyroscopes with axes lying along the principal .axes of inertia of the entire system. Let us introduce~the following coordinate systems as shown in the diagram: inertial CX1X2X3, principal central Oxlx2x3 fixed to the solid, orbital OxiPx2px3Ps and the system of axes 0~1~2~3 in translational motion along the orbit. We will describe the dynamics of the object by the following equations: equations ot motion in the form of three dynamic Euler's equations 63 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010022-1 F(1R nFFI('IAI. IItiF: ONI.Y - w C' C, ) w. n,. f~ c~. H--- c~ Il. m (1 2 3}; (1) 1 1~r ~�J t 1 7 1-~ 2 9 J L 1 kinematic equations 27~0 co17~1 - ct~.~._ w37~.y; 21t1- t,~l~.a w~~ - wz~y~ _ 27.~ ~ c,~_7l0 w~)ti3 -(J3~~~ 2)~~ ~ Wg~,p -t- G):~,1- wl~s~ - equati.ons of motion of one-degree gyroscopes ~ 1~~ _-1iW~ - acjHt -1- U~ (I = 1, 2, 3), Here the Ci are the principal moments of inertia of the carrier body with braked _ gyroscope rotors, wi are the angular velocities of the carrier body, Hi are the absolute values of the vectors of kinetic moments of the gyroscopes in their rota- tion about their own axes; J~i are the Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters that determine orientation of the fixed system of axes relative to basis 0~1~2~a, Ti are the coef- ficients of friction in the gyroscope axes, Ui are the controlling torques, mi are - ; the external moments of the central~force field, (123) Y, = denotes that the other two equations (1) can be obtained E by cyclic permutation of subscripts. System of equations l/ E:` /~yll~ (1)-(3) has one first integral ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 ti ~.p /.I ~2 ~ ~3 = 1. ~Q~ h ' Let us consider the problem of constructing an algorithm f of f ormation of controlling torques Ui to ensure stable e x e c u t i o n o f p ro grammed s patial movements by the carrier body x~ - (i); t E [to, T] (i =1, 2, 3)� ~5) In contrast to Ref. 3, no constraints are imposed on factor ui� The formulated probi~em reduces to closure of a system of equations of motion~by control with respect to a given special solution [Ref. 7]. As a result of its solution we find the programmed contro? Ui (i = 1, 2, 3). Let us combine the unit vectors ik of the hypercomplex space of quaternions with basis 0~1~2~3. The fixed axes are p_ut into one-to-one correspondence with unit vectors ek, the orbital axes--with eQ~P, and axes CX1X2X3--with ek. Let us introduce normalized proper quaternions of transformation of the bases [Ref. 1] -r -np - ~'ta ~==11.,[k~n; ~ti.:= N~I,,oN, P,, ._-:PoihoP, where the tilde denotes a quaternion conjugate with the initial one, the small circle correspcnds to the operation of multiplication defined by quaternion algebra. In the process of construction of quaternions that assign the operation of rotation of the bases, it may become necessary to express their components in terms of di- rection cosines. If basis E relative to basis I is defined by a matrix of direc- . tion cosines A, then the parameters of quaternion A that defines rotation of basis I to coincidence with E have the form [Ref. 1] � 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500014022-1 FOR OFFICIAI. I1SE ONLY : ~ V S~ `1 ; ~l `l~'-~ as2 ; 2 4~0 -n;'4~ ; :.i -cl ~y~4~o si _ o ~ 3 ~ where S~~ A=- ~1;;, the sign preceding the ~xpressions to be taken the same for all ai. `::i Assuming an undisturbed orbit, 2nd consequently an unperturbed kinetic moment in - migratory motion, we can write _ aK -,r~ = 3;` k X c~~ � Tz, . - where K is the kinetic moment of the system in its motion relative to center of mass 0, m is the moment of external forces relative to the c~nter of mass, u is the gravitational constant, the radius of the orbit, k is the unit vector of direction C0, 0� is the tensor of inertia of the solid with braked gyroscope rotors. The overall kinetic moment in relative motion is written as 3 ' 1< = ai � (1� -I- H~~ � ~ Le.t ai = u i( i= 0,..., 3) , wk = qk ~ ek = ek (k = 1, 2, 3) at t= t o. The initial kinetic moment takes the form . K~ /Nao ~-n9k) k=~ To transform the components of these vector quantities, we intro3uce quaternions comprised of the components of these vectors in bases I, E, E�P 3 3 ~ -L' ~ F,' -I."P ~ CGD- n~~ ~r~~i~,; rri rn,~ r~,; It h~ i f. A ~ p=1 1=~1 Here the ik are unit vectors of tha hypercomplex space of quatern iQns that formally coincide with the unit vectors of basis 0~1~2~a, which for angular displacements is inertial. Using the introduced rotational transformations (6), let us determine the components of vector equation (7) inth~ inertial coordinate system. Since k= e~P, then ~~i ,~1,., I~ ,;!;J~� ~~,^.1.~ As a result , pro j ect ions m on the f ixed basis are de-,,, termined, and quaternion m is constructed. In virtue of (6) , we have n~ =:111~rtt ~ 11i; �j~~~�~,~~~ where quaternion M is determined by components ui(t) , and Mo is determ~ned by components ui (i = 0, 2, 3). Let us write (7) in the inertial basis and integrate - r y j(~ i~; ~ nt~ (r) rIT. fo 65 FOI2 OFFIi.IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010022-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONI.Y Converting to the fixed axes, with consideration of (8) we get 1