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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500024035-6 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ JPRS L/ 10266 20 January 1 ~82 USSR Re ~ort p SPACE (FnUO 1 /~82) Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST i~lFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 NOTE = JPRS publications cz~ntain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headiine~, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. ?rocessing indicators such as [Text] . or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the - last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered ghonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed ir.~ parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Ti.mes within items are as given by source. 't'he contents of this publication in no way repLe~ent the poli- _ cies, views or at.titudes of tlte U.S. Government. ~ COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10266 20 January 1982 USSR REPORT _ SPACE . (FOUO 1/82) CONTENTS ~ SPACE APPLICATIONS Integrated Experiment Witti 'Metenr' Artificial Earth - Satellite: Important Step in Development of Uperational Investigations of the Earth From Space 1 'Meteor'-Series Satellites Intended for Studying the Earth From Space 4 Technical Equipment Complex for Experiment in Remote Sensing of Earth From Space 17 , Radio and Televisio~. Complex for 'Meteor' Satellites Used To Investigate Earth's Natural Resources 24 Experimental On-Board Information Complex for Observation of the Earth 31 Experimental Information and Measurement Complex Based on 'Fragment' Mul~izonal Scannin~ System 36 . 'Fragment' Multizonal Scanning System 41 ~ Problems in Di~it~al ~'~ratt'seiis~ion arid R~cordittg o~ Multizonal Video Informatidn and ~'Iie~r Solution in the 'Fragment' Fxperiment 54 Metrological Support for Me~surements of Brightness of Earth's Surface by~'Fragment' Multizonal Scanning Systetn 62 Preflig~t Photogrammetrtc Calibr~~tion o�,'Fragment' Multizonal Surveying System 77 InvestigatiAn�of ~ort~ditions for Surveying Ocean's Surface in 0.4-1.1 �m Band of the Soectrum 82 - a- [III - USSR - 21.L S&T FOUO] ~ ~w...,-.- . _ ..n.. ...i* ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FUR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY SPACE APPLICATIUNS UDC 502.3:629.?!3 INTEGRATED EXPERIMEPTT LdITH 'METEOR' ARTIFICIAL FARTIi SATELLITB: IMPORTANT STEP IN T~EVELOPMENT OF OPERA'1'IONAL INVES'~'IGATIONS OF THE EAR.TH : ROM SPACE Moscow ISSLEDOVANIY~ ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- - ceived 1 Jul 81) pp 5-7 [Article by N.P,. Kozlov, R.Z. Sagdeyev and N.N. Sheremet'yevskiy] ~ [Text] In our country, the development of facilities for~~emate sounding o� the Earth from space is moving in two basic, mutually supplementary directions. The first of them is based on photographic surveys of the ~arth's surface, delivery of the exposed phofiographic film to ~:arth, and utilization of the materials obtained for comprehensive thematic mapping. The basic space experiments in this field were performed by USSR Pilot-Cosmonauts Comrades G.T. Dobrovol'skiy, V.N. Volkov, V.I. Patsayev, V.G. Lazarev, O.G. Makarov, P.I. Klimuk, V.V. Lebedev, V.I. Sevast'yanov, V.F. Bykovskiy and V.V. Aksenov, in the "Salyu~" manned orbital stations and "Soyuz" spacecraft. As a r~esult of these experiments and the scien~ific ~esearch and planning and de- sign work based on them, the multizonal space photography method was developed; within the framework of .the "Intercosmos" program, specialists from the USSR and the GDR created the NIItF-6 multizonal space camera, which realizes this method and is intended for extensive productiv.e use. After being developed on the basis o~ the results of flight.testing carried out with the "Soyuz-22" spacecraft, the ~ MKF-6M was made available for practical use by a.nterested organi~ations in 1977. Since that time these cameras have.been used successfully on the "Salyut-6" manned orbital station, as wel.l as in laboratory aircraft operating under the Investigation of the ~a~th's.Natural Resources .(:IPRZ) program in many areas of our country and other socialist countries. The creation of the NIItF-6M camera and the squipment for processing photographs that accompanies it was an important step in the development of photc~raphic aerospace investigations of the Earth. The photographs of the Earth's surface obtained with " these cameras are now being used effectively by many scientists and production or- ganizations from different ministries and departments in order to solve many diver- sified problems involving �the Earth sciences and different economic branches. The second direction for investigation of the Earth from space involves surveying in the most variegated bands of the visible, infrared and superhigh-frequency zones of the spectrum of electromagnetic waves passing through the Earth's atmosphere, 1 FO~t OFFICUL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' - th:; transmission (by radio) of the information obt~.r,zd from satellites to recep- tion points, and the operational processing and delivery of this information to consumers who are engaged in observing, investigating and tnonitoring transient pro- cesses taking place on the Earth's surface and in its seas and oceans. - A.~ analysis of Soviet and foreign experience in using information obtained in space for IPRZ purpos~s shows that it is o,perationally delivered data that is of the greatest value, since it provides a highly efficier~t means for solving extremely important national economic proble~s, such as--in particular--monitoring the s~tatus of agricultural lands and the work being done on them, searching for regions of in- crease.d biologica~ productivity in the sea and many others. The development of this direction requires the sal~.tion of technically more complicated problems, both on ~oard the spacecraft involved and on Earth izself at the information reception and processing points. '~'he complexity of the solution of the problem increases acutely when the Earth's surface is to be surveyed with b,igh spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution and the video information ~btained is to be transmitted to Earth over a digital radio line. Operat~onal processing and interpretation of the obtained video information is possible only on the basis of specialized computer technology. The inclusion of specialized computer facilities in the cycle of ob- - taining, transm~tting and process~:.~ this video information, as well as the devel- - opment of the necessary software for these facilities, is an extre:nely complex problem in and of itself. A second-generation "Meteor" artificial Earth satellite containing a complex of ex- perimental equipment that made it possible to begin an extensive experiment that models the regular, operational uti.lization of space facilities for IPRZ purposes was launched on 18 June 1980. - The "Meteor" was injected into a solar-synchronous orbit (with an inclination of about 97�) that provides the possibili.ty of surveying any area in the Soviat Union under approximately identical solar illumination conditions. The high accuracy of the satellite's orbital orieritation and its altitude of about 630 km above the Earth's surface made it possible to canduct surveying with a spatial resolution of tens of ineters. In addition to the regular radio and television complex that has already been used repeatedly for IPRZ purposes, three new experimental opticoelectronic instruments , were installed in the satellite. They make it possible '..o survey the Earth'~ sur- face in different bands of the visi.ble and near-infrared zone of the spectrum, with medium an~3 high spatial resolution. The video information that is obtained is transmitted to Earth, at the surveying rate, over, specially developed high-information-cor.cent communication links, in- cluding digital ones that insure the preservation ~f the high radiometric acct~ra^-v _ of the video information obtained by the surveying instruments. Along with the in- dustrial organizations, the USSR Academy of Sciences' Institute of Space Research ~ (IKI) and the OKB [Experimental Design Office] of the USSR Ministry of Hi~her and Secondary Specialized Education's Moscn�~� Power Engineering Institute participated - in the development of the on-board and ~~ound equipment ~~sed in this experiment. The video information arriving from the ~atellite is processed at IKI and th~ USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology's State Scientific Research Center for the Study 2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE OjyLY of Natural Resources in specialized display-type computer complexes. Specialists fror~ the USSR Academy of Sciences' IKI have developed a problem-oriented software system for these complexes. This system makes~�it possible to solve, in an inter- a~tive mode (a specialist-computer dialog), an extensive circle of probl~ms~con- cerning the service processing and correction af the video information, its geo- graphic coordinate correlation and conversion into given cartographic projections and scales, the obtaining of various statistical characteristics, and the imnlemen- tation of thematically oriented brightness and cotor transformations that insure ' the production o� high-quality images and a thorough interpretation of them. As research con3ucted at Moscow State University and other organizations has shown, the use of the experimental vi3eo iniormation obtained with the "Meteo.r" satellite for the purpoCe of solving various problem5 in the national economy and the Earth sciences has confirmed the effectiveness of this experiment and the prospects of many of its technical and methodological solutions. At the same time, during the course of the experiment we discovered quite a few in- - completely solved scientific and technical, methodological and organizational prab- Zems. Here we ~re speaking of the reliability of individ~tal on-board instruments, the equipment for the high-sp~ed regis~ration of video information that is being received, the display equipment for the digital processing of i.mages,and the equip- ging of interested scientific and production organizatians with it, the provision of the processing of space video information with a priori data on the spectral and structural characteristics of objects being investiga~ed, the funationing of the - operational processing sexvice and the dissemination of information obtained from space and, of course, the rea3iness of most consumers to change over to digital video informatian and use it effectively. Th~ detection of these shortcomings, their analysis and the se~rch for ways to eliminate them is also an important goal of the experiment that is being conducted. The "Meteor" is continuing to function successfully in o.rbit. The experimen~: is not yet completed, but we can already say with confidence thai: it was an important step in formulating operational in~restigations of the Earth's natural resources in our country. T1-,e "Meteor" and its fittings undoubtedly ref~Pct, in the highest d~- gree, our contemporary ideas about the use of spacecraft for operational IPRZ. The information obtained from it and the softwarQ that has been developed for. proces- sing and intepreting this information answer fully the present requirements of the most diversified consumers. Most of the theses advanced above are convincingly confirmed and discussed in detail in the rest of the articles~in this issue of - ISSLEDOVANIYA ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA. COPYRIGHT: I73ate1'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1a66/18 ~ = 3 FOR OFFIt'IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.507.362 'METEOR'-SERIES SATELLITES INT~;NDED FOR STUDYING THE EARTH FROM SPACE Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSM~ISA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 29 May 81) pp 8-20 [Article by Yu.V. Trifonov] [Text] The Soviet experimental program for studying the Earth's natural resources - from space with the help of automatic satellites, which later received the name "Meteor-Nature" in the periodical press, began in 1974 with the launching of an ex- perimental spacecraft of the "Metear" type that was equipped with a multispectral television camera. Between that time and 1979, three similar spacecraft (KA) were ~ launched into orbit. The first twro i'vy's were injected into orbits at an altitude of 900 km, with an inclination of 82�, while the subsequent KA's in the "Mete~or- Nature" program (beginning in 1977) were plac~d in synchronous solar orbits with an average altitude of 650 km and an inclination of 98�. All of the "Meteor" sate.l- lites functioned successful3.y in orbit and transmitted multispectral tel,evi~ion in- formation to Earth ~n a regular basis (see table.) "Meteor-Nature" P~ogram KA Launches ~ :CApAK7lpNCTlIKH Op6MT6{ 3 ~ . 7V1 ~.R. j(ATO DUII~ICR82 Ho~~~ 4 j I BWCOTA ~t NM ~ n MMHA~ ~ 6~ w ~l~l ~ ~ r t 09.V[l. 1'J74 r. 81,2 88l fU2,R - Z f5.V. tfl76 r. 81,'l 887 f0'l,4 ~!1. V1. f977 r. 97,!) 1i43 A7,5 4 2,''i.I. 1!)79 r. ~JB,(1 1i43 97,/i Key: _ 1. Spacecraft number 4. Inclination (degrees) 2. Date of launch 5. Average altitude (kilometers) 3. Characteristics of orbit 6. Period (minutes) The main goals of the "Meteor-Nature" program were: the creation and 3evelopment of equipment and methods for obtaining, transmitting and processing multispectral television information of low and average resolution for the purpose of studying natural resources; the cceation and development of techniques for decoding and interpreting multi- spectral television information on the Earth's underlying surface for the benefit of different branahes of the national economy; the development of equipment and methods f~r correcting KA trajectories for the purpose af obtaining special orbits'and guiding KA courses over test ranges; 4 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFI!C'IAL USE ONLY obtaining experience in the experimental opers.tion of KA's for IPRZ [investigation of the Earth's natural resources] purposes and the creation of a scientific and technical reserve for the development and improvement of natural resource KA's and the equipment associated with them. The pivota? element in the realization of this program was the informational radio and television complex (RTVK) that was installed in all the "Meteor" KA's. It con- sists of two low- (MSU-M) and medium-resolution (MSY1-S) multichannel scanning units, memory units, automatic equipment, synchronizers and two transmitters (one each for the decimeter and meter bands). All of the RTVK units are duplicated. The speci- fications for this equ~pment and a des~ription of it is given in [1]. Al1 of the multispectral information was received at Goskomgidromet's basic informatio~ reception points in Moscow, Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk, wh3.].e the low-resolu- ` tion information on one of the subbands was also received at indepenZ~nt (simplified) reception points located in different parts of the US~R. The informa- ~ tion from the RTVK's multispQctral scanners wa~ not of a metrological nature and was transmitted over an analog radio link, so the decoding and interpretation of - the information was done by visual methods, without the use of digital methods. The integrated nature of the study of the Earth and its at.mosphere was character- istic of all ths experimer~ts done with KA's in the "Meteor-1Na~ure" proqram. For instance, along with the multispectral television instruments, in the KA's we test- ed (in variaus combination.s) seven more instruments operating in the visible, _ infrared and microwave bands of the spectrum, as well as eight instrument~ for measuring corpuscular radiation and other parameters of space itse~f. Most of them were built and test~d on a spaceflight for the first time. The makeup, purpose and ~ brief descriptions of the instrument packages in the information complexes of KA's in the "Meteor-Nature" program from 1974 to 1979 are given in [2]. The results of the work perfor^~~d by most cf these instruments have been published in journals and ; the proceedings of conferences. Not a11 of the instruments fulfilled the hopzs ~ placed in them and the results of several developments and tests were negati~~e,,but 7 on the whole we laid the foundation for and obtained valuable experience ir.-build- ; inq prospective instruments for remote sounding, some o� which have been tised ~n ~ second-generation natural-resource KA's. ~ 7.'he main result of the development of the basic information system for KA'~, in the -i "Meteor-Nature" program--the multispectral radio and television complex--a:1d the spacecraft as a whole was a transition from individual experiments to the ea'~~ri- i mental operation of this space system on the basis of one or two KA's and three ~ ground information reception and processing points. - During the actual operation of this system since June 1976, the multispectral low- - and medium-,r~~solution equipment has been used to photograph the SovieL� Union's ter- ritory more than 400 times; that is, for all practical purposes an overall survey of that territory was made on the average of ever~� 4-5 days. Despite the fact that in a significant percentage of the photographs the underlying surface was covered with clouds, more than 100,000 duplicate negatives and 70,000 photographs and ortoplany [translation unknown] of multispectral television information have been - sent to hundreds of scienti.fic research organizations balonging tu 20 national eco- nomic ministries and clepartments during this time. This inrormation was used most effectively in the interest~ of hydrology, the maritime fleet, geology and forest . managem~nt. Numerous examples of the interpretation of the information for the benefit of these b.ranch~s :~re presentcd a.n f?-5l. 5 FOR OFFICIA~. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The information provided by the.RTVK is used to evaluate the ice situation in the seas and oceans, including mapping the distribuiion and ~ynamics of the movements of ice fields, evalua~ing the age and solidity Af ice, detecting free-�loating ice- berg5 and so on. On the basis of these evaluations a number of important natidnal economic measures have been instituted~ including the superearly sailing of ships along the Northern Sea Route in the Arctic and the operation of ships belon~ging to ' seasonal ~,ntarctic expeditions, as well as experimental voyag~s of atomic-pov~ered icebreakers in the high northern latitudes. Tize directions for "Investigation of - the Distribution and Dynamics of Sea Ice on the Basis of Television Pictures Fram the 'Meteor' Artificial Earth Satellite," which were developed by Goskomgidrome*_`s Arctic and Antarctic Institute, have been introduced into operational practice. In additi.on to this, RTVK photographs were used to make regular and operational evalu- = ations of the boundaries and dynamics of the snow cover in mountainous and sP.mi- mountainous regions and the hydrological regime of rivers and ather bodies of water, particularly during high-water periods. This type of wark is~being done con~tantly along the trace of the Baykal-Amur Main Railway Line. The USSR Ministry of Geoiogy is one of the main consumers of the broadly dissemin-- ated multispectral information produced by the KA's in the "Meteor-Nature" program. Under the leadership of the VNPO [probably All-Union Scientific Production Association] "Aerogeologiya," many of its organizations are developing the princi-- ples of the techniques and technological processes for the integrated utilization of space surveying materials in regional prospecting work. Imp~rtant practical re- sults have already been obtained. RTVK information is used widely to dete~t and define more precisely tectonic structures and the lineaments of ~he ~,arth's crust. According to the estimates of geologists, the annual economic effect from the use - of multispectral information i.n this mat�Ler alone is about 10 million rubles. Data from RTVK photographs have been used to compile space-tectonic maps of thE USSR on scales of 1:5,000,000 and 1:2,500,000 that are used as the basis for the presence of useful minerals and ~etermining the overall strategy of prospecting work. Data have also been obtained for predicting potential c.~il- and gas-bearing structures in several regions of the USSR and the con�inement ~~f gold ore manifes- tations to areas where annular structures and linear faults ir~tersect has been es- tablished in one of the eastern regions of this country. According to some esti- mates, the monetary savings when territorial geological structures covering 1 mil- lion km2 are studied by space methods are about 3 million rubles. Forest management specialists have achieved significant results through the use of spectrozonal satellite infc~rmation to detect forest f3re nuclei and monitor their - propagation. Special techniques for using satellite information for this purpose, as well as for the o~erational evaluation of the weather situation in hazardous - fire periods in areas that are b~ing protected and the organization of the utiliza- tion of airborne firefighting facilities, have been developed and introduced into operational ~ractice at forest conservation establishments. ~ 5imultaneoaisly with the obtaining of opQrational results related to the interpreta- tion of information for the benefit of the national economy, during the development and flight testing of the KA's in the "Meteor-Nature" program a number o� problems that are important for the development of sgace technology for remote sounding were - solved for the first time in Soviet practice. RPquirements for KA's for Remote ~ounding. In order to solve the complex of prob- lems involved in investigatinq the Earth froxn space by remote sounding methods? in - 6 - ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY addition to the presence on board a satellite of the special infnrmation-measuring ~ instruments and radio links for the transmis~ion of the ~nformation it is necessary _ that the spacecraft--the carrier of these instruments--satisfy a broad spectrum of requirements that ar_e determined by its purpose. The use af ine~hods and equipmeht for the remote sau~-~ding of the Earth and atmosphere are realizable in practice and are useful if the foll_`,wing are provided for in the KA and the space. system: the obtaining of spectxozonal measuring informatiox~ of the necessary spatial and spectral resolution, with mi.nimal geometric distortions and geographic correlation of the images and the geographic area with the required degree of accuracy; the possibility of simultaneously (synchranously) obtaining integrated measurements and images of the Earth's underlying surface in several different bands and sub- b~nds of the electromagnetic wave spectrum; pe~manent or regulatable periodicity in obtaining information various regions of the Earth under identical illumination conditions, in order to study the dynamics of processes taking place in natural formations; the possibility of operational and accur,~te guidance of KA surveying routes over certain reqions for frequent observations during natural calamities or over terres- trial measurement ~anges when integrated experiments are being conducted bsneath the satellite; the optimum combination of a sufficiently operational global survey of the Earth's surface and the possibility of obtaining local information via a detailed survey. An axialysis of the systems requirements and principles of construction of remote- sounding information equipment for KA's shows that the KA's themselves must have a number of special structural and design features. In order to insure constant observation of the Earth with the required geographical correlation of the measurement data and minimal geometric distortion of the images obtained, a KA used in remote sounding must first have a high degree of accuracy in its orientation in the orbital system of coordinates (both on the Earth and~along the satellite's velocity vector,) and stabilization of the craft's intrinsic angular motion velocities around its center of mass. The higher the spatial resolving pow- er of the remote sounding equipment and the niore accurate the geographical correla- tion requirement, the greater ~he orientation and stabilization accuracy must be. 5pecial attention must be paid to the KA's dynamic characteristics so as not to al- low uncom~ensated disturbing moments in the satellite equipment, such as when the solar batteries are beiny rotated as they are being oriented on the Sun or when the scanners or other moving masses are swinging. 5ince the program for the investigation of natural resources by remote sounding methods is largely an experimental one, the stipulated possibility of installing a complex of information-gathering instruments and several radio circuits in the KA ~nd insuring the simultaneous activation of these instruments in differ~nt modes, such a KA requires a rather powerful el~~tricity supply system with a large dynamic load range and complex control logics. The multimode nature of the output of the remote sounding information, in combination with the choice of certain regions for obtaining.and releasing the data, makes it necessary to have a special time-~ programmed device with a long-term memory or a control computer on board the KA. In combi.natirin with the desire to economize on on-board energy resources and the limited natvre of the ground reception points' radio visibility zones, the large masses of data that are accumulatec~ and transmitted make it necessary to use highly directional, or3ented ~n-board antenna that some~imes require special electric 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 ~OR OFFI~IAL USE OPILY gui3ance drives. Since the remote sounding equipment is used to make measurements, it is necessary to provide constant temperatur~e condition~ and sometimes even "deep" cooling of the sensors. In addition to this, it is necessary to shield the sens3.tive equipment from noise and interference from the comparativeZy ~werful electrical and radio systems oWer a broad band of the electromagnetic wave spectrunt. It is only nattasal a spacecraft and its systems must have a service life of several years. To this we can add that for remote sounding KA's it is possible to require a high degree of independence; that is, the capability of functioning for quite a long (particularly in ~he operational mode) without requiring informa- tion communication sessions with the ground control complexes, which fox~ Soviet KA's form a unified command and measurement complex for the purpose of reducing the - amount of work that must be done. This requirement is also related to both in,~ur- ing the on-board equipment's high reliability and using effective and automatic on- board monitoring and satellite control systems. The spacecraft's design must provide high dynamic accuracy and temperature stabili- - ty for the placement of the measurinq instruments relative to the optical axes and must be a general-purpose one that m�kes it possible to install various sets of ex- perimental information equipment quite easily. In additior~ to everything e1sQ, the design must be suitable for the installation of correcting engines for the i:.itial settinq of the required orbit and subsequent control of it. The "Meteor"-series spacecraft possess all of these variegated qualities to a con- siderable degree, both in the first- and (particularly) secand-generation units. Created originally for meteorological purposes, they satisfy most of the require- ments for remote sounding of the Earth. Structure of the "Meteor-Nature" Pragram KA`s. From the beginning of its implemen- ~ tation in 1974, the "Meteor-Nature" program was developed as an integrated program ; providing for the conduct of experimental proaects in obtaining, transmitting and ~ processing information from investigations of the Earth and it3 atmosphere and near-Ear~h space, as well as design experim~nts aimed at the further improvement of " KA's for re.mote sounding. As has already been mentioned, the prcgram was based ~n the use of the design and tH.e elec~rical and radio compl.ex of thE first-generation "Meteor" meteorological spacecraft. - Let us dwell briefly on several special features of the instrument complexes for KA's in the "Meteor-Nature" program, one of which is shown in the generalized block diagram shown in Figure 1. A variety of simultaneously operatir.g instrun~ents that ~ can be categorized by several specific features is typical of tYtese complexes. These features are: the bands of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum used for obtaining informatic~n: the visibl~, infrared (1-25 um), superhigh-frequency (0.8-8.5 cm) and X-ray bat~ds; the observation principle: electromechanical and electronic scanning for both area and spectrum, tracking, direct measurement of corpuscular flows, optical observa- - tion of stars and so on; the orientation and geometric shapes of the fields of view of instruments directsd toward the Earth f~r vertical, slant and circular sounding, into space and toward the Sun for calibration purposes, and instruments aimed in different direations for ~ corpuscular and geophysical measurements; ~ the information transmission methods: digital and analog, with the help of tele- metric anc~ special information radio links in the meter and decimeter bands. 8 ~ ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICI~+L l.?SE UNLY . . 1~ CucmeMn apurMms�uu [p/~Ml4MMC ConHevHe~c 6amupeu conneyHni.~ 6amapeu . 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AUl7fQNUA jI n aOneMUR ~ M~p417f[/I?NOMIf 3~~ ' Ko~rnnerrcy - 40 6apmo0ou ttN~yopMayuONNAr1i poduomexNUVec-~' x 6noKy xodupoDo~ru~+ PTC ~42~ ~ -----~-ltufi KoMnnerrc A I Tenen+em U4tCKft1I KOMM mam0 4 k . 7 , f ~Y~~, l~ p~~ CIlZNQ/10 UN~O MO UONHOfX CItCIIi ~ ` n~ ~(45) . ~I vrc TM~4S~~ll~PrC~4~E evrc~4yl ~ evrct4y) tl , ~4~ ~ _ 4 ~ z tl ; ~K X i 52~ tK Q I y I ~ o ~ I ~ ~ llemeKmop' o q 5 5) d ~4 E 49 ~ ~ ~ ~ o~ , 3 I ~ c ~ p TMa ~ ~48~ rMZ 56) ~ rM ~ ` ~o I ~ m 53 ~ ~ ~ I I s ~ i I Eeideneeue ~ ~ANanoroCeni ~~5 ~ Y 4p NRN T M Q 8~ c a E I ym ne ~ ~ cuzNOna tl E e i r n d b o~5 c~ {5 ) 4K ~K I o o 1 d I (62) ~ I 63) a y en nn nr. ~ ~ 7 V 6~ ; ~ ya s t 9~ E t; . ~ ~ i ~ I o I o b I t ( ~ I verucm,aa- ~ o tl a~n CMecu- o Mod nA- ~ ycunu- ~ x c c� . o mene � mdy ~ mene tl 1 ms ~ 67 ~ c ~ 6 oM ~ 7~1) t~ e~y} 61~ 6l~ ~7 ~ ; c, 5~ Ns ~ g~ ucKpu- ~ ~ o ~ ~ I 4 MOB.y/IA- I/fUMMI~� a I o ~OMtl- I MItNUIrtOp ~ ~K a I E C C,~ lnap mam6p o npueMNUx r ~65~ Nn ~ . ~ y~ g o I ~75~ I~ 67 6~ ycunurnene : n eo oao- I" KowM mcmo ~ ~ qNCnuaamo 84) p ~ y nona u m tl Mod ~r p ~,18~ CUNXOtlNUJRI~UN ~ I OQHILC CIftN 0 ~ ~ y L ni1omneHue ycune~iue ~K~~~Q~ 2NaNanu ~p KQHOna 4 KaNan~(~5)2 Kanana l r~ I 3 Ka N a n n~$ S) I nmuno-~ue,- ~ p emexmo e~ A N I I ~ C N N D I A N I I I C M H O CN Q N C NH' A ~ CKOHe~ CKU?~r.p I XpNHYEtMUII I CB4- I f.B4- I paduoMempa vatmu� MCy-M M~~~'!' anoK CN pudnoMempa , nonnpuMempn , 6j ' I S~ 9 ~ } Figure 1. Block diagram of "Meteor-Nature" program spacecraft. [YCey on next page] 9 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Key to Fi~ure 1: 1. Solar batteries 46. Information system signal-distribution 2. Solar battery orient~tion system Frame 3. Automatic power reed unit 47. To r~diotelemetric system 4. Power feed commutator 48. Telemechanics 5. Power engineering 49. RTVK 6. Chemical batteries 50. Memory 7. Temperature regulation system 51. Amplifier_, detector - 8. Direction-to-Earth sensors 52. Radiometer 9. Magnetometer sensors 53. Superhigh frequency _ 10. Flywheel engines 54. Detector. 11. Flight direction sensors 55. Superhiglz-frequency polarimeter 12. Control unit 56. Infrared radiometer 13. Orientation 57. Frequency de~ectors 14. Angular velocity sensors 58. To ground information complex 15. Moment magnetic engines 59. 460-470 MHz transmitter 16. Telemetric data 60. Power feec3, control 17. Telemetric parameter commutator 61. Amplifier 18. Monitoring, control 62. Signal discrimination 19. Distribution frame 63. Analog output 20. Encoding unit 64. Auxiliary instruments (4 channels) - 21. Radiotelemetric system 65. Observation instruments channels) - 22. Direct transmission 66. Calibration 23. Memory unit 67. Control, power feed 24. Iteproduction 68. Programming, synchronizatian 25. Commutator 69. Reference speake~-s 26. Transmitter 70. Mixer ~ 27. Command radio link 71. Heterodyne 28. Receiver 72. Modulator 29. Decoder 73. Recorder 30. Output command unit 74. Black body 31. Orbit radio monitoring unit 75. Commutator 32. Temporary program unit 76. Photographic receiver 33. Electric reaction engines 77. Discriminator - 34. I'uel storage and supply unit 78. Synchronization, consolidation 35. To on-board radio information com- 79-80. Not used plex 81. Conversion, amplification 36. To ground command and measurement 82. Signal commutator - complex 83. Polarizer 37. Nozzle 84. Amplifier, analyzer 38. Engine 85. . channels - 39. Fuel feed and control unit 86. MSU-M scanner 40. On-board radio information complex 87. MSU-S scanner 41. Solar radiation spectrometer- 88. Solar radiation opticomechanical unit interferometer 89. Superhigh-frequency radiometer anten- 42. To radiotelemetric system encoding nas unit 90. Superhigh-frequency polarimeter anten- 43. Telemetric commutator na 44. 137-138 MHz transmitter . 91. Infrared radiometer scanner - 45. OR 10 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The aspirations for the realization of such diversif~ed experimen~cs with a single spacecraft made it necessary to solve both electrical engineering and design prob- lems. In addition to the already mentioned problems of providing a power supply - time-programmed control of the instrument complexes' information collection and transmission processes, the electrical engineering prablems involved in creating and developing the KA's included the important matter of insuring the electro- magnetic compatibility of all the variegated instruments; that is, eliminating in- terference with each other both by minimizing low-frequency interference in the power circuits and relative to radio (high-frequency) interference in the ether. = This was the most acute problem, since the use of highly sensitive instruments to measure signals counted in microvolts and microamperes over quite broad bands of the spectrum was essentially on the borderline of achievability for delicate physi- cal experiments. Engineering solutions were found that made it possible to mini- mize the interference so much that it had no serious effect on the final outcome of _ the experiments and, in addition, experience for the future solution of more comp- licated problems was gained. An important place in the development of instrument complexes for the "Meteor- Nature" program KA's was given to problems of reliability. It is a well-known fact that the "Meteor" KA's have on-board electrical and radio systems--power ~upply, orientation, thermal regulation, and programmed-command con- ~rol--and designs that are highly reliable. The principles of reliability used in the creation of the information instruments were basically those used in the "Meteor" program: a unified program for insuring reliability in all stages of the development, manufacturing and ground and flight tests; special, moderated operat- ing modes for the electrical and radio elements; the provision of standby equipment and functianal redundancy; the use of thermallX stabilized tests and other methods. In most cases this produced good results or laid the foundation for the creation of highly reliable second-generation information instrtnnents. Design. Significant complexities in the creation of the "Meteor-Nature" program KA's were caused by the problems involved in placing ar_d insuring the normal capa- bility to function of the instrument complexes within the framework of the availa- ble structural means. An idea of the principles behind the layout of the instru- ments in these KA's can be gotten from Figure 2, which shows the structu~al config- - uration of the instruments, as well as from the photograph (Figure 3[not includedl) of a model of one of them. The following principles were realized in the solution of the structural layout problems: for the purpose.of insuring the maximum coincidence of the KA's.optical axes as a wizole, as determined by its orientation serisors (the local vertical plotting de- vice), with the optical axes of the instruments, which require precise orientation on the Earth, the latter were placed on a single instrument platform, in connection with which the accuru~y and dynamic rigidity of the platform is insured by struc- tural and technologica: decisions;~ the platform is standardized to a considerable degree, which makes it possib3.e to place different instruments on it; most of the instruments' sensitive elements were plac;ed outside the KA's sealed body, which made it possible to avoid the use of windows, which lower the overail - useful signal level and distort its spectral composition; the instruments have their own microatmosphere (microclimate); the electronic and electrical units and assemblies~, which were not designed for use in open space, were put together in the form of sealed, monolithic units; - instruments that were particularly sensitive to vik~rations and linear overloads 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY ~ arising during the active part ~f injec- ~ ~I tion inta orbit or to structural noises ~ ' (vibroaccelerations) arising during the rotation of inadequately balanced ayrfamiC ` masses inside the KA, were mounted on spe- \ I cial shock absorbers; when it wa: neces- sary to preserve high geometric accuracy, ~ the entire instrument platform holding the ~ sensors was moun~ed on shock absorbers. ~ Particular difficulties were encountered ' � when the attempt was made to combine the ~ , ~ rigid dimensional limitations in the f~ - ~ ~ placement of a multi-instrumer~t complex . ~ with the need for providing variegatec3, _ I nonintersecting (in three-dimensional Z , space) fields of view for the information instruments and the rather broad rzdiation _ ~ ~ d 'I patterns of the several antennas of the - 9 radio transmitting systems. At the same time, for the purpose of increasing relia- ~ bility, th~ problem of getting rid of.any 5 6 7 8 overlapping mechanisms and the use of sta- 4 , tionary antennas was solved. Figure 2. Structural diagram of in- The information instruments' ability to strument placement: 1. infrared functiori and the quantitative and qualita- equipment; 2. A-019 unit; 3. local tive characteristics of the remote sound- vertical plotting device; 4. experi- ing information received from a KA are mental model of local vertical plot- largely determined by the degree of adher- ting device; 5. combined conical an- ence to the assigned thermal mode stabili- tenna; 6. RTVK compl~x; 7. radiation ty for each separate instrument. On the measuring complex; 8. decimeter band basis of constancy of the object's orien- antenna; 9. radiation measuring com- tation on the Earth and the stable, cyclic plex unit; 10. solar radiation equip- nature of its orientation on the Sun, as ment; 11. superhigh-frequency equip- determined by the synchronous solar orbit, ment. in order to solve the problems of heat ex- change among geometrically complex systems of instruments located outside the sealed compartment, with due consideration for their mutual and variable shading effect on each other, standard calculation meth- ods were developed that also allowed for the actual planned programs f~r turning on one piece of equipment or another during an orbit, as well as that equipment's own internal heat generation. Calculations made on the basis of averaged heat flows made it possible to evaluate the average-mass quasistationary temperature, which was then used to select the thermal stabilization methods. In addition to this, the developers were given design recommendations that had as their purpose insuring the stability of the instruments' (photoreceiver, bolometer and so on) sensitive elements within several deqrees. In order to allow for degradation of the thermal- regulation coatings' (TRP) optical qualities, which is an important element in in- suring the thermal regime's stability, for the first time in the USSR a special scientific research project to study the effsct of space factors on TRP properties was carried out with several "Meteor" KA's~[6]. The quantitative and qualitative 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY properties of almost all the coatings in use were studied during an extended space- flight (up to 3-4 years). The results of the r~esearch were taken into considera- tion when designing the thermal regulation systems for "Meteor-Nature" program KA's and were the basis for the~creation of coatings wii:h better radiation stability. As a result of the work that was done, it becamc possible to create thermal regime support systems for KA instrument complexes that are notable for their structural simplicity and reliability during extended operating periods. They include: radi- ators with TRP's of the solar reflector type; electric heaters with automatic or command-regulated power levels for equalizing the temperature fields for a piece of equipment; vacuum-screen thermal insulation that reduces the unevenness of the ef- fect of heat exchange with the external medium. These systems, which have been tested in many flight experiments, provide the in- struments with the required temperature conditions. Ballistic Plotting for the "Meteor-Nature" Space System. One essential problem was insuring the proper ballistic plotting of the space system for studying the Earth's natural. resources and maintaining the stability of the orbits selected and realized for remote sounding KA's. As is known, the most suitable orbits for such KP,'s are solar-synchronous or geosynchronous ones, in which a KA passes over the same lati- tudes at the same local solar time, so that there is an almost constant :3egree of illumination, which makes i~ possible to compare changes in the re�7.zctive charac- teristics of natural formations. For IPRZ [study of the Earth's natural resources] KA's it is advar~"-.ageous to use - 0900-1100 hours .local time for observations, since in connection with this--in the first place--there is good illumination in the images obtained, as well as suffi- - cient contrast bec~use of shadows and--in the second place--as a rule the cloud cover over the regions being observed is minimal at that time and observation effi- - ciency is increased. In such orbits there is also no loss of television informa- tion related to low �ngles of Sun altitude above the horizon, which does occur when orbits of other,types are used. The realization of a solar-synchronous orbit for Soviet spacecraft was achieved for the first time during the launch of a"Meteor-Nature" program KA in July 1977. In paying tribute to the specialists in rocket technology who successfully solved ~ this problem, which was a new one for the USSR, it is necessary to mention that.the - universal principles used i.n the "Meteor" KA's design and structure made it possi- ble to inject it into ~rbit and provide it with a normal, long-term ability to function with practically no design changes. Only elements in the orientation sys- tem and the KA's control-program unit had to be reworked, the reason for this being the change in the altitude of the orbit. - In addition to the solar-synchronous nature of the orbit, for a remote-sounding KA it is neressary that the orbit's parameters correspond to several other require- ments. It is desirable that the orbit be close to circular, so that the images ob- tained have identical scales and minimal geometric distortions, which makes it eas- ier to interpret them and compile measurement results. Since remote-sounding KA's (particularly those used to make operational observations) are also used to track the dynamics of natural formations, it is necessary that the KA orbits be repeated; 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY that is, the satellite's rcute over the Earth must be repeated after a whole number ~ of days. If there are several satellites instead of just one in the space system, in order to insure effective viewing of the Earth and operational communications between the KA's and the ground information reception points, the parameters of the spacecraft' orbits must be correlated with each other in a certain manner. In or- der to satisfy this entire complex of requiremer.ts, it is necessary to observe (with quite high accuracy) the calculated values of the orbital inclinations, ec- centricities and period, not only after injection of the KA�s into orbit, but throughout the entire period of their active existence. Almost all modern launch vehicles used to inject KA's into orbit have limited accu- racy; that is, the parameters of the initial orbits have significar.t limits of the possible deviations ixam the calculated values. For example, the American "Atlas-E" launch vehicle injects a"Tiros-N" KA into an orbit with an average alti- = tude dispersion of 37 km (for a nominal altitude of 830 km), a difference between perigee and apogee altitudes of 56 km, and period deviations of up to 1 minute. Because of the effect of various factors, after a KA is injected into orbit, the latter's parameters are subjected to significant period and constant changes, the effect of which quickly disrupts the necessary relationships between the orbital parameters of different KA's. The stability of remote-sounding space systems is maintained by the use of correct- ing propulsion systems (KDU) that carry out the initial orbital correction (that is, correct the -arrors made when the launch vehicle injects a KA into its initial orbit) and make periodic corrections to compensate for perturbations that accumu- late during the KA flight process. At the present time, so-called electr~c reaction engines (ERD) are the ones most widely used. ERD's of different types use the principle of acceleratinn and dis- charge of a gas that is ionized and heated to a high temperature (is in a plasma state), through the use of an electromagnetic or electrostatic field. In ERD's the gas ions pass th.rough accelerators and acquire velocities on the order of tens of kilometers per second, whereas in the most modern oxygen-hydrogen rocket engines the maximum.discharge velocity is 4-5 km/s. Because of the high discharge velocity an ERD consumes 5-10 times less fuel to generate the same amount of thrust, thanks to which there is a sharp reduction in the required fuel reserve far the KA and, _ consequently, the overall weight of the entire installation. Thus, for protracted service periods, the use of an ERD is more profitable than the use of a micro-ZhRD [liquid propellant rocket engine]. One of the important results of the "Meteor-Nature" program was the successful ex- periments for the flight testing of electric reaction engines an8 the development of orbit correction techniques [7,8J. The experiments were initially conducted with several types of ERD's built in the USSR under the scientific leadership of Academician L.A. Artsimovich, after which a stationary plasma engine (SPD) was se- lected for further development because of a number of its indicators. The engines - had an average thrust of 2-2.5 g. In the flight testing stage (1973-1975) the fun- + damental questions of the ability of such engines to function in space and their reliability and stability of thrust were answered, their electromagnetic compati- bility with a satellite's electrical and radio systems was investigated, and test corr~ctions of KA orbits were made, during which the possibilities of a significant reduction in orbital eccentricity and the maintenance of orbital stability were 14 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY confirmed. ~During the next stage, a tecYuiique was created ~nd worked out for mak- inq optimal (with respect ta time and energy consumption) corrections for the pur- po~e of establishing repeated orbits (a repeated solar-synchronous orbit with a 5- day ~epetition period was established in one of the experiments), in connection with which the developers determined the optimum strategy for alternating actiVe periods when the KDU's were turned on and passive ones when orbital measurements were being made. ~ A matter of considerable interest for the solution of remote sounding problems is the establishment of not simply a repeated orbit, but one for which the KA passes over a certain region with a given periodicity. An example of this would be a test (measuring) range where simultaneous subsatellite (airborne and ground) observa- tions are made for the purpose of developing unified techniques for interpreting space information. The technique for the solution of this problem was worked out during an experiment with one of the "Meteor-Nature" KA's, with the accuracy of ' track guidance over the required region being 5-10 km for a daily repetition period. Basic Results of the Realization of the "Meteor-Nature" Program. The following scientific and technic~i problems were solved for the first time in Soviet practice during the implementation of this program. 1. A first-generation experimental-operational space system for studying the Earth's natural resources was created on the basis of obtaining, processing and us- ir~g medium- and low-resolution multispectral television information for the benefit of geology, hydrology, the maritime fleet, forest management, hydrometeorology and other branches of the national economy. The system produces a significant annual economic effect. 2. The obtaining of a solar-synchronous orbit for remote-sounding spacecraft was mastered. 3. The design and on-board control complex of a"Meteor"-series KA was used as the basis for the creation of a specialized firstWgeneration "Meteor-Nature" spacecraft for studying the Earth's natural resources; structural-component principles of in- - strument platforms for a complex c~f remote sounding instruments were developed and realized in monolithic block and unsealed versions; problems connected with electromagnetic compatibility and providing the proper thermal modes for multi- instrument complexes were solved; experience was accumulated fo.r the further im- provement of KA's for studying the Earth's natural resources. 4. Methods for the visual interpretation of inedium- and low-resolution, multi- spectral, wide-angle, television images for the benefit of the branches of.the na- tional economy mentioned above were developed and introduced into operational prac- tice and methodical work on expanding the sphere of utilization of the incoming in- formation is being done. 5. Integrated scientific research and experimental design work has been done on the creation and development, under spaceflight conditions, of various experimental in- struments for the remote sounding of the Earth an3 its atmosphere in the visible, infrared and superhigh-frequency bands and the exper~mental interpretation of the information obtained; scientific, technical and design experience for the creation of improved remote sounding instruments of an operational nature has been gained. ~ 15 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500024035-6 F()R OFNI('IAI. USE ONLY 6.. An optimum technique has been created and developed for correcting ~ space- craft's trajectcry with t`~e help of low-thrust electric reaction engines for the purpose of obtaining repeated arbits and guiding KA tracks aver experimental natural-resource-study ranges subsatellite Experiments. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Selivanov, A.S., Tuchin, Yu.M., e~ al., "A Radio and Television Complex for Ex- perimental Satellites for Observations ~f the Cloud Cover and the Earth's Sur- face," in "Kosmicheskaya geofizika" [Space Geophysics], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1978, pp 3-10. ~ 2. Vetlov, I.P., "The 'Meteor' Space System at the Service of Hydrometeorology, ISSLEDOVANIYA ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, 1980, pp 11-28. 3. Gurvich, A.S., Yegorov, S.T., and Kutuza, B.G., Radiophysical Methods of Sound- ing the Atmosphere and the Ocean's Surface From Space," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 63-69. - 4. Vlasov, A.A., Yegorov, S.T., and Plyushchev, V.A., "Comparative Analysis of Radiothermal and Infrared Images Obtained With Artificial Earth Satellites," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 43-47. 5. Kirillov, A.B., and Borisov, O.M., "An Experiment in Space Geological Map Com- parison on the Basis of the Interpretation of Television Photographs Taken by a �Meteor' Artificial Earth Satellite," ISSLEDOVANIYA ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 4, 1980, pp 25-30. 6. "Distantsionnoye zondirovaniya atmosfery so sputnika 'Meteor [Remote Sounding of the Atmosphere From a"Meteor" Satellite, collection of works], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1979. 7. Artsimovich, L.A., Andronov, I.M., Trifonov, Yu.V., et al., "Development of the Stationary Plasma Engine (SPD) and Its Tests in a'Meteor' Artificial Earth Sat- - ellite," KOSMICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA, Vol 12, No 3, 1974, pp 451-468. 8. Andronov, I.M., Trifonov,~ Yu.V., Taynov, Yu.F., et al., "Electric Reaction Pro- pulsion Systems in Space," KOSMICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIXA, Vol 12, No 3, 1974, pp 447-450. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniy~ Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/18 16 _ FOR OFi~'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ UDC 502.3:629.78 TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT COMPLEX FOR EXPERIMENT IN REMOTE SENSING OF FARTH FROM SPACE � Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 29 May 81). pp 21-27 [Article by Yu.V. Trifonov] [Text] Intensive work is being done in the Soviet Union on the development and im- provement of space fac:lities for obtaining operational information for the.investi- gation of the Earth's natural resources. In [1] there is a brief description of the content and basic results of the work that has been done to create an experimental- operat~onal space system for IPRZ [investigation of the Earth's natural resources] that has received the title "Meteor-Nature." With respect to both the information instruments and the basic "Meteor" spacecraft used to carry them in spac~, this sys- tem belongs in the category of first-gene~ation space facilities. The information equipment used in the system ~o obtain multispectral television information does not have measuring capabilities, the interpretation of the iniormation is by visual = methods and, in addition, the resolving power of the equipment is inadequate for ex- tensive utilization in agriculture, the fishing industry and several other branches, although it does insure the solution of a number of important national economic _ problems.. As is known, in the USSR we are planning the creation of a permanently operating space system for the investigation of natural resour.ces, part of which will be an opera- tional subsystem for studying the Earth in order to obtain information on the char- acteristics of rapidly changing components of the environment. As the basic instru- - ments (the information from which will be transmitted to Earth over radio channels) - for studying the Earth's surface, it has been proposed that we use two multizonal, opticomechanical scanning devices: a high-resolution one, with local scanning reso- lution of 50 m in the visible band and 200 m in the infrared band and a field of view of 180-200 km for 8 spectral zones in the 0:4-12.5 um spectral band, and a medium-resolution one, with local scanning resolution o~ 150-200 m in the visible band and 500-600 m in the infrared band and a field of view of 500-700 km for 4 spectral zones in the 0.4-12.5 um band. The viewing periodicity along the equator for a single spacecraft with this operational subsystem will be 14-17 days when the high-resolution multizonal scanning unit is used and 4-5 days with the medium- resolution one. Starting in 1980 and continuing this year, an integrated experiment is being con- ductea for the purposes of testing and developing, under real conditions, new 17 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY information-n:easuring equipment for obtaining high- and medium-resolution multizonal space infonnation and working out the methodological problems involv~d in decipher- ing and inierpreting measured space information for studying the Earth. In this ex- periment there is a.capability for realizing simultaneous surveying of the Earth's surface, with ilifferent types of sc~.ining devices, in 10 subbands of the spectrum from 0.4 to 2.4 um, witTz 3~0-800 m resolution and fa~elds of view ranging from 30 to 2,000 ]an. Detailed descriptions.of the information equipment and the goals of the experiment were published in [2]. The most important goal of the experiment is the further development of the struc- tural configuration, design and reliability of the impr.oved spacecraft that is th.e carrier of a unique complex of remote sounding instruments. Composition of the Information Equipment for the Integrated Experiment. The experi- ment is being conducted with three complexes of on-board and ground information equipment that is used to observe the Earth's surface in th~ interests of investi- gating the Earth's natural resources. On the spacecraft that was launched into a solar-synchronous orbit with an average altitude of 634 km on 18 June 1980, there is the following equipment: 1. A BIK-E experimental on-board information complex that consists of: an 1'SU-SK medium-resolution multizunal scanning unit with a tapered opticomechanical scanner; an MSU-E high-resol~~tion multizonal scanning unit with electronic.scanning, which unit was realized on the basis of charge-coupled (PZS) receivers; an information conversion and multiplexing unit; a digital radio transmission unit operating in the 460-470 MHz band. 2. A"Fragment" experimental multizonal system, consisting of: ' an opticomechanical scanning unit with calibration devices; a system of photoreceivers with a Fiber-optics collector; an analog-to-digital converter; synchronization, commutation and multiplexing devices; a digital radio transmission unit operating in the 1,000 MHz band. The "Fragment" system measures the spectral energy brightnesses of natural forma- tions in eight spectral bands with differing degrees of accuracy, using on-board calibrating and standard light sources during the measurements. 3. An operational radio and television complex (RTVK) with characteristics described in [3] . ~ Figure 1 is a block diagram of the on-board and ground information complexes used in the exp~:riment. It should be mentioned here that there are some limitations, related to the utiliza- tion of a single radio band.(460-470 MHz) and a single "Fobos" ground antenna as well as the amount of information produced by the separate scanning devices, on the simultaneous transmission of information from the RTVK and BIK-E complexes. Since the maximum amount of information that can be carried by a radio link on this band is 8 Mbit/s, at any moment it is possible to transmit information from only one of the four (MSU-M, MSU-S, MSU-SK, MSU-E) scanning units, which is reflected in the 18 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ - I 6npmo4or~ KoMnneKc odecneyeHUa 6opm nA I - I 3H~P2CmuK0~ OputNOlOquA~ KoNmpone, ~a) I I ynpaQntMUt ~2.) ~ ~ I I - ( ~3) llumoNUe R 02 QMMO! uN~lOpMQI(f/ONHO/fL ~ ~ ~ P P K~nraneKC ~4~ I _ I _ ~ Kon+n+ymumnP I - I ~ (7? N~ I7~ H~ l~aMn?ymnrc 4(8y I . I5) ~ I n ~ . ~ eN 1x~ 8~ 8 e I N~ ~ ~ ~ g~ q ~ ~ ~ q ~ xo ~N ls ~ o~ o~ fK K 2x 4K 3K 1K oe b~ ~ a ` v ~ ~ U ~ ~ v -G ~w I ~ i =4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~4 i ~ 9~ ~9 r--- ~ . ~ A~nnH~19) - - nnN U) ~ npueM ~ npue npueM 2 ~22~ txoduposaNUe ~ dexoau oeaNUe eKOaupnQoNU ~~~1 (23~ ptzucmpartuA ~ CeaeKyu 24 Ce~errq~ . Ce~eKuu 24 I I (23~QezuempeyuA Ota~cm a PatucmpnquA~23) L~~~~ ~ . r;- ~ . ~ OdpadumKa Z u~26~ _ I ~ , I qenedaa udpodamKa 2y ~ ~ Figure 1. Block diagram of the experiment. Key: 1. On-board power engineering, orien- 14. MSU-S tation, monitoring and control com- 15. MSU-SK plex 16. MSU-E 2. On board the spacecraft 17. "Fragn?ent" - 3. Power, programs 18. Digital radio link, GHz 4. On-board information complex ~ 19. Analog information reception point 5. Commutator 20. Information reception point 6. Not used 21. RECeption 7. "OR" ~ 22. Decoding 8. channels 23. Recording . 9. ~lnalog radio link, GHz 24. Select~on 10. Observation instruments 2.~i. Processing 11. Auxiliary instruments 26. Central section ~ 12. ZI [exi~ansion unknown] 27. Purposeful processing 13. MSU-M diagram in Figure 1 by the "OR" logic elements. The transmission of information from the "Fragment" system takes place independently of the BIK-E and RTVK systems � 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504020035-6 NOR OF~iC1AL USE ONLY ' I ~ ~ ' . ~ , - / _ ` ~ _ ~ nPosKUVA a mKo - \ ~uut~pe lO,OMUH - ~ \ ~ i / / t i / ~ ~ / ~ ~ / 1 � ~ ~ / ~ , ~ ,~i~ lN~ ~ ~ - / / / ~I i ~ ~l ~ j / ~ ~ ; p d Mc ~ ~ i~ j ~NII ~ ~ / ~ ` c / I I ~I . 1~ ` ' /~j~ ~ ~ it ui I 1 ~ �D r0D�..~ , / / I I,~ I 11 i~ ~ / ~ ~4 / ii~l ~ l ~M~ ~ i ~ i~~!~ i ~ i ~ 1~~'\, ~ ? ~ ~ I I ~ npoaKr~~ i I OpeMe u ceA < ~I aut~P-6MUN / / ' x p npu Ope~4 u- � c~qau t~p-s,JMu o . ~~p~~~(:~) - / ~ i ~ ~ I ' , , ~ ~ - _ _ ~ I ~ � q ' e0 I'ic~urc 2. Field of view of information equipment in the experiment. . Key : 1. Projection of orbit during communi- 6. Projection of orbit during communica- tion time, tave = 10.6 min tion time, tave - 6 min , 2. MSU-E 7. MSU-S 3. Moscow 8. Projection of orbit during communica- 4. "Fragment-2" ~ ~ tion time, ~-ave = 8.3 min 5. MSU-SE 9. Field of view and is carried out over from four to six of the eight available channels. Selection of the simultaneously operatinq scanners and a comparative analysis of the images 20 FOR .OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 F~JR O~FICIAI. USE ONLY and mcasurements obtained for the same region of the Earth were two of the basic yoals of the experiment. Ihforfiation is sent from the BIK-E complex over a digital radio 2ink to the - Goskomgidromet [USSR 5tate Committee for Hyc~rometeorological Services] reception point in Obninsk, where the RTVK information is also received. It i.s then sent to Go5NITsIPR [State Scienti�ic-Research Center for Study of Natural Resources] for . primary processing. Information from the "Fx�agment" system is tranamitted over a digital rad3o link to an MEI [tiloscow Power Enbineering Institute] OKB [Experimental or Special Design Office] reception point and is processed at the USSR Academy of Sciences' IKI [Institute of Space Research] and GoaNITsIPR. Figure 2 shows the disposition of the fields of view on the Earth for all the in- - struments used in the on-board information 'i~omplex during the experiment, together - with the radio visibility zones for the points receiving information from the BIK-E, "Fragment" and the RTVK. Features of the Design and 5tructural Formulation of the ~pacecraft. The basic - spacecraft used in the experiment was a second-generation "Meteor-2" KA [space- craft], which is distinguished from a"Meteor" KA by the following basic qualities: increased accuracy of triaxial orientation and stabilization of the angular veloci- ties., which makes it possibYe to use information instruments with opticomechanical scanning and local ~esolution of up to 80 m, as well as an enlarged energy supply system capacity; expanded capabilities for automatic time-programmed control of the processes of ob- taining and transmitting informatian, including control over the light conditions and sensitivity levels of the measuring equipment; additional structural configuration and weight-and-size capabilities, which made it possible to install a multiband instrument complex and several information radio links; ` a general-purpose automatic-testing system and technique, utilizing the control com- puter's hardware and software, which made it possible to carry out ground checks of - the KA's additional instrument information complexes with a high degree of reliabil- ity and to insure (along with other methods) their reliable operation in orbit. Along with the solution of a considerable number of experimental problems, the use of the improved spacecraft made it possible to continue opera~ing the RTVK, which is the basic source of low- and medium-resolution multizonal in�ormation in the "Meteor-Nature" program [1j. . . Figure 3 is a structural diagram of the placement of the information complexes on the spacecraft. The complex of zemote-sounding instruments was laid out in accord- ance with the basic principles formulated in [1], although there are also a number of interesting f.eatures. 'i'he specially developed load-bearing housing of the "Fragment" equipment was used as the structural foundation for the placement of the information measuring instruments and orientation system sensors, as well as the antenna complex. Z'his made it possi- ble, an the one hand, to achieve the required geometric accuracy of coincidence of the instruments' optical axes and, on the other hand, to make do without a special instrument platform; this, in turn, improved the KA's weight and size characterist- ics. The ratio of the information instrt~ments' mass to that of the entire satellite 21 ~ rOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020035-6 HOR OF'N'IC'IAL USE ONLY . is more than 0.30, which is a very good in- dicator for such KA's. It is necessary to ~ mention here that all the information com- plex instruments are not airtight. ~ . Amonq the nontrivial desi~n solutions thgt ) , were found durinq the creation af this sat- ~ / 9 ellite is the combination into a single ~ structural module of a large number (up to siac) antenna systems o,perating on different B wavelengths. This module (see Figure 3) is I~~~ ~ ~nounted along the spacecraft's longitudinal 2 ~,~r axis under the infrared local vertical ~ ~ plotting device (PMV). Since the working ~ field of view of the PMV is a wide-angled 3 i' 7 cone with a narrow field of vision bearing - on the edge of the Earth's visible disk y 6 (the infrared horizon), the inner space.of this cone (its "dead" zone with the axis pointing at the center of the Earth) was ~ used for the placement of the unified an- tenna module and its radiation patterns.~ The stiffening ribs that encompass the s PMV's protective germar~ium fairing were used to attach the antenna module to tihe Figure 3. 5tructural diagram of satellite's instrumenti compartment and for spacecraft's instrument complex: 1. the passage of the feeder devices. experimental medium-resolution scan- measures were implemented concerning the ning unit; 2. experimental scanner thermal regulation of the antenna module's based on PZS structures; 3. monoblock supporting structure in order to,p~event aontaining automatic equipment for, uneven heating of it and the addition'~~ information complex; 4. low- interference to the PMV's input signals, resolution RTVK scanner; 5. antenna- along with measures to protect the PMV from - feed complex; 6. medium-resolution the antenna module's radio emissions. Z"he RR'VK scanner; 7. local vertical plot- KA's successful operation in orbit with the ting devicej 8. radiant refrigerating antenna module in this location demonstrat- unit; 9. "Fragment" television com- ed this design's viability and tihe possi- plex; 10: gas-reacti8n damping system bility of i~s further use. ~ compartment. ' Projects for the thermal regulation of the information instruments received further development. As is known, when instruments are mounted outside thc sealed compartment, there arise difficulties in providing tlle required thermal conditions for Che measuring informa~ion ins~Cruments. This is related to the fact that in the absence of a gageous medium in and between the in- struments, the possibility of utilizing forced convection and the gas's thermal Con- ductivity to equalize the temperatures of the instruments' elements and the satel- . lite's structural parts is eliminated. The thermal conductivity of the elements of the instruments' and satellite's parts, as well as radiation, play the main role in these processes. The integrated utili2ation of special thermal regulation coatinga and flat electric heaters and radiators, the creation of special structural bridges tor overflowing heat along the� structural elements, and the use of a technique for - making thermal calculations for each instrument aeparately ~nd as a part of the zi ~ ~'OR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500024035-6 FOR OF'F'ICIAL USE ONLY whole that was worked out and tested experimer_tally made it possible to solve suc- cessfully the complicated problem of providing the given, quite variegated and nar- row ranges of required ~nformation instrument temperatures. In order to create the optimum sensitivity ar.d detection capability regimes for the straightedqes of the PZS-structures used in the MSU-E instzument, it was necessary to cool them to a temperature of -40�C. This was achieved with the help of a cdol- iny screen mounted on the shaded side of the spacecraft's body and a specially de- signed fieat pipe, the other end of which was installed directly in the photoreceiver ~ assembly of the M5U-E instrument. The temperatu~e gradient in the heat pipe, which is about 1.5 m lozg, did not exceed 4-5�, ancl the ~equired cooling of the photo- receiver was insured. The "Fragment" complex's photoreceivers were also cooled to the required temperatures with the help of radiatorg. Considerable difficulties were overcome in minimizing interference ancl other kinds of noise in the KA's on-board network and insuring the equipment's electromagnetic compatibility, particularly in the area of eliminating pulsations in the satellite!s on-board n~twork caused by variable-sign dynamic loads oCCUrring during swinging of the "Fragment" equipment's receiving mirror, which has considerable mass. In addi- tion to this, the introduction of additional radio links and the use of collocated antennas also required the introduction of filters, screens and other shielding. measures. As a result, interference of the large complex of variegated radio in- - struments with each other was practically eliminated and did not affect the quality of the video info~nation that was obtained. Preliminary Results of the Experiment. The new integrated space experiment in re- mote sounding fias been functioning for more than a year. The spacecraft as a whole and most of the information complex ingtruments have retained their ability tA funa- tion and are gathering and transmitting to ~artih.multizonal information about our - planet's underlying surfaCe. Elsewhere in this issue there are de~ailed axplana- tions of the results of the operation of the information complexes and tYie process- ing and interpretation of the information both for the ~enefit of the planning and - design organizations tihat created the satellite and the scientific equipment and for the direct benefit of consumers in different branches of the national economy. The experiment is going well ~tnd is making it possible to obtain valuable scientific and practical data for improving information gathering and processing equipment for the purpose of the furttier development of remote sounding methods. ~ BTBLIOGRAPHY _ 1. Trifonov, Yu.V., "'Meteor'-Series Satellites Used to Study the Earth From 5pace," this issue, pp 8-20. ~ 2. "A New Experiment in Investigatinq the Earth From 5pace," IS5LEDOVANIYA ZEMLI YZ .KO5MOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 5-6. 3. Selivanov, A.S., Tuohin, Yu.M., et al., "A Radio and Television Complex for EX- perimental 5atellites for.Observations of the Cloud Cover and the Earth's 5ur- face," in "Kosmicheskaya geofizika" [5pace Geophysics~, Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1978, pp 3-10. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 C5o: 1866/18 23 � F'OR OI~'F'IC'IAL U5E ONLl' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY ~ UDC 551.507.362 RADIO AND TELEVISION COMPLE}: FOR 'METEOR' SATELLITES USED TO INVESTIGATE EARTH~S - NATURAL RESOURCES Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZENII~I IZ KJSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceivP~ 22 May 81) pp 28-34 [Article by A.S. Selivanov and Yu.M. Tuchin] [Text] The diversity of the problems and methods involved in studying the Earth from space requires the creation and optimum utilization durings surveys of the Earth's surface from a satellite of several types of television equipment that are differentiated by such paramete.~s as the scale of the image that is produced, local resolution, the number of spectral channels, and the operational nature of the ob- taining of the information [1]. The basic advantage of space surveying methods consists of their global nature, which makes it possible to obtain images of large sections of the Earth's surface, at the same time and under the same transmission and recording conditions. There- fore, along with television systems analogous to those used in the "Landsat" arti- ficial Earth satellite [2l, which have resolution of about 80 m and a viewing field of 185 km and have proven their effectiveness, it is also feasible to use systems - with lower resolution but a considerably.lasger viewing field. A prototype of such systems is the complex of equipment for meteorological satel- lites, which--as was already mentioned long ago--can produce information that is useful for more than meteorological purposes [3]. Nevertheless, however, the quali- ty of ineteorological television systems is still inadequate for their extensive use in the investigation of natural resources (IPR}. It is necessary to improve their sensitivity and resolution and enlarge the number of spectral channels avail~ble, thereby expanding the circle of problems that can be solved with their help not only in meteorological, but also in other scientific and nat~ional economic branches. _ A complex of instruments that was developed in order to investigate the possibili- ties of this type of equipment has been installed in experimental satellites created on the basis of "Meteor"-type satellites [4]. The first satellite carrying this equipment was launched on 9 July 1974, and the effectiveness of its utilization was confirmed. Four more satellites in this series were then built. They have enabled us to provide the conditions for the experimental operation of an operational system for IPR and schedule regular dissemination of the obtained information among many ~�onsumers [5]. At the present time two of these satellites, which were injected in- to orbit on 25 January 1979 and 18 June 1980, are functioning. The latter one is 24 FOR OFFICiAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY essentially a satellite of a new generation, because an experimental system with t~ettcr characteristics has been installed in it along with the regular equipment that is described in this article. ~--�---~4~dia~ ' ~ . ~ ~ 1Nanan 5 1 f ~ ~ i5 K A~iy ~ -----4Kanan ~Z ~2~ ~ 2 KaNan 6 ~ ~ lfoMVHdoi, numaHUC 13 f6 K A~'y ~3) ~ - = 7 B >4 ~2~ F, ~ 3 I ~ . ! a - o i ~ y 10 fB >9 . . ~ y ~N L - - - - Figure 1. Functional block diagram of radio and televisian complex. Key: ~ 1. . channels 3. Commands, power 2. To antenna feed On=Board Radio Equipment. Part of the satellite's regular equipment consists of a - duplicated complex of instruments (Figure 1): an MSU-M low-resolution, quadrizonal, opticomechanical scanner (1, 2); an MSU-S medium-resolution, bizonal, optico- _ mechanical scanner (3, 4); magnetic recording units (5, 6); timers (7, 8); driving oscillators (9, 10); decimeter band transmitters {11, 12); meter band transmitters (13, 14); antenna switches (15, 16); links with the satellite's antenna feed (AFU). The control system is a block of automatic equipment (17) and, in addition, there is a unit for displaying on-board time (18, 19). _ Synchronous driving of the scanners in both types of instruments is achieved with signals formulated in a timer (7, 8), wher~ the fundamental frequencies for the oth- er instruments in the complex are also formed. The master frequency of a highly stable quartz.oscillator.(9, 10} operates the timer. The communication channel consolidation operations are carried out in the timer at the same time. Information is transferred from several spectral channels into a single communication channel according to the principle of temporal consolidation, which is realized here by the switching of channels and the formation of a pulse- amplitude modulated sequence of signals. All four channels of the MSU-M instrument can be transmitted directly into the basic decimeter communication channel. In connection with this, the switching frequency is several times greater than the maximum video signal frequency, so signal conver- sion does not affect the clarity of the image. _ 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY From the MSU-S instrument it is possible to tran~mit only one channel, or two with interlaced switching. In the latter case the clarity af the image in the direction of the flight is halved, but at the same time is equalized with the clarity along the line. For ground system synchronization, a pilot signal that is added to the basic signal is transmitted over the single channel. - The memory units (5, 6) in the later satellites provide for the recording and repro- duction of four spectral channels for each instrument. The recording and reproduc- tion times are identical and are 6 minutes in the 5 kHz band for each channel. The display device (18, 19) makes it possible to produce a number of operational �elemetric parameters on a photograph from the MSU-M, as well as on-baard time (in minutes) and a gradation key, which is used to monitor the channel's linearity and the photograph processing operation. Thus, a pulse-amplitude modulated signal in the direct transmission mode or in the reading mode with the memory unit (ZU) arrives at the input of one of the transmit- ters (11, 12), which is operating in the international 460-470 MHz band in the fre- quency modulation mode. The magnitude of the deviation is +160 kHz. The transmit- ter's power is about~5 W. In addition to the decimeter-band radio link, the system has meter-band radio linlc (13, 14) that also operates on an international band (about 137 MHz) and is used to transmit one of the spectral channels (selectable) with reduced clarity (3 km) to simplified, autonomous Goskomgidromet [USSR State Committee for Hydrometeozolo- gica~. Services] reception points and many analogous foreign points. Video informa- tion is transmitted over the meter-band radio link according to the generally ac- cepted phototelegraphy standard. The rated value of the subcarrier is 2.4'kHz with a frequency deviation of 9.6 kHz [sic]. The maximum scope of the amplitude- modulated (AM) signal corresponds to the level of white in the image. The weight of the complex is 60 kg. _ ~r f ~ US - QS pi 0,5 0,6 Q7 0.8 0,9 ipx,~th Q4 QS~ 0,6 0,7 Q8 0,9 10 x,/cM Figure 2. Spectral characteristics of Figure 3. Spectral characteristics of MSU-M. MSU-S. Opticomechanical Scanners. According to their operating principle, the scanning units (scanners) are opticomechanical systems with single-line scanning and single- element receivers for which frame scanning~is accomplished because of the satel- lite's motion. The MSU-M operates in four spectral bands and the MSU-S in two (Fig- ures 2, 3). The scanners' parameters are given in more detail in Table 1. In single-line scanners, frame resolution is determined by the ratio of the flight speed to the scanning rate. One special feature of wide-angle scanners with a fixed 26 . ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OF~'IC[AL USE ONLY Table 1. Scanner Parameters Parameters MSU-M MSU-S Nominal orbital altitude, km 650 650 ~ Local resolution at the nadir, km: along the flight direction 1.7 0.142 _ along a line 1 ~ 0.24 Scanning angle, deg 106 9~ Viewing field, km 1,930 ~,380 Number of elements in ac*.ive part of line 1,880 5,700 Service part of line 0.25 0.25. Scanning rate, lines/s 4 48 Number of spectral channels 4 2 Weight with drive, kg 4.5 5.5 instantaneous viewing field is inconstancy of the loca~ resolution along a line, which~is caused by prospective distortions and the curvature of the Earth's surface. ~ In the MSU-M, for instance, resolution at the end of a line is almast four times worse than in the center; in the MSU-S, it is 2.5 times worse. In order to equalize frame and line resolution it is advisable to have some excess resolution along a line at the n~dir, which has been done i.n the MSU-M. In the MSU-S, optimum rela- tionships are achieved only for the mode of simultaneous transmission of both chan- - nels with switching every other line. - The substantial difference in~scanning rates resulted in the necessity of selecting different scanning principles. Scanning is carried out in the MSU-M with the help ~ of a swinging mirror that is driven by a cam mechanism, while in the MSU-S it is done with the help of a rotating mirrored pyramid. In view of the similarity of many elements in the instruments' designs, however, only a single description of them is given below. The basic element of the image-forming system is an OKS~-4-75SA lens with focal length F= 75 mm and an intake aperture diameter of 18.75 mm. In the focal plane of the lens there are diaphragms that form the scanner's instantaneous viewing field in accordance with the required local resolution. The scanners' optical layout is ~ shown in Figure 4. The flow of radiation, after being reflected from mirror l. (Figure 4a) or one of the faces of pyramid 1' and mirror l" (Figure 4b), passes through lens 2 and is directed by mirror 3 into spectrum-splitting mirror 4. The latter reflects the radiation _ flow in the visible band into diaphragm 5, while infrared radiation passes into dia- phragm 6. Having passed through the diaphragm, the flow is collected by lens 7 and, with the help of mirror 8, is directed into a photoelectronic inultiplier (FEU). Af- ter passing through diaphragm 5 and collecting lens 10, the visible radiation is di- vided into three zones by interference mirrors 11, 12, 14, 15 and ib and is directed into FEU's 13, 17 and 18. The MSU-S instrument contains only optical elements for two channels (9, 13) and avalanche photodiodes are used instead of FEU's. Other parameters of the instruments are presented in Table 2. The width of the spectral channels is given at the 0.5 level with an accuracy of +0.01 Um. Measured - values of the signal-to-noise ratib corresponding to an object of maximum brightness ~ (a reflection factor of unity, with the Sun at the zenith) are given in the table. 27 - FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . 9. _ . @ g ; � . \ id . . 26 a . zs - . 21 22 6 ~ f4~ ~ Zy 4 17 . ' * a f2' - 1 ~ ~ 2 ' S 15 2O ' .J fO . , b ~ 18 . . ~ . . . ' ~19 ff ' ' , . . d f6 ' ~n . . 2 Figure 4. Optical Diagrams of MSU-M (a) and MSU-S (b).. Table 2. Spectral Bands of Scanners _ Signal-to-Noise Instrument Spectral Range, Um Tvpe of Photoreceiver Ratio (Av2rage)~ MSU-M 0.5 -0.6 FEU114 115 0.6 -0.7 FEU114 77 0.7 -0.8 FEU114 . 53 0.8 -1.0 ~ FEU112 35 MSU-S 0.58-0.7 Avalanche diode 24 0.7 -1.0 41 Photometric calibration of the instruments is accomplished by cutting off the basic li~ht flow with the help of a"comb" at obturator 19, in connection with which a light beam reaches the FEU from the calibration channel.thirough port 20, which is closed with an optical wedge. The obturator revolves cophasally with the line scan- ning. The calibration channsl consists of an SNIl~i-10-50 incandescent bulb (21), dia- phragm 22, lens 23, rotating prism 24, collecting lens 25 and lightguides 26, which - direct the calibration flow to the photoreceivers. A mo3e detailed description of the scanners has already been published [6]. . Rec:eption and Utilization of the Information. Above it was mentioned that the "Meteor" satellites' radio and television complex for investigating natural re- sources, which was initially built as a purely experimental system for working out methods f~r studying the Earth from space and gaining experience in working in this field in different national economic branches, was put into experimental operation in 1978, after many positive practical results were abtained. At the present time _ the system is supplying information, on a regular basis, to more than 70 large con- sumers in different national economic and scientific branches. The system is operated by Goskomgidromet's services and works on the basis of re- quests from consumers. The basic flcsw of information is received by stations locat- ed in Moscow, Navosihirsk and IQzabarovsk.. The highest quality information from the 28 � ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY low- and medium-resolution scanners is obtained via the dire~t transmission mode in the decimeter hand. The locations of the receiving points makes it possible to cov- er the greater part of the 5oviet Union's territory by direct transmission, since the assured transmission zone of each point has a radius of about 2,500 km. Obse~~ vation of the remaining part of the E?rth is possible when the low-resolution scan- ner is used and the signal is recorded in the on-board memory unit. One recording session (6 min) covers a region of~about 1,930 x 2,500 km. Direct transmission of information to simplified reception points, using the meter band, proved to be useful, even as a supplPment to the operation of the standard "Meteor" metearological system. ~The cap~ility of transmitting an image in one of four narrow spectral zones (by choice) over this line makes it possible to improve the decodability of the photographs in many cases. At the same time, this informa- tion can be received anywhere, including remote regions, large ships and so forth. The meter and decimeter radio lines can opprate either separately or jointly. "Meteor" satellites for investigating natural resources are injected into a solar- synchronous orbit with a nominal altitude of 650 km and an inclination of about 98�. In connection with this, constancy of the surface observation conditions is achieved; that is, the satellite always passes over a point at the same local time. At Moscow's latitude the periodicity of observation is 4-5 days, with suit~ie overlapping of the photographs. At the reception points the information is recorded on magnetic and photographic film. Magnetic recording is used for primary conserva- tion of the images for a short period of time. It is done on "Kadr-3" series- produced videotape recorders operating in the predetector mode (the frequency- modulated signal is entered and read on a subcarrier of 4 MHz). - Photographic recording is done on the standard phototelegraphic equipment that is used for postal exchanges and decentralized newspaper printing. Images produced by the low-resolution scanner are re;istered, separately for each spectral channel, on photographic film with a 240 x 300 mm format. The photograph format for the medium- resolution scanner is 600 x 4~iu mm. A=ter duplication, che obtained ar^. sent to the.consumers. The originals are placed in archive storage. The system's average productivity is up to 32 low-resolution scanner and 12 medium-resolution scanner negatives per day. As is obvious, the system is oriented mainly on visual or visual-instrumental de- ciphering of the photographs, which corresponded to the actual capabilities of the information users in previous years and still, in many cases, corresponds to the present situation, since the methods and technology for utilizing aerial photo- graphic surveying have been well developed in many branches. The circle of problems involving investigation of the Earth from space that can be solved effectively with the help of the "Meteor" system is predeterntined by tl:e characteristics of the instruments used to make the observations, primarily their broad scope (and the low periodicity of observation that emanates from this) in com- bination with their multizonality and the degree of local resolution selected (up to 240 m). These problems include the following: in hydrology--evaluating the ice situation with the publication of data for the transport and fishing fleets and evaluting the state of the hydrographic network and snow reserves; in oceanography-- observing vortex phenomena, internal waves and rivez discharges; in geo~ogy--de- fining regional geological structures; in forest management--detecting and following the course of forest fires in regions that are hard to reach. 29 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A mamber of new techniques that will expand the possibilities for the use of this _ type of information are under development. ~ BIBLIOGRAPHY ~ ~ 1. Vi.nogradov, B.V., and Kondrat'yev, K.Ya., "Kosmicheskiye metody zemlevedeniya" [Space Methods for Studying the Earth], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1971. Pp 8-27. 2. "Data User's Handbook," ERTS, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1972? PP 23-26. 3. Barrer, E.K., "Pogoda iz kosmosa" [Weather From Sp..ce], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1970, pp 108-121. 4. .Aleksandrov, L.A., "Planetary Weather Pa~trol," IZVESTIYA, 28 September 1977. 5. Vetlov, I.P., "The 'Meteor" Space System at Hydrometeorology's Sezvice," ISSLEDOVANIYA ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, 1980, pp 11=27. 6. Selivanov, A.S., Chemodanov, V.P., Suvorov, B.A., et al., "Opticomechanical Scanners for Observing the Earth," TEKHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, No 6, 1978, pp 16-21. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 . 11746 ' C50: 1Q66/18 ~ . I I _i 30 . ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ UDC 551.507.362 EXPERIMENTAL ON-BQARD INFORMATION COMPLEX FOR OBSERVATION OF THE EARTH Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 22 May 81) pp 35-39 _ [Article by A.S. Selivanov, Yu.M. Tuchin, M.K. Narayeva and B.I. Nosov] . ' [Text] The improvement of multizonal equipment for observing the Earth that is used for the investigation of natural resources (IPR) is following the path of improving the measuring capabilities and resolving power of the equipment, as well as the in- troduction of new information transmission and processing methods. On the basis of the experience gained in the process of operating the "Meteor"- series satellites' radio and television complex (RTVK) [1] for investiqating the Earth's natural resources, the next step in the development of remote sounding fa- cilities was taken, in the form of an experimental on-board information complex (BIK-E) that has qualitatively new parameters and correspondingly broader�possibili- ties for practical use. The purpose of this development project was to test equip- ment decisions and observation methods for prospective IPR systems. ~ . 5, Practical experience confirmed the advisa- ~ bility of using wide-angle observation equipment in an IPR system. The BIK-E al- 3 ' 4 so features a wide-angle, medium-resolution ~ scanning unit ha~ving a field of view that Z . is narrower (up to 600 km) than that of . earlier designs and, at the same time, has � ~ 7. 50 percent better spatial resolution; the , number of spectral channels has been in- ' 6 creased to four and high light flow meas- . . ~ urement accuracy has been achieved. Figure 1. Functional block diagram of on-board information complex. A three-channel scanning device has been developed for the solution of problems re- quiring resolution in comparatively small observE~d sections. 'nc~ RIK-E equipment was installed, in addition to the regular RTVK apparatus, in the "Meteor" satellite that was launched on 18 June 1980 [2]. On-Board Equipment. The BIK-E (Figure 1) contains two units for the transmission of s~~ectrozonal images: an MSU-SK medium-resolution opticomechanical scanner with a 31 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Parameters of the Scanning Devices Parameters MSU-SK MSU-E Scanning belt (km) for flight altitude of 650 km 600 28 Dimensions of projection of field diaphragm (element) of the structure) on the Earth's surface at the na- dir, m: per line 175 28 per frame 243 28 Scanning angle, deg 66.5 2.5 Aragle of inclination of the sighting line, deg 38.9 0 Scanning rate, lines/s 48 218 - Scanning efficiency 0.74 0.91 Number of elements in active part of line 3,614 1,000 Number of spectral channels 4 3 Diameter of lens's intake aperture, mm 200 87.5 Weight, kg 47 17 tapered reamer (1) and an MSU-E high-resolution opticoelectronic scanner with a plane reamer (2), the parameters of which are presented in the table above. Signals from these units pass, in successive order, into the block of 8-bit analog-to- digital converters and digital-flow formers (3), the radio transmitter (4) and the satellite's antenna (5). The units in the complex are synchronized by a highly sta- ble rcference generator (6). Control of the complex and collection of telemetric parameters from the instruments is carried out by an automat~c equipment unit (7). Units 3, 4 and 6 have a cold reserve. All the instruments in the complex operate ~ outside the satellite's sealed compartment. ;S. The scanners do not operate simultaneously, r but are turned on by commands from Earth. B The system's parameters have been selected . Z5~ so that when each of these devices is in _ A operation, the~digital flow's information . content is 7.68 Nmit/s. Transmissipn is �'oo realized on a carrier frequency of 466.5 ; I }j MHz by the double relative phase manipula- ' ~1 tion (DOFM) method. The indicated frequen-- ~ cy was chosen on the basis of considera- ~66� tions of maximum utilization of the receiv- ~ ing equipment already existing in j ` Goskomgidromet's [US5R State Committee , for Hydrometeorology] system of ground _ points for the "Meteor" space meteorology system, and makes it possible ta observe ~ I'igure 2. Diagram of coverage of the almost all the USSR's territory in a direct Earth's surface by the scanning de- transmission mode. The coverage of the vices: MSU~~~ instrument; B. Earth's surface by these scanning dE~�ices MSU-E instrument. is illustrated by the diagram in Figure 2. ! An increase in the accuracy of light flow measurement requires an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio at a scanner's output, which is achieved by using improved photoreceivers and a necessary increase in the effective diameter of the ~ 32 I FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FQR OFFIClAL USE ONLY system's outlet opening, which is 200 mm in the case of the MSU-SK. With such a di- ameter, wide-angle scanning can no longer be realized by traditional methods [3). A comparative evaluation of the entire set of factors during the creation of the MSU-SK medium-resolution scanner resulted in the use in it of the principle of coni- cal scanning, despite the known difficulties of receiving images transmitted by suCh devices. An argument of no little importance in favor of conical scanning is the . constancy of the geometric�and photometric observation conditions and the constancy of line resolution that are intrinsic in it. 8 � According to a simplified diagram of the I Z MSU-SK (Figure 3), it �unctions in the fol- lowing manner: at an angle of 39� to the vertical, radiation from the underlying 3~ , surface is gathered by spherical mi.rror 1 ~ and directed to one of the four optical i arms 2 that are located on scanning wheel~ ' 3, which rotates around a vertical axis. In the optical arm the radiation flow is A focused with the help of a number of opti- ~ 6 cal assembl~ies and a�low corresponding to 5 a single television element is separated , from it, directed towar.d the scanning 4 ] L ~ 1 wheel's axis of rotation, refracted, and 3 ~ then split in spectrum-separation system 4. _ Photoreceivers 5 convert it into a video ~ signal that, after shaping in amplifiers 6, Z is sent to the instrument's output. - . i Four linea of the image are "drawn" during. ~ _ ~~90 one revolution of the scanning wheel, it i being the case that the sighting axis de- scribes a conical.surface in space, while Fiyure 3. Structural diagram of the its trace on the Earth's surface (a line) MSU-SK, is a circular arc with a central angle of s about 66�. ~ . Chann~l calibration is carried out both ac- cording to an internal standard and with . respect to the Sun. The MSU-SK's spectral characteristics are presented in Figure 4. o,s The high-resolution multichannel scanning unit (the MSU-E) is constructed on tlie ba- sis of the principle of using linear radia- 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 o,B 0,9 f,0 , f,f tion receivers based on devices with charge ~,M~" : coupline (PZS) with 1,024 elements per Figure 4. Spectral characteristics of line, which is the most pr~mising principle the MSU-SK. for such devices. Figure 5 depicts the ba- sic principle of the MSU-E's design. With tiie }iclp of lens 1, the image of the Earth's surface is projected through spectrum sr.l~ar~ition system 2 onto thr~e PZS straightedges 3, each of which operates in its own sF~ectral band (Figure 6). After leaving the linear photoreceivers, the video ~ 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 ~ FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY ~ . signal enters channel signal amplification and shaping units 4. All of the straight- edges are placed perpendicularly to the di- ~ 4 4 4 rection of the flight. Line scanning ig ~ carried out electronically, while frame ~ ~ scanning is realized because of the motion of the satellite. A necessary element of ' the deviae is a radiation-type refrigerat- ~ 2 ing unit, which provides a temperature in i 3 the area of the PZ5's of from -30 to -50�C ~ ~ d and makes it possible to reduce the struc- I tural noise~of the receivers in the PZS's ; j significantly. In this model oF the MSU-E, j I� no provisions were made for in-flight cali- ~ bration. . ' ~ Information is received from the BIK-E by ~ Figure 5. Structural diagram of the an experimental information discrimination MSU-~. system (SVPI-E) that uses a standard ~ . "Meteor" system antenna fitted with a low- ~ � noise receiver. The received signal, which is in digital form (in the form of a four- , bit, �our-level code) is retransmitted over a radio relay link to the reception point at the Main Data Reception and Processing 0,,5 Center (GTsPOD) . The information that is received is record- ed on two types of equipment. Information 0,4 0,3 0,6 0,7 - O,d 0,9 f,0 f,f from the MSU-5K is recorded on equipment ~,Mn+ for receiving.newspaper pictures that has Figure 6. Spectral characteristics of a negative format of 600 x 480 mm. Images the MSU-E. from the MSU-E are reproduced on "Vo1ga" phototelegraphy units, which have a nega- tive format of 240 x 300 mm. Since the "Volga" recorder operates with a scanning rate of no more than 8 lines/s, the scanning rates are linked~by a magnetic memory unit that reduces the scanning rate by a factor of eight. Flight tests of the M5U-E resulted in stable operation of the radio p~rt of the com- plex and demonstrated the prospectiveness of the selected transmission channel for territorial information reception poi.nts. ~ The quality of an M5U-SK image was high, and special measurements confirmed that i the theoretical measurement accuracy was reali2ed for all practical purposes. i Slanted sounding of the surface,.which is inherent in the conical scanning method, i also contributed to the,obtaining of interesting information about water surfaces. i The operation of the PZ5-based MSU-E instrument confirmed the effectiveness of this ~ means of observation for natural and national economic objects requiring impro~ed ~ resolution, such as agricultural.lands. The limited capabilities of this device, ; which are the result of its small local coverage band (about 30 km), o~n be overcome ' in the future by increasing the number of elements in the PZS straightedge, intro- ducing remote control of the sighting line's position, and developing techniques 34 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY that make it possible to ex~end the results of the decoding and interpretation of sections covered by the MSU-E to the larger areas observed by the MSU-SK BIBLIOGRAPHY l. Selivanov, A.S., and Tuchin, Yu.M., "Radio and Telev3.sion Complex for 'Meteor' Satellites Used to Investigate the Earth's Natural R~sources," this issue, pp 28-34. 2. "A New Experiment in Investigating the Earth From 5pace," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 5-6. 3. 5elivanov, A.S., Chemodanov, V.P.,�Suvorov, B.A., et a1., "Opticomechanical ~ Scanners for Observing the Earth," TEKHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, No 6, 1978, pp 18-22. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "IJauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/18 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 i ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 - i , UDC 629.78:528.7 EXPERIMENTAL INFORMATION AND MEASUREMENT COMPLEX BASED ON TFRAGMENT' MULTIZONAL SCANNING SYSTEM Moscow IS5LEDOVANIYE 2EMLI IZ KO5MOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 12 Jun S1) pp 40-44 [Article by G.A. Avanesov, Institute of Space ResearcY?, Moscow] [Text] buring the Ninth and Tenth Five-Year Plans, the USSR Academy of Sciences' Institute of 5pace Research carried out research and performed experiments for the purpose of creating and developing methods and specialized space faallities for IPRZ ~ [investigation of the Earth's natural resources~ in the optical band of electro- - magnetic emissions (EMI) so that they could subsequently be introduced into the practice of regular observations of the Earth from space. The most important and complicated problem in this research was the development of a method and a complex of equipment that would insure the operational acquisition and processing of multizonal video infc~rmation that is distinguished by high radio- metric accuracy and depicts, with good spatial resolution, rapidly oacurring changes in objects on the Earth's surface. 7'he importance of the solution of this problem is a consequence of the fact that on- ly operationally aaqui~ed video information insures the realization of those basic advantages that space facilities provide in the process of searching for, evaluating the state of, and monitoring the utilization of the Earth's natural resources. In connection k~ith this, the greatest economic effectiveness is achieved in the solu- tion of such problems as evaluatinq the status and predicting the yields of agricul- tural arops and the biological productivity of water masses. The complexity of the solution ~f this problem is the result of a number of factiors, primarily of a scientific and technical nature, that emanate from~the necessity of creating and tuning a complicated on-bo~rd and ground complex of interrelated equip- ment. In addition to the actual on-board equipment for surveying the Earth's surface, this complex must also contain equipment for�the tran~mission �or a large flow of ac- quired video information to Earth over a radio link, facil3.ties for receiving and ~ recording this information, and equipment for processing it rapidly. It was neces- sary to develop all these erements an8 combine them into a unified system. Th~ ini- tial and basic component of this complex was the "Fragment" multizonal scanning sys- tem developed by the USSR Aaademy of 5ciences' IKI [rnstitute of Space Research]. 36 ; ' FUR OFF'ICiAL USE OIVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ r - - - " - ~ - - This experimental information and measure- ~ NC3 �Memeap" (1} ~ ment complex (EIIK) h~s been functioning , ~ ~ sucaessfully in an experimental operation � ~ ~ mode for mo~e than a year. The amount of ~ �~patMeNm ~ information obtained with its help is I ~2~ I measured in thousands of kilometers of m~c~y I I netic tape and millions of square kilome- ~ CucmeHa ~ ters of the Ear~h's surface that have been I yuq~pnQou ( investigated. A considerable amount of I neyedayu ~3~ I practical experience in working with this ( daNHaiz I complex, which insures the opera~ional col- L----' J lec~ion and processing of information in the interests of investigating natural re- sources, has been acCUmulated. . C~[ cmena npueMa tt A generalized diagram of the EIIK is shown Maz~rumNOti in the figure on tihis page. It contains petucmpauu the following systems: 1) the "Fragment" ~ multizonal optical scanning system; 2) a � system for the digital transmission of the multi2onal video informa~ion; 3) a system CucmeMa (5) for the reception and magnetiC recording of iDa l~U(p~10A011 ~ :o: a6pa6nmxu the multizonal video informa~ion; 4) a sys- daHHaia tem for the digital processing of the multizonal video information. ~ ~ The "Fragment" and the system for the digi- � tal ~ransmission of infarmation were in- Generalized diagram of the informa- stalled on a"Meteor" artificial ~arth sat- tion and measurement complex based on ellite that was launched into a near, oir- the "Fragment" multi2onal scanning cular, solar-synchronous orbit at an alti- system. tude of 650 km on 18 June 1980. The nrbit K~y: . makes it possible to observe the same sec- 1. "Meteor" artificial Earth satel- tion of the Ea~th's surface with a periodi- lite city of .15 days [1J . ' 2. "Fragment" ~ 3. System fox digital transmission The system for the reception ancl magnetic of data recording of the multizonal video informa- 4. Recciving and magnetic recording tion has been set up at an MEI (Moscow _ :oystc~m Power Engineering Institute) OKB (Experi- !"i, l~i~~ita1 data }~rocessing system mental or 5pecial Design Office) reCeption � point in Moscow Oblast. The system for the digital processing of the multizonal video information was developed a~ the US5R Academy of Sciences' IKI and GosNITsIPR [State Scientific-Research Center for Study of Natural Reaources]. ~ The "Fraqment" system provides for the simultaneous scanning of the Earth's surface in 8 bands of the visible and near-infrared spectrum, in a belt about 85 km wide, for a belt that lies across the satellite's flight path [1,2], in addition to the conversion of the received radiation into an electrical signal, the comparison of - the eleotrical signal to a master standard and its conversion to digital form, the acCOmpaniment of th~ basic signal with servi.ce information about the state of the subsystems and ~heir operating modes, ar~c1 the introduotion of synchronization and 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY telemetric frame formation signals. The surveying modes are controlled over a com- mand radio link. The system f~r the digital transmission of the video information forms the synchro- nous messages and transmits the data, by the phase manipulation method, in the deci- meter band of electromagnetic waves. The radio ~.ine's transmission capacity is about 4 Mbit/s [3]. Synchronous message discrimination, primary decoding of the signals (consisting of separating them according to channel), and recording of the information on a high- speed magnetic recorder takes place in the receiving and magnetic recording system. After each communication session the information is rerecorded, in a parallel-serial code, on digital telemetric magnetic recorders of the 17S06-07 type. The magnetic recordings obtained in this manner are sent to the USSR Academy of Sciences' IKI and GosNITsIPR for processing. The system for the digital processing of video information that is in operation at the IKI provides the following: rapid review of the digital video recordings on a color half-tone display; rerecording of the information on magnetic tape usable in the YeS EVM [Unified System of Computers]; radiometric correction of the digital video information; reproduction of the digital video recordings on a black-and-white photograph~c medium on a scale of 1:1,600,000; processing of the data with statisti- cal analysis and interpretation programs; processing of the data with geometric ~ransformation programs. After this, photographic processing is used to produce black-and-white negati~es on a scale of 1:500,000 and, with the help of an MSP-4 multicamera synthesizing projec- tor, color images on a scale of 1:320,000 are produced. The black-and-white 1:500,000 negatives and control prints made from them are sent to GosNITsIPR for publication and dissemination. In order to create these systems, the complex's developers had to solve a number of compliaated scientific and technical problems. In the development of the multizonal optical scanning system, the problems centered around ~reating a precision scanning assembly, a high-quality input optical system, devices for the on-board verifi.cation calibr,~tion of the opticoelectronic channel, photoreceiving units, high-speed analog-to-digital converters, an electric power supply, and the design of the system as a whole, with due consideration for the requirements imposed by the operating conditions relative to reliable functioning in space [2,4,5). The problems related to data transmission, reception and recording were concentrated around the high-volume radio line and the magnetic recording facilities, it being the case that the latter had to insure the transformation of the informatiori flow rate to the limits imposed by the rate of information input into the computer [3]. In the area of digital processing of the information, the problems involved the cre- ation of specialized processing facilities and problem-oriented software [4]. Finally, the problems encountered in providing metrological support for the experi- ment required the creation of techniques for making energy calculations for the op- tical scanning systems and the specialized measuring devices, as well as a reliable technique for the relative and absolute calibration of the on-board system's measur- ing channels [7,8]. ~ 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR UFFiCIAL USE ONLY The goals of the experiment with the EIIK based on the "Fragment" multizonal optical _ scanning system, as formulated and refined during the different stages of the devel- opment process, assumed the possibility of overcoming the enumerated difficulties and can be reduced to the following: 1) the development of new facilities for ac- quiring multizonal video information in the visible and near-infrared bands of the spectrum; 2) the development and opt3.mization of a method for the operational study of the Earth's surface on the basis of multizonal video information; 3) the develop- ment of systems and methods for the digital transmission of video information; 4) , the investigation and optimization of inethods for the computer and visual- - instrumental precessing of multizonal video ~nformation; 5) the experimetital produc- - tion utilization of aerospace video information to solve practical problems encount- ered in studying the Earth from space; 6) the development of recommendations for the construction of on-board and ground equipment, the organization of surveying work, and the technology for collecting and processing data in 'che prospective system for the operational study of Earth from space. At th~s time the processing of the data obtained during the experiment is far from perfect. Accordingly, the results supplied from the experiment can be only of a preliminary type, although some of them are already useful. . ~ The protracted and flawless functioning of the on-board systems under the conditions encountered in space indicates that the design and engineering decisions made during their development were correct. From the photographs that have been obtained, it is possible to say that the surveying system's actual resolving power is close to what had been calculated for it. Confirmation of the power calculations for the system ~ has been obtained and maintenance of the radiometric calibration's reliability has been insured, which facts.follow from an analysis of the video information and in- formation about the built-in reference radiation emitter. In a correspondingly in- direct manner, the correctness of the methodoloqical and technical decisions made - during the creation of the reliable monitoring and measuring equipment and all the ground development and testing procedures has been confirmed. All of this enables us to say that during the course of the experiment, the first and third problems in- ~ volved in the development of the on-board equipment have been solved successfully. During the course of the experiment we were able to refine our techniques for plan- ning the surveying work and organizing the reception, registration and primary pro- cessing of the information on the basis of operational forecasting of the cloud cov- er, using data obtained during meteorologiaal observations made with "Meteor"-series satellites. Procedures for selecting data for secondary types of processing, which is of great practical value for the solution of production problems, were also worked out. The work in this field was done for the purpose of minimizing the tech- nological information processing cycle. The results obtained in connection with this correspond to a considerable degree to the problems encountered in working out the method for the operational study of the Earth's surface on the basis of multi- zonal video information. One important goal of the experiment is the development and investigation of inethods for the computer and visual-instrumental processing of multizonal information. Here we can merition that all the service forms of processing that had been prepared by the time the experiment began proved to be quite effective and required minimal re- working. The visual-instrumental types of processing that were applied to the sur- ve1 materials demonstrated their. suitability for practical use in many branches of 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONi.Y the national economy. As far as the computer processing algorithms and programs (including automatic classification according to qiven and developed indicators) are concerned, it would be premature ta draw any conclusions about their practical use at this stage because of the small volume of material that has been processed. The USSR Academy of Sciences' IKI and GosNITsIPR offer rather easy access to the survey materials acquired by the EIIK on the basis of the "Fragment" multizonal scanning system, which should facilitate the use of this new type of space informa- tion for the practical solution of prob'lems encountered in the Earth sciences. The extended functioning of the EIIK and the large volume of material that has been acquired enables us to hope that this large and complex e~cperiment will have a posi- i:ive effect on the development in this country of operational methods for studying the Earth from space in the interests of the national economy and science. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. "A New Experiment in Space," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 5-6. 2. Avanesov, G.A., Glazkov, V.D., Ignatenko, S.A., et al., "The 'Fragment' Multi- zonal Scanninq-Surveying 5ystem," this issuP, pp 45-56. ~ 3. Bogomolov, A.F., Popov, S.M., Smolyannikov, Yu.D., and Stepin, A.V., "Problems in the Digital Transmission and Recording of Multizonal Video Information and ~ Their Solution in the 'Frag~nent' Experiment," this issue, pp 57-64. 4. Avanesov, G.A., Glazkov, V.D., and Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Development of a Spe- cialized Opticoelectronic System for the Operational Collection of Mul.tispectral Video Information about the"Earth's Surface From an Artificial Earth Satellite," in "Mnogozonal'nyye aerokosmicheskipe s"yemki Zemli" [Multizonal Aerospace Sur- veys of the Earth], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "I3auka", 1981, pp 57-76. 5. Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Some Questions on the Planning of Satellite Multispectral Optical Scanning Systems,", pp 76-87. 6. Krasikov, V.A., and Shamis, V.A., "Processing Multizonal Video Information With Specialized Computer Compl~xes," ibid., pp 244-248. 7. Sychev,�A.G., and Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "On the Spectrometric Characteristics of Spectral Surveying Systems," ibid � pp 87-93. ~ 8. Avanesov, G.A., Ziman, Ya.L., Sychev, A.G., and Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Metrologi- cal Support for Measurements of the Brightness of the Earth's Surface by the 'Fragment' Multizonal Scanning System," this issue, pp 65-77. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 - 11746 CSO: 1866/18 � 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY UDC 528.7:621~397.331.2:629.78 ' FRAGMENT' MULTIZONAL SCANr1ING SYSTEM Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 12 Jun 81) pp 45-56 [Articl~ by G.A. Avanesov, V.D. Glazkov, Ya.L. Ziman, S.A. Ignatenko, T.I. Kurmanaliyev, V.M. Murav'yev, ~.I. Rozhavskiy, V.I. Tarnopol'skiy, V.I. Fuks and V.V. Shcherbakov, Institute of Space Research, MoscowJ [Text] One of the basic contemporary operational means of obtaining space video in- formation on the two-dimensional distribution of the intensities of the reflected and intrinsic radiation of objects on the Earth's surface and the underlying layer are multizonal scanning systems (MSS) that use as their radiation receivers point . (nonscanning) detectors in combinatiori with opticomechanical scanning devices [1]. Theoretically, systems of this type can be realized for any spectral band of electromagnetic waves that corresponds to transparency "windows" in the Earth's at- mosphere. By using different types of detectors in MSS's, it is possible to cover a broad spectral range of ineasured emissions, which capability distinguishes them quite radically from other video information systems. The simplicity of an information-measuring channel using a point receiver with a minimum numUer of transformation steps for the measured radiation, the possibility of its periodic calibration with a standard source, and the use of a single optical.system and a single image-scanning system make it possible to achieve high indicators as far as the accuracy of radiation flow measurements are concerned. Besides this, when pro- cessing the results of an analysis of multizonal information from an MSS, it is rel- . atively simple to solve the problems involved in the point-by-point spatial matching of images obtained on different channels. Starting with these premises, as well as theoretical and experimental research (the individual results of which are explained in [1-7]), the "Fragment" MSS was devel- oped and a full-scale experiment was carried out with the help of a"Meteor" artifi- _ cial Earth satellite. Below we present a brief substantiation of the technical decisions realized in the "Fragment" MSS. Figures 1 and 2 are a functional diagram and general view, respect- ively, of this system. Surveying Parameters of the "Fragment" System. The basic surveying parameters of this system include (for a given orbital altitude H= 650 km and a velocity VX ti 7 km/s relative to the underlying point on the Earth's surface): number of spectral intervals of sensitivity n and their position in the spectrum; effective spectral 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504020035-6 ' FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY t S f0 , , , , . 1 ~ - 2 3 4 6 7 B 9 ff' Figure 1. Functional diagram of experimental opticoelectronic system for the operational collection of multispectral video information about the Earth's surface from an artificial Earth satellite: 1. drive; 2. scanning mirror; 3. lens of receiving optical system; 4. opticomechanical commuta- tor; 5. reference radiation emitter with operatinq and standard groups of light sources; 6. fiber-optic splitter; 7. spectral band-pass filters; 8. photoconverter elements; 9. encoding unit; 10. autocorrection circuit; 11. data transmission system. ~ 10 . I . ' 9 ` ~ ` , .}-~f.`'i ;F .;~i~'r.., ' ' ~ a~s. : -j. ~ Y ~ r..~ ~ , ~ ~'Y.! ~ ~~w ,Pt ~ ~ � y V~ w~` ~ ~y 56�~ ~ ydx'.= .t ~ ~i ~ia~:. ~ I r... ~ ~ _ , ' . , , . ~F ,t yi . .2``�-,' , ~l`'~�. yv' � . . � ^ ' 4~ - ~ r'{''' ? `t ' ~ . , ~ ~ p~,~ : : ~ i;;, " ~'~pz. . a , Figure 2. General view of "Fragment" multispectral scanning system: 1. scanning mirror; 2. mirror drive; 3. lens; 4. reference light sources; 5. opticomechanical commutator; 6. fiber-optic splitter; 7. spectral band- pass filters; 8. photoreceivers; 9. blocks of amplifiers for direct cur- - rent and high-voltage power sources for photoreceivers; 10. analog-to- digital conversion unit; 11. control and information collection and pro- c~ssing system units; 12, electric power system units; 13. cooling radia- tors for ~hotoreceivers. width ~a~ of the sensitivity intervals; maximum values of the energy brightness's spectral density B~ max measured by the system in each spectral interval of sensi- tivity; relative mean-square measurement error 6g.; viewing band width L~,; surveying rate M= L~,VX; dimensions of instantaneous fields~of view dX�dy = AS in each spec- tral interval of sensitivity. ~ 42 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ In accordance with the content of the research problems for the solution of which the "Fragment" system was developed, eight spectral measurement intervals were real- ized in it: 0.4-0.7, 0.5-0.6, 0.6-0.7, 0.7-0.8, 0.8-1.1, 1.2-1.3, 1.5-1.8 and 2.1-2.4 um. The effective spectral widths of ths sensitivity intervals are: D7~~~ ~a5, ~a~, ~a8 3�10-1 Um, Da2, ~a3, Da4, Aa6 10'1 um. H�10'~ iN � n'Z� �n-' The basis of the selection of these meas- urement intervals was the available matceri- 7 i al on the optics of terrestrial landscapes O,ZO ~ z and the atmosphere for the band of reflect- ,ry -f ed solar radiation (a < 3.5 1im) that is ;I ~~o~ practically free from superimposition of ~H ~ H~o -~o thermal radiation from the Earth's surface, O!O ;I ~f i,H' ~ , ~ H~o ilonoce~I'' in which--in turn--the selective nature of ~I ~ NHOO /lOlAO!/(~Lp radiation transfer in the Earth's atmos- 'I ` 1H3HOC0 phere unambiguously narrows the zones of _ % ~l\~ ~_2.H:0~[Ot Ht0~C0z the possible location of the working spec- ~ ~ tral intervals to "transparency windows" 0,4 O,B !,Z /,6 1,0 2,4 Z,B.t, �n (Figure 3) . - Figure 3. Speckral distribution of ~ density of flow H~ of direct solar During the determination of the values of radiation beyond the upper limit of B~ m~ needed to tie in the energy scales the Earth's atmosphere (1) and at sea of the "Fragment" system's measuring chan- level (2) in comparison with the ra- nels in both the planning stage and during diation of an absolutely black body calibration, as well as for formulating the (AChT) with a temperature of 8,000 K surveying program and controlling the sys- (3). tem's operation while in flight, a tenta- Key: 1. Absorption bands tive radiation prediction defining the sea- s sonal variation in the upper limit of the band of ineasured brightnesses was made [7]. In view of the essential importance of their correct determination for the successful realization of the experimental pro- - gram, the values obtained for B~ m~ were confirmed by the results of corresponding measurements made on board a laboratory aircraft [3,7], including measurements made = with a specially developed model of the "Fragment" system that measured the values of the energy brightness's spectral density in spectral intervals, space angles of the instantaneous fields of view, range of viewing angles that all corresponded to the projecteci system's same parameters. The system's other surveying parameters were determined for one basic condition: the~necessity of insuring sutficient accuracy and representativeness of the measure- ments without simultaneously infringing on the limitations on the magnitude I of the information flow sent into the communication link by the system: n 1-Lyyx 93 .+.154�10' bits/s, (1) ~ bxby where q~ = number of radiation flow quantization levels b]~ during its conversion in- to the output code, while variable !C characterizes the volume of sdditional and aux- iliary data. ' Since the variable Qg~ can be represented in the form oAi= (Qp fZ+a~;z)'~', ( 2 ) 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OF FICIAL LISF ONLY where the components normal distributions of the values' probability densi- ties are caused by fluctuations in the measured flow, channel noises ap and quanti- zation noises 6k~, from the condition ~ qx Qk~ _ ( ~Z ~ ~ 6p~ r ~3~ ~ when the degree of accuracy of the measurements in the intervals j= 1,...,SQB. _ 2-3 percent was acceptable for the realization of the experiment's goals, the v~lue of q~ was defi.ned as 7 for all the measurement channels. ~ In accordance with the purpose of the experiment, no requirements for a global sur- vey of the Earth were set when determining the value of I,y and, at the same time, the limitation on the relationsh:;.p of the. orbital altitude and the width of the field of view that determines the viewing angle R was taken into consideration; this requirement is related to the fact that the indicatrices of the measured brfghtness in the band of reflected radiation can be regarded as orthotropic only within the Zimits of extremely small sightin3 angle intervals, the expansion of which during surveying threatens to cause a substantial distortion of the brightness distribution pattern for the section of the Earth's surface being investigated. On the other hand, an extraordinarily small value of i,y makes the correct geographical correla- tion of the acquired data more difficult, so the value I,Y = 85 km, which satisfies both conditions, was adopted. The selection of the linear dimensions (dX and 8~) of the instantaneous viewing fields was one of the most complex questions during the determination of the sys- tem's surveying parameters, since any rigorous physical-geographical substantiation of the choice was lacking. Taking experimental estimates into consideration and comparing them with previously conducted experi,ments, the following ir~itial condi- tion was adopted during the development of the "Fragment" MSS: S=~=S�f=S~ 0.5), periodic law of motion. For the system being described, this scanning device was realized in the form of a metal and glass mirror and a magnetoelectric oscillating system consisting of a framework coupled with the scanning mi.rror that is in the permanent magnetic field of a stator, as well as a regulator of the magnitude o� the electric current in the 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500024035-6 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY ~ framework; when the mirror moves along the + i ~ i given trajectory, this system pro`vades a I i j value n~k ti 0.65 (Figure 4). i ~ i r ~ i i ~ The Measuring Video Channel. In the pro- ~ ~ i cess of acquiring space video information _ ~ ~ ~ with the help of the MSS, the information ~ undergoes several transformations (from ra- ' t, fr diation to current to voltage and so forth) _ T=~~K T f~~f1 that gradually reduce the accuracy of the description because of the presence and ac- Figure 4. Diagram of angular dis- cumulation of errors in the individual con- placement of the system's sighting verting units in the measurement system. angle. ~ This usually happens until the actual meas- urement process is completed; that is, the comparison of the intermediate signal with the standard and the acquisition of a concrete number (the coded signal). The coded signal, which is more noiseproof than the analog representation of the video information, makes it possible ~o regenerate the original form of the signal under certain conditions, thereby eliminating the effect of errors in subsequent units on the measurement results. Consequently, by orqanizing the measurement process on board the satellite, it is possible to reduce to a minimum the number of converting units in the measuring video channel, thereby increasinq the accuracy of the measurement of the original information and improving the conditions for its transmission to Earth. Thus, the MSS's video channel's basic task is to convert measured brightness values into equivalent numerical values. In the "Fragment" system this process is realized with the help of successive operations in the following converters: an optical lin- ear scale converter (the receiving optical system, or POS); a spatiotemporal optical converter (the scanning element and the analyzing diaphragm); an optical selector (the fiber-oPtic splitter and the spectral band-pass filters); a photoelectric line- ar scale con~erter (the radiation receiver and the direct-~urrent amplifier, or FPU); an analog-to-digital converter (ATsP;o The Optical Linear Scale Converter. The receiving optical system of the "Fragment" conjugates the spaces of objects (x,y) and images (x',y') and transforms the origi- nal brigh~ness distributions B(7~,x,y) into an illumination distribution E'(a,x',y'). It introduces distortions that are caused primarily by diffraction in the intake ap- erture and the imperfection of the system itself (aberrations, defocusing) and re- sult in suppression of the higher harmonics of the brightness field's spatial spec- trum. The limitation on reducing the energy of the spatial spectrum of a single band of width Q= d by about 5 percent gives a condition for the relationship be- tween the size of th~ scattering disk and the corresponding size of the instantane- ous viewing field d and the size S' of the field diaphragm: r~/S'~U,125, ~ 7 ) where re = conditional radius of the scattering disk for which the energy density, as approximated by a gaussoid, decreases by a factor of e relative to the value cor- responding to the center of the disk. Since the diffraction component of the scattering disk is determined by the angle and dimensions of the POS's intake aperture, as well as the length of the radiation 46 FOR OF~ICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 NUIt ON'FICIAI, t15E ONLY wave, minimization of the disk's size for a given intake aperture must be accomp- lished primarily by eliminating aberrations and having high quality manufacturing and assembly of the elements. ~However, eliminating both spherical aberration and the coma is impossible for a single mi.rror. Therefore, it is necessary to use tWo- mirror systems that are, as a rule, constructed either according to Cassegrain's classical method, in which a primary parabolic mirror elimi.nates spherical aberra- tion and a secondary convex hyperboloid is used to reduce the coma, or by the (Doll-Kirkkhem) and (~tichi-Kret'yen) methods, which are modifications of it. In accordance with what has been said, the "Fragment" system's POS was produced by the "Karl Zeiss-Jena" People's Enterprise in the GDR in. the form of a Cassegrain lens with a circular intake aperture having a diameter Din = 0.24 m and a focal length f' = 1 m, and that has a scattering disk measuring 4re ti~30�10-6 um < ~ a~j=1,2,3,4 = 130�10-6 Um at a= 0.5 Um; that is, one that satisPies condition (7). Condition (7) is also fulfilled for the other spectral intervals,~since the increase ir, the disk's size as the wavelength gets longer is outstripped by the en- largement of the system's instantaneous viewing fields stipulated above. The POS's reflectinq surfaces are aluminum-plated. In the POS there is also a thermal compen- sation unit that eliminates defocusing of the POS in the temperature interval from -40 to +20�C. The Spatic>temporal Optical Converter transforms brightness distribution B(a,x,y). in the coorau:ate space of objects (x,y) into a temporal radiation flow distribution ~'(7~,t). The functions of this link in the system are carried out by the scanning device and the analyzing (field) diaphragms, in connection with which the scanninq device moves the system's field of view, which is an image of the analyzing dia- phragm relative to the space of objects (or, which is the same thing, an image of the space of objects relative to the analyzing diaphragm), in accordance with the previously determined scanning trajectory that describes the motion of its center within the li.mits of the scan's working section. In the general case, the MSS's instantaneous field of view can be formed by analyz- ing diaphragms placed in the x direction (the carrier's direction of flight is m). This measure enables the linear rate of t�ransverse displacement Vy of the field of view during scanning to be reduced by a factor of m and, consequently, the scanning frequency F~k is also lowered, although the number of radiation receivers must be increased by a factor of m. � Ha~pQO~syus ~ ~ontma ~vatu~n~~.r ~1~ I i ~ . i!'a~paDntyut - C QN//POD?N!!.P ~2~ s,te i,t, e~t f e~t~ s~ts e.ts e,t, . Figure 5. Shape of instantaneous field of view of the system. Key : _ 1. Direction of Flight of the carrier 2. Scanning direction In the system being described, the instantaneous field of view is represented by a matrix of square analyzing diaphragms (Figure 5) consisting of n columns ( 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 ; ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i I i ; to the MSS's number of spectral intervals of sensitivity), each of which~contains m~ ; analyzing diaphragms. In connection with this, the number m~ and size S~ of the an- alyzinq diaphragms in the different spectral channels is not the same, but is gov- erned by the rule ~ ml=. . .�a~ 1/li=. . .=a~~I1Ln~ ~S~ or, precisely, ml = m2 = rn3 = m4 = m5 = 6; m6 = m~ = 2; mg = 1. The original value of m= 6 for j= 1,...,5, which was chosen to fulfill condition (8), was selected by ' a technique descri.bed in [6j . ' For this matrix-type instantaneous field of view, the video signal for each spectral interval that corresponds to the same point on the surface being investigated is ; shifted temporally relative to the video signal in the first spectral interval by the amount et,=ea,~vy, (9) where ~d~ = distance along thE y-axis between the centers of the analyzing dia- phragms of the first and j-th spectral intervals of sensitivity. - The Optical Selector. The basic function of this unit is to separate the required spectral intervals from the radiation flow ~~(7~,t) formed by the receiving optical channel and transfer them to the radiation receivers in the appropriate measuring channels. In the "Fragment" system the optical selector is realized with separate ' spectral and spatial selection, for which a fiber-optic splitter is used, the input , faces of the light guides of which form the matrix of analyzing diaphragms, along ~ with spectral band-pass filters of the required quality. The splitter is a rigid, three-di.mensional designed organized in such a manner that when there is overall minimization of the lengths of the light guides for the purpose of reducing light - losses, the lengths of the light guides abutting certaa.n spectral band-pass filters and radiation receivers are distributed in an order corresponding to the order of distributian of the solar disk's brightness values (Tts ~ 6,000 K) in the system's spectral intervals of sensitivity. The Photoelectric Linear Scale Converter (FPU) transforms the flow ~~(a,t) coming - from the selector's input [sic] into an electrical signal, limits the frequency bands and carries out electrical scale conversion for matching with the coding unit (the ATsP). The nature of the transformations is described by the absolute spectral sensitivity gpLE(a) of the radiant energy receiver (PLE), which is defined as the ratio of the receiver's reaction upLE(~) to the monochromatic flow received by it to the value ~(a) of this flow: ' ~'~PIE~~~-upi6 (A)/~f~~~) and the combined temporal transfer function k(w). Thus, the general principles for selecting the radiation receivers for the system we are describing did not diff,~r from the generally accepted ones. FEU-114 photo- electronic multipliers :.�cre used for operation in intervals j= 1,...,4, an FEU-112 was used for j= 5, FD-8 photodiodes for j= 6, 7, and~aal FS-2AN photoresistor for j = 8. ~ . . . The Measuring Device. The process of converting the FPU's electrical signal into the corresponding provisional numerical value is performed in the "Fragment" system 48 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONi.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y by the ATsP. The provisional nature of the result is eliminated by calibrating the instrument. It is a well-known fact that the relationship betw~en measured brightness B and its representation at the output of an ideal measuring device can be reflected by 'the following relationship: � N=kB, (10) where N= output code; k= conversion ratio. In practice, the numerical values obtained as the result of the transformations we have been discussing differ from the true value by tihe mag~itude of the system's er- ror. The e;~ror inc~_tdes two components: a random one, dependinq on noise, inter- ference and so on, ~ a systematic one, which depends on chai'iges in the scale and nonlinearity of t?~. ?ideo channel's conversion, ae well as drif~ing of its zero lev- el [4] . ' Achievem2nt of the permissible value of the.randam measurement error, which is one of the given surveying parameters of the "Fragment" system, is accomplished by real- ization of the metrological characteristics of its elements that provide the neces- sary relationship of signal and noise in the measuring video channel. One real method for reducing systematic errors in the measuring video chann~el�is the use of the information that can be obtained during the conversion of a standard, previously known input signal. Actually, in the general case, i~ two reference emitters with known brightnesses B~e(a) and B2e(71) are introduced, and assuming lin- earity of the conversion characteristic, according to the reactions Nle and N2e that correspond to them 9.t is possible to parampters k~ and N~i of the conver- ~ sion characteristic by solving an extremely simple system of equations of the type ~ jy .r~`~ rek ~-I-N . N .r._~~ ~tk ~.}-]V (l.l) tt 1 olr $i -1 1 nl, where i~ = ef,Bre(~)d : N~~ = the 'code of the actua]. zero level. In connection 71~ with this, by simple overlapping of the flvws entering the FPU by the oommutator, it is easy to realize 2e = 0 for the area a< 3.5 um. given this Da~. As a result, there are two possible ways of salving the problem [4]: 1) the intro- duction of correction factors according to the results of the transformation of a 2) the intro- standard signal (realization of the correction of aystematic errors); duction of a self-tuning (automati.c correction) system in the video channel, in connection with which the systematic errors are minimized because o� feedback that encompasses either separate~ur.its or the entire measuring channel. The process of the correction of systematic errors is usually reduced to three oper- ations: acquiring information on the video channel's charaate~..stics according to the results of the transformation'of a standard input signal; finding the video channel's error; introducing correction factors into the results of ineasurements of the emissions being investigated. It is possible to acquire information about the state of the video channel in the MSS only periodically, during passive scan periods. During this time, the radiation being investigated is replaoed by radiation from a standard source with the help of 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY the commutator. The basic shortcoming of this method is the loss of information on the video channel's characteristics during the active part of the scan, which can sometxmes lead to the appearance of an error during this inter~al. However, when ~he scanning frequencies are relatively high and the measuring video channel's pa- rameters have a certain amount of temporal stability, these errors can be ignored. The general shortcomings of inethods for correcting systematic errors are either the large amounts of time needed or the extreme complexity of the equipment used. Therefore, these methods are usually realized on Earth and are feasible when there is a computer in the aerospace video information collection and processing system. The use of self-tuninq methods with the measuring video channel requires the addi- tion to it of supplementary regulatable elements that produce such an effect on the transfer functions of the individual assemblies in the channel that systematic er- ror is reduced for any kind of disturbing effect and any value of the radiation be- ing measured. In contrast to methods for correcting systematic errors that are based on information redundancy in the measuring channel, automatic correction meth- _ ods are free from this flaw. While making it possible to increase measurement accu- racy, at the same time automatic correction methods allow considerably lower re- quirements for the basic elements that make up the video channel and for the accura- cy of their regulation and tuninq. The gain is achieved because of the increase in the amount of equipment used; that is, equipment redundancy in the video channel. In the final account, however, the use of automatic correction methods frequently leads to an improvement in the weight and size indicators and operational reliabili- ty of the measuring channel in connection with the elimination of nonstandard preci- sion elements from the system. These methods are of particular value when measuring systems are being built in a microminiature version with the extensive use of inte- grated circuits, as well as when constructing converting systems based on elements that do notpz'ovide high accuracy but are reliable. The practical realization of automatic correction is possible with the help of both analog and diqital-to-analog devices. It is also aompletely obvious that fAr the realization of periodic automatic correction it is necessary to have memory units to store the error signal for the period of time that passes between automatic cor- rection cycles. Figure 6 is a structural diagram of a system for digital-to-analog automatio correc- tion of systematic.errors caused by zero level dri�t and a change in the video chan- nel's scale conversion ratios. The basic speCial feature of this system is that it encompasses the video channel as a whole, which creates definite advantages. In ad- dition ta this, digital-to-analog automatic correction devices make it possible to realize higher accuracy characteristics when standard elements are used. _ In ~ccordance with the views that have been expressed here, the following elements were introduced into the "Fragment" system's measuring video channel (Figuze 1): an opticomechanical commutator; a reference emitter with working and standard groups of light sources, the relative spectral characteristic of the emissions of which has a color temperature of approximately Ttg = 6,000 K; a compensation cirouit that en- compasses the encoding unit and the photoconversion elements and that performs, by compensating for zero level drift and a ahange in conversion conductanoe, automatic correction of the multiplicative and additive errors contributed by the equipment, it being the case that the correcting control signals are a function of the value of 50 - ~OR OFFiC1AL USE ONII,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~6 7 ? ~ KI ~ ~ ~ ~ .f 9 N ~ Ki,~ ~o ~ Figure 6. Structural diagram of ineasuring video channel with automatic digital-to-analog correction of systematic errors: l, 2. standard radia- tion sources; 3. optical comm~tator= 4. photoreceiving devices; 5. signal _ processing unit; 6. digi~al equivalent of st~nda~d rad~.ation; 7. conver- sion scale corrector; 8. reference voltage source; 9. analog-to-digital converter; 10. digital-to-analog zero level correator; K1~, K12 = elec- tronic keys. _ the deviation of the dark signal and the reference emitter's signgl �rom the zero and reference levels, respectively. Since the rate of dri�t of parameters k~ and N~ because o� the FPU is considerably higher than be- cause of the change in ~he optical properties of the scanning element in the PO5, it proved to be possible to place the reference emitter and the commutator behind these optical elements. ' Thus, the "Fragment"~systen?'s measuring video channe]. operates ir~ the following man- ner. Radiation rising from the Earth's surface strikes the scanning mirror (Figure 1), is gathered by the lens and focused on the analyzing (field) diaphragms of the input faces af the fiber-optic splitter's light guides. The light guides transmit the radiation to the spectral banc3-pass �ilters. The filtered radiation is trans-~ formed by the photaconversion un3.ts into electrical signals that are propo~ional~to the brightness of the scenned s~ction of the Earth's surface in the segregated spea- tral interval, a�ter which the signals are transfozmed in the encoding urii~ ~nd sent to the data transmission systiem. By changing the position of the scanning mirror, which is maved by a drive, the device's inatantaneous fields of view, as determined by the configuration and sizes of the analyzing diaphragms (Figure 5) are moved across the direction of the carrier's flight in such a manner that the co].lec~ion of ~ data on the brightn~ss of the Earth's surface takes place only during movement in one (the working) direction during time t1 (see Figure 4). Reversing of the mir- ror's movement and thc return of it to itis original position takes place durfng time - segment t2, whiah is a minor part of the tot~l ~canning time T. Buring tiime s~:gment t2, opticomechanical commutator 4 first cuts off the flow a� radiatian eiitering ~h~ input faces of the fiber-optic spl3tter's light.guides and replaces it wi+th radia- tion from the reference radiator, tihe spectral density of the energy br~.ghtness of which is similar to the spectral density of the 5un's energy brightness. 'i'he elec- trical signals the photoconversion~elements, which correspond to pe~iods - of shading and measurement of the reference radiation's intensity, are tiransformed in the enooding unit and campared, respectively, the signals' zero and fixed reEerence levels. Z'he magni~udes of the mi.smatching of the compared signals with these levels are used to generate~control signals in ;he feedback circuit that af- fect the position of the zero and the conversicin conductianae of the photoconversion units in such a manner that the mismatch is eliminated, thereby aacomplighing auto- matic correction o� the video channel's multiplicative and additive equipment errors. 51 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On the whole, the technical decisions that were discussed above that were embodied in the "Fragment" MSS made it possible to realize the combination of its basic pa- rameters, which are: Scanning band width, km 85 Surveying rate, km2/s 590 Total information content, bits/s 5.6�106 T~tal number of channels 35 Intake aperture area, cm2 358 280 Weight, kg 22~ Power consumption, W Dimensions, mm 1,660 x 1,440 x 730 The surveying characteristics of the "Fragment" system for the selected spectral in- tervals are presented in the table below. Characteristics of "Fragment" Multispectral Scanning System Working Spectral Intervals, Um Characteristics 0.4-0.7 0.5-0.6 0.6-0.7 0.7-0.8 0.8-1.1 1.2-1.3 1.5-1.8 2.1-2.4 Upper limit of ineas- ~ urable brightness, W�cm 2sr-lum 1 320 320 270 210 133 70 33 13.3 Relative mean-square error of ineasure- ments, 0 1.5 1.5 1.8 2.5 3.3 5 7 Instantaneous fields . of view, rad�10-3 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.39 0.39 0.78 Linear dimension of instantaneous field of view at the na- - dir, m(H = 630 km) 80 80 80 80 80 240 240 480 Total information ' content, bits/s�106 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.32 0.32 0.16 Video information content, bits/s�106 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.21 0.21 . 0.10 - On the whole, the results of the full-scale experiment using the "Meteor" satellite confirmed the rationality of the technical decisions that were made and realized in the "Fragment" MSS. The scientific and technical gaal that was formulated--the de- velopment of a measuring MSS to be used'for the scalution of various long-term and operational, prospecting and precautionary, economic and scientific problems--was achieved. At the ground reception points that were not equipped with special com- puter equipment for the correction of the video information, operational visual and instrumental analysis of the incoming data was accomplished successfully. The accu- racy that was realized makes it possible to automate space video information pro- cessing operations, using computer facilities that are produced industrially [5]. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Avanesov, G.A., "Operational Facilities for Acquiring Space Video Information in the Op~tical Band," in "Kosmicheskiye issledovaniya zemnykh resursov" [Space ~ 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Investigations of Terrestrial Resources], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1975, pp 24-34. 2. ~lvanesov, G.A., Glazkov, V.D., and Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Development of a Spe- cialized Opticoelectronic System for the Operational Collection of Multispectral Video Information About the Earth's Surface," in "Mnogozonal'nyye aerokosmicheskiye s"yemki Zemli" [Multizonal Aerospace Surveys of the Earth], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1981, pp 58-76. 3. Avanesov, G.A., Barinov, I.V., Glazkov, V.D., et al., "Modeling a Space Experi- ment With the Help of an Airborne Laboratory," in "Kosmicheskiye issledovaniya zemnykh resursov", Moscow, rzdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1975, pp 280-290. 4. Avanesov, G.A., Glazkov, V.D., and Khodarev, Yu.K., "Principles of the Canstruc- . tion of a Measuring Video Channel," ibid., pp 56-80. ~ 5. Avanes~v, G.A., Ziman, Ya.L., and Khodarev, Yu.K., "Technology for the Thematic ` Automated Processing of Video Information," ibid., pp 179-188. 6. Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Some Questions on the Planning of Satellite Multispectral Optical Scanning 5ystems," in "Mnogozonal'nyye aerokosmicheskiye s"yerki Zemli", Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1981, pp 76-87. ~ 7. Avanesov, G.A., Ziman, Ya.L., Sychev, A.G., and Tarnopol'skiy, V.I., "Metrologi- cal Support for Measurements of the Brightness of the Earth's Surface by the 'Fragment' Multizonal Scanning System" this issue, pp 65-77. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 C50: 1866/18 ~ 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 ~'OR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY ~ UDC 528.727 PROBLEMS IN DIGITAL TRANSMISSION AND RECORDING OF MULTIZONAL VIDEO INFORMATION AND THEIR SOLUTION IN THE 'FRAGMENT' EXPERIMENT Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 20 May 81) pp 57-64 . [Article by A.F. Bogomolov, S.M. Popov, Yu.D. Smolyannikov and A.V. Stepin] [Text] There is a continual and significant growth in the flows of information com- ing from aerospace systems for investigatinq the Earth's natural resources. This is taking place in connection with an improvement in the resolving power of optical, radar and radiometric systems, an improvement in picture detail and enlargement of the area surveyed, and the use of several spectral or polarized channels and equip- ment integration for the ~cquisition of the greatest possible amount of information about the Earth. In the near future we are planning to create research complexes with summary infor- mation bands (conforming to the video frequency) to 10-40 MHz. The transmission of remote sounding data from a satellite to ground reception points can be carried out over a radio channel by either the digital or analog method. In comparison with analog systems, digital systems~~ require expansion of the band of frequencies used in the ether and an increase in the operating speed of the transmitting, receiving and recording equipment. However, digital transmission has a number of important advanta~es for both the overall ~lan (high technological qualities and reliability of the equipment, simpli- city of coupling with digital computers) ana its specific (information) elements. They include: low sensitivity to the effect of noise and distortion accumulations in the signal amplification, transmission, reception, memory and relay channels; in- formation flexibility, which means simplicity in combining different and independent data souress (including nonsynchronous ones), the possibility of sacrificing accura- cy for transmission speed, and so on. The basic indicator of a radio link's.effectiveness is its degree of economy in both power and the band of frequencies occupied in the ether and used per unit of infor- mation for a given degree of transmission reliability. A comparison of analog and digital methods according to these criteria has been done more than once and can be represented most graphically by a so-called Sanders diagram (Figure 1) [1]. As is obvious, a digital channel with phase manipulation of the carrier frequency provides a high degree of on-board transmitter economy, while with respect to the band of frequencies used it is only insignificantly behind the optimum (according to this criterion) analog channel with frequency modulation. - 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFF'IC1AL USE ONLY ~ 1/g~~J�~ur~~t Calculations show that a communication channel with a traffic capacity on the or- 6 der of 100 Nibits/s that is to be used with K~M-t1;M an object of the "Meteor" type must hav~ a 3 transmitter on board the object with a ca- AM pacity of several tens of watts when ground 2 Y,xH-FM ~ ~-f o_Z antennas with an effective area on the or- - 10 0_3 der of 25-100 m2 are used. The existence 8 of cheap and reliable anteruzas of the s "Orbit" type, with an effective area on the 4 order of 50 m2, as well as on-board and 3� ground digital transmission equinmAnt that was developed by the OKB [Special or Exper- ~ imental Design Office] of the USSR Ministry ~~D~de{~) of Higher and Secondary Specialized Educa- n U/eNNOHq tion's Moscow Power ~ngineering Institute 8 is already making it possible to realize 60,1 2 3 4 6 8 1,0 2 3 4a4E;1/gfd.u~~Y radio links with the operating speed that Figure 1. Dependence of specific sig- is required for remote sounding problems. nal energy consumption S on specific frequency band a(per binary unit of Model testing of the bas~c equipment deci- information) for a given transmission sions envisaged for prospective scientific quality: AM = amplitude modulation; information transmission complexes was car- ChM = frequency modulation; KIM-FM, ried out with the "Fragment-RL" equipment KIM-ChM = digital (pulse-code) modu- during the "Fragment" experiment. Temporal lation with phase and frequency ma- packing of the information, which provided nipulation of the carrier frequency: for the transmi.ssion of 4-6 spectral bands 1. mean quadratic error 10-1; 2. mean into a single digital flow, was used in it. quadratic error 10-2; 3. mean quad- The data transmission rate was about 4 ratic error 10-3. NIl~its/s. The use of the most noise- Key: 1. (Shennon's) limit resistant type of modulation (phase manipu- lation of the carrier frequency at +90�) and directional on-board and high-efficiency ground antennas provided the communica- tion channel with a high energy potential. Figure 2 is a structural diagram of the equipment at the information reception point. The radio signal is received by an antenna with an effective area on the order of 50 m2 in the decimeter wave barid. The antenna is guided onto the object with the help of a programmed unit and accord- ing to target acquisition instructions from GosNITsIPR. After passing through the antenna amplifier, which has a noise temperature on the order of 300 K, the signal is transferred to an intermediate frequency on which the basic amplification, selection and synchronous rectification of the signal takes place. Reestablishment of the reference voltage for synchronous rectification is accomplished by an arranqement with twinning of the c.- sier and the use of a phase autoadjustment system to improve filtration of the input signal under noisy condi- tions. The parameters of the reference voltage reestablishment setup were selected in such a manner as to insure netting without tuning for all possible instabilities of the transmitter's carrier frequency and the receivers' heterodynes, while not al- lowing deterioration of the interference-free reception of the phase-manipulated - signal in the presence of fluctuating interference. From the output of the synchronous rectifier, the video signal enters the input of the signal synchronization and processing unit, where the symbol recurrence 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ber[OKOVac- NrumamOp . momNUri Koda I (l,~ zeNtpamop (2 ~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ J . YCInp01iCn740 RNm~NNbHi E5 /IPt/[MMO~ L(u~pOdOfi /1CNm1~ C JOnucbl0 npotpaMr+HOto y~,~numene ycmpovrmGo uxmeepamop (7'~ NQOedrNUA ~ (I {3) ~4~ YtmporicmQo ycmpoucmeD Annopamypa I I NoNEep`m9oS , tuNrpoNU- pn,tdeneNU~ HazNUmxnti 4 ~8k(eneyxa~oNUr aouuu nomoKOe petucmpayuu (10 (].2} Figure 2. Structural diagram of "Fragment-RL" equipment. Key: 1. High-frequency generator 7. Tapes with recording 2. Code simulator 8. Target acquisition 3. Programmed guidance unit 9. Converter 4. Antenna amplifier 10. Synchronization unit 5. Receiver 11. Flow separation unit 6. Digital integrator 12. Magnetic recording equipment frequency is separated and optimum postrectification processing of the code's video pulses is carried out by digital integration of the signal in a period of time egual to the duration of the symbol. The synchronization unit also distinguishes the special "Fragment" system marker messages and uses them to distribute the informa- tion into four separate flows of 960 kbits/s each for the purpose of organizing their registration by magnetic recording equipment. The marker message signals also serve to eliminate the "ambiguity" that is inherent in communication channels with phase-manipulated signals. The reception and conversion compl~:x includes monitoring and testing equipment that makes it possible to check the fitness for operation of the entire ground complex (including the antenna) before a communication session, while during the session it evaluates the quality of the signal being received. The basic specifications of the "Fragment-RL" radio line are as follows: ~ Information transmission rate 3,840 kbits/s Type of modulation in the radio line phase manipulation _ On-board transmitter power 5 W ~ Effective area of receiving antenna at least 50 m2 Directivity factor of ~ransmitting antenna about 2 Realized reception range 3,000 km Power reserve over threshold level at a distance of 2,000 km . . ~ at least 10 dB A further improvement in the radio link's tra�fic capacity can be achieved by chang- ing over to double phase packing of the channel. On the basis of the facilities that have been created, with a partial replacement of the units it is possible to build a digital communication channel with an operating speed of up to SO-100 i~its/s. 56 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504020035-6 FOR UFFIC'IAI. USE UNLY During the conduct of the "Fragment" experiment, problems related to methods of re- - cording digital multizonal video information were worked out and recommendations for the construction of ground magnetic recording facilities in the prospective sys- tem for the operational study of Earth from space were worked up [2]. Some of the advantages of the digital transmission of video information from objects in space were mentioned above. As in the case of a radio channel, the use of digital methods in magnetic recordinq equipment makes it possible to achieve high quality indicators and stability of the channel's characteristics and the absence of an increase in noise after multiple rerecordings and storage, as well as the capability of compen- sating for temporal distortions arising as the result of unevenness of the tape's rate of movement. . However, the use of digital methods requires a recording-xeproduction channel band ~ that is 10-30 times wider than when recording in analog form is used. This leads to a situation where (for example) in order to record a single co~nunication session with the "Fragment" system utilizing the digital recording methods used in digital computers, 14 km of tape moving at a rate of 15 m/s would be required. If we.take into consideration the fact that a further increase in digital information flows can be expected in the near future, it becomes clear that the methods for recording di- gital information that are widely used today cannot solve the problem of recording at the reception speed. The creation of magnetic recording devices using digital recording methods with high tape-use efficiency and having an information band of up to 100 Mbits/s and more is a complicated scientific and~technical problem. In the initial stage of the "Fragment" experiment, the entire complex of instruments used was examined systemat- icaliy with due consideration for actual achievements and prospects for the develop- - ment of theory, technology, techniques and materials. The requirements for the mag- netic recording system as a~hole and for its component parts were farmulated and crossmatched. ' Another special feature of the development of a magnetic recording system within the framework of the "Fragment" experiment was the need for information coupling of the newly developed devices with those possessed by the consumers of the information that had a different operating speed, input signal structure and placement of the information on the magnetic tape. Figure 4 is a functional diagram of the "Fragment-kL" magnetic recording system. It includes: 1) an MZU-V (N2S3-F) high-speed magnetic memory with an information band ~ of from 16 to 1.6 Mbits/s; 2) an MZU-S (N2S1) medium-speed magnetic memory with an information band during recording of from 5.1 Mbits/s to 176 kbits/s; 3) an MZU-M low-speed magnetic memory with an information band of from 900 to 56 kbits/s; 4) a signal formation and commutation unit (UFK). After reception and separation of the synchrosignals, the information in digital form enters the UFK. In the reception-from-satellite mode, from the UFK the infor- mation is relayed simultaneously to two MZU-V magnetic recorders that provide con- tinuous recording in a sequential engagement mode. After reception and recording of the data flow, it is rerecorded f.rom the MZU-V's on an MZU-S magnetic recorder. The rerecording is necessary in order to match the "Fragment-RL" system's information - channels and the computer input units, which have a different traffic capacity. Signalgrams from the MZU-S are sent to the c~nsumers' computer centers for process- ing of the information. 57 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 1~()R ()H'N'1('IA1. IItiN: ()NI.Y ^ ^ i ~ ~ ~ ~ a~ ~ ~ ' y,i Cq 4-- ~W ~ U m , S ~ ~ H 0 rt t o y.~ a ~ I I a~ ~ ~0 V ~ a r. m ~ ~ ~-i a - ~ a, 5 o�a E�,' ~ ~ . ' ~ ~ � �mm~~ � . o.~o`a ~ " � . ~ ~ ~ t+ ~ . Ci Q o ~ . � . ~ r-I ' . p eY � . � ' . . ;~y ~1 . . . . 1 ~ t ' . ' - . , N CT , ? 'I ~ . ~ ~ _ N ~ td V u ~ O 5~~1 q O O ~x � N ~ ~ ~~i ~ ~ N N N _ ~ ~ E~� H tir N~+ w e-1 f~ 4-I �~1 �~1 V~�~ ~ ~ b~ L: N~ N ~ri U U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m ~ ~ z ro r-, ~ ~ � vi a~i ~ ~ ~ cn v~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ . a GG 6 N ~ U.. ~ h~ i f P4 u~i tT ~~b~ ~xZ ~ ' , ~ H'~I~~H~AE?-~7 n~ . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ r x ~o ~ ~ ~~~v ~ i i a w ~ ~t - ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ i I ~ ee o m w ~ ~ 8 ~ v ~O a~i m cf ~ ~ U " ~ rt+ co ~ 'c ~ ~ m cH.~ W o m v b~ ~i-I 3%I �a cFi ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~w 8 0 ~ ~ ~ p r1 m~ ( ~~"x I a~e c'~~ ^ xx ~ ~ � ~ o _ ~ z N ~ ~ m'�x'~' I ~ I z m ~ ~ ~ N � ~ ~ xa~ I I a ' ~ k F K .-t~ ~ O ~ ~ N 'i~ I ~ I Cl 16 V~ ~ U U ItD O - .a O ~ b: O 7' I~ RS IO ~ ~J'1 I _ I a I!" ~ ~ z a~ U d~ A o ~ ~}I~~) , ~ n aH " W \ \ v o ~ noir?ru.i~[a ~i~iltet~fi~[ - V a ~ ~ u~i -~[ux a xi~~teaud?uvdu~~ ueia~odr,~~ m w~ rr a~ ~.r o cv ~ . ~ ~z� N ~ -N o~ I ~ ~ ~ ~oa o 0 0 ~n ~ p, � o a a b+ b~ ~0 0�~I ~ 0 0~ O ~ n ^ I '-`I ~ �C a�a ,g, ~ pi W ~ d1 r-1 1~ W O+? W x v( ~ z ~ I o m o "'"'tU V . J N N~ UI ~UI N~~N 0 'I� CL^ ~ ~ ~ T~ ~ I~ s�a ~ rl N N 4~ ~1 R~ ~.~r., . UI p I~ w a v o~ ~ I I ` �m.. ~ �w~ .co,. 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ R~A c~i ~ A m e~ m Y' V o~ o q ~ U U 1~T '.~7.7 O A~ o~� a a~ W ~r v~ cn � V� c1~ a0 ~ ao~o q a~W 7y . . . . . . . ~ O. e++ c~i ~ r-I N M~N ll1 t0 I~ 00 O~ ~ ~ 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OMFICIAI. USN: ONi.Y If a photorecorder with low-speed mechanical scanning is used for operational moni- toring, there is yet another rerecording of the information in the MZU-M, from which infor.mation can be entered in the computer through interface units just as it is from the MZU-S. The basic information profiles are presented in the functional dia- gram (Figure 4). In order to guarantee the information characteristics of the type N2S3-F MZU-V and the type N2S1 MZU-S, a standardized tape-moving mechanism with automatic control systems and a bestonval'nyy [translation unknown] drive in the 0.25-5 m/s speed range was developed. When used together with an instrument for the digital correc- tion of temporal distortions, this tape-moving method insures the elimination of the effect of instability in the magnetic tape's movement on the output signal's parame- ters. It can operate, without any intermediate buffer units, with photorecorders having high-speed electronic or mecli~..nical line scanning. For the medium-speed N2S1 magnetic memory unit, the widely used method of recording without returning to zero (BVN-M) was utilized, thus making it possible to obtain good information flexibility. The basic.specifications and a list of the functional systems and service equipment for the N2S1 medium-speed magnetic memory are given below: Magnetic tape movement speeds, m/s 0.25, 0.38, 0.5, 0.76, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 Number of recording channels 24 Recording density, bits/mm 32 , Width of magnetic tape, mm 25.4 , Type of magnetic tape used I4406-25 Capacity of magnetic tape reels, m 2,200 Maximum recording speed, Mbits/s 5.1 . Dimensions, man 1,672 x 565 x 648 There are built-in automatic and oscillograph monitoring systems, a programmable command unit, a measured information error compensator, a time synchronization error compensator, and a channel for recording a voice accompaniment. Capabilities for remote control of the entire rack's working modes and remote acquisition of command execution signals are also provided. The following service equipment has been developed: a stationary control panel L�hat insures the interaction of two or three N2S1 racks in the continuous, sequential re- cording and rerecording mode; a portable remote control panel; an instrument for rack tuning and monitoring; an instrument for the demagnetization of magnetic tape on reels; an instrument for cleaning magnetic tape and preparing it for operation or storage; an instrument that compensates for temporal distortions arising because of unevennPSS of the tape's movement during information reproduction. In order to solve various problems, N2S1 racks can be used as the basis for the or- ganization of an independent magnetic recording system that has quite good informa- tion and operating characteristics. During the development of the type N2S3-F MZU-V high-speed magnetic memory unit, the basic scientific and technical problem was the creation of the recording (digital information reproduction) channel, which had to record 1,000-2,000 bits/mm2 with a �.c. 59 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - reliability level of no worse than 10-~ and an operating speed of up to 5-10 Mbits/s. Different versions of the utilization of analog recording systems were discussed. In [3] there is an analysis of the accuracy characteristics of analog recording methods and it is shown that the frequency modulation recording method has quite good characteristics. For the realization of this method within the framework of the "Fragment" experiment, with recording of the information from each spectral band on a separate track, the tape movement rate would be 1.5 m/s. How- ever, intrinsic flaws in the frequency modulation method forced it to be rejected. Basically, they are as follows: the appearance of temporal deviations in the signal as the result of fluctuations in the tape movement speed during recording and reproduction results in geometric distortions of the imaqe; the appearance of tempoxal mismatches between spectral band information recorded on different tracks because of dynamic misalignments of the tape that occur when it is � moving leads to a lowering of the resolution of the detailed spectral analysis; the small dynamic range of the reproduced signal. Another recording method, which makes it possible to reduce the magnetic recording system's operating speed, is proposed in [4] and is based on one of the methods for reducing redundance in the original information. The recording speed is approxi- mately halved by the use of differential pulse-code modulation (DIKM) with predic- tion on the basis of the preceding element, where only the difference between'~the current and preceding image brightness values is transmitted. However, the use of DIKM results in a situation where a single error leads to distortion of the follow- ing group of elements; that is, the errors are reproduced until the end of the line is reached. This effect results in undesirable distortions in the video informa- tion. In order to eliminate the effect of errors when DIKM is used, it is necessary to increase the reliability in the data transmission channel by two or three orders of magnitude, by further increasinc~ the on-board transmitter's power or introducing redundant encoding. Taking these things into consideration, at the stage of the actual conduct of~.the~ "Fragment" experiment, a multichannel digital recording methoii was selected for the N2S3-F high-speed maqnetic memory and~the following technical characteristics'were realized: Number of recording and reproduction channels 16 ~ Recording density 120-160 bits/mm Recording frequency on a track . up to 1 MHz Ratio of freguency band transformation during - reproduction 1/8-1/10 , Type of tape I4406-25 Continuous recording of the information is insured by the sequential operation of N2S3-F racks and commutation of the recording channels. The completion of the fol- lowing developments for the MZU-V will result in an increase in the number of re- cording channels: reproduction of up to 40 channels and the development of new mag- netic heads, as well as the use of new and promising magnetic tapes that will pro- vide a signal-to-noise ratio of 25-30 dB in the frequency range up to 5-10 MHz. For the MZU-M, a Soviet-produced digital magnetic recorder was used; it has the fal- - lowing characteristics:. 60 FOR.OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 1~()It ONFI('IA1, litiE ()NI.Y Tape r,~ovement speed, m/s � 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 - Number of recording channels ~ 20 Recording density, bits/mm 25 Width of magnetic tape, m�n 25�4 Reel capacity, m 1,000 The experience gained during the conduct of the "Fragment" experiment enables us to . draw the following conclusions about the operation of the radio link and the record- ing equipment. ~ 1. The principles chosen for the construction of the digital transmission and mag- ~ netic recording system insured the solution of the scientific and technical problem formulated for the "Fragment" experiment. 2. On the whole, the rationality of the technical decisions that were made was con- firmed and actual ways were noted for the further improvement of digital data trans- mission, reception and recording equipment for prospective systems for studying the Earth from space at operating speeds of up to 100 NU~~~s/s. BIBLIOGRAPHY r 1. Sanders, P., "Comparison of the Efficiency of Several Communication Systems," ZARUBEZHNAYA RADIOELEKTRONIKA, No 12, 1960, pp 52-76. 2. "A New Experiment in Investigating the Earth From Space," ISSLEDOVANIYA ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 1, 1981, pp 5-6. 3. Gitlits, M.V., "Magnitnaya zapis� v sistemakh peredachi informatsii" [Maqnetic Recording ir~ Information Transmission Systemsj, Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Svyaz 1978, pp 212-215. 4. Asmus, V.V., Mishkina, A.A., Rivkin, L.Yu., Tishchenko, A.P., and Shapovalov, S.V., "Multizonal Video Information Input-Uutput With the Elimination of Info~a- tion Redundancy," ISSLEDOVANIYE 2EMLI IZ KOSMO5A, No 2, 1981, pp 82-86. C~JPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/18 - 61 . FOR OFFICIAL tJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 528.7:629.78 METROLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR MEASUREMENTS OF BRIGHTNESS OF EARTH'S SURFACE BY '.~RAGM~NT' MULTIZONAL SCANNItiG tiYSTEM - Moscow ISSLEDOVAI3IYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 12 Jun 81) pp 65-77 [Article by G.A. Avanesov, Xa.L. Ziman, A.G. Sychev and V.I. Tarnopol'skiy, Insti- tute of Space Research, Moscow] [Text] Modern remote methods for investigating the Earth rely to a considerable de- gree on the use of quantitative methods for processing data acquired with the help of various surveying systems (SS). Thus, the reliability of the results of such in- vestigations is directly dependent on the S5's measuring properties (1], which de- termine the possibility of making an objective comparison of the results of ineasure- i ments made in different situations by different SS's. It is obvious that a neces~ sary condition for such a comparison is the appropriate metrological support. In the concept of the metrological support of ineasurements we include the choice of the physical unit for representing the results of the measurements, the transfer of the selected unit from the standard.that reproduces it to the S5's measuring scale, and provision of the necessary minimization of the measurements' total error with respect to the unit of the selected physical value. Let us discuss the realization of such metrological support for an optical-band 55, using as our example the planning and radiometric calibration of the "Fragment" multizonal scanning system (MSS) [2]. According to its operating principle, ~he "Fragment" system is a radiometer- brightnessmeter, since its instantaneous fields of view cover the investigated sur- - face completely when measurements are being made. If we take into consideration the negliqible size of the solid angle at which the intake apertures of radiometer- brightnessmeter SS's used in remote investigations of the Earth are visible from the ~ planet's surface, it is obvious that as the radiometric value that quantitatively defines the radiation being investigated with the help of such SS's, we should take the density of the radiant flow on the surface, as related to the magnitude of the ' spectral interval and the solid angle; that is, the sp~ctral density of the energy brightness (SPEYa). And~although in practice the resolution values with respect to the surface, the solid angle and the spectrum are finite, the essence of the problem of resolution does not change: an SS measures the average SPEYa value, in conneec- tion with which the higher the resolution, the smaller the error related to the _ finiteness of the enumerated valuesl. 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540020035-6 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY ' Considering the essential importance of the question of selecting the physical unit i.n ~r}-,i~h t~~e measurement results are presented, let us discuss it in detail. Actually, the relationship between a measured value and the output signal of any (j-th) SS measuring channel is defined by the relationship~ ro ~ B S; d~, s = Si = o ~ ~ ~1~ j B ~ where S~ = a value characterizing.the j-th measuring channel's sensitivity; S~(J?) _ = absolute spectral sensitivity of the j-th channel; q~ = output reaction of the j-th channel; B(J1) = spectral brightness of the surface being investigated; B= = measured value of the brightness. In principle, value B can be characterize4 by different methods. When calibrating radiometer-brightnessmeters, the value that is normally used for B is the total in- tegral brigHtness of some standard radiation source, the integral brightness of this source within the limits of the sPectral sensitivity interval (AJ?) of the SS channel that is being calibrated, or the effective brightness for the given channel [3]. Expression (1) can then be rewritten as ~ ~ ~ S bx~~~ s d~ Sa= � � , (2) Sb~~~,d~ . 0 ~ 5 ~ s d~ Se~ _ � + (3) S bsr a~ ~ ex ~ ~ S Bst' S d~, S',,, _ , (4) ) B~ S d~' . o ~ ~ wl~crc 5~~, Sm = integral, absolute and effective sensitivity, respectively, of t t~~, r-.~~t.i.un~r0 f20 f.30 140 150 160 W ~M Z�sr �M ~ Figure 2. Histograms of SPEYa values of agricultural lands in the Dor.- Khoper interfluve, as derived from "Fragment" MSS survey materials gath- ered on 30 July Z980 and S October 1980: P= relative frequency of regis- tration of SPEYa value. � help of data on the radiating capacity of tungsten. The need for such a recalcula- tinn, as well as the indeterminacy of the data used in it, resulted in substantial - errors during calibration. Some investigators used different models of an absolute- ly black body during calibration. However, the low quality of these models, the in- adequate analysis of their metrological characteristics, and the lack of standard, practical measurement techniques also resulted in significant errors. The situation improved substantially with the creation and approval of a system of State Special Standards (GSE) for energy photometry that differ in both operating principle and the spectral band used [8]. One of these standards--the State Special Standard for the Spectral Density of Energy Brightness in the 0.25-2.5 um Band [9]--was also used as the basis for the ' 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020035-6 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY /'ocydapcmDcniieiri I Cql!{lIQJldNb!!L J/1lOJ/ON - i Ca!!H!!!{dI G/7CN/nflaJlONOlL /!/IOIAHOC/f'tYL : 9NL~dC/I!!!`/CCAfOlI ~!PKOC/AU I //C/lPCpblBHOLO O/!/q!/VGC/Y020 U.7//~S~CN/!R ~ C/l/10!!lKOZO c~eKmp (2} ~ D dnuH Bonir O,1S-Z, S nn n ~ O, Z.f MNM Z,SMHM ~1~ .fp= /,S�10 _l .Sp = O,1�10 2 ~ o Bo �Z,0�!O Bp = O,Z�!O i ~ o ~ C Cnuv~HU~ ~ b npu ~o~ouru ~roanaPamopc~3 F i ~ Po6ovue 3monaHdi ~4~ , 'O, 25-2,.fMNM O,Z~MNM ZrS~MRM . -I' Sp=Z,~f'�!O-1 ~S'o=O,S�!O-z Cnuveaue - - - - npu naaai~~~ ~rn.~no~omoPa~3 ~ ~5~~ 06~u,ri~nBei~ urnyvuin~nu ~ O,Z,f-7,.fnKn (6) V V O,ZSMNM Z,SMNM ~ Sp=~/�~a S~=I% ~ ~ CA//VCNUC - - - ~Pu ~o,yoa~u nnronapu~~oput 3 ~7~, y ~ y Pa6oyur u?nyvom~nu (g~ , ' p ~ ~ O,1S-Z,~f'Nnn ' b V 4 QZSMKM ZSMRM ~R~ ,fo~.B~ � So=,~Y. . Figure 3. Unioci-wide testing method for equipment for measuring the spec- tra~ density of the energy brightness of continuous optical radiation in a continuous spectrum in the 0.25-2.5 um band: 0= uneliminated system- atic err~r; S= root-mean-square deviation. Key: 1. Standards 3. Comparison, using a comparator 2. State Special Standard for Unit of 4. Working standards Spectral Density of ~nergy Bright- 5. Prototype measurement equipment ness of Continuous Optical Emis- 6. Prototype emitters ~ sions in a Continuous Spectrum in 7. Working measurement equipment ' the 0.25-2.5 Um band 8. Working emitters I~ formulation of the calibration methods for the "Fragment" MSS, which operates within - the limits of this spectrai band. The use of this standard was based on the ap- proved testing method for equipment for measuring the spectral density of energy brightness (Figure 3). In this setup the SPEYa unit is passed from the GSE to the working standard, which is based on a series-produced SI10-300U ribbon-filament lamp or a sperial lamp of the "black body" type. From the SPEYa working standard, the SPEYa unit is passed to prototype measuring equipment based on SI10-300U or SI8-200U 70 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540020035-6 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY s r---------~ . ~o ~ ~ /o ~ z z d _ ~ _ - ~+r-- . - ~ I I ~ I - I r ~ B I / i jl ~ 9 I ~;n j 6 7 ~ ~ ~ ~2~ I ~ f ~.('a~naPdmo~ ~ I ai~c ~ ~�.iy ~i�,vi ~ f i-- B---- 4 I . c-~ ~ ~/O I Z b 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ I I - ~ 9 i ~ ~ ~ i i ~in I 6 ~ I ~ ~3~I ~ ,f . ~ Pa6ovu~s da {a ~yu~ � . ~ ~ .Yo~napvmoP(]~ I a~.~yvQ~~~ ~ Figure 4. Setup for measurement of relative spectral characteristic (a) and absolute sensitivity (b) of surveying systems: .a: 1. surveyinq sys- tem;.2. deflecting flat mirror; 3. prototype measurement ineans (SI10-300U lamp); 4. collimator mirror; 5. optical system of comparator; 6, 8. twrn monochromators; 7. block of comparator photoreceivers; 9. halogen lamp; 10. shutters; b: 1. surveying system; 2. deflecting flat mirror; 3. prototype measurement means (SI10-300U lamp); 4. diffuse illuminator; 5. optical system of comparator; 6. twin monochromator; 7. block of receiv= ers; 8, 9.~halogen lamps of illuminator; 10. shutte~s. Key: 1. Comparator 3. Working diffuse emitter 2. Working monochromatic emitter lamps. At the surveying system calibration stage, prototype measurement equipment must be used. Figure 4 depicts simplified setups for the two calibration stages. Let us concentrate on a discussion of the possible sources and comparative magni- tudes of the errors that affect the final result of a measurement. Let us mention - here that, first of all, the final result must contain errors related to the trans- mi5sion of the SPEYa unit from the standards to the prototype means that are de- fined in GOST [All-Union State Standard] 8.196-76 [9]; depending on the wavelength, - they can be as large as several percent. Among the calibration error sources we can include instability of the radiation sources' brightness, nonlinearity and instability of the calibration setup's compar- ator, nonreproducibility of the monochromators' wavelengths, noncoordination of the emitter's and comparator's monochromators' wavelengths. However, careful 71 - FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 H'Olt OFMI('IA1, IItiN: ON1.`, _ construction of the installation used for calibration, preliminary selection of the photoreceivers used in the comparator and the introduction of different systems for monitoring the stability of the emitters' operating modes make it possible to reduce thes~ errors to values on the order of 1 percent. Thus, in our case the accura~y of the SS's energy calibration was basicaily deter- mined by the error in the transmission af the SPEYa unit from the standard to the prototype and working measurement equipment, and was standardized at a level of sev- eral percent. This means that, inasmuch as the joint processing of data from a min- imum of several SS's is necessary for remote investigations of the Earth, when con- structing the SS's it is not advisable to require an equipment accuracy level of better than 1-3 percent for each separate SS operating in the 0.25-2.5 um band, which figure was realized during the creation of the "Fragment" MSS (Table 4). Table 4. Averaged Certified Characteristics of "Fragment" MSS t~~~Cu~ ' ~tbxue ~rrepea~n[ Hoa~Cpaqaear nepezoAa ar � aH89ESe~ s6[IOAIIOTO xoAa B ~ C7Iy4flAH8A~ Cpf,1~IEHBBA' $aYepeeaol~ senstase C~a~. 8~exx~sean . , . , . . , pa~re~tecxaq auuaparyp- Br�cD'�.~r'+xx~ 5 R�~a swias o6oeaa- nwrymtp~a, Hax norpe~ocrb a nar[- q~ ~ Y~ sor p~a~ea4ecxo~[ . PeHCar~ ' ~e'..~';>h Aa8uaaoae, 'ti i , r~ , 3 . 4 j . rt ~ ~ III . . :~~.v ~ . . d~l 0,397-0,627 0,8 1,33�SO-15,04�l0"1 i,63 ~'~'0,545 - A~: 0,508-0,586 !,0 2,49�f0'18,59�10-1 2,36 0,543 ~~y , 0,601-0,679 i,5 2,0i�f0-i6,79�f0-1 2,30 0,638 A~~ 0,688-0,743 1,8 1,67�f0-15,52�10-~ i,65 0,715 AA6 0,82~i-0,935 2,8 l,36�i0-13,98�10-1 1,19 0,890 ~~,6 1,166-i,305 2,1 - 4,90�10-1 - 1,2~i0 . A~ 1,5i6-i,698 ~ 1,9 - 3,16�10-1 - 1,620 A~ . 2,080-2,304 ~ 2,4 - l,27�10-1 - 2,200 Key: 1. Spectral intervals 5. Coefficient of conversion from output 2. Designation code to measured SPEYa val~ie, 3. Half-width, Um W�sr-1�m 2�um 1 ~ 4. Random root-mean-square equipment 6. Amplification modes error in full dynamic range, ~ 7. Effective wavelength 7~e, um ~ Let us emphasize that insuring a root-mean-square random measurement error at a lev- el of several percent requires special construction of the entire information- carrying channel. Actually, repeated conversion of the information in the channel will lead to losses of it u~til the entire measurement process is comgleted; that is, until the comparison of some intermediate signal with a standard (the unit of measurement) and the acquisition of a real number (the encoded signal). The encoded signal, which is more resistant to noise and interference than the analog represen- tation of the information, makes it possible to eliminate almost entirely the effect of subsequent parts of the information and measuring complex on the measurement re- sults. Consequently, by carrying out the measurement process as close as possible to the SS's input element, information losses can k~e reduced; from this there natur- ally follows the necessity of including an encoding unit in the SS (the on-board part of the information and measurement complex) and using a digital radio link [2,10~. " However, the encoding units (analog-to-digital converters (ATsP)) used in on-board optical-band SS's only convert an~electrical signal into a concrete number. As a - result of instability in the preceding opticoelectronic conversion units, measure- ment errors are generated that, as a~rule, exceed the allowable level by several 72 FOR OFFIC[A~. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020035-6 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY perc!~nt. Because of this it is necessary to introduce special monitoring of the stability of the analog opticoelectronic conversion units in the SS and some kind of procedure for correcting the measurement results according to the data provided by - this ' . . Let us discuss the principles of the realization of this monitoring in the "Frag- ment" MSS. In this system, the analog opticoelectronic conversion members include the receiving optical s~stem, which consists of the scanning mirror and mirror lens, the fiber-optic selector with spectral band-pass filters, and the photoreceiving de- vices (FPU) [2]. The stability of the receiving optical system's parameters is determined by the de- terioration caused by the effect of the conditions encountered in space; this pri- marily means hard radiation and micrometeorite bombardment. The use of mirror op- tics made it possible to assume negligibly little deterioration because of hard ra- diation, while the effect of micrometeorite bombardment during the calculated oper- - ating period year) also turned out to be almost unfelt [11], so this unit's con- version function was assumed to be practically constant. k3 ~s � � ~ I I0, 939 ~ ~ ~ ~'y ~ I0,9J5 0,907 . . - I � r _ 1 -----------1-- I I 0, 923 I 0, B94 ~ ( ~Z ~ I O,B95 O,B95 � ~ I ~ ~~g16~~ ~ I ~ ~ Y.79 Pl Ylf Y~ II I II f9B0 II IQ IY Y YI YQ ffi II d II Ia (],)AEtycm OnmA~po (a) Figure 5. Change in coefficient ke of decrease in ~vorking reference emit- ter's intensity relative to the standard reference emitter for the "Frag- ment" MSS during pref'light tests and the first months of the flight. Key: 1. August . 2. October The stability of the conversion performed by all the subsequent analog members is monitored and corrected automatically by a special reference emitter that was added to the conversion channel with the help of an opticomechanical commutator with a periodicity on the order of the scan tracking; that is, about every 70 ms [2]. The comparatively slow deterioration of the reference emitter, which was about 10 per- cent during the year-long preflight adjustment period and during the first months of 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY l.l?c ~~li6aNO r orientation angles of the VOR's matrix in / I ~ r . ~ c~�"~ the instrument's system of coordinates-- l dtf�~~ M O"X"Y"Z"--as determined by its mounting qvf ~ ~y brackets; I'igure 1. Parameters determininy the the viewing angle ~ between the scanning scanning geometry. . rays corresponding to the first and last xey: 1. Line of flight elements of the lines of~acquired video in- 2. Scanning line formation. The projecting rays correspond- - ~ ing to the first and last elements of a linc dctermine the scanning plane 0"AB; angles ~j~, Y and 0, which determine the orientation of scanning plane O"AB in the 77 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY system O"X"Y"Z" (angle ~ characterizes the inclination of scanning plane 0"AB to the O"Z" axis of the system of coordinates of the instrument being tested; Y is the an- . gle between the plane 0"MS, which is perpendicular to O"AB and passes through O"Z", and the 0"Y" axis; 9 is the angle in the scanning plane between 0"M and the bisector of angle 0"AB) ; ' the longitudinal and transverse distortion of the images obtained (transverse dis- tortion dy is the image element displacement caused by divergence of the scanning beam O"L from scanning plane O"AB; longitudinal distortion is the i.mage element dis- placement along a line caused by divergence of the beam's actual seanning setup from the projected scanning law); the total scanning period T(the interval between registration of two elements of the same order on adjacent lines); the active scanning period Ta (the time interval.between registration of the first and last element on a single line). The lens's focal length and the dimensions and relative position of the VOR matrix's elements were measured by known methods before their installation in the instrument. All the other elements were determined for a functioning instrument with the help of a specially developed technique [2]. This technique is based on the possibility of forming a narrow light beam that moves in space, the registration of this beam by the MSS, and the determi.nation in an ex- ternal coordinate system of its position and the position of the investigated in- I strument's coordinate ~.:j~tem O"X"Y"Z". I ~ Angles V~, y and 8 are calculated on the basis of data from measurements of the directions of projecting beams O"A and 0"B in the O"X"Y"Z" coordinate system. In order to deteximine longitudinal and transverse distortion, in addition to the~meas- urement of the directions of O"A and 0"B there were measurements of the directions of beams corresponding to certain points on a line, and these data--with due consid- eration for the scanning law--were used as the basis for calculatinq the values of dx and dy corresponding to those points. An image line is formed in each zone of the spectrum, and these lines are arranged parallel to each other. In order to establish the relationship of the coordinates of line points obtained in different spectral zones, it i.s necessary to know the matrix of radiation receivers is oriented with respect to the line. If the matrix's characteristics are known, in order to determine its orientation elements it,is sufficient to know the coordinates of the elements that are the matrix's "coordinate marks" and the simultaneous angular position of the zonal scanning beams that cor- f respond to them. I ~ Since the VOR matrix is set immovably in the lens's focal plane, its position can be -i determined by a single parameter S, which is the angle between a scanning line and the symanetry of the matrix corresponding to that line. . ' Period T is measured for an unmoving light beam that is registered periodically by i the MSS. In order to measure active scanning Ta, the light beam is oriented in such a manner that it is received by the surveying equipment while surveying the ~ last element of a line. In this,case the.time interval is measured between signal ~ pulses, one of which corresponds to the initial el~ment of a line, while the second corresponds to the position of the last element of that line. 78 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 MUR OFFI('IA1. USE ONI.Y Z~~ y~~ Figure 2 depicts the layo~at of the instal- R lation that makes it possible to register ~l~ Kanu6pyeya Nayepumenb ~ Ncc 2~ eper?esu the beam s position at certain moments of cuzHVn time. The setup consists of an auto- Z ~ C3~ co2liraating .theodolite, a flat mirror with two degXees of fr~edom and the appropriate y goniometric attachments, a detector of the ~ . pulses arriving from the photoreceivers of X ~ the instrument being calibrated, and a. RamoxoanuNayuoNN ~a p~ y~ timer for recording the arrival of signals. (4) menBanum NNBuxamop nnocxoe uxn neco0 ~rning of the autocollx.mating theodolite aepxano (6~ ~nd the flat mirror makes it possible to X' I5~ change the direction of the light beam that . Figure 2. Layout of installation for is formed by the theodolite and enters the photogrammetric calibration of MSS's input, in connection with which the - opticoelectronic scanning systems. dimensions of the mirror and the relative Key: 1. MSS being calibrated positions o~ the instrument being calibrat- 2. Signal ed, the theodolite and the mirror insure 3. Timer thE formation of a bundle of beams that are 4. Autocollimating theodolite directed into the scanner's optical system 5. Flat mirror and cover its entire viewing field. The 6. Pulse detector discrete positions of the theodolite and _ the mirror that insure the entry of the light beam into the MSS are found, for different fixed positions of the scanning mirror, by visual observation in the theadolite of the illuminated elements of the VOR's matrix (in the~so-called static mode). In the operating instru~ment (in the dynamic mode), the moments the light beam is registered by the photoreceivers are reflected by the arrival of pulsed signals from them. The acquisition of a signal corresponding to a given line element is insured by the theodolite's and mirror's orientation search mode. The approximate orientation of the theodolite and mirro~ that insures the rapid finding of the given orientation in the dynamic mode, when the system calibration is carried out, is determined in the static mode. In the dynamic~mode, when a light beam strikes the scanner's field of view, two im- pulses are visible on the pulse detector, which visualizes the scanning of a line: the first is from the marker of the beginning of a line, while the second is from the measuring device. When a pulse appears on the detector, the orientation of the theodolite's beam, the mirror's plane and the time interval between the moments of registration of the initial pulse and the signal from the light beam zxe measured. In addition to these measurements, there is also coordinate correlation of'the mounting planes of the instrument being calibrated relative to the measuring de- - vice's coordinate system (OXYZ for the. autocollimating theodolite or O'X'Y'Z' for the mirror). Repeated measurements of each of the unknown parameters make i~t possible to evaluate the accuracy of the determinations that are made. Formulas for calculating these elements and their errors are presented in [3]. Experimental investigations of the photogrammetric characteristics of the "Fragment" multizonal scanning system were conducted on the basis of the technique explained above. The results of these investigations are presented in Table 1. Primary - 79 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONLY Table 1. Parameters of the "Fragment" Multispectral Scanning System Item Valtle of ~Par~ne~Cer AcCUracy . Viewing angle 7�35'34" +00'22" Orientation angles Y, V~ and e of scanning -0�48'36" +00'll" plane relative to MSS's system of co- 0�14'54" +00'~0" ordinates -0�22'42" +00'1Z" Angle ~ between a line and tize line of sym- metry of the VOR matrix's position -9�12'00" +00'05" Scanning period 76.7~ ms +0.055 ms - Active scanning time , 51.43 ms +0.059 ms TablP 2. Scanning Line Distortion Line Element Number Transverse Component Longitudinal Component 1 0.0 0.0 205 3.6 9�2 409 -0~7 10.8 614 0.5 9.5 819 -0.4 14.1 1,024 0.0 0.0 ~ processing of the video information acquired during the LKI of the "Fragment" MSS, which makes it possible to monitor the measurement of the last two parameters on board, indicates that the effect o= space surveyir~~3 conditions on the instrument's characteristics are insignificant. For instance, according to the LKI data the scanning p:riod is 76.78+0.039 ms and the active scanning time is 51.24+0.064 ms. Distortion values for six points on a line are presented in Table 2. The distortion values are given in fractions of an element of resolution. The er- ror in determining the transverse and longitudinal components of distortion was +0.3 and +0.7~of an element of resolution. Judging from the data in Table 2, the trans- verse compunent of distortion can be ignore.d., since in most cases it does no exceed - a single element of resolution. It is necessary to allow for the longitudinal com- ponent of distortion when the goal of precise photogrammetric processing of the ac- quired photographs is set. ~ In conclusion, let us mention that the results of the geometric calibration con- firmed the g~od quality of the production and assembly of the parts of the "Fragment" multizonal scanning sqstem that affect the geometric characteristics of the imagP that is formed. The data presented in Tables 1 and 2 can be used t~ cor- � rect acquired video information at the stage of its geometric transformation. BIBLIOGRAPHY Z. Avazeso~, G.A., Glazkov, V.D., and Tarnopol'svkiy, V.I., "Development of a Spe- cializecl OpticoelectroniG System for the Operation~l Collection of Multispectral Vi.deo Information About the Earth's Surface From an Artificial Earth Satellite," in "Mnogozonal'nyye aerokosmicheskiye.s"yemki Zemli" [MultizonaJ. Atrospace Sur- veys of the Earth], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1981, pp 57-76. 8U FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 - FOR OFFIC[A1, USE ONLY 2. Yurov, V.I., "Method for the Photogrammetric Calibration of Optical Scanning Sys- tems," Patent No 717534, 25 February 1980, OTKRYTIYA, IZOBRETENIYA, PROMYSHLENNYYE OBRAZTSY, TOVARNYYE ZNAKI, No 7, 1980. 3. Yurov, V.I., "Geometric Calibration of Surveying-Searching Scanning Systems," GEODEZIYA I KARTOGRAFIYA, No 2, 1979, pp 26-31. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 "~1746 m CSO: 1866/18 81 . FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.46.O:E,29.78 INVESTIG~TION OF CONDITIONS FOR SURVEYING OCEAN~S SIJRFACE IN 0.4-1.1 um BAND OF THE SPECTRUM � Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEI~II,I IZ KOSMOSA in Russiar~ No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ~eived 22 May 81) pp 82-89 . [Article by A.S. Selivanov, Yu.M. Gektin, A.S. Panfilov and A.B. FokinJ [Text] At the present time a great deal of attention is being devoted to the study of such objects and phenomena in the ocean as frontal zones, meanders, vortices�and I internal wavea, which exiet over almosC the entire rangP of spatial and temporal scales [1] . Systematic investigaticns of frontal zones by remote methods, using equi,pment in- stalled in aircraft and satellites, is being done primarily in the far-infrared band of the spectrum; that is, by obtaining images of thermal contrasts on the ocean's surface [2,3]. Analysis of these images makes it possible to observe the formation development processes of frontal zones, meanders and vortices in different areae of the ocean [4, 5] . Analogous inforniation can be obtained in the visible and near-infrared bands of the spectrum (from 0.4, 1.1 um}. Such observatior~s can be an essential supplement to the thermal images as far as.eliminating the effect of the atmosphere is concerned [6], as well as discovering front genesis processes that do not have aurface thermal contrasts. Besides this, radiometers functioning in the visible band of the spec- trum have (as a rule) higher spatial resolution, which makes it possible to atudy ~ the fine structure of such phenomena. ~ . ~ Until recently, observations of frontal zones in the visible and near-infrared bands I were of an episodic nature. The basic reason for this is that observatiors of~'such phenomEna with equipment intended primarily for investigatinq land areas are possi- ble only when certain observation conditions that are realized extremely rarel;~ are fulfilled. For a purposeful study.of them, it is necessary to have equipment that is specially oriented for th}s purpose. At the present time, however, there are no clearly formulated requirements for conditions for observing frontal zon~s and re- ~ quirements for observation equipment that emanate fr~m these conditions. Some of the first experimental surveying data in the visible und near-infrared barids of the sper.trum were obtained with a hand-held camera on baard the "Salyut-6" orbi- tal station [7]. Only approximate information relative to the conditions for ob- taining these ghotographs was available, since the conditions were not set specially - 82 FOR ~OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR UF'FICIAI. USE ONLY and were not studed with the necessary degree of reliability. Therefore, a series of projects for the making of analogous observations with automatic satellites, air- - planes and ships were carried out. "Meteor"-series satellites were used for survey- ing with low- and medium-resolution multizonal scanning equipment operating in the 0.5-1.1 l~m band that had spatial resolution of 1 km and 240 m for viewing belts of 2,000 and 1,400 km, respectively.[8,9]. Figures 1-3 [not reproduced] are quite typ- ical images of the ocean surface, showing meanders, vortices an3 internal waves. Analysis of the information that was acquired made it possi.ble to determine the op- timum conditions for observing frontal zones, as well as to advance a number of hy- potheses concerning the nature of the observed optical phenomena. K~% I[ _ % 60 I ~ I!! \ ~ ~ 50 ~ % \ � % / ~ 40 ~ / ~ % / ~ ~ ~ 30 ` / ~ ~ ~ ; ZO . ~ ; - ~ IO l ' . ~ 0 i i ~ - _ -40 -d0 -20 -f01 ~ f0 ZO d0 4~ ' ~ _ ~ 8~ dtd . \ / 20 ~ / \ ~ . ~ . Figure 4. Dependence of magnitude~of contrast on the angular distance to the center of a light spot for Zo = 50�: I. experi.mental curve plotted from aerial surveying data; II. theoretical curve; III. satellite data. First of all, it was established that the maximum contrasts (K = L~,x - Lmin~~anax~ where L is the object's brightness) on a water surface are observed in the arQa,of a patch of direct sunlight. All the images of contrasting formations on the water's surface that are seen in the photographs are clearly visible at no more than 30-40� along the azimuth from the center of a light spot. Analogous results a~re obtained ~ in surveys of sliki [Probably oil slicksJ in the area of a patch of sunlight made from airplanes (regardless of the nature of the slicks' formation). However, it should be mentioned that for large observation angles from the center of a light spot (more than 30�) the contrasts on the surface do not disappear, but remain con- stant for all azimuthal angles at a lE~:~el of 5-7 percent. Figure 4 shows the exper- imental dependence of the magnitude of cor~trast K on the azimuthal deviation ee of the sighting direction from a spot of light's geometric center, as derived from the results of surveying done from an airplane and a"Meteor" satellite. , The dependence of the amount of contrast on the sighting angle S, as measured from the vertical, was determi.ned e.xperimentally with the help of photographs made from an airglane at different Sun heights. Figure 5 shows the resu'lts obtained for ob- se~~vatior_s of the central part of a patch of light and for an area located in an 83 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I?sl;/. � ~ 20 f0 ~ ~ D f0 20 J0. 40 30 60 70 $0 90 p' Figure 5. Dependences of absolute magnitude of contrast ~K~ on sighting angle I. for observations of the central part of a patch of light; II. for an azimuthal angle of about 120� from the direction to the center of the patch. - azimuthal direction of 120� relative to the direction to the patch. From Figure 5 - it is obvious that the maximum values of K are seen for angles S ti 40�. 1f, . 40 " .30 .20 f0 ~ ~ Z 3 4 5 6 7 Y,M~S ' Figure 6. Depencience of magnitude of contrast for the area of a light s,pot on the velocity of the low-level wind. The velocity of the wind near the surface and the choice of the plane of polariza- tion of the radiation during observations have a considerable effect on contrast in an image. As the wind speed.increase, contrasts decrease gradually and begin to disappear at speeds of 5-7 m/s (Figure 6). Rotating the polarization plane during observations through an angle o~ 90� relative to the plane with K~X also leads to a considerable decrea~e in contrast. As tY,e result of an analysis of the images that have been obtained, a weakly ex- pressed spectral selectivity of the observed phenomena in the investigated band of wavelengths has been established. Figure 7 depicts the dependences of the amount of contrast of surface formations on the wavelength, as pJ_otted from sateilite and air- craft observation data: Although an insignificant drop in the magnitude of the con- trasts in the infrared band is visible in Figure 7, it does not go beyond the limits nf ineasurement accura~y. 84 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024035-6 N'OR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY x,�% 60 - 30 1 40 JO 10 I L r i ~ 1! f0 ' . _L_ ~ 0,4 0,5 0, 6 0,7 0, B 0,9 f,0 1,f ~,iu M . Figure 7. Dependence of magnitude of contrast on the spectral area of ob- servation: I. aerial surveying from altitude H= 6 km; S2. satel~.ite ob- servations from H= 650 km; III. ship surveying from H= 12 m. Observations made in the area of a patch of light--particularly the nonselectivity of the contrasts right up to the near-infrared band (for water this is an area of total absorption) and the polarization effects--make it possible to suggest that frontal zone observations are possible because of the surface manifestation of vari- ous dynamic processes. The contribution of radiati~~n coming from under the water's surface is so small that in the area of a patch of light it can be ignored complete- lyl. Let us discuss the following model of observed phenomena: the contrasts on an image of a water surface are formed because of differences in the spectrum of the wave ac- tion, which moduZate the observed brightness field; differences in the wave action spectrum are caused by the interaction of wind-caused surface wave action with sub- surface dynamic processes. 5uch interaction is quite well known for internal waves and nonuniform current~,s [10-12], it being the case that waves measuring from 1-2 to 20-30 cm long play the basic role in these processes. As an example, let us compute the magnitudes of the contrasts �ormed during the interaction of wind-caused wave action with waves. In order to do this we will use the functions of the distribution of surface slc.pes because of wind ve- locity [13,14]. The brightness of the surface in the area of a patch of sunlight can then be represented as follows [15]: oe'., . - ~ L = const rezp. ( 2v' ~ ~LnPII ~a) -4- LpPv~Q~, ~ ~ 1~ L o where Ln, I,p, p~, pp = brightness and ref~ection factor for direct solar radiation lIt is necessary to mention that outside the area df a light spot, where the con- trasts do nat exceed 5-7 percent, observed phenomena do not have to be entirely of a surface nature: manifestations of such factors as the color of the water, turbidi- ty, bottom relief and so on are possible there. 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and solar radiation scattered by the sky; Q~ = dispersion of the surface slopes; = angul:~r deviatian of the sighting direction from the patch's geometric center;, const = a constant allowing for the geometric observation conditions. The relation- ship of the dispersion of the marine surface's slopes during interaction with internel waves ~2 and without them v0 is determined with the formula [15] ~ Q' = voa ezp f R C~, ~ 2~ L where . R=- 5,ilg ( ~ 1~- 6,47; ~ i V= wind velocity; C= phase velocity of the internal wave; U= orbital velocity of the particles. Image contrast K=(L - Lp)/L~, where Lp and L are the brightness of a surface "un- disturbed" and "disturbed" by an internal wave, can then be calvulated with the formula exp ~ZQ~ 6� exp ( ZQ~ 1+ I nPn ~Pa - Pv) K = \ ~ . LPPa eX ( ~e' (3) Lnpu P 2Qaa) When evaluating the value of I,ppp~L~p.~ we will take into consideration only the scattered sky radiation (index p) near the Sun. This is correct for an analysis of the reflected radiation in the ar~a of a patch of light, since scattered radiation in this area is considerably brighter than in other parts of the sky and is reflect- ed from the water's surface in the seme directions as the direct radiation (index ~r ) . The experimental value is ~/L~ ti 3 3 L16], while according to the results pub- lished in [17], p/p~ ti 6( or a Sun zenith distance Zo ti 50�), so that ~'p pp/L~p.~ ti ti 1.8 _2. .�ubstituting the average internal wave parameters ~10,11,15) ~1 = 7.5� and R~~/C) _-0.53 when V= 3 m/s into (3), we can calculate the magnitudes of the contrasts. Figure 4 shaws the theoretical dependence of K on ~9, as well as the ex- perimental data. The insignificant 3ifferences between the experimental data and the theoretical cal- culations can be Px,~lained by the incomplete allowance for sky-scattered radiation, as well as the averaging of the parameters used for the internal waves. From the experimental data (Figure 4) it follows that the phenomenon of contrast inversion (the value of the contrast changes its sign) is observed near the center of a light spot. In the images that have been obtained it is seen as a change in the bright- ness of different areas: dark areas in the center of the spot ("undisturbed" by internal waves) become light at the edge aad the reverse pattern is seen for "dis- turbed" areas. This phenomenon is explained by the differPnt distribution of - brightness for "disturbed" and "undisturbed" zone. Figure 8 shows these distribu- tions, as calculated with formula (1), in relative units. Contrast inversion point ~9~ can be found by equating the numerator of expression - (3) to zero and ignoring the effect of scattered radiation. We then obtain 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY L ~ 1 1 0,5 ~ . -d0 -20 -f0 0 f0 20 d0 d6' Figure 8. Relative distribution of b~ightness L in a patch of light as a function of the angular distance ~9 to its center for two areas of a sur- face: I. "disturbed" by an internal wave; II. "undisturbed" by an internal wave. A9os _ 21n(QOIQ) QoaQ~. (4) QO1 _ Q9 For the parameters determined previously, ~9p = 8.7�, which is extremely close to the experimental value. � Thus, the good coincidence of the experimental and model relationships confirms the correctness of :.~he chosen model and the correctness of the statement that frontal zones, meanders, vortices and internal waves are seen 'in the trisible and near- xnfrared bands because of their surface effects. The material presented in this article makes it possible ~o state that the effective observation of dynamic processes in th~~ ocean is possible in the visible and near- infrared bands of the spectrum, in connection with w?~ich: it is necessary to conduct the survey in the area of a patch of sunlight, where the . contrasts reach their maximum valuzs; maximum contrast values are seen for zenith 3istances of the Sun and sighting angles of ti 40�; the~width of the survey's spectral band is of no substantial importance, since the observed phenomena do not have clearly expressed spectral selectivity; contrasts on the surface disappear when the surface wind velocity exceeds 5-7 m/s. - BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Fedorov, K.N., and Kuz'mina, N.P., "Oceanic Fronts," in "Itogi nauki i tekhniki. Ser. Okeanologiya" [Results of Science and Technology: Oceanography Series], Moscow, VINITI [All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information], Vol 5, 1979, pp 4-44. 2. Novogrudskiy, B.V., Sklyarov, V.Ye., Fe3orov, K.N., and Shifrin, K.S., "Izuc~teniye okeana iz kosmosa" [Studying the Ocean From Space], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Gidrometeoizdat, 1978, 56 pp. 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE'0?NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFIC'IAi. USE ONLY 3. Stevenson, R.E., and Scally-Power,: P., "World-Wide Oceanic Fronts From Satel- lites," EOS--TRANS. AMER. GEOPHYS. UNION, Vol 58, No 9, 1977, 6 pp. 4. Doblar, R.A., and Cheney, R.E., "Observed Formation of a Gulf Stream Cold Core Ring," J. PHYS. OCEANOGR., Vol 7, No 6, 1977, pp 944-946. 5. Harris, T.F., and Legeckis, R., "Satellite Infrared Images in the Agulhas Cur- rent System," DEEP SEA RES., Vol 25, 1978, pp 543-548. 6. "Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Observation of Sea Water Color," Ispa, Italy, Commission of the European Communities, 1976, 61 pp. ~ 7. Grechko, G.M., Grishin, G.A~, and Tolkachenko, G.A., "Observations of Visible Manifestations of Ocean Dynamics From the 'Salyut-6' Orbital Station," IS5LEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMO5A, No 4, 1981, pp 5-10. 8. Selivanov, A.S., Chemodanov, V.P., Suvorov, B.A., and Narayeva, M.K., "Optico- ~ mechanical Scaruiers for Observing the Earth," TEKHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, No - 6, 1978, PP 18-22. 9. Selivanov, A.S., Tuchin, Yu.M., Ovodkova, S.G., and Seregin, V.A., "Television C~mplex for Experimental Satellites," TEI~iNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, No 3, 1977, pp 43-45. 10. Hughes, B.A., "The Effect of 7nternal Waves on Surface Wind Waves," J. GEOPHYS. RES., Vol 83, No C1, 1978, pp 455-469. 11. Hughes, B.A., and Grant, H.L., "The Effect of Internal Waves on Surface Wind Waves," J. GE~PHYS. RES., Vol 83, No C1, 1978, pp 443-454. 12. Basovich, A.Ya., and Talanov, V.I., "On the Transformation of Short Surface Waves in Heterogeneous Currents," IZVE5TIYA AN SS;R. FAO, Vol 13, No 7, 1977, pp 766-773. 13. Cox, C., and Munk, W.H., "The Measurement of the Roughness of Sea Surface From Photographs of the Sun`s Glitter," J. OPT. S~C. AMERICA, Vol 44, No 11, 1954, pp 838-850. ~ 14. C~x, C., and Munk, W.H., "Statistics of the Sea Surface Derived Frcm Sun Glit- ter," J. MARINE RES., Vol 13, No 2, 1y54, pp 198-227. 15. Luchinin, A.G., and Titov, V.I., "On the Possibility of the Remote Optical Re- gistration of the Parameters of Internal Waves According to Their Manifesta- tions on the Ocean's Surface," IZVESTIYA AN SSSR. FAO, Vol 16, No 12, 1980, pp 1284-1290. 16. Makarova, Ye.A., and Kharitonov, A.V., "Raspredeleniye energii v spektre Solntsa i solnechnaya postoyannaya [Distribution of Eii~rgy in the 5un's Spectrum and the Solar Constant], Moscow,.Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1972, 350 pp. - 17. Mullar.iaa, Xu.-A. R., "Atlas opticheskikh kharakteristik vzvolnovannoy poverkhnosti morya [Atlas of Optical Characteristics of an Agitated Sea Sur- face], Tartu, Estonian SSR Academy of Sciences, ~964. 88 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 18. "A New Experiment in Investigating the ~arth From Space," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMUSA, No 1, 1981, pp 5-6. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Lemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/18 - ~D 89 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020035-6