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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY JPRS L/10268 20 January 1982 West Euro e Re ort p p - cFOUO 3is2~ ~z. Fg~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATIOM SERVICE FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504020037-4 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from ne~s agency - transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are tzanslated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. - Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- ~ - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. , Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GO~IERNING OWNERSHIP OF = MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540020037-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/10268 20 January 1982 - WEST EURGPE REPORT - (FOUO 3~ 82) CONTENTS ECONOMIC ITAL�Y Problems, Experiences of Regional Innovation P~licy (Cristiano Arto~�ellx, Franco Momigliano; MICROS, Nov 81) 1 POLITIC.~I, I~TERNATIONAL AFFAIRS ~ Mauroy, G~hers See Need for European Defense Pillar (3erome Dumoulin; L'F~RESS, 4 Dec 81) 9 FEDERAL RII'UBLIC OF GERMANY Bernhard Vogel on Budget, Coalition, Peace Movement _ (Bernhard Vogel Interview; STERN, 3 Dec 81) 11 Boerner Stands r'irm c.~_ r^rankfurt Airport Construction ~ (Rudolf MuelTer, Peter hvebel; STERN, 3 Dec 81) 1~+ CSU Favors Expul~ion of Peace Researcher Mechtersheimer . {Wolf Perdelwitz; STERN 3 Dec 81) 17 SPAIN Conflict Between Carrillo and Basque Communists Detailed (CAMBIO 16, 9 Nov 81) .................................o........ 20 ~ Lerchundi vs. Carrillo, by Angel~and Gorka Landaburu Single Class Consciousness, by Ramiro Pinilla - a - [III - WE - 150 FOUO] - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500420037-4 ~ , ECONOMIC ' ITAI'Y PFABLEMS, EXPERIENCES OF REGIONAL INNOVATION POL7CY Milan MICROS in English Nov gl pp 80-96 [Article by Cristiano Antonell~ and Franco Momigliano] [Text ] 1. 'fechnology Transier aRd Regiona6 Economic place spontaneously in some industrial s;~stems of - Development small ftrms weth strong characterisiics of spatiai spe- ' . cialisation, territorial concentration and horizontal Technology transFer is a dynamic process in which in.egration. _ innovations are diffiused and disseminated across the In these cases technolo~~ transfer was a major industrial systen:. facto~ in the development of those industrial districts. Technology transfer takes into accoun: ~t least A concise review of major empirical findings shows three different forms of diffusion: how technology transfer, localisation factors and ~ - intraindustrial hor.zontal, i.e. traditional dif- previous industrial structures interacted in an evolu- fusion of innavations among firms, active and in com- tionary process. ' petition on the same markets, through imitation; R. Prodi [16] and [12] studied for over ten years - intraindustrial vertical, i.e. diffusion of innova- the intruduction and diffusior~ of some process inno- tions among firms active in the same markets, but vations in the industrial district of Modena. In this through co-operation; case there were !ow fixed-capital requirements and - interindustrial, i.c. diffusion of innova.tions high productivity levels; the area was specialised in from one scctor to thc ather through disseminatic~n the production of bricks and building materials. Con- and contamination of farmerly remote product and sequently in the 60s and 70s the whole of industrial proecss technc;i~i~ies by cxternul borrowirig. district experienced a fasi growtt~ with the biRh of Teclinology transfeP is a strongly space oriented many small firms and became a strong center for the evcnt. Mostly ditiusion of innovatians takes place in production of building materials with a consistent � thc context c~f eccmomic sp,icc; it is an aspect of ex- flow of exports towards Europe. ternal ecanomics and devclops through personal and Studies on technological changes in the textile commercial rclations, manpower interfirm mobility, sector in the late sixties emphasise the strategic role e1C, of process innovation in textile machinery and the - radical changes in the inputs and in the intermediary products. ~ 1.1. Sume� Expc�ri~~ncr.r u/ 5ponlunrutn~ Terhnnlogy ln this case technology transfer made it possible 7'ran.sJer for pre-existing small, firms to survive though the industrial intra-and-interfirm organization of the d~- - ~ In the It~~li~?n expcricnce technology trunsfer to~k vision of labour had radical:y changed. [YO] P. Marit' observed the impact of new cutting tech- nologies on an oid and traditional activiry such as the _ � Paper presented ac chc Workshop on Regional Innova� eXtraCtiOD of marble in the Pisa surroundings. He iion Policy, Sophia Antipoli~ Is~ and 2nd Junc 1981, for later deveioped it into a theoretical model, i.e. the thc Six Countries Programme on Aspects of Governement subst'ltution of vertical with horizontal integration f'olicy~ towards Innova~~or,. and the increasing complementarity of external and 1 FO.P. aRF'iCiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020037-4 FOR OFFICIA.i, USE O;~LY internal economies of scale. ~ 17 ~ and circumstances in which technology transfer was According to F. Dei Monte, the introduction of a by-product of more complex economic relations. process innovations in ineermediary products was at Subcontracting on one side and regional clusters of the base of the growth of the furniture sector nearby small spe~ialised firms are in fact two special cases . P::saro. (6J of auton~.^.ious technology transfer which were not Similar processes were observed in the northern able to spread a naturally D to the whole economic regions of the country, even if the industrial structure system. eti~as net the same. The small firms in the above mentioned cases were independent undertakings, with full entrepreneurial 2� Regional [nnovation Policy and the Technology autonomy, working with~;n a fram~work of spatial Tra~~sfer in Italy cooperation and integration. It was possible to find ~'he Italian innovation policy tries to include: firms specialised just in a limited phase of the oro- ductive process of one ittm. T'hey sold their pro- a) the strategic role of technology transfer to _ ducts on competitive m~:rkets with many sellers and regional economic development, with special refe- many buyers. [17] rence to the upportunities offered by technology In the northern regions of the country we have transfer to sustain the growth of small firms in less clear cases of large firnis subcontracting small firms industrialised parts of the country; with ~~ertical diffusion of innovations ~5) b) the limits in the spreading of autonomous tech- ~ In this respect empirical evider, given by the nology transfer with the exception of partic~~lar in- machine tool industry. Enrietti et al. analysed in dustrial districts. [9] and ~ i J depth the iatroduction and diffusion o~ innovations In other words the Italian innovation pc.licy is in the engineering sectcr nrarby Turin, with special looking for new criteria and instruments to sustain reference to the relationship between large firms sub- techn~logical transfer and to reproduce it where contracting small ones. (7 J market forces have been unable to make it ta~~e off. It would therefore appear that territorial concen- [ 15] tration and spatial specialisation played an important A~irst re.sult v/ this search was that a/ew exper:~� role in maximising the rates of diffusior. ane~ disse~i?in- realised a policy to sustain technology transfer largely _ ation of new technologies. coincides with a regional innovation policy both be- Special features of industrial structures and market v/ it,s aims and of its inslruments. [3], [4] and � Forms i.e. small size of firms, a number af ~ perfect =