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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 ~ FOR OF~ICIAL U~E ONLY - JPRS L/ 1 Q247 1 ~ January 1982 USSR Re ort ~ _ CONST~UCTION AND EQUIPMENT (FOUO 1 /82) Fg~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONL i' ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020016-7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign _ newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [TextJ or [~xcerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was orocessed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extractPd. Unfamiliar names r~ndered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been suppl.ied as appropriate in context. - Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. Th~ contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF - MATERIALS REPRODUCED HERE.''V REQUIRE THA~ DISSEMINATIQN OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020016-7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10247 11 January 1982 ~ USSF REPORT - CONTRUCTION AND EDUIPMENT , (FOUO 1/82) CONTENTS CONSTRUCTION Book Excerpts: Construction Taska of llth Five-Year Plan (I~ NOVYM RUBEZHAM V STROiTEL'STVE (ITdGI DFSYATOY I ZADACHY ODINNADTSATOY PYATILETKI V SVETE RESHENIY XXVI S'YEZDA KPSS), 1981) 1 CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY - for Revamping Machinery-Overhaul System Postulated (A. Nemchinskiy; VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, Sep 81) 8 METALWORKING ~QUIPMENT . ~ Ma.chinebuilding Fqsipment Repair Centralization Effectiveness Substantiated - (T. Ben', Yu. Kostin; EKONOMIKA SOVETSKOY UKRAINY, Oct 81). 20 Optimizing Effectiveness of Machinery and Equipment Overhaul Schedule~ - (M. 11'yenchenko; EKONOMIKA SOVETSKOY UKRAINY, Oct 81) 28 Improving Metalworking-Equipment Inventory Structure in Machine Building ~ (STAIVKI I INSTRUMENT, Aug 81) 34 _ a _ [III - USSR - 36a FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 , FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY CON~~RUCTION BOOk EXCERPTS: CONSTRiJCT'ION TaSKS OF lith FIVE-YEAR PLAN Moscow h NOVYM RUI3EZHAM V 5TROITEL'5TVE (ITOGI DESYATOY I ZADACHI ODINNADT~ATb7 PYATILETKI V SVETE RESHENIY XXVI S"YEZD~A ~PSS) in Russian 1981 (signed to press 29 Oct 81) pp i, 9-19, 64 [Annoi,s~:::~n, i;able of contents and one chapter of the book, "To New Fronti~rs in Construction (Res~:~lts of ~he lOth and Tasks of the lith Five-Year Plan in Light of the llecisions of the 26th CPSU Congress)" by Deputy Chair,~an of USSR Gosstroy Ivan - Ivanovich Ishchenko, candidate of engineering scienaes, RSFSR Distinguished Build- er and USSR State Prize wir.ner, Znaniye, 25,240 copies, 64 pages] [Text] Raising the effectiveness and the technical level is one of the main tasks set for the builders by the 26th CPSU Congress during the ilth Five-Year Plan. The brochure examines the ~ath of further development of the industrialization of con- struction--improvement of design solutions, expansion of the use of progressive str.ucture and materials, and an incrPase in the mechanization of operations. Much attet~tion has been given to reducing the material and labor resources used and to improving technology, organizatian and management in construction. The brochure is intended for engineers and technicians of design and cons~ruction organizations and construction-industry enterprises, as well as for lecturers and propagandists. Table of Contents Page Introduction 3 Itesull;s of the lOth I'ive-Year Plan . 5 'r.-'. Tasks for Capital Construction lluring the 11Lh F~ive-Year Plan 9 Techriical Progress in llesigri 2U ~tret~gi;hening the Industrialization Base for Construction 28 The Improvement of Technology, 0'rganization and Control in Construction..... 5'L ' I3ibliography 63 Tasks fur Capital Construction During the 11th Five-Year Plan "The Main Directions far Social and r,conomic Development of the USSR's National Economy During 1981-1985 and lluring the Period up to 1990," which was adopted by the 26th CPSU Congress, set the total amount of capital investment that will be aimed at developing and strengthening the country'G economy during the 11th Five- Year Plan. This capital investment is aimed at speeding up the deve].opment of all 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020016-7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY types of transport and communications, at assimilating the natural resources of.r!ew regions, and at regularizing the siting of productive forces, and also at carrying out the program for further raising the material and.cultural living conditions of the Soviet people,for imp~oving the sanitary conditions of the environment, and ' for building ;:ousi:~g and all uther facilities of the nonproduction sphere. - During the lith Five-Year Plan capital investment will.rise by 12-15 percent. Con- - struction and installing work will be 350 billion rubles higher, c~hich is much more than during the lOth Five-Year Plar,: A most important task of capital construction is that of using capital investment _ effectively--improving fixed capital qualitatively, introducing production capacity into operation quickly, and speeding up the rebuilding of existing ~.nterprises. The reconstruction and reec~uipping of existing enterprises is one of the main ways to further the progres~ of industry during the iith Five-Year Plan. The "Main Di- rec:tions" emphasize: "Direct capital investment primarily to the reconstruction and technical reequipping of enterprises and to completing previously started con- struction projects. Start the erection of new enterpr~ses and the expansion of ex- ist~ng ones in cases where the national economy's requirements for a given type of product cannot be met by improvir~g the use of r:oduction eapacity, taking ~t?e recon- struction and reequipping thereof intu account. - This trend was born back in the 1970's, in the Central Urals. During the five-year plan, 1.1 billion rubles' worth of industrial output wss produced at Sverdlovskaya Oblast enterprises that had been subjected to modernization and reconstruction. In - so doing, 600 million rubles of capital investment were saved over what would have been required for new construction. The a,nnual economic benefit was 11U I[11111011 rubles, anc. the average period for recoupir~g the costs was less than 2 years. The experience of the Sverdlovskaya Oblast ~nterprises was approved by the CPSU Central Committee and recommended for dissemination. Much was done in tnis field during the lOth Five-Year Plan. Thus, at the Magnito- gorsk Metallurgical Combine blast furnace No 2 was completely renovated in a short time and annual pig-iron production here inereased 200,000 tons. The production of ~ii,LumuLive sheet stecl r~se by 3~DU,000 i:ons, thanks to the rebuilding of the "2~00" hot rc>lling mill. Mudernization of the equipment at the slabbing mill and the second blooming mill brought still gx~eater effectiveness. The updating of plan~s and factories in Moscow, Leningrad, Ivanovskaya, Zaporozhskaya, Vostochno-Kazakh- stanskaya, Kemerovskaya, Kuybyshevskaya and other oblasts proved convincingly that rceqaipping existing enterprises with machinery is extraordinarily suitable, since it provides greater eff'ectiveness per unit of expenditures for output and rapid recoupment of funds. - 'i'echnical reequipping and reconstruction will be developed further. Many enter- prises of ferr~us and nonferrous metallurgy, machinebuilding and the coal, chemical and petrochemical industries will be renovated on that basis. The Kulomna and Voroshilovgrad Diesel-Locomotivebuilding Plants, the Bryansk Machinebuilding Plant, the Penza Diesel-Engine Plant, the Pavlodar Tractor Plant and a number of other plants are to be rebuilt. Enterprises of light industry and the construction in- dustry are to be subjected to reequipping. The Urals, the Ukrain~;, Belorussia and Lhe industrialized Central Economic Region of the USSR will become the main regions where rebuilding will receive preferential development and new construction will be restricted. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024416-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IL is planned to erect new enterprises primarily in branches of the econc,my and at producti~: facilities that will support progressive shifts in the structure of so- - cial production and involvement of the fuc.l-and-gower ar~d mineral raw-material resources of the country's eastern and north~rn regions in the economi.c turnover. Based upon this, capital investmeni~ for new ~onstruction will be aimed, as a rule, - ~ at implementing huge national economic programs, such as establishing regional pro- duction complexes (Kansk-Achinsk, South Yakutia, Pavlodar-Ekibastuz, Sayany, West Siberia and Timan-Pechora), the creation of energy-int~nsive production facilities in Siberia and Kazakhstan and the erection of n~w hydraulic-engineerin~ and thermal and nu~lear electric-power stations. In particular, thermal electric-pawer sta- tions that use the inexpensive coals o~ the Nyurengri, Ekibastuz and Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basins, as well as the natural gas and casin~-head gas of West Siberia's fields,will be built at an accelerated pace. In order to tr~.-~smat energy to the country's central zc;nes, power transmission lines that are unique in length and voltage will be built: the first phase of th~ Ekibastu~-CEntral Economic Region power lir.e of 1,500 kilovolts DC and the Ekibastuz-Urals power line of 1,15U kilo- volts A,C. The construction of nuclear power stations in the country's European , portion will receive priority: 24-25 million kilowatts of new capacity will be introduced. ' lliring the ll~:h Five-Year Plan production facilities will be built drith aA eye to _ imp:oving the siting of productive forces and use of the productive potential and the natural and labor resources of the various economic regions in the coun- try's unified national economic complex. 1 ~ In the RSk'SR's Nonchernozem Zone, new capacity will go into operation at the Chere- povets Metallur�gical Plant, additional capacity for making paper will be created at the Syktyvkar r'orest~ry Industry Complex, and capacity will go into operation at the Smolenskaya, Kalininskaya an3 Kurskaya AES's. In the Central Chernozem Region, the forming of a regional production complex based on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly wi1.1. continue, and the first phase of the Oskol Elec- trometallurgy Combine will go into operation. In L-he Volga region, the forming of an industrial cluster for recovering a~nd pro- cessing gas and gas condensate and for producing sulfur based on the Astrakhan gas- con~iensa~e i'ield, will be start~d. Capacity at the Cheboksarskaya and NizhnP- Kamskaya GI?S's and also at the Balakovskaya AES will be put into operation. In the North Caucasus, capacity at the Atommash plant, the Novocher~kassk Elec- = Lr�ic-Locomotivebuilding Plant and the Rostovskaya AES w:ll g~ into operation. - In the Urals, as bei'ore, the main efforts of the builders will be aimed at rebuild- ing and reequipping industr�ial enterprises, and, in Siberia, at es~~ab~ishing re- ~ional production complexes. A new stage is beginning--the buildup of an entire complex of' branches of industry and of production-servicing facilities. The intro- - duction into operation of the first capacity at the Tob~i'slc and Tomsk plants will lay the groundwork for the ~Nest-Siberian petrochemical base, which will become the country's largest. In this region, enterprises will be erected for processing casing-head gas and for producing equipment for the oil, gas and chemical indus- tries and for other facilities. � - 3 FUR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In Krasnoyarskiy Kray the machinebuilding base will be strengthened thanks t~ Lhe - i.ntroduction into operation of large capacity at the Krasnoyarsk Heavy Excavator Plant, ~he Abaks,n Railroad-Carbuilding Plant. and electrical-equipment enterprises of ~Iihusinsk. New capacity at the Sayany Aluminum Plant will be introauced. In the Far East the construction of production facilities will provide for furth~ ~ development of nonferrous mPtallurgy and the oil-refining,~fishing, lumber, wood proce~sing and pulp-and-paper industries. Erection of the Primorskaya GRES and the Kolymskaya GES will be completed, and a metallurgical conversion plant will be built. In the Ukrainian SSIt, along with the rebuilding and technical :~eequipping of en- terprises of the coal industry, metallurgy, machinebuilding and other branches, new capacity will go into operation at by-product coke plants and enterprises that pro- duce mineral fertilizer and automotive tires and at the electric-motor plant in Uzhgorod. In the Belorussian SSR, expansion of the agricultural machinery plant in Gomel', the Brest carpet-and-cloth cumbine will be completed, and a metallurgical conver~- sion plant will be buiYt. New capacity will go into operation at Novopol4tsk's - ~ Polimer production association. In the Uzbek SSR, capacity for producing copper and for mining lead-and-zinc ores _ at the Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine and for producing steel and rolled products at the Bekabad plant will rise. Capacity will be put into operation at the Tashkent Tractor Plant and the Angren.skaya GRES-2, at cot~on combines in the cities of Andizhan and Nukus, and at knitwear and other enterprises of light indus- try and the food industry. In the Kazakh SSR, a large amount of construction is to be done to strengthen the raw-materials base and to develop ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and the coal, chemical and petrochemic:al industries. Capacity will go into operation at the - K~char Mining and Concentrating Combine for mining iron ore and in the Karatau F�.~sin and in Aktyubinskaya Oblast for mining phosphate, and for the production of ~�ellow phosphorus and mineral fertilizer. Construction of the Chimkent Oil Refin- ery will be comple+.ed. lri Lhc Ceurgian ~SR, a plant for making equipment f~r cableways will be built, and new capacity for processing tea leaves and wine anc9 for mine.rai water will be put into operation. Erection of the Zhinval'skiy ~ydraulic-engineering com- plex will be completed, construction of the Khudonskaya GES will continue, and con- struction uf the NamakYivanskaya GES will start. In the Azerbaijan SSR, plants of the Azerelektroterm Association, plants of spe- - cialized motor versicles and deepwater foundations will go into operatian, alsv the ;~hamkhorskaya GE5 and the Azerbaidzhanskaya GRES and new chemical-enterprise capa- city in Sumgait. I.I1 the Lithuanian SSR, c~ns~;ruction of trie second phase of the Mazheykyay Uil Re- f'inery, ttie Vil'nyusskaya T~Ts and the first phase of the Ignalinskaya AES is to be complcted, and enterprises for processing flax are t~ be rebuilt. . 4 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020016-7 In the Moldavian SSR, construction o�'r a plant for colored television sets and the - Rezin Cement Plant will be completed, the erection of plants for ;~roducing machines for gathering tomatoes and for mechanizing work in orchards a~nd vineyards will be promoted. , In the Latvian SSR, construction of the Daugavpilsskaya GES and the development ~af seaports will be promoted, and light industry will he reequipped with machinery. In the Kirghiz SSR, a gold-ore combine and capacity at the Tash-Kumyrskaya GES will go into operation, erection of the Kurpsayskaya GES will be c~mpleted, and the con- struction of a tin-ore enterprise will be started. In the Tajik SSR, the erection of the Yavan Electrochemical Plant will be contin- ued, construction of the Rogunskaya GES wil.l be promo~;ed, the Baypazinskaya GES will be put into operation, ~nd the cotton combine it~ Uushanbe and the silk combine in Leninabad will be reequipped with machinery. In the Armenian SSR, capacity at the Razdan INachinebuilding Plunt, the lift-truck plant and the perfume factory wi~l be pui; xnto operation, and nonferrous-metall~irgy and chemical-industry enterprises will be rebuilt. - In the Turkmen SSk, the construction of a carpet combine in Bezme-in and uf a fac- tory for nonwov:.n materials in Chardzhou will be completed, and the cotton combine in Ashkhabad will be modernized. In the Estonian SSR, ~he shale-processing industry will be reequipped, and the Krengol'mskaya Manufaktura cotton combine, as well as other light-industry and . food-industry enterprises will ae rebuilt. As before, the construction of housing and facilities for cultural and personal- amenity purpc.,es will be developed at a rapid pace. The social program calls for the introduction into use of new housing with a total area of 530-54U million square meters, improvemerit of the comfort and amenities of the apartments, and the construction of a substantial number of facilities for public health and cultural purposcs. It is planned to complete conversion to the construc~~ion of housing built from standard designs with improved layout and finish work of the apartments. Itural builders are ~u do a large amount of work. During the ilth Five-Year Plan the share of' resources allocated to agricultural development will be no'less than during Lhe lOth I~ive-Year Plan, and capital investment for building housing, chil~ dren's preschool institutions, clubs and so on will be increased by 39 percent. - The erection of district-heating and centralized gas-supply grids and of water sup- ply and sewerage systems, and also of on-farm roads, will be expanded. Systems for irrigating 3.4-3.6 million hectares of land, for draining 3.7-3.9 million hectares ' and for flooding 26-28 million hectares of pasture will be created through state f'unding. Work on land reclamation and the agricultural development of land will be coni:inued in integrated fashion. Large water-resources construction is planiied for the North Caucasus and the Kulunda, Dzhizak and Ka.rshi steppes and also for devel- opment uf the Dunay-Dniester and Kakhovka irrigation systems and the erection of the se~ond phase of the Dnepr-Donbass [Donets Coal Basin] Canal, a third phase of.the North Crimean canal and of the Azov irrigation system. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020016-7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY During the llth Five-Year Plan branches of the production infrastructure will be further developed. Investment for strengthening rail transport will grow 1.3-fuld. _ Uuring five-year plan the builders of the BAM [Baykai-Amur Mainline] will pro- vide for through train traffic for the whole length of the mainline, and then the potential will be opened up for involvin~ the most rich resources found in this zone in the econQmic turnover. It is planned to erect 112 kilometers of subway lines. To the existing 7 lines, subways in Minsk, Yerevan, Gor'kiy and Novosibir::�, will be added. Almost 12,000 kilometers of petroleum-product pipeline will be built, 5-fold more than during the lOth Fiv~-Year Plan. Construction of the hard- topped highway ne~work will be continued, primarily in Siberia, the Far East and the Nonchernozem Zone of the RSFSR. In regions of Siberia and the Far Fast it is planned to strengthen river-fleet port activities. High goals have been estab- lished also for the development ot communications. ConsLruction programs will be implemented during a continuous growth in the effec- - tiveness of construction work i.tself. During the five-year plan labor productivity should rise 15-17 percent, and the entire amount of conctruction and installing _ work is planned to be carried out without an increase in the industry's worker man- _ ning. This task is lower than for the five-year pls but each percent of labor productivity has become substantially more meaningful. The fact is that the main source of growth in labor productivity will, as in previ- ous years, be a further rise in the level of industrialization and in the degree of factory preparation of constructional structure and buildi:l~ materials. A1- though the potential here has not decreased in comparison with the previous period, real.izing it is becoming increasingly complicated. For example, it is hardly possible to solve the task of complete prefabrication of construction with rein- forced-concrete structure alone, with which "boxes" of buildings are already being erected now at a high engineering le~~el; the cost of such a box, as a rule, does not excezd 50 percent of the total cost of construction of that part of the build- ing. The "stuffing" and decoration of a building (erection of the interior - structure, the installation of utilities equipment, and so on) are still being car- ried out, as a rule, by traditional, nonindustrialized methods. In most cases ev~:r~ partitions are ma,de out of piece-type materials and then plastered. Wet pro- ccsses are still practically the only method for doing finishing work. - Further industrialization of construction means not only growth and improvement in the production of traditional prefabricated structure for the boxes of buildings, but primarily the conversion to progressive methods for all types of work, such as ths installation of partitions, floors, suspended ceilings and roof coverings, thermal and sound insulation, the installation of the building's utility systems, surface fi.nish work, and so on. All this should be carried out with materia2s and artic~es fully fabricated at the factory so that at the construction site, con- struction processes will be reduced down to the simplest operations of assembly, installation, glueing, spreading out, and so on. The essence of it consists, con- - sequently, in further intensifying the integra~ed industrialization of construc- - tion, primarily in work with a high level of labor expenditure. In order to solve this problem, th~ variet;~ of factory-made items produced for construction needs should be expanded, and they should be shipped to the construction sites in fin- ishedf'orm and in complete sets, with all the necessary materials and articles. During the llth Five-Year Plan construction shou]d be accomplished on a higher or- ganizational and technical level than cluring the past five year, with more effective use of supply, equipment, financial and labor resources. For this 6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY ~ purpose it is necessary to concentrate capital investment and the efforts of ccn- struction and installing organizations at the most important construction projects and on a limited number of facilities being erected simultaneously and to develop and execute the practical measures for impraving capital investment contemplated by ~the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Minist�~rs decree of 12 July 1979, "On the Improvemer~t of Planning and Stren~thenin~ of the Influence of the Economic M~~hanism on Increasing Production Efficiency and Work Quality." Active realiza- tion of the indicated measures will lead to a reduction in construction time, ac- celerate the introduction of facilities into operatiun and reduce the amounts of uncompleted construction (right now it is almost 9~ percent of the annual capital investment volume). Cne of the important tasks of construction during the lith Five-Year Plan is a re- duction in the amounts of material r~sources u5ed. It is known that construction consumes enormous amounts of various typ~s of material. Therefore, a reduc'cion in ~he materials intensiveness of capital construction is, very likely, of paramount i~nportance among measures for increasing its effectiveness. And this means not only a reduction in the amounts of resources consum~:d but also a reduction in the labor intensiveness, construction time and cost ~f �recting buildings and struc- tures. Given the ~urrent amounts of construction, a reduction in consumption of material resources by an average of even 1 percent would yield a saving of 450 mil- lion r�ubles, That is why the "Main Directions" for the national economy's develop- ment during t;he ilth Five-Year Plan calls for a reduction in the consumption of rolled ferrous metal and of lumber by 7-9 percent and of cement by 5,7 percent dur- ing construction work as a most important task. ~ Persistent and universal improvement ~f construction on the basis of industrializa- tion, the effective use of capital investment, improvement in the organization of construction work and of the labor of wagt :vo:Kers, the wide introductior. of pro- gressive technologies and construction methods, a rise in ths level of the mechani- - zation of construction and installing work, an improvement of design so].utions and the economical use of material resources--these are the paths that should enable the fulfillment of the lith Five-Year Plan capital-construction tasks at a high technical and economic level. COPYItiGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Znaniye'~, 1981 ~ 11409 r CSO: 18`L1/031 . 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020016-7 FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY PR7~1CiYLES FOR REVAMPING MACH~NERY-OVERHAUL SYSTEM POSTULATED Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIhI in Russian No 9, Sep 81 (signed to press 'L Sep 81) pp 44- 54 [Article by A. Nemchinskiy: "Overhaul of the Machinery Pool"] - L1'exi:l The necessity for maintaining~machinery, equipment and transport in operat- = ing readiness lends national econ~mic importance to improvement of the system for repair~ing l.hem. The disrepair of just 1 percent of the eountry's machinery pool freezes an active portion of fixed producti~n capital that costs 5.5 billion ru- bles. Considering tha~ the share of equipment out of commission in various bran- ches of material production ran.;es from 3-5 percent to 1U-15 percent or more, the _ yield on capital for the machinery pool is reduced ~onsiderably. However, the na- tiona~ economy's losses are not confined tu this, since the normal operation of - many industrial lines and of whole production facilities is disturbed because vari- ous units break down. The rapid equipping of the national economy with compli- cated and expensive equipment intensifies the urgency of the.problem with each year, since a reduction of the operational readiness factor of the machinery pool increasingly affects the effectiveness level of social production. Tuchnical sPrvicing and current overhaul are required for most equipment. Inter- medi.ate repair of certain types of equipment is, in essence, a variety of current rcpair. Bui,, while the complex of repair work, which ~includes technical servi- cing and current repair, has been aimed mainly at maintaining the users' value of the machinery, overhaul is designed for partial restoration of ~:~;t~ As K. Marx pointed out: "Repair work is divided, further, into current repair and overhaul. - The lal:ter is partially a restoration of fixed capital in its natural form...."' Consequently, overhaul occupies an important place in the prooess of reproduction of' machines, aiic~, ir~ essence, is one of its forms. It is desirable to examine the machinery uverhaul pr~ublem in integrated fashion, it~ interdependency with other I'or~ms uY reproduction,as a function~of the retirement of~obsolete machines and the arrival of new ones, and the technical and economic indicators and the reliability and durability of the machines. It is apparent that only a systems approach to solving the problem will enable the path for raising overhaul effectiveness to be - determined. _ 'Marx, K. and ~ngels, F., Soch. (Works], Vol 24, pages 198-199. ~ 8 FOR JFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024416-7 F" . OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Moderz Status of Overhaul For many types of equipment, expenditures for repairing machines exceed substan- tially the cos~s for producing them. Thus, according to USSR Minsel'khoz [Minist~y of Agriculture], expenditures for repairing tractors used in agriculture is 2.5- foid that of ~he costs of manufacturing them. Total expenditures for laeeping up the efficiency of the E-652 excavator, which is used in construction,have reached 22,000 rublea, or 25A percent of the original cost. In this case metal consumption during repair of the excavator during its service life is 21-22 tans, or more than 100 percent of its weight. Such a situation engenders extremely questionable opin- ions about the desirability of overhaul. Meanwhile, the high co::,t of overhaul results from economically ineffective ~rgani- zation. Different ministries and agencies overhaul like types of equipment (motor ' vehicles, machine-tool equipment and construction and road ~aachines, as well as certain other types), breeding a multitude of dwarf semicottage-industry repair enterprises that have the very same purpose and are often located next to each other. The quality of their repair work is low, and operating costs are intolera- bly high, Motor-vehicle overhaul is perfarmed, for example, at 2,UU0 enterprises which are subordinate to more than 40 ministries and agencies, and agricultural machinery is repaired at more than 2,000 enterprises, construction and road machinery at 369 plants and 1,850 departments and shops. MacP,ine-tool equipment (metal-c;utting and woodworking machines and so on) are repaired in the departments and shops of 70,000 industrial Tr~e degree of support of machinery with spare parts and articles is assessed at 30 to 75 percent, for construction and road machinery 40-50 percent, of the total re- quirement therefor. Under these circumstances, enterprises are compelled to manu- facture parts independently, at higher cost and with lower quality. For example, a spur gear that costs 20 rubles and 40 kopecks, according to the price lists, costs 102 rubles and 22 kopecks when fabricated at Dneproekskavatsiya Trust plants, or 5 times as much. Moreover, the repair capacity is used to produce noncharacteris- tic output that should come from machinebuilding enterprises. 1'he lack of specializatiun of repai.r enterprises and the primitive repair technolo- gy promote the preservation of obsolete individual, or so-called sidetrack, re- pair. Technological specialization is practically absent and only for automotive transport is it evaluated at 5 percent of the total amou,-~t of repair work, and parts specialization does not exceed 10-11 percent, while object repair is 88-95 percent. For a number of reasons, progressive methods for machinery repair.(compo- nent-and-assembly and periodic replacement of repair sets--PZRK) still occupy~ a small share in t;he overall repair-work volume, reducing the effectiveness of ineasures for maintaining machines in operating eondit~on. At the same time, overhaul of a major portion of the'equipment remains an economi- cally rational way for reproducing machines. This is occasioned by the nonuniform- ity of durability of equipment components and parts, and by the necessity for re- placing them periodically to preserve the efficiency of the machine as a whole. Mainly ~naterial deterioration is eliminated during overhaul. However, it must be considered that "material deterioratio:~ of a machine is dual in nature. One kind arises from its use--as a coin is worn from being circulated--the other comes from~ 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' nonuse of it--as a sword rusts in a scabbard from disuse....Deterioration of the first type is more or less directly pro~.ortional to the amount of use of the ma- chine, whiie deterioration o~ the second kind is to a known degree inversely pro- - portional to use.1z This situation is of gr~at importance when solving questions of the interdependence of the degree of use of equipment and the amount of over- haul. In order to increase overhaul effectiveness, it must be kept in mind thai "in addition to material depreciation a machine is also subject, so to speak, to obsolescence. It lc~ses exchange value to the extent that machines of the same de- sign become cheaper ;o reproduce or better machines enter into competition~~,~aith it. In both cases, regardless of how new and viable a machine may be, its value is determined no longer by the worktime that has actually been invested in its produc- tion, but by what is necessary now for reproduction of the very same machine or for the reproductio~i of a better machine."' lluring overhaul it is possiblP to reduce somewhat a machine's obsolescence by re- placing key components with ones that are better perfected or by combining overhaul with modernization as one of the forms of reproduction of the machine, the main task of which is to be a countermeasure to obsolescence. Industry peculiarities and the specifics of the equipment (for example, maritime - ships, agricultural machinery, railroad rolling stock and others) require a dif- ferentiated approach to solution of the overhaul problem. At the same time: it is necessary to examine ways for raising effectiveness in supporting the life cycle of inechanization equipment and transport that are common to all (or to most) industries. These include: the conduct of a unified technical policy for the creation and re- pair of machines; the determination of economically desirable service lives for equipment and the relationships of amortization deductions to renovation and over- haul; the establishment of economically rational limits to overhaul, taking into ac- - count industry anu regional peculiarities of operation of the machines, as well as the potential for providing new equipment; optimization of the proportions between cur�rent repair and overhaul of 1:he equipment; the selection of effective methods - (in Lc:chn~Ju~ical and economic plans) for overhaul.; the industrialization of repair, b~~sed upon the specialization of enterprises and of technological repair lines ; the or~anization of' a unified interagency system of repair enterprises; and the crea- tion of reserves for x�eplacing equipment that is being rep aired (an exchange inven- tory of machines). Despite specific peculiarities in the repair of different machines, certain groups of them are close with respect to technology and organization of repair. These are, primarily, mobile equipment (the motor-vehicle fleet, agricultural machines, mechanized-construction, road and land-reclamation equipment) and stationary ma- chinc-ta~l equipment (metal-cutting tools, and the equipment of light industry and ccrtain other branches of industry). The economic essence of overhaul can be examined in terms of renewal of the user's value of the machines, if a reduction in their value precluQes further functioning of them as i.mplements of labor and interrupts the process of transferring a portion of their value into output. Repair is occasioned by the r~eed for partial _ 'Marx, Karl. and F.ngels, F., Soch., Vol 23, page 415. 'Marx, Karl and Engels, h'., Soch., Vol 23, page 415. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY - , replacemer.t for deterioration of the machinery. Overhaul (as distinguished _ from restoration) does not restore completely the equipment's potential. Thus, the productivity of construction machinery after overhaul is 7-12 percent less, while _ maintenance expenditures are 8-12 percent higher than is the case with new machines. _ Where there is economic justification for long-term repair volume, it should be considered that the overhaul requirement is reduced as a machine's various compo- nents approach each other in uniformity of durability. In the ideal case, when the service lives of the assemblies and components of a machine are equal or very, near- ly alike, the requirement for overhaul disappears, and it is desirable to replace the machine with a new one. Along with the common tendency to reduce the amount of repair for certain types of complicated and high-capacity mach~.nes (where an ap- proximat-ion of uniformity in component durability is difficult to achieve), over- haul remains an economically effective for:n of reproduction of fixed production capital for the foreseeable future. Modeling of a Subsystem of Overhaul Within the System for Reproduction of the Machinery Pool . Increasing overhaul effectiveness has necessitated that it be modeled as a process for the reproduction of machinery. It is natural that the pace of delivery of new _ machines and the total requirement therefor will affect the amount of overhaul. If shipments of machines cannot provide for the replacement of those falling into disuse, then a definite and frequently unjustified increase in repair volume oc- curs. A dilemma therefore arises: ~ither write off the worn machines or extend their service lives by one more overhaul or even a poorly effective restoration re- pair but save expenditures of live labor and support fulfillment of the production tasks. - The choice of a rational technology and organization for repair greatly affects the - effectiveness of equipment overhaul and repair-enterprise capacity. The assembly- and-component method is effective at present in the planned preventive-maintenance system. However, its wide applicatiun is being held back by the lack of, a reserve - of assemblies and components for establishing an exchange inventory, and also by an insuff'icicr~cy of high-capacity specialized plants for repairing these components. Introduction of the assembly-and-component method will enable a reduction of repair, timc to one-half to one-third, as well as of time and costs for transporting the machines to and from repair, since the overhaul is done directly at the mechaniza- - tion center~. With this method, the labor intensiveness of repair is reduced by 40- 50 percent, operating casts by 8-12 percent, and transport expenses by an average of 30-40 percent. The overhaul of' machinery is transformed into a planned system of replacing assem- blies and components that have short working lives where the residual value of the - assemblies (or romponents) that have exhausted their service lives is minimal. In the long term it will be possible to convert to a system of diagnosing the operat- ing condition of each machine in order to determine the degree of its actual ma- terial deterioriation and to regulate measures for repair of the equipment. In determining the economically rational limits for overhauling equipment,the ratio of a machine's residual value and overhaul cos~s to thebenefit of operating the equip- ment afi;er the overhaul can be used. Obviously, economically rational limits for repair are established differentially for different machines. - 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY '1'he ini:erdependence of the ways to reproduce machines with alternative solutions for the structure of the pool thereof cai, be presented in the form of a balance-sheet model for the reproduction of machines. When e~onomically justifying a process for reproducing ma:.hines, it is desirable to consider the following factors: the cost - of replacing machines that are falling into disuse, expansion of the machinery pool, depending upon gro;ath in ;he amounts and change in the structure of opera- tions, and the creation of a reserve of machin~s. The total value of the machinery p~ol will be determined by the total of the attributed-cost indieators, by model and by group of machines. The total value of a pool of machines at a given period of their reproduction is - characterized by the sum of the indicated constituents, taking into account correc- tion factors for change in the struct~ure of operation in the industry and regional plans, as well as the level of intensification of the use of inechanized equipment. A machine pool can be reproduced through overhaul, modernization or the arrival of new machines. Each of these forms of reproduction has its own share in the repro- duction process at different stages, depending upon specific oonditions. A balance-sheet equality of requirements and reproduction of the machinery pool in accordance with a consolidated model is dynamic and that, in turn, requires a fore- casting for each of the indicators, by period of anticipation, of the estimated - requirements for machines and for amounts of overhaul. Since the replacement of - old by new fixed capital does not result in equ~lity of their production potential, it becomes necessary to make a comparative assessment. It is desirable that the comparative analysis be made by set of indicators. Spe- cific indicators (or indices) that refer to unit eapacity can be used for this pur- pose. For instance, one progressive type of equipment is the new EO-3332 excava~ tor-~~laner with replaceable equipment, which, in comparison with the E-4010 plan- ing machine that it replaces, is characterized as follows per unit of power: - a 41-percent reduction in capital intensiveness; a 40-percent metals intensiveness for manufacture of the machine, a 70-percent rise in the operator's labor productivity, and a 57-percent reduction in prime cost per 1,OOU square me- t~r�s of soil leveling. A set of particular indices enables a comparative variant analysis of progres- sive and standardized equipment to be carried out. This approach to evaluating the ei'fcct of technical progress enables its quantitative characteristics to be estab- lished in i;erms of cost and physical factors. However, an analysis by indicator ' is difficult where there are substantial deviations. In such situations it is necessar~y L-o apply a multiple-criteria approach, examining not just one but sever- al indices successively for a comparison of the progressive and the standard equip- mcnt. The,indices will also enable different variants of progressive equipment to be compared with each other. In consolidated estimates the economic potential of fixed capital is determined by the ratio of capital intensiveness per unit of _ capacit;y or output of the standard progressive equipment. In the model of repro- duction nf the machinery fleet, the ~~reation of a reserve for unforeseen circum- stances and for replacing machines that are sent for repair is called for. The dynamicity of the whole system for reproducing fixed capital exerts an influ- cnce, on the one hand, on the probable deviations in the influence of various fac- tors, which can be mutually canceling, and the system as a whole maintains its equilibrium and consistency of direction, and,on the other hand, a potential for - 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . unidirectional deviations in the influence of the indicated factors is not .~x- cluded, which can ].ead to a stratification of errors in the forecast computations. Such deviations creai:e a risky situation in economic forecasts. It is desirable . to a certain extent to counter the risk with an equipment reserve. However, the creation of reservP fixed production capital not only requires large capital expenditures (with a relatively small return therefrom) but it also involves an increase in operating outlays even if the capital is not used." Therefore, it becomes.nECessary to justify rational reserves (absolute and relative) of fixed ; capital, taking.into account a minimization of expenditures for crelting and.inain- taining them, with maximum benefit from using them during production-load peaks and under various unforeseen circumstances. It is desirable to classify the :e- serves that are established at various levels--from the construction and install- ~ ing trust or enterprise reserve to ministry and state reserves,.inclusive--by pur- pose: opera~:ional, repair and national-economic (in case of natural disaster, and so on). . - It is impc~rtant to solve the question of reserves in systems fashion. The fact is that the types of reserves examined can scarcely be used simultaneously. Conse- quently, they can be concentrated where needed for various concrete situation. This will enable the proportion of es~imated reserves to be reduced and their ef- - fectiveness to be raised. The trend toward a reduction in the repair reserve ~s the technical level of machines is raised and maintenance and repair bases are improved must be considered. . Modeling also calls for a balance of fixed capital and the output capacity needed for repair~ work with optimization of the proportions among plants that overhaul machinery, assemblies and components, mech::nization centers, and mobile facilities for the technical upkeep of machinery. It is considered, when the model is be- ing constructed, that a portion of overhaul is accomplished (using assemblies and components that are repaired at the plants) at mechanization centers, motor pools, and so on. In turn, a portion of the technical servicing and current repair is performed by mobile facilities for technical servicing (truck-mcunted repair shops). It is desirable, when modeling the reproduction of the fixed capital of enterprises of the maintenance and repair base for mechanization equipment, to start with the repair coefficients that characterize the cost of current repair and overhaul. The requirement for fixed capital a,t mechanization centers and ~lants as a function of the cost of the machinery pool can be established in ac- cordance with the standards for capital intensiveness of technical servicing, cur- rent repair and overhaul. The d,yr~ami cs ot' the cumpositiori of' the mechanization equipment by size, type and gr~oup of machines cumplicate justification efforts in which change in the struc- Lure of enterprises and facilities of the maintenance and repair base in indus- - try and regional plans and the level of intensification of the use of fixed capi- i,al are co~isidered. Keproduction of the fixed capital of the maintenance and re- pair base is performed at overhaul plants and centers for the technical servicing - and repair of machinery through reequipping, rebuilding, expansion and new construction. "This concerns expenditures connected with the necessity to keep the reserve ma- - chinery in working condition during preservation operations, removal from long- term storage, storage, technical servicing and upkeep of servicing personnel. 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 ~'OR OFFICIAL USF. UNLY Taking into account the proportions of +;he various form~ of reproduction and the corresponding indicators of the economic potential of the fixed production capital, a balance is reached of the requirements for and the reproduction of fixsd capital. for enterprises and facilities of the maintenance and repair base. ^uring model- ing, questions of siting the productive capacity of the repair enterprises are ~ resolved. Unif'ied Policy for the Production and Repair of Machinery ~ The conduct of a unified technical and economic policy for cre:.tting and repairing equipment helps the rational redistribution of capital investment among the repair base and the machinebuilding branches of industry. The volume of production of new machines and spare parts for them and the amounts of overhaul of these machines and their assemblies and components are closely in- terlinked and depend upon the overall life cycle of the given type of machine. However, existing practice, wherein machinery makers find themselves associated with only one portion of' the machine's life cycle (engineering design, design de- velopment, production and the short maintenance guarantee period) and are complete- ly isolated fY�om the other portion (maintenance, overhaul and writeoff), does not meet modern requirements. The potential for overhauling machines should be specified when they are designed and pr~duced. The artificial gap between the production and the maintenance of ma- _ chines lcads to a laclc of producer interest in the effective repair and servicing ~ of machines, and it also inevitably engenders a shortage of spare parts and the ne- cessity 1;o produce them by semicottage-industry methods. A unified policy for pro- ducing and repairing machinery will enable a more rational technological scheme for overhauling the various groups of machines to be created, taking into account their - construction characteristics, the system for diagnosing the degree of reliability ef machines, assemblies and components, and unified norms and regulations for planned preventive maintenance that consider the industry's specifics. 7'~c ex~cri'cnce of' dcveluped capitalist eountries testifies to a striving to reduee uiul ev~n climinatc disrupLions of a machine's life cycle. This has enabled the ~,pcraLiorial rc;adiness i'actor of construction-machinery fleets in the USA, FRG and .!apan to reach 0.9-0.91. Machinebuilding companies are motivated to see to it that the equipment they deliver does n~t stand idle because af a lack of spare parts, the manufacture of which in the USA, for example, amounts to about 30 percent of - the output of nPw c~nsi:ruction machinery, exceeding our output 2-fold to 3-fold. '1'cchnical servicing and repair are performed in accordance with a planned preven- , t.ive maintenance systc:m which in the USA is provided by dealer companies. The basic method of' rep~tir is the assembly-arid-component method. 'i'hc dealers are the link betvreen machinebuilding enterprises and equip- - mcnt users. 1'hey dc, technical servicing and repair, deli~er spare parts (in 24 hours) and pick up machines that are unusable and require restoration. In Japan, for example, the servicing of Mitsubishi Jyukogyo excavatvrs is entrusted to the dealer Simmitsu Jyuki, which has a ramified network of technical servicing centers. 'Phe Aburadani ,Tyuko~yo and Kato Seysakusyo companies have organized their own tech- nical servicing and repair centers, locating them in areas of the greate~t concen- t,rati~n oi' machines (excavators) that have been purchased from these companies. 14 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 - Much attention is devoted in the FRG to full-fledged, responsive technical servi- ~ cing and repair. For these purposes, special subunits of the manufacturing com- panies and the dealers have been established. The Abbau company, for example, - has huge spare-parts warehouses and technical servicing centers at which�mechan- _ ics are constantly on duty and have facilities for the transport and repair of equipment. The company guarantees the delivery of spare parts to a machine's re- pair site in 24 hours. Weimar Mashinenfabrik services and repairs machines in centralized fashion and through intermediaries and representatives, also in.a day. In the USA the Caterpillar company's machines are serviced and repaired centrally and through dealers, with use of the riewest facilities for cleaning and washing, automatic installations for the deposition buildup of the rollers and frame of the crawler undercarriage, and automated reporting of the repair operations by com- puter, as well as automated delivery of the required spare parts.s For diagnosing malf'unctions of Caterpillar Tractor Comppny engines, a portable computer has been created wh~ich determines their effective power in a few seconds, by means of sensors. . I~;xpericnce .in Lhe main~:enance of machinery with company servicing and repair (by the manufacturer c~r dealers, or their representatives) has shown high responsive- ness and the economic desirability of this form of organization for keeping ma- . chinery in constant operating readiness. A main factor in repair effectiveness is minimal duration; this enables a high level of operational readiness to be pro- - vided for and idle time of the machinery pool to be reduced to a minumum. Idle equipment time for repai_r in our country reaches 40-61 days. Relative to the planned annual service time in construction, which is 256 days, machinery time spent in repair is more than 20 percent for excavators and bulldozers, about 24 percent for scrapers, and 15 percent for boom cranes. Thus, an average of almost 20 percent of construction's basic machinery is frozen because of the idle time spent in repair. It is obvious that a rise in their repai~rability�and reliability and an increase in service time and of the time between repair cycles are basic principles uf a unified technical policy for the production and repair of machinery. An experimental calcuLution of comparable progx~essive (new) and standard (old) _ equi.pment as t,o labor and ca~ital intensiveness and of attributable expenses per uniL of' work performed indicated that the labor-intensiveness indicators of the ncw machines demonstr~ate the:ix~ gr~owing effectiveness in the range of 1.5 (KS-5363 and K-'L55 cranes) to 4.3 (KB-674 and KB-300 tower cranes). Capital intensive- ness indicators for comparable machines vary from 0.7 to 1.8, tcsl,ifying to an in- crease in capital intensity (of a portion of the new machines).6 Fur many brands of machines, not only an overall increase in expensiveness but also an increase in cost per.unit of capacity is characteristic at present. For exam- ple. the KS-6362 crane costs 2,080 rubles per unit of capacity, the standard ~-2508 CONTRACTOR METHO,;`' AND EQJIPMENT, NOS 4 arid lU, 1971. _ 6Computai:ions were carried out for 17 pairs of machines of comparable size models, based upon the baseline indicators of VNIIstroydormash [All-Union Scientific Re- search Institute for Construction and Road Machine Building] of USSR Minstroydor- mash [Ministry of Construction, Road and Municipal Machine Building], relative to - 1980. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ machiiie 1,570 rubles. However, this can be justified in some cases by an improve- ment of other indicators, mainly reductions in labor intensiveness and prime costs - per unit of work performed (as occurs with the KS-6362 crane). In economic justi- fications for the process of reproducing machinery, it is desirable to consider the increase in mobility, reliability and completeness of ~~equipping of the machinery pool. Mobility of machinery enables a reduction in the time (and also in the labcr and material resources) spent on redeploying the machinery, provides for better usc of time, and enables the total requirement for the corresponding groups of machines i:o be reduced. The reliability of machinery is manifested in reduced techni- cal servicing, current repair and overhaul and less labor intensiveness and time spent in performing them. Completeness in equipping the pool of machines re- sults in mutual coordination of their parameters for the subsequent fulfillment of the technological production processes. All these present substantial reserves for reducing the cost of the machinery pool and expenditures on repair. Unf'ortunately, an unf'avorable trend toward growth in total expenditures for the op- eration and repair of comparable "new" and "old" equipment is observed. An anal- - ysis of the to~:al expenditures on technical servicing, current repair and overhaul that are attributable to one year indicates a growth thereof for a number of new- - ly produced machines. For example, expenditures for the technical servicing of the }~~5-6362 rubber-tire~ er~ecting boom crane is, over its service life, in comparison with the L-25U8 crane, 42 percent greater (14'9 thousand rubles),for current repair - 74.4 10.5 ii: is 210 percent greater (35.2 thousand rubles), and for overhaul it is 196 per- cent greater (75'6 thousand rubles). Expenditures attributable for one'year, tak- 38.5 ing service life into account, are, respectively, 5,6UU rubles (E-25U8) and 11,000 rubles (KS-636'L), that is, 5,40U rubles more per year for the new machine. The producers of machinery understate the repair-intensiveness indicators of equip- ment. At the same time, a reduction in repair-intensiveness of construction ma- chinery is economically desirable in many cases, even despite an increase in costs in the sphere of inechani�r.ation equipment production. I;~ pract.icc, the limits for equipment overhaul have to be expanded, beeause of I~ailure tc> provide enterprises and organizations comp'ctely with mechanization and i,ranspurt equipment. Because of shortfalls in deliveries of machinery to construc- tion organizations, a porl:ion of the equipment subject to writeoff has to be oper- ated. Therefore, obsolete and physically worn machines make up as much as 20 per- cent of overhaul (relative to total overhaul volume).' Increasing the Effectiveness of Machinery Overhaul by Industrializing It ~ '1'h~; industrialization of machinery ovcrhaul calls for reducing the repair pro- ccss tu thc replacement uf assemblies and components with new ones or with ones that have been overhauled at specialized enterprises. This will enable the effec- tiveness of` overhauling equipment to be raised greatly. Computations show a definite (or arbitrary) effectiveness of this repair where it is impossible to replace the obsolete machinery with new machinery. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONI.Y Concentrating construction-machinery repair, for examp;e, will enable specific cap- ital investment to be reduced by 12-15 percent, prime costs for repair by 8-10 per- cent, and labor intensiveness by 20-30 percent, and will enable repair time to be shortened., In turn, the special.ization of repair enterprises will lead to a cer- tain rise in specific capital investment (5-12 percent), but it will reduce, in so - doing, labor intensiveness of repair work by 35-40 percent and prime operating costs for repairs by 3-7 percent, and it will cut repair time 2U-25 percent. However, the prevailing practice of organizing construction-machinery overhaul does not meet modern management requirements, and it is a brake on raising the effec~- tiveness of repair-production facilities. The total number of enterprises engaged in overhauling basic construction machinery and their assemblies and components ex- ceeds 2,200, and abuut 10-12 percent Qf them are specialized. In this case, the level of specialization by groups of machines is no more than 4-5 percent. - lzight now the overhaul sphere is marked by bureaucratic isolation and lack of a - unif'ied system for subordina;.ing plants. This does not permit concentration to be raised much, ar.~, because of that, the specialization of repair facilities to be organized. In the construction field, the concentration of production facilities for the centralized repair of construction machinery has been characterized by an , average capacity of about 1 million rubles' worth of repair output~per year per en- terprise. At the same time, there are some enterprises within the repair base with � _ a capacity of 7 million rubles' worth. The low level of assembly-line operation in overhaul leads to an increase in the prime operating costs thereof,� and the time taken for repairs leads to above-standard idle time of machines in repair or , awaiting repai.r ('_.5-fold to 3-fold in comparison with the standards). Thus, seri- ous contradictions have arisen between the high pace of development of the machinery pool and the potential of the existing repair base to maintain the efficiency of the machinery. Studies conducted by NIIES [Scientific-Research Institute for Construction Econom- ~ics] of USSR Gosstroy have indicated that in a number of regions the capacity of enterprises for ovei�hauling construction and road machinery must be brought up to 8-10 million rubles' worth (taking into account the rational radius for haul.age). With ['urther cxpansion of the centralized repair of assemblies and components, it will be desirable t~ increase capacity to 15-17 million rubles. As yet, the devel- opmenl, of spacialization is being held back by bureaucratic isolation and the low level uf assembly-line repair of like typP ltems. . ~ In the lor?g term there is to be a conversion from specialization by groups of ma- chinery to specialization by size models (or brands), which will enable industri- alized repair lines to be used and repair effectiveness to be increased. The sub- contracting o~' repair work operations among various production subdivisions and fa- cilities of other construction-industry enterprises, especially for relatively small repair enterprises, is an important- method of raising their effectiveness: a reduction of 2-3 percent in prime repair operating costs and of as mueh as 6-8 pcrcerit in the capital intensiveness of operations. T~ he cost of' repairing one E-302 excavator at the Uglezavodsk RMZ [Machinery Repair Ylant-] is 4,634 rubles, while for a series of 96 machines at Mariyskiy's Remstroy- dormash plant of USSR Minsel's~:roy [Ministry of Rural Construction], it is 2,403 - rubles,or little more than half as much. 17 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR aFFICIAL USE ONLY Cu?~tiiclcr~ir?~; Lhut, cu~i:;trucLic~n machines arc bcing opcraLed not ~nl�� in COI1StT~uctiori (wher�c they cumprise 45-6U percent. of the toi:al number of machines), but also in ather branches of material production--the extractive branches of industry, agri- culture, transport (for loading and unloading), and so on, it is desirable to solve the problem of creating a single system of overhaul enterprises for the whole national economy. In order to increase the effectiveness of equipment overhaul at enterprises, the fo~lowing are necessary: conversion to the organization of an interagency overhaul system, which will enable the level of concentration and specialization of repair work to be raised greatly and inefficient repair at nonspecialized enterprises of ministries and agencies to be eliminated; and organization of the repair of new, - highly productive equipment within the system of machinebuilding enterprises. This will enable constraction and other ministries to be gradually freed of func- tions not characteristic of them--management of the process of overhauling compli- cated machinery.9 Itepair by the manufacturer will provide for quality and inereased _ cffectzveness; the maximal possible and economically rational use of existing re- pair enterprises; the frceirig of such enterprises from producing nonrepair output; and ar~ appropriate s~ecialiiation by type of regair. According to computations by N[11~:5 of' USSR Gosstrc~y, abouL one-third of the enterprises (of the 365 considered plants of' the constt~uction ministries and agencies) must be left in the base for centralized repair, after they are rebuilt and expanded. In so doing, it is pro- posed to increase the average level of concentration of their output about 5-fold to 7-fold, and also to raise greatly the level of their specialization. The plants must organize the overhaul of basic construction machinery that is used in all - branches of the national economy, except for new, highly rroductive machines. Large specialized enterprises that are being built should be restricted to the new, developing regions or to a major concentration of the repair inventory where it is impossible or economically irrational for existing enterprises to cover a shortage of capacil:y, or it is desirable to take a portion of' the existing repair plants from the repair complex so they can produce nonrepair,output that is re- quired by construction and other ministries and agencies. 5ludics indicai:e that construction-equipmeni: overhaul will remain a necessary form c,l' re~roduction of' i'ixed capital for a long time yet. In this case, it is consid- ~i~cd that, as machiries increase in reliabili~:y and their assemblies and components c:ume i.n approxi.mate ~~ach othcr in durability, the share of overhaul will be re- clucucl ~;raclually ancf then intensely. At the same time, aeeording to the foreeast, tt~u tc,tul c~verhaul vulumc will teiid to stabilize during the next decade because c>t' tihe growi,h of the equipment pool. 'I'he ef'i'ect ~f implementing a unified technical policy in the area of repair and of ' raisin~ the assembly-line nature of it consists primarily in an improvement of the quality of machines i;hat are repaired and an increase in service life between re- pairs f'rom 50-6U pei�cent tc~ 8U perceiit of the corresponding service-Life indicators established f'or new machines. At the same time, the machines will spend much less time in repair. This will make possible the use of~at leas~ an additional 1 billion 9~xcavators with hydraulic drive of the operating implement; earthmoving machines of the continuous-action type; self-propelled scrapers; bulldozers of more than 20U horsepower, based upon industrial-type tractors; and rubber-tired cranes, _ truck cranes, and certain other machines. 18 - FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY rubles' worth of the active part of fixed capital in construction operations alone, and, correspon,dingly, a reduction in capital investment in development of the pool of new construction machinery. ' It is desirable to use the experience in developing recommendations for creating a unified system of enterprises for overhauling construction and road machines also for certain other types of equipment. This concerns primarily automotive trans- port, since motor vehicles are being operated in practica~ly all ministries and. throughout the whole Soviet Union. In so doing, the degree of concentra- tion of motor vehicles in the economic regions exceeds considerably the concentra- ~:ion of other types of equipment, creating the prerequisites for high effecLiveness in centralizing the overhaul of vehicles. In accordance with the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers decree, "On ~trengthening the Work to Save and to Make Rational Use of Raw-Material, Fuel- ynd-Power and Other Material Resources," it is necessary to use in every possible way the large reserve f'or savings that exist in overhaulin~ the machinery pool. This refers primarily to the problem of the centralized output of spare parts and of ii:ems f'or vehicles,which will enable metal consumption to be reduced about 1.5- f'olci to 1.8-fold, fuel and power resources almost 2-fold, and labor expenditures 2-fold to 3-fold in comparison with the manufacture thereof by semicottage-indus- try methods at small repair enterprises. ~ Another area for saving material resources is, in our opinion, the restoration~of worn parts of machines by the automatic deposition method; the strength of the working layer here is in no way inferior to that of new parts. This method will enable as much as 65-80 percent of the metal of old parts to be saved. It is be- ing used widely abroad (by the Caterpillar company and others). Our country aiso has similar experience. In particular, at the Pankovskiy Experimental Machinery Repair Plant, where a small section restores expensive and rapidly wearing parts of 5-80 and'~5-100 tractors and E-652 excavators, savings on the order of tens of thousands of rubles have been achieved. The restoration of parts does not exceed 50 percent af the cost of new ones. Obviously, it is desirable to create special- ized enterprises and departments for the centralized restora~:ion of machine parts by the deposition method, which will enable labor intensiveness and the prime costs of these ~operations ~;o be greatly reduced. COl'YItICHT: Izdatel'stv~~ "I'ravda", "Voprosy ekonomilci", 1981 11409 ' CSO: 18'L1/0'L1 19 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY METALWORKING EQUIPMENT MACHINEBUILDING EQUIPMENT REPAIR CENTRALIZATION EFFECTIVENESS SUBSTANTIATID Kiev EKONOMIKA SOVETSKOY UKRAINY in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (signed to press 12 Oct 81) pp 34-38 [Article by Doctor o.f Economic Sciences T. Ben` (Dnepropetrovsk) and Candidate of Economic Sciences Yu. Kostin (Khar'kav): "TerritoXial Organization of Interbranch Repair Production"] [Text] Among the tasks put forward by the 26th CPSU Congress is that of increasing the effectiveness of m~:.hinery and equipment repair. This task can be solved in se- veral resolution stages. 1. Increase repair centralization, concentration and specialization, including the production of repair itemsl in branches of economic region specialization. This stage can be described as temporary (transitional), its imp.lementation to be con- cluded in the llth and 12th Five-Year Plans. 2. Inasmuch as about half of the equipment being repaired is for general industrial - and interbranch application, it is appropriate to carry out within the framework of specific territories an organizational-economic restructuring whose purpose is ~to create regional repair organizations servicing all enterprises, independent of de- pa:tmental affiliation. 3. Development of a system of regional interbranch repair production management and linking it to higher-level management systems. Let us examine the type structure and distribution of production equipment in USSR metallurgical industxy using data from the last interbranch balance (MOB) of fixed assets published by the USSR Central Statistical Administration.2 . Technological equipment of inetallurgical industry occupies the highest proportion in the type structure of production equipment (44.74 percent). The metallurgical industry 1We examined the basic types of general machinebuilding items (casting blanks, forg- ings and stampings, welded metal components and machined items) as applicable to the requirements of inetal~urgical industry. 2"Narodnoye khozyaystvo SSSR v 1973 g." [USSR National Economy in 1973J, Moscow,.Izd- vo Statistika, 1974, pp 67-115. . .r 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY technological equipment group includes: blast furnaces, steel smelters, mills for cold- and hot-rolling metal, including rolled steel and iron pipe and other equip- ment. A sigmificant portion (8.43 percent) is accounted for by mine-shaft, ore-mining and ore-enrichment equipment; 9.52 percent is accounted for by power engineering and electrical engineering equipment, 7.65 percent by lift-transport equipment, 6.74 percent by means of transport, and 5.85 percent by pump-compressor, refrigeration and oxygen equipment. Total metallurgical industry equipment includes 3.32 percent construction and road- building equipment, 1.21 percent equipment for building materials industry, 0.16 per- cent tractors and agricultural machinery, 0.05 percent equipment for light, food, mixed feed, timber, pulp-paper and printing-publishing industry, 3.26 machine and wood-processing tools, 2.83 percent forging-pressing equipment, 0.69 percent foundry equipment and other types of equipment. Metallurgical equipment is extremely metals-intensive. Its diversitq, high cost and distribution by subbranch of inetallurgical industry have a substantial influence on the organization of branch repair services. It is expedient to divide the available production equipment of each branch into four classification groups (see Table 1, following page): 1. general industrial equipment; = 2. interbranch equipment; 3. ~echnological equipment of a corresponding (specific) branch; 4. technological equipment of other branches. ~Let's note that any classification, including that being proposed here, is in a cer- tain sense hypothetical. First, it is prompted by the goals of concrete research. Second, intensification of the social division of labor predetermined the process of production differentiation in the branches, which complicated interbranch ties and, consequently, a precise delimitation of producfiion equipment classification groups. Third, its formation is influenced by the existing classification of USSR national economic branches. We used the following criteria as the basis for setting up our production equipment , classification groups: 1. how multipurpose the equipment application is (its breadth); 2. the role of the equipment in the production process; 3. the branch affiliation of rhe equipment. Equipment in the first group includes power and electrical engineering equipment, pump-campressor equipment, production apparatus, lift-transport equipment, equipment for construction and roadbuilding, and other equipment. The seeond group could in- clude machine tools, wood-processing tools, forging-pressing equipment. foundry equipment, refrigeration and oxygen equipment, means of transport and other types of equipment. The third group includes specific equipment of the appropriate (spe- cific) branch being examined. The fourth group is equipment of other branches which is used to resolve technological tasks in the branch using the given types of equip- ment. In metallurgical industry, general industrial equipment accounts for 23.52 percent of the total, interbranch equipment for 20.47 percent, equipment of a specific branch 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Production Equipment Classification Groups and Dynamics of Their Relationships in Terms of Branch Affiliation (calculated from fixed assets interbranch balances c~ata for 1966 and 1972 (see: "Narodnoye khozyaqstvo SSSR v 1968 i 1973 gg." [USSR Na- tional Economq in 1968 and 1973], Moscow, Izd-vo Statistika, 1968, 1974)) branches of ntaterial production. all USSR metallurgical industrq industry all production equipment 100.0 100.0 including groups by affiliation branch: geneial industrial application ' 1966 MOB 18.88 20.78 1972 MOB 22.05 23.52 interbranch application 1966 MOB 6.07 13.43 1972 MOB 9.08 20.47 ' corresponding-branch technological 1966 MOB 73.14 64.37 1972 MOB 67.44 54.39 technological equipment of other branches 1966 MOB 1.91 1.41 1972 MOB 1.43 1.62 54.39 and equipment of other branches 1.62 percent. For USSR industry as a whole, however, these relationships are: 20.05, 9.08, 67.44 and 1.43 percent.l This means - that, given the existing level of branch differentiation, the necessity arises for an interbranch criterial evaluation of fihe mechanism for shaping optimum relationships among these groups over the long range. It is that very knowledge of the indiGators (levels) of the relationships of various equipment groups in a five-year plan cross- section that opens up a way to find optimum relationships of branch and interbranch ties and oppartunities for improving the effectiveness of repairs and permits a cor- r.ect distribution of capital investments. Let's analyze the relationships given in Table 1 for various equipment groups for the period between the two interbranch fixed asseCs balgnces of 1966 and 1972 from the viewpoint of determinirig the atatus of the equipment being repaired. On the one hand, inasmuch as the proportion of production equipment of a specific branch remains rela- tively high (67.44 percent for industry), repair organization is consequently also of the branch type, including the manufacture of repair items. This 1eve1 will pro- bably be retaina~d over the next two or three five-year plans, with slight changes to~ wards a reducticz. On the other hand, there is obvious growth in the first and se- cond production ~quipment groups during the five-year period: 16.79 and 49.58 per- cent for industry as a whole and for metallurgical industry, respectively (13.18; 52.41 percent). The presence of these two trends in the produc~ion equipment structure indicates a definite connection between the relationships of the various classification groups and the level of repair centralization and specialization. As the proportion of lEstimated iro~ the 1972 interbranch balance. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420016-7 FOR 0~'F'TCIAL JSE ONLY speciat equipment (that for a specific branch) decreases and the proportion o~.gen- eral industrial. and interbranch equipmPnt increases, expenditures for these groups grow, which lo~rers the overall level of repair centralization and specialization by increasing their decentralization in the specific branch. This becomes possible in connection with the fact that branches producing general industrial and interbranCh - output do not ensure deliveries of the needed amount of repair items or the central- ized repair of their own equipment. Thus, given growth of 2.74 and 7.34 percent, respectively, in the f irst and ~econd~ groups in USSR metallurgical industry (in 1966 rela~ive to 1972) and a 10 percent reduction in the proportion of the third group, the proportfon of expen~itures on repairs for these groups of equipment has increased correspondingly: five percent foi� the first group, two percent for the second, and expenditures on repairs for spe- cialized branch equipment t~ave decreased by seven percent. - Actualization of the scientific-technical progress programs in industry over the next 20-30 y~ars will make its own adjustments in the relationships of the various equip- ment groups. We can assume growth in the propoxtions of the first and second equip- ment groups. If that growth is 1-2 percent per year, given the ex3sting repair or- ganization, the increased decentralization will be 3-4 percent per year. This cir- cumstance will naturally force the specific branch to divert even more considerable resources into repairing and servicing these groups of equipment, thus causing con- siderable harm to efforts to raise the level of technological equipment repair spe- cialization and centralization in the .orresponding branch, which will lead to losses in basic production.l ~ The data in Table 2[following page] testify to the level of repair centralization in USSR industry. The highest proportion of centralized repair (interbranch balance data for 1966 and 1972) is for machine tools (index of 3.30; 3.15), forging-pressing equipment (2.13; 2.05), foundry equipment (2.53; 2.69) and others. We have adopted as the ur~it the USSR industry average level of repair centralization, which is cur- rently less than 10 percent. This situation testifies to insufficient attention by the USSR Gosplan and the union republic planning organizations to repair problems in - the country. The efforts of planning organizations have thus far been aimed at or- - ganizing centralized repairs in machinebuilding branche~. Machinebuilders are successfully developing the centralized repair of machine tools and wood-processing equipment, foundry and forging-pressing equipment. To these ends, specialized repair associations of the a11-union "Soyuzstankoremont" associa- tion type have been created in machine and tool manufacturing industry. The associa- tion includes a number of specialized repair plants. It is the task of the associa- - tion to specialize and centralize as much as possible the repair of widely used mo- dels of machine tools and to improve the quality and reduce the cost of repairs. FSIIMS calculations confirm the advantages of organizing plants specialized for over- hauling machine tools as compared with existing methods of repair at industrial 1PRAVDA, 1 October 1979, 13 November 1979 and 3 March 1980; EI~ONOrITCHESKAYA GAZETA, No 45, 1979; VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 8, 1978, p 8; EKONOMIKA SOVETSKOY UKRAINY, No 8, 1979, pp 51-63, and others. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY Table 2. Production Equipment Type Structure and Centralized Repair Production ]:n- dexes in Individual Branches (calculated using interbranch f ixed assets balances data for 1966 and 1972 (see: "Narodnoye khc+zyaystvo SSSR v 1968 i 1972 gg. proportion of proportion of - equipment of corresponding repair producti~~n type of equipment this type, in specialized re- index, group 4 to percent of pair production ~roup 2 and group total branch, percent 5 to group 3 - 1966 1972 1966 1972 1966 1972 MOB MOB MOB MOB MOB MOB machine tools and wood- processing equipment 11.64 11.22 38.42 35.36 3.30 3.15 - forging-pressing equipment 3.07 ~.75 6.54 7.70 2.13 2.05 foundry equipment 0.86 0.8E 2.18 2.32 2.53 2.69 technological equipment for metallurgical industry 7.75~ 6.82 0.49 0.22 0.06 0.03 equipment and apparatus for ~ chemical industry 5.10 5.50 0.47 0.26 0.09 0.04 technological equipment for ' light industry 4.98 4.23 0.03 0.05 0.006 0.01 . . : : ' . . . : . . . total of 20 types of equipment 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Note: The average level of centra]ized repair for USSR industry was adopted as the unit in columns 6 and 7. That is, if the 1eve1 of repair centralization for industry as a whole equalled, let's say, 10 percent, but was 30 percent for machine tools, the index of repair centralization would be 1.0 in the first instance and 3.0 in the second. en~erprises. Thus, for example, the labor-intensiveness of overhauling one machine tool in a centralized manner is 2.5 times less than the labor-intensiveness of manu- :~cturing a new machine of the same type.l At the same time, the data in Table 2 testify to an inadequate level of repair cen- tralization in metallurgical industry (indexes of 0.06; 0.03), chemical industry (0.09; 0.04), light industry (0.006; 0.01) and other branches. This situation is to - be explained, on t'he one hand, by ~he actually low level of repair centralization and specialization in these branches and, on the other, by the fact that the USSR Central Statistical Administration defin~s a specialized braach as an aggregate of special- ized enterprises performing a given type of work, which very much narrows the limits of the repair braneh. Obviously, not all equipment manufacturing branches (enterpr.ises) can efficiently re- pair their own equipment. This is a complex task, both technically and organization- ally. In our opinion, having recognized the equipment grouping described above, based lA. I. Kostin and D. I. Polyakov, "Spetsializirovannyy remont metallorezhushchikh ~ stankov" [Specialized Machine Tool Repair], Moscow, Izd-vo Mashinostroyeniye, 197$, p 117. 24 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY on classification criteria, we can recommend that work be intensified on centraliz- ing and specializing repair in specialization branches of an economic region. Reso- lution of these problems could be done following the proposed plan for rerrous metal- lurgy. Ferrous metallurgy enterprises use all three forms of repair organizations central- ized, decentral:ized arid mixed. The mixed form is used most, whe~tein all types of _ repairs are done by shop repair services, the repair-machine shops of the enterprise chief machinist, sponsoring installation-repair facilities and specialized re air or- ganizations (trusts) of the "Domnaremont," "Metallurgremont" or "Energocherme~" type. Major overhauls comprise 28-32 percent of the total work volumes of these organiza- tions, and 68-72 percent is accouated for by routine repairs.l However, ttie depart- mental nature of the subordinat~on of these organizations to the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy leads to enormous un~ustified expenditures. A metallurgica' plan�is to- tally uninterested in lowering the cost of repairs done by contractor organi~ations, since such reduction is not reflected in any way in the metallurgical plan'c's bal- ance. On the other hand, a repair trust has no practical interest in reducing repair time, inasmuch as an increase in~profit is not always expressed in lower repair costs. Lvaluating the activity of repair trusts in terms of volume indicators and the forma- tion of incentive funds based on them does not ensure a proper combinat3on of con~ tractor and client interests. Department~lly subordinated, the trusts are not in a position to create a strong material-technical base. The level of machinery avail- ability per worker at "Energochermet" trust is one-third lower than for power repair organizations of the USSR Ministry of Power Engineering and Electrification.2 It has become necessary to improve the branch equipment repair system in ferrous me- tallurgy. In our opinion, it is appropriate in the llth and 12th Five Year Plans to transfer repair trusts to the subordination of machinebuilding ministries producing technological equipment for ferrous metallurgy. Such a reorgani2ation will permit a maximum concentration of the eff.orts of these ministries at all stages of produc- - tion, beoinning with designing, planning and producing the machines.and ending with their operation and repair. Under such a system, the equipment producer takes on all repair obligations. Our calculations show that the use of sponsorship installation- repair by Elektrostal'skiy Heavy Machinebuilding Plant (EZTNi)9 at Ukrainian SSR plants provides an opportunity for eliminating bottlenecks in equipment operation by improv- ing equipment design and increasing durability, which as a whole permitted an 11- percent reduction in repair expenditures in pipe industry in the lOth Five-Year Plan. It is appropriate for repairs to be done on equipment groups 1, 2 and 4(general in- dustrial, interbranch and other branches) by ~pecialized rayon repair associations formed on the principle of territorial-bra:ich affiliation. ~ The r..~ablem of producing commonly used repair items has been discussed repeatedly in the economic and special literature. The ineffectiveness of producing items in shops 1S. S. Aptekar', "Sovershenstvovaniye khozrascheta v chernoy metallurgii" [Perfecting Cost Accounting in Ferrous Metallurgy], Moscow, Izd-vo Metallurgiya, 1978, p 119. 2iRazvitiye form upravleniya ekonomikoy" [Development Forms of Economic ManagementJ, Moscow., Izd-vo Mysl', 1978, p 126. 3EZTM produces pipe-rolling equipment. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 F'nR 4FF1('IAL USE ONLY Territorial-Branch Repair Organization Plan for A SpeciaXization Bxar~ch (using ferrcu~s metallurgy as an example) (1, /OTDA AbPC EUNAAN3ALLNN 3 O~MOtiIN- ~ 4ECHOfO CANOMAJ ~2~ BE~aaw4fiMETb,A- KOMt1;~EKTyH7WNE 3J qyDfN4ECK4A f10A- ~10AGT9ACAN/fID!1N3� OTDACl1b 8q4CT6A~ - I1PON38C~CT80 PENOHTNbIx N3,QEANH (4) 3a~pya�warotp OIDAG~(BdE1DtS 11Elu~G~yx61~ qEYY,~A~rc:~ I eN~tnnMtun� acxci~arnl3ra� rnaenor~ME� farar.a�o~:� nyorwfCKOfO ADMO~iC(!l(lu- I~An~ucd/r=yn� xAnr.KA.~?y~� 06~Ya~QaM11A ~W3qt~flN Mdt DtMOnt - n~,E ~:MOnt � eaE b~:ot/ ndt bA:a,~ 8 fIPOt1380AC7'BO PENIOHTA _ ~9~ Cf1~UHa1N3VID084MMbIY1 P!'MOMT - TExH0110~N4ECKOrO 060p~4CSa- _ HNR yEDnON M~TAlL~yprNN 10 Cf1E4~N3NPOBAMMbIN cEMOMT OOW~~POMD~WfltMMOPQ N MEHtOT- OTPACAEDOfO ODOPyQ00AMNA _ (11 CIIEIjNAAN3N00BAMhbIH PEMOMT TEXtt0~0~tAyECKDf'0 0600:~AOBAMNA ,QCyIl/X OiDACAEH f1POMdWAEl1 ~ MOC?N - Key: 1. Ferrous merallurgy (economic region specialization branch) 2. Leading metallurgical subbranch 3. Subbranches (production facilities) producing complete sets of items 4. Production of repair items 5. Plants manufacturing metallurgical equipment 6. Parts-specialized branch enterprises 7. Shops of the chief machinist's service/large repair centers 8. Re~air production 9. Specialized repair of ferrous metallurgy technological equipment 10. Specialized repair of general industrial and interbranch equipment 11. Specialized repair of technological equipment for other branches of industry of the chief machinist's service (SGM) at metallurgical enterprises as compared with parts-specialized machinebuilding enterprises has been noted every time.l However, thz demand for repair items is currently being 90-percent met by SGM shops, about 1iOrganizatsiya i planirovaniye remontnogo khozyaystva metallurgicheskogo zavoda" [Organizing and Planning A Metallurgical Plant Repair Servi~e], Moscow, Izd-vo Me- tallurgiya, 1969; Kh. P. Zaytsev et al., "Ekoriomika remontnogo khozyaystva metallur-� gicheskikh z~vodov" [Metallurgical Plant Repair Selrvice Economy], Kiev, Izd-vo Tekh- nika, 1974; I. M. Denisenko and K. K. Kapustin, "Ekonomika, organizatsiya i planiro- vaniye remonta metallurgicheskikh pechey" [Economy, Organization and Planning Re- pairs on Metallurgical Furnaces], Moscow, Izd-vo Metallurgiya, 1977; "Proizvoditel'- nost' truda v cliernoy metallurgii" [Labor Productivity in Ferrous Metallurgy], Kiev, Izd-vo Tekhnika, 1977, pp 73-88; "Razvitiye form upravleniya ekonomikoy," pp 116-130 and others. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . _ . 1 ' seven percent by parts-specialized branch enterprises and only slightly more than two - percent by plants manufacturing technological equipment. It is apparently time to re-examine the ineffective system of providing rayon m~t~1- - lurgical complexes with repair items. In accordance with the plan presented abtsve, repair items are being produced by plants manufacturing metallurgical equipment, by parts-specialized branch enterprises and by shops of the chief machinist's service at metallurgical enterprises (large repair centers). Under the given structure for pro- ducing repair the transition period, plants manufacturing metallurgical equipment should be instructed to manufacture large, unique and specific base parts. Parts-specialized machinebuilding enterprises must serve as the basis of the branch - production of repair items, with the rights of affiliates of machinebuilding com- - plexes, whose number continues to grow in ferrous metallurgy, the large repair cen- ters of inetallurgical enterprises and, in part, the enterprises of multipurpose sub- branches, which correspond to average-sized machinebuilding enterprises in terms of level of organization and volume of outpLt produced. ' COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radyans'ka Ukraina", "Ekonomika Sovetskoy Ukrainy", 1981 11052 CSO: 1821/025 27 . FOR OFFICYAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 ROR OFFICIAL USE ONLY METALWORKING EQUIPMENT ~ OPTIMIZING EFFECTIVENESS OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT OVERHAUL SCHEDULES Kiev EKONOMIKA SOVETSKOY UKRAINY in Russian No 10, Oct 81 (signed to p+-ess 12 Oct 81) pp 39-42 [Article by Candidate of Economic Sciences M. I1'yenchenko: "Methods Questions of� Determining the Economic Effectiveness of Equipr~ent Overhaul and Modernization"] [TextJ The large and ever-increasing expenditures on machinery and equipment repair demand that their economic limits be established. A comparison of minimally possible major overhaul exper.ditures a~d the established economically expedient si2e of those expenditures enables us to reveal the degree of effectiveness of the repairs. = A number of economists have proposed various methods whose advantages and shortcom- ings have been analyzed by Ye. K. Smirnitskiy and R. Z. Akberdin.l Based on that analysis, the authors worked out a method which most fully takes into account the influence of various factors on the econom3c effectiveness of machinery and equip- ment overhaul. However, in spite of the great advantages of the latter, it cannot be used ~n practice due to a lack of needed information and to the t;reat labor-inten- siveness of the calculations, which the authors themselves note.2 _ The problem of scientifically determining the economic effectiveness of ma3or over- hauls must be sol~~ed with a view towards optimizing the annual machinery and equip- me~~t major overhaul plan at the production association and enterprise level in ac- cord with the following methqd: planned ma~or overhaul expenditures for a particu- lar machine should be compared with the carry-over depreciation fund available for ma~or overhaul of that machine. Equipment major overhaul annual plan optimization must reduce the amount of ineffec- tive major overhaul and expenditures on this type of work by establishing the l~mits of appropriate expenditures on overhauling and modernizing worn-out equipment. The question of the appropriateness af a ma3or overhaul must be resolved in the course of working out the association and enterprise annual equ3.pment overhaul plans. ~ lYe. K. Smirnitskiy and R. Z. Ak' cdin, "Povysheniye effektivnosti remotnogo proiz- vodstva" [Increasing the Effect_.~eness of Repair Production]', Izd-vo Mashinostro- yeniye, Moscow, 1970, pp 13-18. 20p. cit., pp 18-27. 28 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ i= A ma~or overhaul should be considered effective when expenditures planned for~it~~will be less than or equal to the carry-4ver depreciation fund available for overhauling that machine, that is, when an adequate source of own financing is available for do- ing this work. This method of determining the economic effectiveness of equipment overhaul flows from the existing method of financing it., so its practical introdu~'i tion d.oes not cause any difficulties. . The legitimacy of this method resul*.s from the fact that ma3or overhaul depreciation funds become socially necessary and~ecanomically permissible, that is, an appropxiate amount of expenditure for this type of machinery and equipment repair service; more- over, that amount is always known. If this condition is not met, that is, when carry-over depreciation funds are absent or less than actual expenditures when it is time to do the overhaul, it will conse- quently be ineffective, since such repairs will lead to additional expenditures. This metho~ is very simple to use, since the accounting section of each enterprise records the movement of fixed assets, calculating for them the amortization of ac- tual expenditures on both renovation and ma3or overhauls, which will be added to carry-over value. There is for each stocked item a stock card, on which thts is re- corded. ~Jsing these documents, we can analyze the dynamics of depreciation fund use - for overhauling a particular item, that is, we can trace how our own ma~or overhaul depre~.iation fund is used for each year of operation of a machine. Carry-over major - overt~aul deprec~ation fund should be taken to mean the difference between the calcu- lated depreciation for major overhaul for all preceding years of machine operation and actual outlays on major overhauls and modernization done during that period. Using PPR [planned preventive maintenance] system normatives and depreciation norms, - as we11 as actual equipment stock cards, the Kiev Relays and Automatic Machines Plant has worked o+xt descriptions of the value rotation process for 10 of the most common models of machinebuilding equipment. The results of their analysis of the character- fstics of value rotation of the machinebuilding equipment studied ar.e given in the tatie [following pageJ. The proposed method demonstrates that ma~or overhauls are economically effective for the 3171 surface grinder only up to the eighth year of operation. It is economically ineffective to overhaul this machine after the eigt~th year of its operation since the carry-over ma~or overhaul depreciafiion fund will only be 178 + 184 = 362 rubles by - the end of that year, and major overhaul expenditures will be 1,100 rubles. For that same reason, it would be economically ineffective to overhaul the model 6N81 universal milling machine in the llth year of operation, the model K116G eccentric presses in the seventh year of operation and the model PD-476 hydraulic presses in the seventh year of operation (see table). At the same time, the calculations show that a comprehens3ve form of repair services organization ensures a reduction of ma~or overhaul expenditures to a 1eve1 at which the economic effectiveness of ma3or over~iauls on all equipment is ensured and a ~av- ings in depreciation funds is even achieved, which represents income and _onfirms the legitimacy of the proposed me~hod oP determining the economic effectiveness of machinery overhaul. � According to this method, overhauling a specific machine will become ineffective at a given level of outlays in the l-th year of operation. In this instance, 4 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ 0 . . g?~ : = = = = = = = ~ ~ ~ ~ y. . ~ C ~ ~ ~ C'.+ i~~i~ vx~ ~t= ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~ O C~ ~ o m.;~ o~~p ~ ~ e O> p t~ mC C C i7 ~ ipC ~~y' t0 i ~j f N R: r i~D ~ N C1 ~ y : ~ ~ ? T T T 'F 'F ~ c N � ~ E ~ A ~j ~ It ~C N ~ ~ N ! R~! A ~ ~ ~ � ~ n ^ e. Fri' e~ ~ ~ t~ 0 ~ ~ _ ` ~ + .,F ? + T "'F ? "F' T ~ W ~ `i ~ O ~ d i ~ ~ u~ ~y J m O � 1; u: ~ ~ e~ c~ t' u: tD fA ~ t-~ q f~, ~P ~ N ' " ~G ~ ~ N 'd o ~ ` � C + t �F + ~ I ~ ~ Np,, U O s � c - ~ - ~ iE N ~ F . ' A G! ~ v ~ ~ V ~ ~ A ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ ~i ~i u: O I ? ? R b ~ ~ c. q O ~ ~ s~ ~ , c~. ? ? ? I I ~ N~ M '~j ~1. Re N rl C! N O ~i N O O ~ ~ _ C u1 ~ ~ � ti-I ~-1 Gl 1~� t ~ 1~ O~ N ~ f0 ~ N `rl 1J a�i~:~ � g ^ ~ ~ ~ N R N N o R N ~ ~ a~ ,,r,i ~Cxt-I-C1M+H~/[)-AK~.~n': i-~ second variant, when the planned modernization eliminates the obsolescence completely: r r CA ~C K~'CN +N~~ I> S' (CKt +Ci t Ht/t)~nK �r~ '~O~I V G(~ j~~0 where I'> 10 years . Having solved both of the a~bove conditior?s, we have ob~ective i~dicators of the effec- tiveness of major overhauls and the appropriate limits of expenditures on them and optimum periods for the machinery to operate. The sufficienfi coadition is an objective 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - criterion of the actual effectiveness of a ma~or overhaul. The necessary condition is an objective criterion of the limit on economically expedient major overhaul ex- penditures. Both conditions also determine the optimum service life of the machine. ; It should be added that a sufficient condition is a criterion of the effectiven~g~ of a major overhaul (including modernization, when necessary) foremost because addi- tional expenditures are not required to finance it and, given appropriate repair or- ganization, we even ensure a savings in depreciation funds which reptesents a net in- come . ~ It goes without saying that, given a sufficient condition, the depreciation per~od will serve as the limit of machine operation and normative outlays cn ma3or overhaul for that period will always be less than the depreciation fund for that particular type of repair and will generally be less than the co~t of a new machine in those instances when the depreciation norm for major overhaul is less that the depreciation norm for renovation, which testifies to rather rigid, but nonetheless entirely fea- sible, restrictions. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Radyans'ka Ukraina", "Ekonomika Sovetskoy Ukrainy", 1981 11052 CSO: 1821/025 33 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024416-7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY METALWORKING EQUIPIrI'r.NT IMPROVING METALWORKING-EQUIPMENT INVENTORY STRU~TURE IN MACHINE BUILDING Moscow STANKI I INSTRUMENT in Russian No 8, Aug 81 (signed to pres$ 21 Aug 81) pp 1-2 _ [Text] An important role in tha resolutions adopted by the 26th CPSU Congress regar- ding acceleration of scientific-technical progress and improvement of the efficiency of consumer-goods production is assigned to the various branches of the machine- building industry, which provide the basis for technical re-equipping of the national economy. "Basic Directions to Be Taken By the Economic and Social Deaelopment of the USSR in 1981-1985 and over the Period Through 1990," a document approved by the 25th CPSU Congress, calls for the output of machine-building and metalworking products to in- crease by a factor of no less than 1.4 during the llth Five-Year Plan. The machine- building industry is to improve production efficiency by development of advanced technology, increased specialization, improvem~t o~ the structure of the metalworking- machine inventory, an increase in labor productivity, and rational utili2ation of basic manufacturing stocks and other material resources. Any further increase in labor productivity in machine building will in large measure be determined by the level of inechanization and the qualitative and quantitative in- dices of the metalworking-equipment inventory. Systematic renovation of the equip- ment inventory and its supplementation with modern automated and precision metalwor- ki~lg machine tools and machinery is an important governmental goal in whose achieve- ment all organizations and enterprisea concerned with various aspects of the technical re-equipping of the national economy should take an active part. "Basic Directions to Be Taken by the Economic and Social Development of the USSR in 1981-1985 and over the Period Through 1990" sets the following goals: "To improve the structure of the metalworking-equipment inventory in machine building by in- creasing the output of heavy-duty special and multifunction machine tools, advanced forging and pressing equipment, and automated production lines and machine groups. To provide for the priority refitting of machine-building enterprises with new metal- working equipment." Producers' associations, enterprises, and organizatione in the machine-tool industry achieved definite results in outfitting machine-building facilities with modern equip- ment during the lOth Five-Year Plan. The output of single-purpose, specialized, and multifunction machine tools (in terms of market value) rose by 76X, while that of machine tools with digital process control increased by a factor of 2.4. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .17 More than 80C automated production lines were manufactured for factories in the auto- mobile, tractor, and agricultural-machinery industries. A total of 550 automated and semiautomated lines were built for machine-building plants. Over the last five-year plan, 2140 new equipment models were manufactured and tpsted and 590 obsolete models were taken out of production. The proportian of products of the highest quality grade (with respect to total commercial output) rose from 7.6% in 1975 to 41.2X in 1980; for metal-cutting machines, this index amounted ~to - 49.8% in 1980, as against 11.5~ in 1975. This made it possible to outfit new machine- building plants with modern metal-cutting equipment and to overhaul existing plants. Improvement of production efficiency in machine building requires a substantial in- crease in the output of automated equipment, primarily automated and semiautomated metal-cutting machines and automated production lines for machine building and metal- working (including reorganizable lines), special and single-function equipment, mach- ine tools with DPC (especially multifunctional machines with automatic tool exchange), ~ equipment complexes controlled from a central computer, and equipment f3tted with automatic program-controlled manipulators. The llth Five-Year Plan provides for an increase in the proportion (in terms of market value) of automated machine tools to 75% of total machine-tool output. The output (in terms of market value) of automatic and semiautomatic metal-cutting mach- ines will be increased by a factor of approximately 2, that of automated and semi- automated machine-tool lines for machine building and metalworking by a fac:tor of 1.5, and that of inetal-cutting machines with DPC by a factor of 3. The proportion of spe- cial, single-function, and multifunction machine tools will amount to 24.1% of total machine-tool production. ~ The most important goal to be achieved in the manufacture of this equipment is a substantial improvement in its technical level and quality. The llth Five Year Plan calls for raising the throughput of inetal-cutting, forging, and pressing machines and of casting and woodworking equipment by a factor of 1.5-1.6, improving their reli- ability and service life, and increasing the precision of inetal-cutting machines by no less than 20-30%. In accordance with the scientific-technical and production goals that have been set, the Ministry of the Machine-Tool Industry has worked out the variety of equipment models to be available for the period 1981-1985. Among machine tools that will be - produced over this period, automated and semiautomated machines belonging to all technological groups will account for more than 60~6 of the total number of models. During the current five-year plan, 300 machine-tool models are to be introduced (replacing models manufactured earlier) and 305 models are to be taken out of pro- duction. Production is to be begun for 427 machine-tool models (not previously manufactured), including 297 models of automated machines. Tfie new machine tools are to be characterized by a high degree of automation and higher precision levels; it will be possible to use them for implementation of new technological processes. New machine tools will be designed so as to provide standardized model-size series. Design of more than 200 machine-tool models with DPC, including 55 models of multi- function machines with automatic tool exchange, is planned for the llth Five-Year Plan. The technological level of precision machine tools is to be improved by 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY automation, enhancement of machining precision, and expansion of the range of high- precision and extra-high-precision available. There is to be a qualitative change in the variety of heavy and custom-designed machine tools produced. The following technical solutions must be implemented in order to achieve the planned increase in the throughput of ine~al-cutting machines: an increasP in drive power, use of new types of tools and intensified cutting regimes, performance of a greate~ number of technological opprations by a single machine, an increase in the degree of automation of machine-mechanism control, use of automatic manipulators, outfitting of machines with devices and attachments that give them. g~~ater technological capa- bilities, etc. The output structure for unachine tools will see an increase in the proportion of precision machines, particularly high-precision and extra-high-precision units (grinding, jig-boring, and fine-boring machines). It is proposed to bring 155 models _ of high-precision machine tools into production over the course of the five-year plan. New DPC systems (buil~-in and adaptive) are to be developed for this group of machine tools. Precision norms for machine tools are to be made more stringent by improving the quality of bearings and ball-bearing screw coup?.es and employing real- time monitoring and fine-ad3ustment systems. Wider use will be niade of tools fab- ricated from cermets and new synthetic m~terials in the finish machining of com- - ponents. The production of automatic machine-tool lines for branches of the machine-building industry engaged in mass and large-scale serial production will be increased and multipurpose lines and line groups will dominate total output. Together with improvement of line throughput and reliability, reduction of the number of personnel required for equipment operation is also of great importance. Machine-tool fabricators in Minsk have taken effective steps in this direction. The Minsk Special Design Bureau for Automated Production Lines has developed automated machine clusters that combine individual equipment types, including automated lines. A11. the machine tools and machines within a cluster are linked by asynchronous transport and storage systems that make iC possible to virtually eliminate manual ldbor in loading, unloading, transporting, and storing articles to 'ue machined. For example, the complex for machining of connecting rods and rod covers built by the Minsk Industrial Association for Manufacture of Automated Lines imeni 60-Letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya includes five automated lines, seven continuous surface-broaching machines, six rotary grinders, six fine~boring machines,five honing machines, an " electrochemical unit, and other types of equipment. Use of this complex freed 375 workers and permitted an annual savings of 800 thousand rubles. The Moscow Machine-Tool Plant imeni Sergo Ordzhonikidze manufactures a fast- switchover automated line with DPC intended for machining of shafts having different configurations (mare than ten types). The line switchover time is 1.5 h). Automatic manipulators are an important tool for raising the automation level in the machine-building industry. The llth Five-Year Plan provides for accelerated expan- sion of the production of inetalworking-equipment groups fitted with automatic man- ipulators. ~ 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500020016-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The automated line designed by the Experimental Scientific-Research Institute of Metal-Cutting Machines for machining of electric-motar shafts, which consists of three machine tools with DPC and an automatic manipulator with a lifting capacity _ of 160 kg, makes it possible to increase labor productivity by a factor of 3'( two-shift operation). Scientific-technical work ~onducted at the Institute will provide the basis for the future range of automatic manipulators to be produced. Forty organizations and enterprises subsumed by the Ministry of the Machine-Tool' Industry are participating in work on further expansion of the manufacture of , automatic manipulators. Special attention must therefore be paid to the creation _ of standard types, units, and specifications in designing manipulators and auxi- liary components for them. About 140 models of inetal-cutting mach~nes have now _ been selected for outfitting with automatl.c manipulators. Research and design on the new generation of manipulators, which will have better technical-economic indices, must be expanded. - A great deal of work is to be done in improving the effectiveness of development work at production facilities with a view to introduction of new metalworking equipment. - Curremt organizational practices pertaining to development and introduction of new technology must be reviewed and modifie3, with different stages (design, development of technology, fabrication of equipment and special tools, etc.) being carried out in sequence. Interesting experience in this area has been amassed by the Ivanovo Machine-Building Industrial Association imeni 50-Letiya SSSR, which switched to a parallel flowscheme for development work and introdsction of new technology; this made it possible to reduce the time required for introduction of multifunction machine tools with automatic tool exchange by a factor of 3-4. ~ The experience of Odessa machine builders in the design and commercial introduc- tion of a series of multifunction machine tools with DPC and automa.tic tool ex- change is noteworthy; their throughput is 3-4 times that of the analogous machine tools produced previously and 8-10 times that of general-purpose machine tools. The horizontal and vertical machines in this series consist of standardized~~units and are constructed on the modular principle. In order to reduce development time, special engineering-technical groups were set up and carried out all the variaus phases of their work in parallel with the designing of the machine tools. Planning of the new series was begun in 1978 and two prototypes, models 2204VNI~'4 and 2Z54VNIF4, were built and tested under industrial conditions in the first quarter of 1979. Improvement of the industry's technical level will in large measure be associated with technical re-equipping of existing plants, an increase in tlze extent to which labor is ~echanized, and improvement of inventory structure for metalworking equip- ment. Some work on outfitting of new and exi~ting plants with the latest machine tools and machines, technological support equipment, and nonstandard equipment wa.. conducted during the lOth Five-Year Plan. Any further increase i_n production effi- ciency in the machine tool and tool industry wi11 to a great extent be the result of purposive work directed at improvement of inventory structure for metal-cutting machines and other types of equipment. 37 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020016-7 FOR 4FFICIAL USE ONLY All industrial associations and enterprises must fulfill their assigned quotas for _ elimination of obsolete equipment. The large amounts of funds.allocated to techni- cal re-equipping of plants must be used for acquisition of heavy-duty automated equipment. By the end of the llth Five-Year Plan, the inventory structure of inetal- cutting machine tools is to include 10-11% machine tools with DpC, up to 24~ special- ized, single-purpose, and modular machine tools, up to 9.3% high- and extra-high- precision machine tools, and up to 18.2% automatic and semiautomatic equipment belonging to all technological groups. Special attention must be paid to rational utilization technological equipment. ~Reduction of idle time, improvement of the interchangeability factor= and rational utilization of equipment resources will provide the basis f or a further rise in production efficiency. . COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", "Stanki i instrument", 1981 24 78 - CSO: 1821/012 E~ ~ 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020016-7