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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500010023-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10225 30 December 1981 USSR Re ort p CYBERNE"f[CS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY CFOUO 26/81) - F~IS FOF~EIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SER~lICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 NOTE ~ JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those irom English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other chnracteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Tex*_] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. ~ COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWI~TERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQiJIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OrFICIAL USE Oi1I.Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500410023-4 JPRS L/10225 30 D~cember 1981 ~ USSR R~PORT . CYBERNFTICS, COMPUZ"ERS AND AUTOMA7'ION TECHNOLQG'~f (FQUO 26/81) CONTENTS - GENERAL Survey of Developments in Cy bernetics by Editorial Board 1 _ Computcr Scrvicing and Repa i r Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 23 HARDWARE Possibility of Using MIR-2 D igital Computer in Hybrid Computer Sys tems � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ~ � � � � � � � � � � � � 35 - P~inciples of Hardware Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Interface for Programmable rnstruments in Experiment Automation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Macroconveyor Computations of Functions on Data Structures 47 - Computers With Structural Re aliz3tion of High-Level Languages. 49 - Some Questions of Problem-S o lving on Computers With Par.allel Organization of Computations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Prospects and Problems of De veloping Automated Process Control Systems Based on Microproc c.ssor Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 _ Prospects for Ueveloping Te c hnology of Printed Circuit Board - Production lri Building Ins truments . . . . . . . , , . . . ~ ~ ~ , ~ 82 Experience of Assimilation o f Base Technolagy for Printed Circuit - Board Manufacture at Leningrad Electromechanical Plant Production _ Association. . . , . . . . ~ . . . . ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 86 ~ - a- [III - USSR - 21C S&T FOUQ] FOR OFF[CI~L USE O;~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY SOFTWARE Lxst of Soviet Ar~icles Dealing With Software . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . 9(.J _ Modeling Program Development an~? Maintenance at Cowputer Centers. 94 Creation of Software Based on Use of Packages of Applied Programs 95 ~ Multilevel Structural Design of Programs: Formalization of.. the Method Sphere of Applications. . . . . . ~ . ~ . . ~ . ~ o ~ ~ , , 100 Investigation of Methods of Solving Optimization Problems and Their Applications. . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ , ~ . ~ . , ~ . . ~ ~ ~ , . 1?5 Review of New Book on Multiple Programming Techniques 111 APPLICATIONS Computer Networks in Control of Systems Development . . . . . . ~ . . . 114 Automated Data Processing in Ferrous Metallurgy . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 123 Ferrous Metallurg}r Automated Data Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CONFERENCES ANI1 EXHIBITIONS Computer Design Automation Conference Held . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . 143 - 8tti All-Union Conferencc on Contx~ol Prablems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 - Modeling Devcloping Systems: Work of Conference Reported 152 4th Al1-Union Seminar 'Parallel Programming and High-Productivity Structures' � � � � � � ~ s � � � � � � � � � � � � � ~ � � � � � � � 16~. 3rd Seminar 'Interactive Systems' . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . 164 International Exhibition 'Communications-81' in Mc~scow. . . . . . . . . 168 PUBLIC.'~TIONS Table of Contents of Journal 'KIBERNETIKA', JuZy-August 1981. 171 Table of Contents From Journal 'ELECTRONIC MODELING', September-October 1981. , . , . . , . , ~ . . , . . . , , . . , ~ , , 173 Problems of Cybernetics: Control of Systems Development. 175 - -b- FOR OFFIClAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY GENERAL SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENT~ IN CYBERNETICS BY EDITORIAL BOARD Kiev KIBERNETII{A in Russian No 4, Jul-Aug 81 pp 1-12 [Series of com~ents by members of editorial board~ [TextJ This anniversary issue of the journal KIBERNETIKA, issue No 100, is dedi- cated to the 26th Congress of the CPSU, a great event in the life of our country. In the short comments below, members of the editorial board discuss plans for - carrying out the tasks given to cybernetics scientists by tfie Congress for the 11th Five-Year Plan. V. M. Glushkov, academician and editor-in-chief of the ~ournal. tncrainian cybernetics scientists are directing all their efforts to carrying out the program of action adopted at tfie 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the - Soviet Union. The concern for preservation of the peace obligates us to make every effort to see that peace on earth is preserved. Workers in science face enormous tasks in the llth Five-Year Plan: Improving computer hardware and control systems, constructing new cybernetics systems capable of efficiently aiding human beings in many spheres of activtty, in con- trolling highly complex instruments and mechanisms, production of output, and planning and designing large systems. The most important challenges facing researchers were reflected in the materials of the 26tfi CPSU Congreas. They are, first of all, the construction and empl~yment of systems of different levels and purposes, in particuiar the OGAS (Stat~ Automated System for Data Collection and ~ Processing), which is expected to serve as a tool for decision-making in manage- ment. The development of promising types of hardware, especia~ly recursive computers constructed on entirely new principles for organization of computations ~ and computer components, is one of the central challenges in building highl~ productive computer hardware. Other very important tasks are tfie building and practical introduc[ion af robot-manipulators and other cy6ernetics syatems with artificial intellect and setting up automated design systems for various tech- nical objects and structures such as airplanes, atomic reactors, construction elements, and the like. The sphere of application of computers is expanding enormously. For this reason it is important to standardize computer hardware, improve human interaction with 1 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500010023-0 F~R OFFI('IAL USE Of~lLY computers, and develo~ domestic appli:ances witfi liuiltin mi.crocomputers and mini- computers. ~ Withou[ theory practice is blind. Soviet scientists today are afiea3 of foreign scientists in many aspects of theoretical cy~aernetics. The latest advances of theoretical science, along with the development of ineans to automate tlie process- ing of results from scientific investigations and experiments, should give rise to a new stage in creative scfentific thought azd accelerated introduction of the results of scientific research in practice. Yu. V. Kapitonova, doctor of physicomathematical sciences. - Raising the efficiency of use of computers and computer software depends on the _ quality of personnel training. The production of comput~ng macliinery is develop- ing very swiftly today, but the training of skilled computer user~ is still , . plainly inadec~uate. Work to improve the qualifications of computer users is one of the most iWportant ways to raise labor productivity. At the same time we must raise the "intellectual" level of the computers themselves. It seems to me that computer-based artificial intellect systems that provide more comfortable conditions for human beings when they are given ~obs now done by human beings can also be a means to raising the productivity of both physi~al and mental labor. - Information plays a very important part in the contemporary world. Artificial intellect syster,:s as mean~ of producing, processing, and transmitting informa- tion should become as necessary to people as the telephone, radio, and television. Raising th~ "intellectual" level of computers inevitalily involves m3king their functions, and therefore also their design, rnore complex. This requires that we set up industrial lines for au*_omated production of computer components, tfiat is, circui*_ry and program equipment. This presupposes, in turn, tfie development of the theory and syst~ms f.or designing computers. The division of digital au*_o- mata theory at the Institute of Cybernetics or the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences is working on the development of such resources. We hope *hat the re- - sult~ of our research will be of benefit to the economy of the country before the llth Fiv~-Year Plan is over. A. A. Letichevskiy, doctor of physicomathematical sciences. Cybernetics science is developing in cluse interaction with applied problems, = he]_pin~ accomplish key national economic tasks rel~ted to the development and introdiiction of compu~ers. Meeting the great challenges set uown by [he 26th - Congress of the CPSU for society demands further improvement in comput~er hardware and creating new structures of cc~mputer~ and new methods of organizing computing processes to make maximum use of the potenttal of contemporary tech- - nology for manufacturing computer hardware. The development and use of multiprocessor systems revived tfie theory of parallel computations, stimulating a transition from the ~tudy of abstract models ~ar re- moved from any real systems to solving practical problems. The principle of macroconveyor organization of computations in multiprocessor systems, dis~:overed 2 - FOR OFFIClAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY by V. M. Glushkov, led to a fundamentally ne~z solution to th.e problem of effi- cient use of general-purpose systems witTi large numbers of processors. Further study and application of this principle is opening new prospects for the de- velopment of tiie theory of computing processes and drawing in relat~d fields sucfi as methods of numerical ar~alysis, artificial tntellect, and the like. While working on applied protilems, we nnust keep tTie prospects for development of fundamental knowledge in view. The algebra of algortthms, tfie theory of data struct-uies, recursive computations, and other branches of tfie applied theory of _ algorithms constitute the ti.eoretical basis for the developing field of matfie- _ matical science, which must work out and refine the general method of sol~;ing the problems of analyzing, synthesizing, and optimtzing algorithms, identifying _ special classes of algorithms by putting abstract matfiematical models in concrete form. As a specific example of such development we may point to the transition from studying flow charts of free data algebras to study~ng flow charts of algebras of data defined b} systems of identities (ahstract types of data). The principal source of the problems of tha_ applied theory of algorithms is ex- perience constructing a system for automated design of tfie hardware and software of computers based ~n high-level languages tfiat appraximate the languages of mathematical definitiions and problem formulaCion. One of the promfsing lines of work in this field is the development of ineans and methods of theoretical set programming based on the formalized language of practical mathematics and includ- ing deductive means among the instruments used to design algoritfims. Yu. M. Yermol'yev, corresponding member of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences. The changes that have taken place in stochastic programming in the last five years ~ are remarkable. This relates above all to further development of direct sto- chastic methods of solving complex problems of investtgatin.g large-dimensionality ~per.ati.ons. Efficient procedures have been developed to solve a broad range of problems of planning stocks, network optimization, agricultural production, two- stage problems of stochastic programming, and various other problems that have - special structures of constrain.ts. Solving practtcal problems necessitater~ a further expansi~n of the class of optimizable functions. Techniques of mtnimiz- ~ ing slightly convex, generalized differentiable, ancl Lipshits functions were in- vestigated. A very general methodology of proofs was worked out to investigate the convergence of nonmonotonic optimization procedures. Broad investigation of E-quasigradient optimization techniques was done, and methods were constructed for solving minimax problems which did not require - precise computation of the generalized gradient oz the function of the maximum. The applied problems. of controll_ing industrial processes and dynamic and organt- zational systems where the structure of tTie ob~ect being optimized develops gradually led to working out numerical methods of nonstationary optimization. - Numerical techniques of solving stochastic prolilems of opti~ization hy distri- butiori functions that satisfy all common consf~raints were worked aut. 3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500414423-4 FOR OFFi('1AL USE (~NLY - 'I'l~~~rc was intensive development of algorithms for snlving stochastic miniaiax problems and problems with complex regressian functions. ' In connecti~� with the development of packages of applied programs, great sig- nificance was given to investigati~ig the effectiveness of numerical methods of � nondiffer:~ntiable and stocliastic optimization. The asymptoti~ behav~or of stochastic optimization procedures in tiie class of convex large-dimensionality problems and resistance fo random error in raw data wer~ studied. Numerical metho3s of nondifferentiable and stochastic optimization without compu~ tation of subgradients were develop~d. It was ~hown that in many pr~actically ' important cases it is possible to substitute co~.aputation of stochastic finite differences for computation of generalized gra,dients. Ftnite difference proce- dures were developed which to a significant degree generalize known techniques of stochastic approximation and are applicable to solve complex stochastic mi~~i,~ax problems. _ The Institute o� Cybernetic~ of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences has now developed a package of applied programs for stochastic and nondifferentiable optimization which is designed to solve rough extremal problems of nonlinear and stochastic programming. The r~ackage functions Lnder control of the YeS [Unified System] opecating system and pe rmits work in the automatic (batch), interactive, and multiprocess modes. Plans envision a second version of the package, oriented to solving conditional extremal problems, by 1985. L. A. Kaluzhinin, c~oct~r of physicomathematical sciences. The development of computers and the broad opportunities for their appli.catioi~ are especially important today, in the age of the scientific-technical revolu+_~ion. The decrees of the 26th CPSU Congress envision concentxating efforts on solving such important problems as the develapment of mathematical theory, increasing its use for applied purposes, and improving computer technology, its basic elements and software, and means and systems for data collection, processing, and trans- mission. The second half of the 20th century has seen the ever-expanding intrusion of mathematics science and technology. Whereas in an earlier day the principal users of tt~e re:;ults of mathematical theories were almost exclusively mechanics, physics, and the branches of engineering related to them, today mathematics finds application in chemistry, biology, economics, linguistics, and in the branches of cybernetic engineering - in the work of designing automatic and using automatic devices. This change and the expansicn of its area of application have led to the forrr.ulation of a number of new problems in mathematics itself. The greatest change in focus within mathematics, we feel, is the increase in the importance of the fields of discrete mathematics. Whereas in the 19th Century and early 20th _ Century the analytic disciplines - differential and integral equations, varia- tion calculus, and th~ others were paramount for practical application, today algebra, combinatorial analysis, number theory, mathematical logic, and others play an equal role, The growth in the significance of these disciplines can be - observea by ttze number of proiects and publications. 4 FOR OFF~[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR UFFICIAL tJSE ONLY A great deal of attention today is h2ing given to solving profilems of alge~ra and comliinatorial analysis on computers. TTie profi~lems that are arising are of great theoretical and practical interest. I. N. Kovalenko. With the development af cybernetics systems it becomes increasingly important to analyze and synthesize their efficiency and reltability with due regard for ran- dom factors. The theory of random processes, adapted to describing the action of real systems, and development of tiie analytic apparatus for inv~estigating theut" are timely for solving these problems. Significant results have been obtained in these areas in recent years. Many concrete mass-service schemes have been studied, in particular those tt~at take account of the specific charac*eristics of the operation of computers in computer systems. Attempts are underway to compose algorithms for calculating the characteristics of mass-servic systems within the framewo:k ~f generalized mathematical schemes. The static modeling technique has acquired a l.arge role and become the basic calculation method j.n systems research. Software systems for static syscem mcdeiing have been dev:Lsed. _ The special significance ~f asymptotic techniques of calculating systems chax- acteristics for systems research has been recognized in the last decade, chiefly thanks to the work of Soviet mathematicians. Thus, tfie theory of calculating highly reliable systams has been worked out and significant results have been obtzined in the theory of consolidating the states of random processes. Eut all of these techniques require ela6orate software for practical introduction. At the present time the corresponding packages of applied programs are being de- - veloped at the Institute of Cybernetics of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences. Use of the capabilities of contemporary multiprocessor systems is a proflising direction for systems research. Specifically, it is very convenient to realize ' static modeling algorithms on ?-ecursive-type computers because the organization of data exchange in such mach~nes corresponds to the real processes being modeled. Finally, we should note one more interesting area, the development of algorithms for deriving formulas for the characteristics of mass-service systems using com- puters base~ on the ANALITIK algorithmic language. The introduction of such techniques can save an enormous amount of "manual " work on formal conversions, which s*ill take a great deal of time. Our cyberneticsscientists are studying many aspecta of the ttieory of mass service and reliability and are making their contritiution to the overall. process of em- p.loying mathematics and cybernetics in our co~ntry*s science and tecltnology. V. S. Korolyuk, academician of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences. At the present time mathematical models tfiat use tlie theory of random processes play a significant part in many diverse ar.eas of cybernetic research. Tfierefore, the problems that arise in the theory of random processes and tfieir applications wiil continue to be timely. Delimitation and development oE the theory nf tfiose 5 FOR OFFICIAL U~~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500010023-0 FOR OFF(('IA1, USE ONLY classes of random processes that are most adequately applicable to analpsis of complex stochastic systems is especially promising. TEie desire for an ade- _ quately complete mathematical descripti.on of ttie functioning of stochastic , systems necessitates ~he use of increasingly complex mathematical models, and ther~fore also of more complex medical apparatus. In this way a two-sided _ situation arises: the more accurate tfie matfiematical model is, tfie Iess possi- bility there will be of receiving practically efficient conclusions; at t}ie same time, the simpler the mathematical model, the less reliable conclusions based on analyzing it will be. One of the effective ways to overcome this contradic- tion is to construct fairly precise mathematical models tfiat take into account all significant aspects of the processes under consideration, with subsequent simplification of the model substantiated by mathematical theorems. Develop- _ ment of the method of phase consolidation of stochastic systems is an illustra- tion of this approach. One of the timely problems of contemporary systems ' dnalysis is the development of similar methods of simplified analysts based on profound mathematical ideas. ~ 0. S. Kulagina, candidate of physicoma~hematical sciences. The problem of automating various types of processing of texts in natural language I is one of the timely scientific problems invalved in tiroadening the use of com- puter machinery. Among the diverse tyFes of automatic text processing systems (for exampl.e, question-answer systems, systems to translate from certain languages to others, and the like) are language processors that analyze and syn- thesize texts. Language processors usually have three types of software: linguistic (vocabularies and grammars), mathematical-algorithm (algorithms and formalized representations of data and algorithms), and programs. The develop- ment of differeflt types of software should proceed in a coordinated manner withir the framework of a single mathematical model that describes the structure of the languages and their functioning. The models developed at ~his point em- brace chiefly morphology and syntax, but only partially the semantics of natural languages. Further progress requires fairly complete models of natural lan~uages that take account of :heir specific features such as complexity because of the large number of objecrs with individual properties, indete~inacy of branches (transf~rs), the lack of precision with respect to many sets and relationsTiips , (includin~ norms of correctness), the inequality of similar phenomena and con- structions which is felt as a preference for certain ones over others and is difficult to express in authorize/prohibit terms, and so forth. Experience with the construction of. systems for aiitomatic text processing has shown quite clearly thar the formal ~rammars proposed ~y N, C~omsky are not an adequate means of mo O rR~ ai u ~ I 1 U ~ ~ v ~ JJ y~j m ~ ~ CO A ~ ~-I ~-1 ~ ~1 ~ L~ b a~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ 'rC O ~ ~ U 6 U O 1~ N z~ W P+ U U ~ . N ~ H H ~ ~ H Hy ?~i ~i ~+V - / ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 1~~?R c~1~t~ic't:~t t~~1~' c~N1.1 - hypot~etical structures and architectures, permit us to draw some conclu- - sions: - Paralleling algorithms are defined by solution methods and depend greatly on tfie structure and arcfiitecture of the multiprocessor computer (volumes o� main memory of each - processor, number of communications channels among proces- sors and between processors and second-step memory, the availability of damper memory, the volume of seconc-step memory, the ratio of tbe speed of an individual processor and the volume of its main memory, the length of a machine word, and so on); - The very same structure and architecture of a multiprocessor machine may give rise to many different versions of parallel algorithms; - - The ease of paralleling an algorithm with sequential compu- tations does not always mean that it is wise to use it as the basis for formulating parallel computation algorithms on a multiprocessor computer, especially for problems with . large volumes of computation; - The critical resources for solving problems with large volumes of data processing are the number of communications channels and speed of exchange in them, the volume of tlie main memory _ of each processor (at a given speed) and of damper memory, and the numbe: of input and output units; - The problem is not so much paralleling arithmetic and logical operations as it is organizing the calculation of problems that require processing large volumes of data, that is, organizing parallel operations at all levels; - At the present time there is a critical need to work out new - theoretically substantiated numerical methods of solving - different classes of mathematical problems, techniques whose essential features take account of the parallelism of - computations at a'l1 levels; - For each of the classes of mathematical problems considered there is ati optimal (with a maximum acceleration coefficient and a maximum efficiency coefficient) configuration of the structure and architecture of the multiprocessor computer depending on the solution algorithm and volume of data processed. Increasing the number of processors beyond the optimal number leads to a certain acceleration of calcula- tion time, but the efficiency coefficient�drops. 78 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 t~~~~t ~i~~~~~~~~ t ~?~v~ ~ The necessary configuration of the multiprocessor machine sh~uld be shaped, the machine solution ~lgorithm constructed in an automatic mode, the problem - solved, and the reliability of the solution obtained evaluated according to the prob~em, the solution method, and the r equired volume of data processing, which can be estimated a priori. This approach to so1-Jing applied problems on electronic compuXers of rearrange- able structure and architecture makes it p o ssible not onlq to evaluate the auality of ::;lutions, but also to raise tfie efftciency of the machinery being used. FOOTNOTES 1. V. D. Ilichev, "Matrix M:.~hods of Synthesizing the Dynamic and Elastic Characteristics of Linear and Conservat ive Design Elements," UCHEN. ZAP. TSAGI, 1975, 4, No 2, pp 93-lOfi. 2. J. Miklc,sko, "Synteza a analyza efektivnych numerickych algorimovr' [Synthesis and Analysis of Efficient Numerical ti_'_gorithms], Bratislava, VEDA, 1979, 220 ; pages (in Czech). 3. M. A. Fianklin, "Parallel Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations," IEEE TRANS. COMPUT., 1978, 27, No 5, pp 413-420. 4. B. A. Rosser, "A Runge-Kutta for All Seasons," SIAM REVIEW~ 1961, 9, No 3, = pp 417-452. - 5. L. F. Shampine, and H. A. Watts, "Block Impltcit One-Step Methods," MATH. COMPUT., 1969, No 23, pp 731-740. 6. T. L. Jorden, "A Performance Evaluation of Linear Algebra Software in _ Parailel Arck~itectures," in "Performanc e Evaluation of Numerical Software," edited by L. D. Fosdick, Amsterdam, 19 7 9, ~p 56-76. 7. F. En51ou (editor) ,"Mul'tiportsessornyye Si~temy i Parallel'nyye Vyct~isleniya" [Multiprocessor Systems and Paralle~ Computations], Moscow, _ "Mir", 1976, 383 pages. 8. V. K. Zeyzenberg (editor), "Vychislite 1'naya Tekhnika za Rube2hom v 1976 g." [Computer Technology Abroad in 1976), Moscow, "ITM i VT AN SSSR", 1977, 210 pages. 9. V. K. Zaydenberg (editor), "Osnovnyye Kharakteristiki Tsifrovykh Vychislitel'nykh Mashin" [Basic Charac t eristics of Digital Computers], rioscow, "ITM i V'f AN SSSR", 1977, 63 pages. COPYRIGHT: I'I.DATEL'STVO "NAUKOGA DUMKA", " KIBERNETIKA", 1981 - l1,i76 CSO: i863/16 � 79 ~OR OFFICIAL USE OMLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 r~ik c?i~rtc~t:>> t~~r. c~~i.i' UDC 62-52.001"313" PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING AUTOMATED PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON MICROPROCESSOR EQUIPMENT Moscow PRIBORY I SISTE~yTY UPRAVLENIYA in Russian No 8, Aug 81 pp 1-2 - [Article by B. B. Timofeyev, acade~nician of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences, in the section "Autumated Control Systems"] [Excerpts] Using m icroprocessors in the traditional areas of application of compu- - ters in automated process control systesns is tied intimately to the process of de- centralization of control that began long before the appearance of microprocessors. It i> characteristic not only of automated process control systems and has two interrelated aspects: territorial distribution and hierarchical control. The neci~ssity of territorial distribution of control hardware in automated process control systems is dictated to a considerable extent by the deficit in cable pro- - duction. Remoting of information processing equipment directly to receivers-sources and transmis~ion of compressed, preliminarily processed information are required. - Implementation of nierarchical systems under the conditions of continuously growing complehity of control problems allows raising reliability and improving control dy- namics, simplifying software, and affording the possibility of putting control sys- tems into operation piecemea_1. Unfortunatel.y, our microprocessor hardware developers are repeating the traditional architecture of computers too literally in their developments when the need for developing multimicroprocessor systems is so obvious. The fact is that transducers make up a large percentage of the hardware of modern automated process control sys- - tems and their outputs signals require processing by complex algorithms. These in- clude various Er.eqt~~ncy, phase (including synchros and inductosyns) and other trans- ducexs. The question of connecting up ti~ese transducers is tied closely to the problem of developin~ an eff:icient architecture of modular microprocessor components. '1'lie c~nnection problem for these transducers can be solved by incorporating special- p~irpose passive functional elements in the composition of microprocessor hardware, i.c~.. by expanding the nomenclature, which is not always justified economically because batch production declines. - hfore pramising are .isolation in automated process control systems and standardiza- tion of some simple autonc~mous regulators implemented by using active programmable modules of modular complexes. These modules must be built on the basis of special- purpose single-board microcomputers that include facilities for input/output of analog and discrete signals. 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 1~(1R (N~1~'l('1.41. l~til~' (1N1\' A`~ ' ilEt?~?' J'ro~;rc~ss i.n this direction depends entirely on progress in LSI and VLSI engineering and Cecl~nology. This, in turn, requires the joint efforts of the i.nstrument-building and electronics industry to develop a unified nodular system of microprocessor cqri- trol hardware, without in any way reducing the efforts on finishing the development and adjustment of Froduction of existing microprocessor complexes. This unified sys- tem is to contain a set of speciali2ed single-board microcomputers, means of normal- ~ ization and galvanic separation and a ramified set of designs and panel instruments. And this unif ied system is tu allow, by the design route without substantial outlays for engineering labor, developing flexible and highly reliable multimicroprocessor control systems and instrumental process complexes for automating the design of_such systems, including highly efficient facilities for pragramming and debugging. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye". - "Pribory i sistemy upravleniya", 1981 8~45 CSO: 1863/256 81 _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 ~ ~,t ~ i ?i ~ i UDC 681.2:621.38:776:"313" PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPING T~CHNOLOGY OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD PRODUCTION IN BUILDING INSTRUMENTS Moscow PRIBORY I SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA in Russian No 8, Aug 81 pp 29-30 [Art~cle by engineers V. R. Truntsevskiy and I. P Belikov, in the section "Tech- nology of Building Instruments": "Printed Ctrcuit Board Production" (beginning of a topical series)] [Text] Existing technology for manufacturing printed circuit boards [PCBs] and any of its varieties on m2thods of manufacture are Based on the so-called subtractive technology, i.e. the technology of obtaining copper conductors by removing (etching) f.rom blank areas the copper layer covering the substrate. This technology no longer meets the high r~quirements associated with miniaturization and first of all with broad integration in the fiela of electronic elements since it does not permit ~ manufacturing minute and precise tracks for conductors [1]. In addition, the subtractive technology of manufacturing PCBs requires making more efficient use of inetal because of the growing demand for it. Therefore, process engineers are faced wit:h the problem of finding new engineering solutions that must provide for saving materials and meeting the increased requirements of designers of microelectronic apparatus. One such engineering solution is the multilayer printed circuit assembly u~hich, being a subsequent qualitative evolution of conventional PCBs and px'eserving a11 their properties, have their own merits that promote an ever Broader application of them in solving the prohlems of complex miniaturization of microelectranic apparatus, According to f~reign data, as early as in 1973, almost half of all PCBs used in com- - puters were .nultilayer PCBs (MPP). Multilayer PCBs now have limited application in the Minpribor [Ministzy of Instru-~ ment Making, Automation Equipment and Control Systems]. The increased te~hnological requirements that occur in the production of multilayer PCBs, the lack of moBility of. the technological process, the extremely long production cycle in manufacture, the labor-intensive monitoring of the internal layers and limited repairability are ~ largely restraining the application of multilayer PCBs in the products pf instrument manufacture. However, computer hardware developers are now tasking process engi- neers witli assimilation in the Minprihor of the technology of manufactuxing multi- layer PCBs in connection with the need of applying them in new products. 82 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500010023-0 r.~ec ,~rl1~ l ?l l .]l�. ll.\1.1 ( n ti~c� ].lth I~ ive-Year Plan in the plants of the Minprihor, the main development will be on the combined ppsitive method with advance plating of holes and a pro- tective technological tin-lead alloy coating. Dry alkaline-~ater-developed film photoresists of the types TFPK, SPFV and SPFVShch, as well as SPF-2 film photo- resists processed in organic solutions, will find extensive application in�the pro-- cess of photochemical printing to ob~ain t;?e printed circuit pattern. This method will permit manufacturing printed ~ircuit boards with a density of placement of 150-300 holes per dm2. Since in the early years of the 11-th Five Year P1an the demand by Minpribor plants for dry film phntoresists cannot be fu11y met, it is planned to use the FPP type liquid photoresist which will be applied to blank boards with advance plated holes on U861M type rolling units. In the process, the necessary thickness of the photo- resist layer is achieved. Efforts are now underway to improve this technology.. Thus, it is planned to elimi- nate the operation of chesnical metallization of holes from the pxocess which will not only eliminate the use of a metal (palladium dichloride), but also r.edtice the manufacturing cycle and raise qualtty. The semiadditive method of manufacturing PCBs has been developed in the sectox to produce PCBs with a density of placement of 400 holes per dmz and highex' (with a C.1-0.2-mm width of printed conductox's).. This technology differs from rhe existing subtractive in the application of the non- foil dielectric STF.K_-1.5 TU.:~.M0.50,9.091-78 and in the considerafile reduction in the volume and time of etcY~ing, which makes it possi~le to obtain subst3ntial savings in copper, reduce the width of printed conductors (having eliminated etchings of thesn) and reduce costs for purification structures. On the whole, there wi11 be a 5 to 20 percent gain in value compared to the subtractive technology [1]. This technology will be developed along the path of mastering the so-called photo-~ form method and making use of dielectrics with ultrathin foil (to 5 micxometers). It is assumed that when the photoform method is used to manufacture boards, pxoduc- tion costs wi11 be 25 to 30 percent lower than when photoresist is used. This methnd allows obtaining a higher density of circuitry with the same board technolog- - ical characteristics. An advantage of semiadditive technology is the c~pability of reusing laminates when defects occur in manufacture by stripping the circuit and reapplying the conductox's. - The firm Photcircuits estimates that 0.5-0.8 million m2 of boaxds per year are now produced iti the United States by the method of semiadditive technology (2]; major Amer.ican manufacturers of ul*.ra~hin foil estimate that boards in which ultrathin Foil is applied now account fc,r 5 to 10 percent of the total PCBs produced in the United States ~2]. Effor.ts are also underway in ~ur country to develop a dielectxic with ultrathin foil. It is planned to st3rt series production of it in the llth Five-Xear Plan [3]. Assimilation by Minpribor plants of the combined positive method and semiadditive technology of PCB manufacture wi11 allow shifting suTisequently to the assimilation of new types of these technological processes without any restructuring of production. 83 !?OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 E~ok c~NN�~ci,~~. v~t~: c~rv~.v 'Cl~e ~~vcr incre.~sln~ ~~umplexity and continuing improvement of instruments and compu- ter liardware is leading to the necessity of making various adjustments to wiring layouts even under the conditions of series production. But making changes to a printed circuit is a lengthy process, According to the data of foreign specialists, the share of expenses for developing a board designed for wiring of 80 integrated circuits (IS) is about $7,000 [4J. This sum of fixed expenses is due to the partic- ipation in the implementation of a considerable number of skilled associates and the lengthy duration of the manufacturing cycle. Therefore, for small-scale series pro- duction o~ r~gh-density wired boards and accelerated development of prototype instru- ments and computer hardware, application of fundamentally new manufacturing wethods is called for: thin-conductor wiring (of the multiwire type) or K-6 technology which havethe same advantages of printed circuitry but are free of the shortcomings of the subtractive tecnnology, are technologically less labor-intensive, and a~ford a reduction in the requirements for precision of manufacture and materials used; but t}~e main thing is that the pr.oduction cycle is shorter and they are more suitable for autom~~tion of design and manufacture. Tlle tt~in-conductor method of wiring in practice can be based only on dry processes. Tt~e mettiod precl.udes the use of phototnasks and the process of photochemical printing and etching. Multiwire cir.cuitry allows successfully replacing multilayer PCB'.s when circuitry is hi~llly complex. Foreign data indicate that the design cycle is 10 weeks for multi~.ayer PCBs, 8 weeks Eor double-sided plated boards~ but just 1 week for multiwire; manufacture of the boards takes 4, 2 and 1 week(s) respectively [4J. Approved de~igns of boards manu- factl~red by the method of conducting wiring, when series prod~:ction is necessary, can casily be switched to the traditional technology of princed wiring and in a shorter time. According to data of foreign specialists, fixed costs in manufac- t�ring boards with 80 integrated circuits by one of the methods of conducting wiring (solder-wrap) are $700-$1070 ~4]. Thus, it is advantageous to employ methods of ~ondt~cting wiring with small-scale series production (especially experimental) where the capa6ility of making changes without additional outlays is exceptionally important, The technology of thin-wire circuitry will be developed with the solution of the following prohlems: improvement of the method for obtaining contact connections; determination of tYie optimal technological conditions of layout of conductors, limi.t-.iti.on and features for achieving maximal productivity of automated manufacture oC conductin~ wire boards; dev~lopment of algorithms for the process of automated layout of conductors for - n�meri.c controlled machine tools equa.pped with special layout devices; and development of special machine tools with ChPU [numerically programmed control] for. (piston~rovaniye) and la~out of wires. 84 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR nFFICIAL USE ONLY Alt th~� ~tturts ~la~?uecl tu b~ perfurmed in the llth Five-Xear Plan have been incorporated in a comprehensive program for raising the level of the technology for producing PCB's; its implementation by the end of the five-year period will allow obtaining an economic eff ect of 25.2 million rubles and conventionallq releasing ~ver 2,900 personnel. In subsequent articles the authors will go into more detail on suecific questions associated with the technological processes of manufacturing PCB's and the special technological equipment provided for by the comprehensive program. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Kaganov, Ye. A.; Kochetov, Ye. P.; Kravchenko, A. S. and Maksakov, E. P., "Additive Methods of Manufacturing Printed Circuit Boards," ZARUBEZHNAYA RADIOELEKTRONIKA, No 6, 1974. 2. RADIOELEKTRONIKA ZA RUBEZHOM, No 18, 1978. 3. INFORMATSIONNYY LISTOK No 235-79, LMTs. 4. RADIOELEKTRONIKA ZA RUBEZHOM, No 9, 1980. CUPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye". "Pribory i sistemy upravleniya", 1981 8545 CSO: 1863/256 - 85 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 I~t1K ~11~l1~ l~1 l'~I~ ll\1 \ UDC 621.38:776 EXPERIENCE OF ASSIMILATION OF BASE TECHNOLOGY FOR PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURE AT LCNINGRAD ELECTROM~CHANICAL PLANT PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION Moscow PRIBORY I SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA in Russian No 8, Aug 81 pp 30-31 [Article by engineer G. M. Tsetkov] - (Text] The problem of assimilating production of automation equipment and fourth generation computers with the application of LSI, VLSI and microprocessors is in- extricably entwined with the broad introduction of the positive combined method of manufacture that GOST 23751-79 recommended as the base technological process for production of printed circuit boards [PCB's]. Discussed in this article are the features of the new technology for PCB manufacture by the combined method with advance drilling of holes and use of film photoresist and positive screen printing, as well a~ the experienc2 of assimilating and imple- menting this technology in series production on domestic equipment at the enterprise that was one of the first in the sector to practically resol've this problem, the YO LI:MZ [L~ningrad Electromechanical Plant Production Association]. The progressiveness of technology is generally recognized and stesns from the capabil.ity of manufacturing PCB's with increased density of wiring, improved quality and reliability, less manual labor~ and broader application of equipment for automation and mechanization of production. But, as is well known, this process is being introduced into series production slowly. T}~e base method for PCB manufacture was introduced in the Leningrad Electromechan- ica]. Plant Production Association in 1977. The necessary prerequisites for its intr.oduction were created thanks to the large amount of laboratory work and engi- neering preparation of this p.r.ocess. Thus, PCB's were standardized and their type sizes reduced to two main ones: 1.5 x 110 x 140 mm(type A boards) and 1.5 x 140 x 235 .~nm (type B boards); photomasks of the manual layout were processed and manufac- tured by the more precise machine method on the "Minsk-2004" and "Minsk-2005" coordinatographs. The V-479 type domestic machine tools with program control were modified and are now used to drill the PCB's. The boards are d~illed in batches of three to four - units, and the last board is not drilled, but placed first in the next batch to re- - cluce hurrs at the drill entry and exit. Drill bits are hard alloy twist with a durability of. no less than 2,500 holes. Holes are not counterbored. If the size of burrs exceeds 0.04 mm, then smoottiing is necessary, which is done on a unit for 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 _ F'UR OFFICIAL USE ONLY hydroabrasive trimming of the holes. Chemical preparation of the surface in a com- plex with mechanical smoothing is performed on the domestic U759M type jet-,module line. In chemical metallization, a combined solution of activation containing 0.2-0.4 g/1 of PdC12 is used. The stability of operation of the combined solution is S-6 months. The solution is analyzed and adjusted twice a week. After activation, the boards stand in a solution of accelerator (250 g/~. HC1). The solution of chemical copper plating is prepared on the basis of Seignette salt with a low-concentrated content of the main components with a stabilizing additive of thiosulfate of sodium. Twice a day the solution is analyzed and adjusted for the basic components, and filtered once a shift. The stability of operation of the solution of chemical metallization is 1.5 months. Sulfuric acid electrolyte of copper plating is used for preparatory electroplating by S-7 micrometers. Bonding strength of the chemical copper tio the foil is 4C0-500 gs/cm (as defined by OST 4G0.054.223). Prior to application of the film photoresist, preparation of the surface of the copper layer is required; this consists in mechanical conditioning of it by wire brushes made of 0.15-nun diameter stainless steel, cleaning in a two-percent alkaline solution, washing and drying in a special unit. - A dry film water-developed photoresist, brand SPFV (OAYu.504.022TU),is applied with a KP6346 type laminator and the U862 type unit with 110� C temperature of the heat- ing ~lements. The blank boards are fed without preheating. The effective time of exposu:e to the LUF-80 lamps is 3-4 minutes, and to the DRST-1000 lamps is 1.5 minutes. The photolayer is developed in the jet~nodular unit by a one-percent soda ash solution. The coating of copper and tin-lead is applied in standard electrolytes in automatic electroplating machines. A Kh606 type ampere-hour meter is installed in one of the tanks. The photoresist is r.emo�~ed in a ten-percent alkaline solution at normal tetnperature - within 3-S minutes. The nroblem of salvaging the spent solution and scraps of f~~m completely has not yet been solved. Etching is done in an amtaonium peroxysulfate solution. Palladium plating of the thin strip leads is done directly on the copper printed conductor by the group method in a special unit in standard aminochlorid~: electrolyte. - For the palladium coat, the ::urface is prepared by chemical and mechanical methods. The copper conductors are polished in a special G6-228 type unit. A method of positive screen printing has been ~ssimilated with 15 board posittons. Used for screen printing is a single-component, alkali-washahle, ST7..12-51 brand~* _ yellow ink that after drying at 90-100�C (within 20-30 minutes) acquires resistance to acid electrolytes and cures the action of Etching solutions based on cupric ~ chloride, ammonium persulfate and ferric chlorida. The lnk has fine print * (TU 29-02-740--77) 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 1~'~?F2 t?!~l~IC'1~1 1~~1~ i1N11 ~~ruE>~�rt I~~:: :in~l Iti ;~~~~~I l~~cl wLtl? ui~iuu~il masking machines and with PTP-3 type semi- automatic machines ~ising polyurethane squeegees. Blue ST3.13 brand ink (TU 29-02- 489--74) was also tried for positive screen printing. The ink is resistant to acid and alkaline electrolytes and dries in 8-10 minutes with a hot-air (60�C) blower or infrared dryer within 1.5-2 minutes at 100-110�C in the operating zone. However, tliis ink has an important shortcoming: Only organic solutions can wash it cff. To preclude conductor peeling in the PCB produc tion process, before applying ink, the surface has to be treated with qilartz to improve ink adhesion to it or electro- polishing of the boards has to be introduced during chemical copper plating. Ink layer thickness is 30-40 micrometers. In deterr~ining the effect of the bagic - factors of the printing process on the graphic chara:.teristics of the image, the optimal conditions of pressure, rate of printing and slope of the squeegee must be established. Sr_reen masks are made by the direct method using the liquid photopolymerized composition "Fotoset-Zh" (TU 6-15-01-138--77). The technological process of making mask print f orms is as follows: a form frame with the screen tight on it is placed on glass coated with lavsan [Soviet equiva- lent of Dacron], "Fotoset-Zh" is poured on cent er of screen, it is covered with the photomask (previously coated with a five-percen t solution of paraffin in white spirit), smoothed out in thickness using a squeegee, and the excess solution is re- - moved with a pad. The layer on the screen must be even, without bubbles or wrink- les. Then the form is exposed by LT'F-80 lamps for 15-20 minutes. The time for making forms is reduced considerab ly with this technology. This method allows regulating the '�ness of the copy layer. The photopolymerized - composition ensures obtai~:.:.:.o ~.,::~,s with clear edge of the printing element. Repeated use of screen masks is anticipated because they are made on screens of stainless steel Na. 004. The precision of screen printing ensures a pattern with width of conductors and distance b etween thesa of 0.3-0.4 mm. On ttie whole, implementation of the base techno logical pr.ocess for PCB manufacture has made it possible to: improve the quality of drilling of holes and chemical metallization of the boards since thP oi~erations are performed on blanks no t coated with protective lacquer; in tlie process, controlling the quality of performance of these operations is eased considerably; ext~nd tt~e workinfi life of the solutio~.s for chemical metallization; acc~lcrate the manufacturing cycte by removing a number of operations for photo- prin~ing processe~ (coloring, chemical hardenii?g~ thermal hardening) and applica- tion and removal o~ the protective lac~uer; reduce manual labor thanks to mechanization and aitomation of the operations of zppl.ica~ion, development and removal of film photcresist~ and redacing to the mini- mum the necessity of performing the retouching ope.'ation; 88 - FOR OFFICIaL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 I~c)It c11~ FIC'1:11. 1 ~~I~ (/N1.1' almost completely eliminate technological losses in photoprinting operations, which accounted for about 30 percent of the total ?~sses when a light-sensitive esnulsion based on polyvinyl alcohol was used; moreover, the capability of effi- ciently repairing rejects has emerged with full recovery of the labor spent on hole drilling; increase production efficiency and reduce the labor-intensiveness of"PCB manufac- ture by 25-36 percent; and increase the density of wiring of the printed elements to 0.2-Q.3 mm with itaprove- ment of the quality of the rinished boards, which is confirmed by the ob~ective test made on the special automatic machine for checking the circuitry of printed boards 3eveloped at the Len~ngrad Electromechanical Plant Production Association. COPYRIGHT: I~datel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye". "Pribory i sistemy upravleniya", 1981 8545 CSO: 1863/256 89 , ~OR OTFICIAL USF. UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SOFTWARE LIST OF SOVIET ARTICLES DEALING WITH SOFTWARE Moscow ALGORITMY I PROGRAMMY in Russian No G, Jun 81 pp 1-126 [Following is a listing of Soviet entries from ALGORITMY I PROGRAMMY ("Algorithms and Programs"), a bibliographic publication of the USSR State Committee for Science and Technology. This listing is from No 6, 1981] [ ~:xcerpt s ~ ~ 2297. "Teoreticheskiye osnovy kompilyatsii" [Theoretical Fundamentals of Compila- tion]: collection of scientific works, Novo sibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 198Q, 171 pages, bibliography at end of articles. Study of the theoretical fundamentals and applied aspects of the formal description and effecti~~e implementation of programming languages. Key words: method, PASCAL, MEDIFOR-2 ~.nowledge display ianguage, RELYAP rerational programming language, LISP, ALGOL, M-4030, YeS computer, R6U60 minicomputer, macro- generators, KAMAK [CAMAC], physical oceanographer's package of applied pro-;rams, single-variah ~e~,,,polyno a~s, program correctness, language processors, compilation. 2302. Sychev, A.I. "One Method of Automatically Controlling an Archive of Meteor- ological I~formation," TRUDY 7.APADNO-SIBIRSKOGO REGIONAL'NOGO NII, VYP. 49, VOPROSY ItI:~IONAL'PIOY KLIMATOLOGII I M~KHEINIZATSII OBRABOTKI METEOROLOGICHESKOY INFORMATSII [[Jorks of the West Siberian Regional Scientific Rasearch Institute, No 49, Questions RelatinK to Re~ional. Climatology and Mechan ization of the Processing of Meteorolo- _ ~;ical Information], pp 115-117, references 7. Creatlon of a filter for detecting gross errors based on taking into account the chan~;e in mete~~rological elements during adj acent observation periods, detecting _ ce.rtain maximurn deviations and the dates corresponding to them, and implementing this in ALGOL. - 2313. 7.J.obin, V.A. , Sverdlov, L.Z. and Shadrin, A.D. "Use of a Computer in Per- formance of Work on the International Certif ication System," ELEKTRONNAYA TEKHNIKA, SER. 8, UPRAVLENIYE KACHESTVOM, METROLOGIYA, STANDARTIZATSIYA [Electronic Engineer- ing, Series 8, Quality Control, Metrology, Standardization], No 6(84), pp 64~68, references 6. 90 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 !~(/R ()h'h'l('IA1. It~;H' P m o ~ ~ o m~,-+~ o a "~o ~ c~''a ~ ~ ~ r,) ]t; U~ O V1 U O f~ ~d i: P4 rl n-1 r-I U _ p _ ~ E~ 98 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 FOR OFFOCIAL USE UNLY the ef~iciency of ASU by standardizing won~ on the planning and technology of soft- ware creation. At present work is being done in tha.t direction t.~ the 'fisentrprogra.mmsistem" Sci- eztific Production Association (Kalinin)~ the "Lenelektrcnmash" Scientific Produc- tion Assaciation (Leningrad)~ the GNTPI VT (Kazan'), the Scientific Reseaxch Plan- ning Institute of Automa.ted Control Systems (N1PI ASU, Volgo~rad) and other organi- zations. In practice a varian~t of softwase development is selected by the ASU user and de- veloper togeth~. An analysis shows that the quality of the solution of that ques- tion depends to a great degree on the level of occupational training and qualifica,- tions of the participants in creation of the ASU and, in pa.rticula.r, on the quaZ~.- fications of the programmers. For example, if at an enterprise specialists who created.a software system for another enterprise are acting as the developers, then, as a rule, the variant of software development is repeated. Therefore im- provement of the organiza.tion of control of the f~.ind of ~.lgoritlvus and programs and, in particular, the development of a system of estimates of the rea.diness of all standard. software {prima.rily PPP~ will permit dete~�mi.ning the rationa.l vaxiant of software creation under the specific ASUP conditions. The PPP represents a system characterized by a technical and informa.tion ba,se and - program and organizationa.l softarre. As a result of the fact tha.t each package is oriented toward one class or another of computing systems~ the time and cost chax- - acteristics of PPP adaptation and opera.tion will depend to a great degree on the technical~base existing at the enterprise developing the ASU (the computer confi~ux~a.- tion, the operating s si:em, the int~eractive facili..ties, the computer mode of opera- tion, the stores, etc~. Each PPP assumes the presence at the enterprise ~if defin- ite forms and methods of informa.tiori organiza.tion and its collection, prepaxation and perforation; in add.i~ion, as a rule, the information ca,rriers, the file formats and cha,racteristics, the opera.tiona.l and flow technology of proessing, etc, are fixed. The entire aggregate of software of a given package ha.s a strictly deter- mined architecture reflecting the informational and fluxeticnal relations of the programs in the PP (programs flanction, of or~aniza.tion and serving without data., input-output, of da,ta monitoring and transmission, organizing~ etc). In the dis- semination of packa,ging, besides transmission of the program texts (~rint-outs of them on ma.chine media) a large volume of worit is done in connection with improve- ment of documentation for the PPP (besides correspondence of the documentation to the standaxd it is necessary to develop methodical g:iides on the atta.chment and use of the package), maintenance, instruction of users in work with the paakage and other types of work. COPYRIGHT: G osudarstvennyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut nauchnoy i tekhnicheskoy informa.tsii (GOSINTI), 1981 - 2174 cso: 1863/33 ~ 99 FOR OFF7CIAi. U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014023-0 FOR OFFIC'IAI. USE ONLY - i UDC 51:681.3:OQ7 MULTILEVEL STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ?ROGRAMS: FORMALIZATION OF THE METHOD SPHERE OF APP1 ICATIONS Kiev KIBERNETIKA in Russian No 4, Jul Aug 81 pp 42-65 [Article by V. M. Glushkov, G. Ye. Tseytlin and Ye. L. Yushchenko] [Excerpts] Intensive studies on programming technology are underway today.l Work [11] gives a thorough analysis of the bastc problems that arise in tTiis field and notes the significant contrihution to i.ts development made by the Institute of Cybernetics of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences: the method of : formalized technical specifica[ions [18, 191, R-technology [5, 6], and structural progra~ing based on systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA) [10, 22]. The ap- paratus of SAA proposed in 1965 is adequate to tlie conception of structural pro- = gramming which has received universal recognition and broad distribution in recent times [27, 28, 35, 52]. The distinguishing characteristics of the SAA apparatu~ in comparison with other well-known algorittimic systems (for example _ [32]) lies in t~a possibility, owing to its programming orientation, of solving ' ~he problem of a uniform formal description of tfie structures of the algorithms an1 the programs associated with them in the process of their 3oint development. - It shoulci be noted that this pr~blem is comparable in sfgnificance to the problem of joint designing of the hardware and software of contemporary computers [15]. - Fui�ther development of the mathematical foundations of structura"1 progr_amming was embodied in the method of multflevel structural designing of programs ~56, 23J, which combines modified SAA [54, 22] with formal models of languages j9, 20]. The development of progLams using tFie multilevel structural program design method consists in a formal description of them in terms of regular SAA cfiarts at each le~el of design and formalization of the process and level-~iy-level transfeLs by constructing an outlet in the corresponding grammatical model. An- _ other important advantage of the multilevel structural program design technique - 1See "Tr. I. Vsevoyuz, Konf. po Tekfinologii Programmirovaniya. Kiev-79" [Works of tfie lst All-Union Conference on Progra~ing Technology. Kiev-79]; KIBERNETIKA, 1980, No 2; PROGRAMMIROVANIYE, 1980, No 2; UPRAVLYAYLtSHCHIYE SISTEMY I NfASHINY, 1980, No 2. 100 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504010023-0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY is that it is ~oordinated with other welldcnown programming tecfinologies [5, 19, 50, 34]. This makes it possiinle to use this tecfinique in tFie fiigfiast stages of development of algorithms and programs, whicfi makes it possifile later to use the developed apparatus for formalization af data structures and the language 8nd program means available in the well-~kno~r? tecfinologies. The prese.nt article is a survey or results obtained ~zithin tfie framea~ork of structural programming using the multilevel structural program design technique, _ an important direction in theoretical and system programming. In particular we will present results that were given at the all-Union seminar "Structural = Progr.amming in Systems of Algorithmic Algebras Kiev-81.r2 (Works [54, 69, 23] were also devoted to development of tfie mathematical foundations of tfiis line of study.) Section 1 pre.sents the conception of structural design grammars, wfiich is the basis of the multilevel structural program design metfiod. The article proposes a classification of inethods of program development according to ascending, descending, and mixed sr_rategies. The problem of multilevel partial verification of programs, their transformation, and documentation in the process of develop- ment ~~d further accompaniment is formulated on the basis of *he structural - design grammars apparatus. The multilevel structural level program design method is illustrated with a series of programs being designed~ Sectton 2 is devoted to developnent of tlie tools of structural programming by the multilevel structural level design technique. Zhe linguistic and program means which are its foundation are presented. We review the protilem of multi- level optimizing translation within which the rNL'TIPROTSESSIST system is being developed. This system is oriented to automation of structural parallel pro- by the multilevel structural program design technique. Results from application of the multilev~l structural program technique to problems of symbolic procesaing are given in section 3. There is a descriptton of the process of structural design of the PARTRAN (multilevel parallel conveyor- type translator) system and components of minicomputer and microcomputer software. Section 4 gives an abstract model of a homogeneous computing system [29, 30, 39]. Formal means of structural design of parallel programs based on the apparatus of modified SAA ars developed. The article gives results from designing components of homogeneous computing systems software and multimachine complexes. The problem - of automating the deveicpment of stmulation modeling systems for communicattons networks is reviewed. Section S is devoted to results of structural designing in automated control sys- tem problems. The architecture of the TEI~iNOLOG system is revie~red. Tfits syatem is oriented to automating the process of technological preparation for production applying the multilevel structural program design technique. Tfiere is a formal description of the process of structural design of programs to process large files within the framework of a typical automated control. system problem. Prospects 2See "Scientific Information" section of this issue of tfie ~ournal. l0I ~'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 I~()R (1H'1~1('IA1. 1 ~~1~: ()NI.Y ~u, ?urtl~~�~ ~I~w~~l~~~~uu�ut ut a~plltcJ atruc~ural. programming hy the multilevel structural program design method are outlined. Ftgure 1 below illustrates the interrelationship of the theoretical and applied aspects of ~tructural pro-- gramming by the multilevel structural program des~gn mettiod. The results presented in sections 1-3 and 5 were obtained under direction of the authors of this survey. ~ Ac~mpvamNwe ?+odenu Hunemunpoqoccopa6 ~ TQOp(lA N0L11101JyU- ~ ~ QOpUA ~0,7NO/16� ~D(IHHWX fAA HdX A~dKC16 MPmod ~ . Mcnn~ ) aNnnucm Nw~mur~ napmpaH MO wu~ur MO OBC e.womt ~5) 4e[um 7 3BN ~9~ ~10 6 Figure 1. Piultilevel Structural Program Design and Its Applications. Key: (1) Abstract Models of Multiprocessors; (2) Theory of Modified SAA; (3) Theory of Formal Languages; (4) Multilevel Structural Program Design Method; (5) ANALIST; (6) MUL'TIPROTSESSIST; (7) PARTRAN; (8) Minicomputer Software; (9) Software of Homogeneous Computing Systems; (10) TEKHNOLOG. This approach to setting up subsystems for operational accounting for production was successfully used in setting up a subsystem of the automated control system of the Mikhaylovsk Mining and Concentrating Comhine. Tfie su6system was formu- lated independently by the structural and nonstru~tural approacfies (see Table 3 below). In addition, it should 6e noted that tTie structuxal approacli made it 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500010023-0 , F()R ()FF9~'IA1. [ 1fiF. ONI.Y Tabla 3. Feature of Development Structural Approacfi Nonstructural Approach Total. Development T~ime 91 Days lk2 Days . Development of Algorithms and P'rograms 24 Days 52 Dap~ Full-8cale Debugging 5 Aours 12 Hours ~ Volume of Complex 560 Operatfons 753 Operations possiUle to obtain understan3able prog~ams that are easily modified and convenient ro accompany. In canclusion we will observe that as applied structural progra~ning by the multi- ' level structural program design technique develops fLrther it is contemplated thar the following will be worked out: - apparatus for context control o.E output to structural de- sign grsmmars to insure a flexit:le in~terface between the program modules under develop~ent and to see that efficient - decisions are made in the process of tfieir structural design; - system of multilevel parallel verification and transformation of the circuits of the structured programs on the basis of _ further development of the ANALIST package; - multilevel interactive optimizing translation-type system from the fa~nily of SAA-charz languages based on further _ development of the MUL'TIPkOTSESSIST system; - the PARTRAN system, components of homogeneous computing systems, _ minicomputers and microcomputers, and the TEKFIIdOLOG system in which the MUL'TIPROTSESSIST system will be used as a tool; - formal apparatus for deacribing the functioning of a collective of developers in the process of compiling large program com- plexes by the multilevel structural program design method; - course of programmed teaching in the multilevel structural program design method based on the STOK system. FOOTNOTES 23. V. M. Glushkov, G. Ye. Tseytlin, and Ye. L. Yusficfienko, "Problems of Analyaie and Synthesis of Structured Parallel Programs," KIHERNETIKA, 1981, No 3, p~ 1-16. _ 54. G. Ye. Tseytlin, "The Problem of Identity Transformations of tfie Circuits of Structured Programs with Closed Logical Conditiens, parts 1-3," KIBERNETIKA, 1978, No 3, pp SO-57; No 4, pp 10-18; 1979, No S, pp 44-51. 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500010023-0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500014023-0 i�~~~i ~?i~ii~~i~i i~~i ~?~vi~ i b~). ll. Y~~. 'l'at~ytllTi, "Ay~~l~rm:~tica