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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10274 ' 22 January 1982 - l1SSR ~Re ort _ p MATERIAl5 SCI~t~CE AND METAlLl1RGY ~ ~ CFOUO~ 1f82) - FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST' INFORMATIOIV ~ERVICE FOR I~FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 - NOTE JPRS publications contain informatian primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other character..stics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt) in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phont~tically or transliterated are: enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parent'~eses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in contexi. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of ar.~ item ariginate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The cantents of this publication in no way represent the pol.i- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. ~ COPYR~GHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP aF~ MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATIUN - OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420043-7 FOR O:~FICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/~0274 ~ 22 January 1982 - USSR REPORT MAT~RIALS SCIENCE AND METALLURGY (~OUO 1/82) CONTENTS COMPOSI`PE MATERIAIS - Composite Materials 1 a ' POWDER METALLURGY Resea.rch in Technology of Meta1 Powders and Sintered Materials 8 REFRACTORY MATERIALS RefrE~ctories Industry Growth in llth Five-Year Plan 15 Hi~h--Temperature Heat-Insulating Materials 22 M1 ~ CELLANEOUS , Mate:rials Science and Shipbuilding 31 - a- [III - USSR - 21G S&T FOUO] APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COI~OSITE MATERIALS ~ UDG 669.71 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Moscaw ;~OMPOZITSIONNYYE MATERIALY in Russian 1981 (si~{ned to preas 7 Apr 81) . pp 3-4, 288-292 (Foreword and tPble of contenta from book "Composite M.aterials", edited by A. I. Manokhin, editor-in-chief, corresponding member, USSR Academy of Sciences, Izdatel'st~o "Nauka", 2350 copies, 305 pagea] [Text~ Foreword ~ - '1'he creation of new composite mate~ials with fib~ous, la.mina.ted, and th9.nly-dis- ' persed hardening which have increased physico-mecha.n3c.a1 and special ph~rsicp- chemica.l properties must lead to a qualita.tive ;,ump in ~cientific and tE;chnical progres:; not only in the aviation, space and shipbuildizig sectors of te.~:hnology but also in machine b~uilding~ power, the electronic, electrica.l enginee:cing~ and radio engineering industries, transporta.tion~ con~tructian~ and other s~~ctors of the nationa.l economy. ~uring the past five years definite success has been achieved in our country in the area of developing the theory and technology for o o'~a.ining compcsite materials and reinforcing agents~ the theory of heterogeneous nedia anc~ optimwa z~ei:iforce- r~ent, the physics and mechanics of strain ha.rdening and composite matez~ial strength with the c�~oad spectrum of structure~ properties, and areas of' use. If at the beginning of the 1~70's super-strong~ sturdy and light compo:~ite mater- - ials strengthened with fibers were ca.lled the materials of the future, then ~hey _ are now already today's materials. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OF~'[~1AL USE ONLY r.unber oi questior.s have been worT:ed up concerning the physico-chemica.l ~heory - cf the contact interaction of :natrix and reinforcine naterials, principles for ~he selectiori of plasticizing, t~.rrier and technological coa.tirgs on reinforc- ing ~.terials and the technolobi ca1 methocL�, of applying then, and new efficient ~rocesses for obta.ining cor~posite materials. A large amount of wor:~ has been = carried out on studying the mechanisms of cold hardening and defoxmatior.~ and the destructioti of fibrous composite ma.terials under va.rious loa.d conditions. a nu.uber of fibrous composite materials have been developed polymer, me+ra.llic, ca.rbon, and cara.mic ria.trices~ strengthened with boron~ carbon and metallic fibers, laa~ninate3 ar.d 3ispersion-stren~thened Thread-li :e coupled with con~vinuous fibers have been used in composite :naterials wi+4h a polymer mztrix. - TY:ey havz organized the indus~rial production of ooron and various carbon and organic fibers, fabrics an~ ta.pes, tungsten, molybdentun a.r~d other fibers, ~he production o~' several i+.ems of thread-like crystals, the experimenta.l industrial produc'cion of silicon ca.rhtde fibers ~ high-strer.gth meta.llic firzrs ~ the experi- menta.l industrial pro3uction of semi-finished composite material products by the ~la;,ma spraying nethod, etc. J The industrial technology ha.s been worked out for the production of sheets a.nd - some other semi-finished p~oducts of dispersion-st~�e:~,:~thened compo~ite materials, ~ibrous (al;iminum-boron fiber) and polymer com-~nsite ma.terials~ the experimental i~dustrial technology o~ obta.ining thin ~~ils i'rom deformed alloys by rolling under super-plast~city conditions. Intensive worIs is going on to obtain and study the properties of comnosite materials w'~th directed eutectic structures. _�,esearch and the deve~opment and production of a number of new compostte raa.ter- ials with special physico-chemical properties, and also refractories, ant ceramics, etc., have been significasrtly developed. Glass, boron and ca.rbon plastics, caxbo~,-ca~bon type materials, dispersion- stren;thened ~aetal ceramic ma.terials, etc. ~ are already in wide use toba.;~. Production has recently been organized of composite .;iaterial sc;mifinished pro- ducts on a meta.llic of the aluminum alloy-boron and ~borsik fiber type, in the for~ of plasma uni-strips which are then used to manufacture pipes and cylir,- drica.l ca.sings by hot moulding and sheets by pa.ek rolling. Technologica.l design efforts necessary to widen the production of semifilzished ~roducts and fioers for their reinforcement are presently being carried out be.sed on this k~roduction. ~ '~e iJ3S'~ academy o~ aciences is pa.ying great attention to the oreaniza.tion and coordina.tion of funciamenta.l ar!d applied research on the problem of composite etaterials in the country. The materials of th~ 4th All-Union Conference orgai:tzed ~y the 3cientific Council of the USS ~ Aca.demy of Sciences on Construction r;ater- ials for i+ew Technology, the Scientific Council of the USS3 Academy of Sciences on Synthetic i~la.terials, the Institute of t~etallurgy imeni A. Baykov of the U53~ ~cademy of Sciences, and l~he All-Union Grder of Lenin Scientific 3esearch Insti- tute of Aviation t~.a.terials, published in this collection~ sum up the work on :::is - question up to 19~ and outline the paths for its further deve:~opment. _ (Aca.demician I~ . M. ~avoronkov) 2 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420043-7 - i FOR OFFiCIAL USE aNLY , Table of Contentss _ ~ Preface...._...;...,...e 3 Chapter 1. General Problems 5 - I. Fridlya.nder--Properties of Composite Ma.terials and the ~ffective- 5 ness of 'I'r:eir Use i~:: :Y~. Shorshorov--Physico-Chzmic,~.l Interactiori o~ Components in Com- posite I' 11 I. Fortnoy--trodern Tendencias in the llevelopment of C~mposite - :Za.terials 18 G. i~. Gunyayev--~esign of High-Module Polymer Composites with rixed Properties .................................................e............. 24 G. P. ':4ashins:caya~ J. Perov--Composite Tlaterials i'sased on Organic r^ibers z9 D. P-;. ;',arpinos~ L. I. Tuchinskiy--High-Temperature Composite i;aterials... 3K - V. I. i~:osti:cov, S. A. ::olesni'cc~v--Carbon-Carbon Composite ~Iaterials...... ~0 V. P. N:a~eyev, Pl. P. Yershov--Princi~,les for the Construction oi Articles out of Composite Ma.terials...~..........��������������~~���~���~�~~-�~~'�� Chapter 2. :~einforcing Fib~rs SO DI. I:h. Shorshorov, S. M. Sawateyeva., T. A. Chernyshova, L. I. riobeleva, A. A~ Pletyuskikin~ L. M. Ivanova, T. N. Caatings on ~a.rbon Fibers 50 - A. il. Varen:{ov, ~I. I. :~~ostikov~ Ye, I. P4ozzhu~tY~in, 'l. i. 3himanyu~s-- ~ orna.tion of Silicon Carbide or Tita.nium Coatings on the 3urface of Car- ~ bon Gra.phite Fibers...........~............~ V. :ilin, V. S. Dergunova.~ Shorshorov~ ~l: I. Antipov~ V. M, _ ::rivtsun, A. 5. ::otel~cin--Study of Various Earrier Coatings on Ca.rbon Fibers..~ 57 A. r;. Tsirlin, r. Zhigach~ Ye. A. Shchetilina~ i4. Ba.laguro`ra, - G. PosoIchina, V. Obolenskiy-�-I~iorphologica.l Features of 'oron .~ila- ments bi A. Y4. Tsirlin, V. 1~. ?,le~chin, 3. V. ~ColesniehenIco~ R. S. Yusutsov-- Influence of ~efects of Boron Fiber on Its Strength in the ~a.sic State ~ and in the Composite Ma.terial AD1-V 66 _ ;4. Shorshorov, S. rI. Sawatayeva, T. A. C7.ernyshova., V. P. alekhin-- - Problems of Developing Coatings on Fibers fo_r the i~einforcement of Com- posite rla.terials ~0 G. 'Is. ;4ostovoy~ L. P. ::obets, ,V. i~. Frolov~ I,. Pl. 1'imoshin~a, Ye. L. f~7a.rtynova.--Influence of a Test Temperature on the Stability of Caxbon I'iber :4echanica.l Properties 73 ~ . ~ 3 . ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY pa,~;e :~1. ~:h. Shorshorov~ L. V. :Latinova, V. r.~;attuylov, V. V. ::ud-tinov, ~ 'l. 3. Sokolov, a. i~?. Tsirlin, T. i1, iseplyayeva--~tudy of the ~ha.ra.cter and ~ynalnics of the Change of 3zren~th of Boxon and Bcrsiic r i oers in the (8 Process of Plasma ~praYing� Heating Up, and ~'lastic ~ieforma.tion.......... B. I. 5emenov, 5. N. .:ruglov, Ye. F. Tishchenkova.--Study of 3trengtih and ~estructi~n ~Jhen 3tretching '~lires 3einforced with Steel and Foron Fibers. 82 Chapter 3. Composite I;ateria :s with P-letallic t~~a.trices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 V. I. nosti~tov, V. I. Antipov~ V. ~1. :'sivtsun, Yu. I. I~:osheZ~v, Ye. F., 3. ~I. Savvateyeva, Ye. ;~i. Tatiyevs~sa.ya--3eseaxch on ;�:oisten- ing Ca.rbon I~1a.terials with t~etallic Matrix t~ielts p9 N. t1. Vaxet~cov~ `J. I. :ostikov~ Ye. I. I~Iozzhukhin~ V. T. 3himanyuk-- aesearch on rloistening Caxbo~ Fibers with Aluminum i~Ielts with Active Ad- mixtures and an Analysis of Eorder Zones ..............s.................. 92 V. I. Antipov, V. M, tsivtsun, V. I, i:osti~ov~ V. S. ~ergunova., B. A, ~:artashkin, A. S. Kotelkin--Features of Gbta.ining ~~uminum-Caxbon Fiber - Composite Material from Plasma Semifinished Products by the Hot ~orm- ing ~Iethod 99 V. F. Stroganova, L. A. GorodetsT~a.ya., Ye. M. Toka.r'--i~!agnesium-Boron S~rstem Composite Ma~erial............~ ..................o................ 103 't. ri. Chut~exov, S. Ye. Salibekov, A. N. Gribkov, V. F. Eatrakov, L. V. - Grachev, V. S. ::omissaxova, 3. S. Den.~sov, G. I. Bolgova., :l. V. Yegorova.~ S. N. Sadovni'_cov--~eseasch on the Operating Characteristics of Yi:A-~ Eoron Aluminum Composite Ma.terial 106 V. V. Sakharov~ 5. Ye. Salibekov, I. V. c~omanovich, V. '.r. S~edkov~ T. 3. rlikolayeva., A. A. '4ukaseyev--Intera.ction of 3oron Fibers with Aluminum and Its Alloys in the Diffusion '+lelding Process 111 - B. A. Aref' yev, A. V. Gur' y~v, N. F. Gorina~ A. id. Gri~cov, N. t4. Yepikhina., I. N. Nosko--nesearch on the Structure and Properties of 3oron-Aluminum Sheets Obta.ined by the Hot Rolling i^.ethod............��.�. 115 M.~ ::h. Shorshorov, 'J. A. :�.olesnichenko, A. I. Anan'yev~ A. S. ::a.myshkov, I~I. G. Gorelov~ V. M, Godin, V. V. ~rutnev, I. t1. Terent'yev, B. Ye. Dolgalev--P~i~chani~cal Properties of Longitudi~na.lly 3einforced Pipes t�;ade of Aluminum-Boron Fiber Cotaposite Ma.terial 123 V. M. Beletskiy, C. A. ::rivov, r;. I. Yatseri~co~ Y. V. ::udinov~ Yu. a. Galkin, L. V. ::atinova., T. Pt. Tseplyayeva.--assessment of the ~iechanica.l 126 Froperties of a Unidirectiona.l ~'ibrous t4aterial on a i4eta.llic tZa.trix..... V. `l. Trutnev, I. M. Terent'ysv, V. I. Pota.pov~ L. I. I~;a.ksimova, T. Vasil'yeva., V. V. Shebe.nov, V. t~I. Godin, V. I. Antipov--Pressir.g of Aluminum-Boron Composite Ma.terials Under Conta.ct Fusing Conditions....... 130 V. V. ::udinov~ 3. A. Aref'yev, Yu. A. Gal:sin, V. I. i:alita--Plechanica.l Properties of a.n A~-1 i~lat.rix Obtained by Plasma 3pra.ying. . . . . . . - - . . � � . � � � 133 ~ FOR ~OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 F4R OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~a~e A. I. :{olpashnikov, Xe. A. Pavlov, V. A. ~iselev, Ye. V. Shixyayev, I. `t. ::ocheshkov--Research on the Process of Gbtainin,~ Curved Frofiles fro~ Bo~on-~luminu.~n 136 A. S. Tixhonov, V'. F. I~axii.~ylov~ B. A. Aref'yev, A. V. for Ca.lculating the Deforn~ation Fara.meters of Fibrous Composite I~ta.terials 140 A. i1. Gritakov~ V. P. ~olov'yev, V. I. Smirnov, Yu. N. Chichkov--Some r^eatures of the Deformation of r^ibrous Composite Mu.terial~ with a t4eta.llic Matrix 144 D. :~1. ::a.rpinos~ V. i,~. ::adyrov~ V. P. Aioroz--Strength of Composites 3ased on Aluminum during Cyclica.l Loadi.ngs 147 V. F. ~tanuylov~ r4. A. Tolsta.;fa., M. G. i~Iukr.ina.~ M. P. Gryunval'd-- Research on the Corrosive 3ehavior of Boron Aluminwn Gbta.ined by Rolling 150 V. N. t4eshcheryakov, I. A. Popov~ V. I. Zha.m~nova--Interactior. of Com- ponents in Fibrous Composite Yia.terial Ba.sed on rtT50 Alloy ~einforced with Tungsten 'rlirps 154 V. N. P~eshcheryakov, V. I. Eaka.rinova, K. D. Ma.~chmudov, A. a. Alek- sa.ndrov~ rl. I. Faustov--Features of Obtaining Tit, um-i~Iolybdenum t~lire Composite P~a.terial by 3olling in a Vacuwn 1S8 ~ D. ;~I. L:arpinos, T. Ya. :~osolapova, S. P. Listomichaya, V~ N. Bala~h- ~ - nina, V. P. Dzeganovskiy, V. Ye. Pria.tsera.--~eseaxch on `4he Interaction of , Ca.rbide with Chrome at High Temperatures 162 V. I. Antipov, r.f. M. Rytal'chen'to, V. S. Sedykh~ A. N~ :~riv~ntsov, I. A. Solov'yev--~eseaxch on the 3tructure and Properties of yihrous Composite iKaterial with a Matrix from an Al1oy 3ased on Plickel Strength- - ened With Tungsten afire..~ 166 'd. t~. Belets:tiy, G. A. I.rivov~ V. t~iel'r~ikov, D. N. Tsapenko~ I, P4. - iomashko, L. V. :'atinova., V. J. ::udinov, L. t1. Ustinov--Strength of aluminum-Boron Com~osite Material ~oints 0 btained Through :ressure Conta.ct Spot Weldir~ 170 , I. P~. F`ridlya.nder, V. P~I. Beletskiy, G. A. Griv~v, I. M. ~omas~hko~ V. F. atroganova~ S. A. Yudina.~ N. A. ~:onovalova.--iJse of N;eta.llic Unic'.irec- tiona.l Composite P-laterial As Plates 17~ ~e. ;~I. 3avitskiy~ V. V. Fa.ron--Composite Superconductors 176 V. Iva.nova.~ I. tt. l~.og',yev~ V. N. Vol::ov, Yu. Ye. Biisa.lov--I~lechanica.l and Servic~ Froperties o~:' Anti-Friction Composite P4atei3al for 3liding - 3earings 181 V. Ye. 3enenenlco, A. 2. 3omov--Features of rorming a Composite i4lcro- - s ~ructure in the Process of ~^lectxon-.3ay Zone Recr,~sta.lliza.tion of Fie- fra.ctory Systems Ba.sed on Niobium and ;lickel 184 Ye, V. ::alashnikov, T,~ A. Sidorova, a. Guts, A. A. rlndreyev, I. V. - ::orkin, V, V. ~mirnov--c~esearch on the Growth and Structure of ~utectic - Ccmp~site I~;a.terials of Meta.l-Caxlaide Transitiona.l i~Ieta.l 1E8 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONI.Y ~ Ye. N. Pirogov, L. L. Ar'tyunkh~na.~ V. P. Konoplenko, I..L. Svetlov, F. i~i. ~usnetdinov--Ca.lculation of Pressures and Diagram Construction ~f Cyclic Deforma.tion during the Therma.l -Fati~ue Loading of Composite ir,,a~.terials 191 11. Y. 3korokhod~ V. V. Panichkina., L. D. ::onchakovskaya--Study of the - ihickening Process during the Ca.king of Dispersion-3trengthened rlolyb- denum Alloy Powders 194 3. ~T. Ea,nich, Yu. A. ~:ustov~ n. I. Portnoy--New Dispersion-Strengthened Alloy Fased on the ilic~el Chrome VDUZ 197 - Chapter 4. Composite i4aterials with Polyrmer I~,atrices 201 L. P. :obets--Iniluence of Surfacing High-rlodule Fibers Compa.tible with Polymer Connectives 201 Ye. B. Trostyans~caya, P. G. I3abayevskiy, S. V. Bukharov--Increasing the Strength o~ a Polymer t~a.trix and Zts Influence on the ;�.echanica.l Pro- perties of Compasite i~la.terial5 207 V. L. Polya.icov--;tesidua.l Stresses and Some ~uestions on the ~trength of Composite Ala.terials 210 G. i~. Gunyayev~ I. P. :~orosh~lcva--Influence of the Composition of an 3po~y ~.atrix on the and Technologica.l Qualities of Ca.rbon - 21~ Plastics _ T. N. $orina., A. I. Surgucheva, G. I. Bu}ra,nov~ G. N. Finogenov, V. A. Yartsev--3eha.vior of Caacbon Plastics during the Complex Action of a i~7ediwn and I,oad ~ 218 G. P4. Gunya.yev, A. ~umyantsev, I1. IZ. Fed'kova.~ Ye. A. ~~iitrofanova, Z. r. CheI~.ina., Ye. I. Stepa.nychev, I. M. Makhmutov--Optimiza.tion of the Composition and 3txucture of qeinforcement of Bi- and Tri-Component Compo~ite i~Saterials 223 A. B. Geller, Ye. Perepelkin--Chax'a.c~eristics of Temperature Deform- ities of Carbon, Organic ~einforc~ng Fibers and Composite riaterials 223 Eased on Them N. P. Yershov--Cha.racteristics of Designing Structures of~Composite I�:aterials with Polym~r and Nletallic P�?a.trices 231 V, A. 'l.alininkov--Use of a Lineax Sta.tistica.l Model for the Task of Optimizing Processes for the ~roduction of Structures Out of Composite F11~ous Materials z36 Ye. Trostyans:caya, 'l. A. Shish?tin, V. :~ovikov, V. A. Goncharenlco-- - ComUining Polymer Composite 14aterials with Polymer iivets and ,lelding... 244 = Chapter 5. Composite i4a.terials with Caxbon and Cera.mic hia.trices........... 2~ I. 't. Sobolev, T. N. :'.a.vun~ A. ::iselev, V. S. Nosal'sisiy, G. S. Pisaxenico ~ i1. '1. 3kvortsova--Change in the Properties of Glass and ;a.rbon-r^illed Polyiaers in the Fyrolysis Process 2~ 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFICIAL ~'SE ONLY ~e D. M. :{a,rpinos, V.M. Grosheva~ V. ;l. Morozova, S. P. Listovinctiaya, Yu. I. t;orozov, 'd. P. Dzegaxiovs~siy, I. Yakov? ev, V. I. :~a.linichen~so, V. 3. :'lir~en:~o, Ye. P. :ii~hashcnuk--Composite i^.a.terials Based on Cera- mics ~~einforced with : p~ractory Ceramic and t~;e'~~a.llic Fibers D. i4. ~.a.rpinos, A. Ye. r~utkovskiy~ Yu. I. 1�iorozov, A. A. I~rashin, i:. I. Yakovlev, G. A. Luzhans~ciy--Composite t�iaterial ~,ua.rtz Silicon Carbide r^iber 251 ~ 'lu. L. f.ra.sulin, V. N. Timofeyev~ B. Ivanov, ~~I. Paxinov, '1. a. DomoratsIciy, A. N. Asonov--Hi$hly-Refractoryr Framework Construction ~ Cera.mics 25~ Chapter 6. Strength and Tiethods of Testing Composite I~fa.terials 25a L. P~I. Ustinov~ L. 'd. 'linogradov, V. I. Zhaannovz--Influencd of ~ri.ttle Intermediate Layers on the Strength of Fibrous Composite P�laterials with ~ a Plastic rSa.trix 258 a. S. Cvchinskiy, Ye . i~ . Sa:sh,arova ~ I. P4. :~op' yev, 3ilsagayev, S. a. 5ave1'yeva--.'~nalysis of ~ynaaaic c.ffects during Stress ?edistri- bution and Computer I:odeling of the Lestruction Processes in P; Coraposite N'.a.terials ~~rith Brittle Fibers 2d3 A~ G. Penki.n, G. V. Gusev--Development of an Acoustica.l ~nission Set-up in Conformity with Con~posite I~1a.terial Tests 2b9 0. V. Gusev, A. G. tenl:in~ I~:. 'r',h. Shorshornv--Influence of znter-I~;eta.llic - Intermediate Iayers on Acoustica.l ~nission Farameters during t?`~e 5tretch- ing of Aluminum-Steel Composites 2?3 V. ~V. I~i~chaylov, G. P. ?,~.ytsev~, T. G. Sorina.~ I. A. Zyryanov, L. A. Ivanova.---Problem of Destruction N,echanics W11en Stretching L:].ements t'ade of Fii~h-3trength :~einforced rlastics with Surface and Cpen Cracks........ 278 ~I. G. Zhigun, I~i. I. L'ushin~ V. Pa.nfilov~ Yu. Ivanin, V. V. ~anev- s:t1y--Influer~ce of Concentrators on Composite P~a.terial Strength... 281 a. t;. 3kudra~ B. P. Perov~ G. P. ~`,a.shins:taya, F. Ya. Bul~.vs, I. S. ~eyev-- P~:icrostructural r ea ~ures of the yestruction of Orga.nic Flastics and 284 Their Influence on Strength COPY~iIGh'T s I zdatel' s tvo "ilauka" , 1981 8524 . - csos i842/6 7 i FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFlC1Al. USE ONLY POWDER METALLURGY UDC: 621.762 KL:SEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ~F MM3~,TAL POWDERS AND SINTERED MATERIALS Sverdlovsk ISSLEDOVANIYA TEKHNOLOGII METALLICHESKIKH POROSHKOV I SPECHENNYKH MATERIALOV in Russian 1980 (signed to press 22 Oct 80j pp 2-8, 135-?36 [Annotat~on, table of contents and editor's introduction from book "Resear~h in Technology of Metal Powders and Sintered MateriaTs", edited by V. Ya. Bulanov, V. F. Ukhov, and Ye. S. Michkova, USSR Academy of Sciences Urals Scienti~fic Center, UNTs AN SSSR, 700 copies, 144 pages] [Text] This voZume contains articles dealing with cU.rrent scientific-technical and economic aspects of powder metallurg,y. It presente thg results of study and theoretical substantiation of industrial processas of producing metal powders and sintered s;tructural materials based on irbn and other elaments. This volume presents *.he results of investigations to study the properties of sintered matPrials, heat treatment and combined heat treatment and mechanical working on the basis of research con3ucted at organizations in the Urals ~egion. This volu~ne will be of interest to scientists and prac~ical specialists working in the field of powder metallurgy. Contents~ Page. _ Editor's ~ntroduction 3 M. A. Bykova and G. F. Mokshantsev. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Process of Reduction of Silicon in t:1e Solid Phase in the Presence of Iron 9 - V. I. Vorob'yev, L. t~. Vorob'yeva, and L. G. Kamenetskiy. Drying Copper Powders for Structural Materials by the Deflocculation Method 14 F. Moshkantsev, Yu. A. Mel'nikov, and N. K. Belousov. Hydrochemical - Alkaline Method of Obtaining Iron Alloy Powder 1~ V. Ya. Bulanov, N. A. Vatolin, P. I. Volkova, V. A. Kopysov, A. V. Sinyukhin, V. N. Bulygina, A. N. Ptitsyn, and R. N. Ufimtaeva. On the ~ossibility of Obtaining Iron Alloy Powders from Kachkanar Ore Concentrate ~3 ~ 8 � FOR OFFICiAY. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAi. USE OhLY N. L. Kotovskaya, A. V. Pomosov, and T. I. Gor'kova. Effect of Electrolysis on _ Physic~mechanical Propcrties of Copper Powder 29 Ye. Ye. Usol'tseva, A. V. Pomosov, and L. V. Sheveleva. Benzotriazole as a ' Ragulator af the Properties of Electrolytic Copper Powder 34 V. Ya. Bulanov and V. I. Rudakov. X-Ray Structural Investigation of the Fine Structure of Particles of Iron Powder in the Process of Molding and Sinter- - ing 38 V. N. Antsifer.ov, N. N. Maslennikov, and S. M. Kimerling. Sintered Martensitic = Aging Steels 43 N. A. Bykovskiy, V. A. Dubinin, V. F. Krivov, and I. F. Nichkov. On the Nature of Porosity of Material Sintered from Beryllivm Powders 52 V. A. Zhilyayev, V. V. Fedorenko, ~d G. P. Shveykin. Mechanism of rormation of Coaxial Structure in Titanium Carbide and Carbonitride Base Metals 57 A. R. Beketov, I. L. Shabalin, and N. A. Filonov. Phy~icomechanical proper- _ ties of Carbide-Carban Composite Materials 65 - V. N. Antsiferov, L. M. Grevnov, V. I. Ovchinnikova, A. P. Timokhova, and P. G. Cherepanova. Features of Formatior~ of the Structure of Sintered Chrome-Molybdenum Steels 69 S. I. Bogodukhov and I. B. Rabinovich. Investigation of Anisotropy of Proper- ties of Sintered Products 76 ~ V. T. Rakhmanov, I. F. Pan'shin, and Yu. G. Gurevich. Auste:~ite Transformation in Sintered Steels During Continuous Cooling 81 ~ N. V. Russkikh. Combined Heat Treatment and Mechanical Working of Powder ~ Materials 86 V. I. Rakhmanov, I. V. Pan'shin, Yu. G, Gurevich, and Yu. I. Pozhidayev. Investigation of the Structural State and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Steels Following Heat T'redtment 94 S. I. Bogodukhov. Investigation of the Properties of Sintered Material in Relation to Heat Treatment 97 = V. N. Nebol'sinov and S. I. ravlov. Determination of Optimal Charge Composi- - tions and Conditions of Treatmer.t of Sintered Materials 100 I. L. Shabalin, M. I. Podkovyrkin, A. R. Beketov, and Ye. V. Levashov. Ob- taining Composites Based on Refractory Titanium Compounds During Combustion 105 S. G. Gushchin, A. I. Timofeyev, 0. V. Toms, 0. V. Demidovich, N. A. Mityuzhev, and V. A. Perepelitsyn. Lined Crucibles of Periclase Powders for Induc~ion Vacuum Melting of Platinum Alloys 111 9 FOR OFFiC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R040540020043-7 FOR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY V. t. llomogatskiy and A. V. Kostryukov. Specifi~ Fzatures of MechanLcal Work- ing of Sintered Pis*_on Ring Blanks 120 Ye. S. Michkova. Approximate Estimate of Production of Iron Alloy Powder by _ the Hydrometallurgical Chloride MethQd lZta A. A. Kuklin. Economic Prerequisites for Development of the Powder Metallurgy Method in the Urals 12~ V. F. Kotov and V. I. Domogatskiy. Some Technical and Economic Problems of Development of Powder Metallurgy in the Southern Urals 131 EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION Modern industry is imposing increasingly more extenaive and rigid demands on various materials. Development and improvement of such areas of science and tech- nology as physics, chemistry, electronics, and all areas of machinery engineering have placed on the agenda the question of developing and utilizing materials with special properties, which has required the development of powder metallurgy on a _ higher scientific and.technol.ogical level. In the last 100 years numerous orga- nizations and industrial plants have been established in such countries as the USSR, the United States, the FRG, Czechoslovakia, Japan and a number of others, which work with development of sintered materials, and experimental data have been amassed. Intensive utilization of advances in the natural scienees for synthesizing practical results and formulating a general theory of processes of obtai.ning materials with preselected properties began in the 1950's and 1960's. From the . above~we can formulate the following problems of physical powder metallurgy. The problem of obtaining powders with prescribed properties and dimensions. Develop- ment of powder metallurgy at the contemporary level involves solving a nutnber of technical prablems, one of which is obtaining metal and nonmetallic powders of a specified structure, properties, and composition. The term "powder" should be defiaed more broadly, with the term including compositicn, structure, and properties of powder particles. The single concept of powder as a particle visible to the naked eye within a specific range of sizes (from several microns to fractions of a - millimeter) does not tie in theoretically with the theses of modern powder ffietal- lurgy. At the present time we can obtain such particles ranging from several - angstroms to eeveral millimeters in size. On the basis of these particles we can produce materials with predetermined properties, structure and.composition, both - ultradense and ultraporous. At the present time it is possible to obtain powders with unlimited dispersion of particles (from microparticles to filaments) by - pt~ysicochemical methods, on the basis of application of the laws of physical ciiemistry and chemical physics. - The properties of. materials produced by the powder metallurgy methAd depend ba~ically on the composition and physicochemical properties of the initial powders. The best way to alter the compositions of these materials is to use natural dispersoids, each of which will be single- or complex-alloyed, and uniformly (homogeneously). It is possible to produce such homogeneous-alloy dispersoids only by chemicometallurgical methods which, on the one hand, make it possible to obtain a predetermined and ~ 10 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OF~ICIA1. USF. OIVLY ~elective degree of r.efining and, on the other hand, to leave in each dispersoid the requisite number of needed alloying elements or any phases. At the present time such tasks are accomplished in two phases initially pure powders and pure alloying elements or their alloys are produced, and subsequently the lattar are arti~ically charged into the base. This method of producing multiconstituent materials is unwieldy and does not enable one to create a continuous series of homogeneous materials. It essentially repeats the traditional methods of obtaining cast alloys of discrete composition, approximately 600 of which exist at the present time, and all. of which were created over sevpral decades, taking account of various intuitive exper.iments by means of selective sampling. But it is essential to bear in mind that there cannot exist in nature ready combin~- tions of various elements in one and the same raw material. Therefore in order to create materials with a predetermined composition and properties it is necessary to enploy a combined method chemical control of the initial composition of dis- persoids with supplementary artificial charge addition prior to chemical processing of the raw material, sa that the alloying elements and phases organically enter the - compounds being reduced or oxidized, that is, performing controlled physicochemical _ synthesis (UFKhS). The problem of physicochemical investigation and prediction of the properties of sintered materials. After producing powders of any specified degree of dispersion, one can proceed to the next stage in developing new materials elaboration of the Fhysical and physicochemical fundamentals of shaping and siutering, their inter- action and combining, or elimination of one of them, which would make it possible to create any predetermined properties of materials. In this area it is necessary to investigate the processes of interaction and reaction of the particles of powders of any degree of dispersion in relation ta the properties, composition~and structure throughout the entire diversity of various combinations of given proper- . ties and atomic-molecular bond between the dispersoids proper and their phase con- stituents. One should take into consideration the submicrostructure of point, linear and plane defects, the most important of which are dislocations in all their diversity. Correct elaboration of the above-listed problems determines the possibility of eliminating additional operations following molding and sintering (machining, heat treatment, etc) or icnproving and reducing them to a minimum, with the aim of ob- taining the final shaped part. The properties of microobjects of diapersoids of any size are determined by many interrelated factors. The functional relationship between optimized parameters and numerous factors cannot be determined with the aid of the well-known traditional divisions of higher mathematics. Recently developed cybernetic methods ("black box" methods) enable one to solve various problems of gowder metallurgy without going into the essence of the complex physicochemical processes taking place during the forming of a sintered body. The mathematical method of extremum experiment planning enables one to link practically all the major factors by a regression equation and to determine tlie parameters of the initial dispersoids and the conditions of formation of a sintered body from them or any processes taking place with the employment of disgersoids metallurgical, welding, machining. 11 FOR OFF(C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 IFnR UF~'ICIAL U~E t)NLY N~w ~~o5slb.Clities for predicting and producing multiple-constituent materials or processes are offered by graphic-analytical forecasting, where all properties, conditions and compositions of a materia~ of any complexity are repr~sented in the form of a three-diiuensional cluster of symbolic points (OFT). With the aid of un- complicated graphic operations, expanding all system components onto a plane, one can solve the problem of determining optimal system properties in relation to the physical characteris�ics of the initial dispersoids. As improvements are macle in the eauipment and methods of physicochemical analysis of inetals and alloys atthe and submicrolevels and a sharp in.crease in labor productivity in computer interpreting research results, it is possible to determine - the functional dependences of optimized parameters on numerous physicochemical factors and their relationship by means of mathematical processing of graphic- . analytic relations. will make it possible in materials science to depart from the traditional methods of seeking new materials. With the aid of precise marhematical calculation, one can predict properties in relation to the character- ; istics of the initial building blocks (dispers~ids) and the cond~tions of their forming and sinteriug, in the process of which various physicochemical processes are also taking place 1t the atomic-molecular, submicro-, micro- and macrolevels. Further improvement of experimental method and method of determining the properties, _ composition and atructure of disper~oids and materials based on them is essential, particularly since they are assuming an increaeingly more complex composite ct~aracter. The accuracy and sensitivity of inethods of analysis and their ob- jectivity determine the possibility of reproducib:ility of obtaining the specified materials at different points in a single specimen. Exclusively physical methods must also be employed for phase analysis X-ray diffraction analysis, photographic analysis, and analysis with ionizing recording, with discrimination of individual radiations, and electron-diffraction analysis in conditions of diffraction, microdiffraction, local analysis with X-ray microanalyzers, � etc. - In connection with the possibility of producir.g dispersoids at the level of atoms and molecules, nuclear and electron magnetic and paramagnetic resonance units should be employed for analysis. For direct and indirect observation of microstructure, it is necessary to employ new equipment microscopes with.remote screens (scanning), with automatic computer devices, and high-resolution electron microscopes. All.this would make it possible to determine not only dislocation tracks but also to mak~ kinetic observations of processes taking place in zones commensurate with interatomic distances and the size of individual inolecules and atoms. These devices should be combined in opera- tion with the most advanced autamatic recording devices for interpreting the obtained information microphotometers, oscilloscopes, and electronic computers. We should note that obtaining separate, fragmentary information cannot provide any _ exhaustive information far predicting and discovering new laws. It is essential - to obtain not discrete but cuntinuous information on a given process, on both a dynamic and kinetic basis, with its numerous variations in composition and at the micro- and submicrolevels. Only after detailed processing of this information ie it 12 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OF'FIC'IAL i1SF. ONLY ~c~r;5iblc to abtain Functional patterns for predicting the properties of sintered mul~ lcc~?i:~ti tuent matcrials. The problem of improving existing technologies and problems of turning out finished products. Tt has been established that tt;e streng4h of the individual particlee dispersoids differs from one surface zone to another, ranging from 20 to 400 kg/mm~, - while the theore*_ical strength of these dispersoids, taking into account their phase composition and the physicochemical properties of the structural components, CSI1 - amount to 700 kg/mm2 or more for iron powders, for example. Thus two discontinui- ties exist between the strength of produc~d sintered materials and the individual dispersoids of which they are formed. The first lies between the calculated theoretical strength of ideal dispersoids of complex structure and the strength of the actually produced material of actual dispersoids. This gap constitutes a strategic reserve.of powder metallurgy, and the maximt�m strength obtained by cal- culation is that cheri~hed, fairly realistic goal toward w:ich every investigator should strive~. The second gap (somewhat smaller) lies betweet: the strength of cer- tain zones of each dispersoid and the strength of the material obtained on the basis of that dispersoid. There is a realistic possibility o~ achieving the ex- perimental strength characteristica of individual zones witr~in the next few years. Up to the present time iron-base have been obtained with a strength of _ 8U-100 kg/mm2, and achieving a strength of 200-400 kg/mm2 ia not far off. Improvement of existing processes of forming and sintering, chiefly determination of optimal conditions (time, temperature, environment), development and employment ~ of heat treatment, combination chemical and heat treatment methods as well as other _ means of influencing the structure of materials in order to chanQe their properties in the desired direction constitute one of the important tasks ot powder metallurgy. Employing dynamic methods, high and ultrahigh pressures for forming and shaping, as - well as preheating and heating materials while applying pressure to them, one ob- tains compact and ultracompact materials with both already known and new, unique properties. This requires development of totally new processes of forming and shaping by the direct effect on the powder of electrical impulses, electromagnetic ~ waves, ultrasound, high-frequency currents and other pliysical factors, as well as activation of the processes of forming and sintering by affecting dispersoids with chemical, physical or combined metliods. - 'rhe following materials can be obtained as a result of research on the manufacture of sintered products and materials: a) structural materia~s, with any desired properties, with final geometric dimensions and configurations, which require little or no machining, unlimited in weight and size, commensurate with machine parts manufactured by other methods (casting, forging, stamping, etc); b) antifriction materials (machine parts) for any desired operating condi- tions, within a broad range of conditions temperature, environment, pressures . load; c) friction materials (machine parts) oF~:rating in various conditions and en- vironments; d) porous materials (filters) operating in any environments; 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 ~ FOR OFFI('IAL USE nPJLY e) materials for the manufacture of electrical contacts, materials with high electrical resistance and, the reverse, auperconductors. This problem can be solved with a radic~l change in the process of manufacture of stators and rotors - oF electric motors, generators and transformer cores, by employing magnetodiEiectrics in place of the traditional packages of plates with their complex treatment and processing and their uncontrolled characteristics. The following dispersoids can be employed to produce materials for machining metals and other complex alloys and materials and for achieving further increase in labor productivity in metalworking, particularly in finishing operations, as we~l as for reinforcing impact-stamping tools, including molds for powder metallurgy: of a specified composition and size for controlling crystallization processes in general metallurgy ingot, casting, etc (with further improvement in labor productivity, qualfty of the metal produced, reduction in production-line rejects and, finally, control of the processes of producing metal with specified macro-, micro- and submicroproperties); of various composition and structure for welding production and for producing welded seams and surfacings with specified properties, as well as for employing electrodes of predetermined composition for all kinds of welding, including electro- slag remelting. ~ ~ With the aid of dispersoids, Qbsolete methods of producing semifinished products I by means of blast furnace, open-hearth and other metallurgical processes will I gradually be eliminated, with a transition to new physicochemical-metallurgical ~I - processes direct production of powders of a specified composition and structure ~ from ores, with subsequent production of rolled stock of any size and sectional shape with controlled properties and with a substantial reduction of energy ex- ' - penditures and tota~, no-waste utilization of raw materials. ~ Employment of dispersoids will make it possible to develop advanced research methods and to create a general theo~y of materials on the basis of new laws of materials - science. COPYRICHT: UNTs AN SSSR, 1980. 3024 CSO: 1842/23 14 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 , FOR OFF1CIAl. USF ONLY REFRACTORY MATERIALS ~ UDC: 666.76.002.3 REFRACTORIES INDUSTRY GROWTH IN 11TH FIVE-YEAR PLAiv Moscow OGNEUPORY in Russian No 9, Sep 81 pp 1-8 [Article by G. Ye. Zaychenko (Soyuzogneupor All-Union Production Association): "Raw Materials 13ase of the Refractories Industry in the llth Five-Year Plan"] [Text] Implementing the historic resolutions of the 25th CPSU Congress and ex- tensively employing.various forms of socialist competition, the work forces of mining enterprises of the refractories industry successfully acco~nplished plan targets pertaining to productio:z of refractory raw materj~?s for the lOth Five- Year Plan (see table). Table 1. Raw Materials Production Plan Percenta e of Fulfillment For Soyuzogneupor For Ukrogneupor- For USSR _ All-Union Produc- nerud Republic Minchermet - tion Association Production Associa . ~ ~ tion Refractory clay 103.4 Z01.9 102.8 Kaolin - 101.4 101.4 Magnesitc 102.7 - 102.7 ~ = Quartzite 109.3 102.0 104.8 - Dolomite 92.8. 104.7 103.8 Successful completion of the lOth Five-Year Plan was pramoted by intensification of minerals production at existing enterprises, bringing ne~* surface and under- ground mining facilities on-stream, replacement of obeolete and worn-out mining transfer and auxiliary equipment, increasing labor productivity, adopting new - forms of organization of labor, dissemination of the advanced work methods of production innovators, as well as further improvement of mining technology. _ In the lOth Five-Year Plan the Kuleshovskiy and Vostochno-Bezovskiy refractory clay production sections were brought on-stream in the Suv~tnvskoye Mining Administration, more than 7 kilometers of hard-sur�ace road were built, an asphalt plant, a new ad-~ ministration and services building, and a gas scrubbing department in the fireclay shop; in 1981 construction will be completed and a garage for heavy-payload dump trucks will go into operation. . 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500024043-7 FOit OFFICIAI. USF. ONLY _ I.n tt~e mine~ of the Borovichskly Refractories Combine, the ChPU, MBLD, and KMSh con- _ tinuous miners experienced further adoption in excavation, preparation, cutting and stoping operations, wh;ch made it possible to boost the level of inechanization of _ these operations from 35 to 84 percent. Hoisting equipment of obsolete design at Mine No 2 imeni Artem were replaced by new, more sophisticated equipment; rotary - bucket excavators for extracting refractory clays were renovated at the Ust'ye- Brynkino pit. The work force at the Semiluki Refractories Plant, working with the Donets affiliate of the Scientific Research Institute of Mining, developed the ER-315/630 rotary ~ bucket excavator, which at the present time is the most sophisticated and high-out- put equipment for selective working of refractory clays and kaolin deposits.* - A considerable volume of excavation and preparation work was performed in construct- - ing the Belyy Kolodets and Strelitsa Blizhnyaya pits. As a result, designed output was reached ahead of schedule at the Belyy Kolodets pit, and refractory clay production began at the Strelitsa~Blizhnyaya pit. - At the Tarasovskoye Mining Administration low-output excavators and drilling machines were replaced with higher-output EKG-4.6 excavators and 2SBSh-200 drill-- ing machines; considerable work to remove dust from the air at work stations was perfoimed at the crushing and grading mill. At the Chelyabinsk Mining Administration, the Bugor pit was constructed and.brought into production, and has already been brought up to designed output; the production - and stripping rotary bucket excavators, with self-propelled belt spoil dumpers,have been upgraded and modernized; an administration-services combine, boiler house and other facilities were completed and brought into operation. The work force at the Bogdanovich Refractories Plant further expanded mining opera- _ tions at the Kul'durskiy brucite mine, as a result of which on-line production capacity was exceeded. A crushing and grading unit was built at the mine; as well as st.andard-gauge tracks linking the industrial site with MPS [Ministry of Railways] tracks, which makes it possible to load crushed brucite into MPS cars directly at the mine. Considerable work has been accomplished at the pit mines of the Magnezit Combine in further replacement of obsolete mine transport equipment by more sophisticated and higher-outp.ut equipment, narrow-gauge rail transport with trucks, and on boosting production at the Karagayskiy and Stepnoy mines. A pit to exploit the Nikol'skiy section of the magnesite deposit went into production, renovation of DOF [Crushing and Concentration Mill] No 1 was performed, and designed output was reached in the magnesite concentration in heavy susF~~~nsions department at DOF No 2(Figure 1) [photo o:nitted]. Construction was completed on an experimental commercial-scale department for concentrating magnesite by chemical means; preliminary tests produced _ encouraging results. A truck-hauled overburden dump 96 meters in height was suc- cessfully put into operation (Figure 2) [photo omitted]. The mine railroad shop * G. Ye. Zaychenko, Yu. I. Berezhnoy, P. M. Kut'kov, et al, OGNEUPORY, No 2, 1981, pp 29-32. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY completed track switching control automation and centralization, repair of dumpcars and electric mine locomotives. Improve~nent of excavator, drilling and blasting operations continued at the quartzite mine of the Pervoural'sk Dinas Refractory Brick Plant; equipment was modernized at the plant's crushing and grading mill. ~ The miners at the Chasov-Yar Refractories Combine put into operation a pit mine in - the Redkodub section, second units of the Vostochnyy and Yuzhnyy mines, and improved mining operations in couiplex geologic conditions. The work force at the Druzhkovka Mine Administrati~n accomplished a considerable - amount of work on constructing a second pit uni;. for working the Novorayskoye refractory clay deposit and on improving mining production operations with the - employment of high=output mine Cransport equipment ESh-15/90, ESh-10/70, and EKG-4.6 excavators in combination with BelAZ-540 heavy-load dump trucks. The Kirovograd Mine Administration constructed an~d put into operation a pit in the ' left-bank part of the deposit. Complex geologic conditions and unconfirmed geologic data on commercial mineral reserves required great efforts on the part of the work force for development of mining operations and for achieving refractory clay production plan targets. The work force of the Priazovskoye Mine Administration began production in a new section of the deposit with complex geologic conditions. - The miner work forces at the Vatutinskiy and Velikoanadol'skiy combines improved mining operations in conditions of increased kaolin bed flooding and a heavier layer of overburden (Figure 3) [photo omitted]. ~ Thanks~to the adoption of higher-output mining and drilling equipment, the work force of the Ovruchskoye Mine Administration, in spite of increased pit depth, suc- cessfully met the production target in the lOth Five-Year Plan. , The work forces of refrac~ories industry enterprises devoted con5tant attention to reclaiming and utilizing land disturbed by mining operations. Figure 4[photo omitted] shows reforestation of a reclaimed mtned-out area of the Zapadnyy Mine at the Chasov Yar Refractories Combine. Considerable credit for meeting the refractory raw materials production targets of the lOth Five-Year Plan muat go to highly akilled, conscientious workers produc- tion leaders and innovators, who successfully mastered the new mine transport equipment and mining operation processes and who tiave an innovative at- titude toward their job. - The new five-year plan (1981-1985) assigned even more complex and responsible tasks to the miners of the refractories industry. Production increases in the llth Five-Year Plan over the lOth Five-Year Plan are - targeted as follows: refractory clay by 13.2 percent; magnesite by 6.8 gercent; lcaolin by 6.8 percent; quartzite by 3.6 percent. Geologic conditions for working refractory raw materials deposits will be more complex in the new five-year 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FnR OFF'IC1A1. USE ONL,Y plan. Production growth in refractory raw materials should occur primarily through intensification of production processes, improvement in mining process operations, replacement of low-output, obsolete and worn-out mine transport equ~p- ment, mechanization and automation of production processes, improvement in forms of socialist competition, and increased worker labor pro3uctivity. The following principal measures must be carried in order. to meet the targets of the llth Five-Year Plan pertaining to mining operations and providing raw materials to enterprises of ferr~us metallurgy and other branches and sectors of the economy: - Borovichi Refractories Combine: construct and put into production the Okladnevo Mine, with an annual output capacity of 400,000 tons of refractory clay; proceed with development of the second unit of the Ust'ye-Brynkino Mine; continue adoption of KMSh and ChPU continuous miners in underground mining operations, bring- ing mechanization of preparation and production to 90-100 percent; incre~se the volume of crushing of overburden limestone for the construction industry and maintenance of in-mine and spoi~ dump roads; perform a group of renovation opera- tions at the Volgino Mine; the Suvorovskoy;: Mine Administration: complete conF;truction of pit facili- ties and reach desigr~ed output capacity in refraGtory clay production in the Vostochno-Bezovskiy section; complete construction on and put into operation a truck garage with outside parking for BelAZ-540 and KrAZ-256B dump trucks; assemble and put into operation an Esh-10/7OA walking excavator in the Vostochno-Bezovskiy section; convert fireclay shop and boiler house operations over to natural gas; improve the quality of repair and maintenance of process equipment in this shop; prepare tech�� nical documentation for mine construction to work the U1'yanovskoye refractory clay deposit; reclaim and replant areas disturbed by mining operations in Section No 14 _ and the Kuleshovskiy section; ~ ~ Semiluki Refractories Plant: complete relocation of the gas and communications line at the Sredniy Mine and intensify overburden removal operations on the forward benches; complete construction and bring on-line industrial facilities at the Belyy Kolodets and Strelitsa Blizhnyaya mines; renovate the overhead cableway between the plant and the Belyy Kolodets Mine, with the aim of boosting its capacity to 750,000 tons per year; expand the refractory clay storage area at the plant site 3.n order to boost volume of fireclay shipped to customers to not less than 200,000 tons per year; reclaim and replant land disturbed by mining activities; prepare technical documen- tation for development of the quartz sand production section for refractory linings at the Strelitsa Blizhnyaya Mine; complete preliminary studies at the Strelitsa ~ - Blizhnyaya and Belyy i~olodets mines for the purpose of improvin~ mining oper.ations, with the employment of ESh-10/70A and Esh-6/45 walking excavators; Bogdanovich Refractories Plant: step up construction and movement on-stream of production facilities and housing at the Kul'durekiy brucite mine, bringing the = facility up to designed output; accomplish further improvement of mining operations at the Yuzhnaya Poldnevaya Mine, producing refractory clays, and at the Kul'durski~ - brucite fiine; Eastern Siberian Refractories Plant: construct and bring into production a _ department for concentration and briquetting of refractory clays from the Trosh- kovskoye deposit; complete construction, bring on-stream and reach designed output 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OF~ICIA1. USE ONLY at the refractory clay pit; prepare design documentation. mining and land allocation formalities, and commence construction of priority facilities at the Savinskiy - Magnesite Combine; Magnezit Combine: accelerate construction and excavatio~l operations at t~e - Magnezitovaya Mine; complete renovation of DOF No 1; complete construction and reach designed output at the Tsentral'nyy and Zapadnyy mines of the Nikol'skiy section of the magnesite deposit; accelerate construction of industrial facilities and housing in the new microrayons; renovate equipment in the existing magnesite concentration - in heavy suspensions department; build the second magnesite concentration in heavy suspensions unit; perform construction and preparation work for delivering gra~e IV - magnesite from special storage sites to DOF No 2; prepare design documentation and build a third magnesite crushing and concentration line at DOF No 2; complete preliminary studies and perform preparation work on the south edge of the Karagayskiy pit for siting waste rock dumps; prepare design documentation and con- - struct an overhead cableway for transporting crushed magnesite to TsMP-2 rotary furnaces 5 and 6; reach designed output of a commercial-scale unit for magnesite concentration by a chemical method; prepare design documentation, land and mining allocation formalities for pit expansion in the Galyaminskv~e molding sand deposit secticn; perform preparation work for constructing a pit in the Berezovskiy section - of the magnesite deposit; step up worY on increasing magnesite production in the Palenikhinskc~-Mel'nichnyy section; Pervoural'sk Dinas Refractory Brick Plant: strip overburden and commence wurking the southern section of the Gora Karaul'naya quartzite deposit; perform major overhaul of the crushing and grading mill; build a hard-surface road between the mine and the crushing-grading mill; Tarasovskoye Mine Administration: build a rail spur and storage facility for shipping quartzite and quartz sands; ozganize selective digging of quartz sands for shipment to customers; prepare design documentation and commence construction of a new pit; fabricate and install at the pit a facility for screening ma.terial in order to reduce the hauling of waste rock to the crushing and grading mill; Yuzhno-Ural'sk pit of Soyuzmetallurgprom: complete construction of pit~ facilities and bring refractory clay output up to the designed figure; the mining enterprises of the Ukrogneupornerud Republic Production Associa- - tion: accomplish construction of a refractory clay pit in the Block No 9 section; expand production of molding sand in the Sukhoy Yar section of the Chasov Yar ~ Refractories Combine; Druzhkovka Mine Administration: prepare design documentation, land and mining allocation formalities, accomplish construction and bring on-stream a pit in the Western Section of the Novorayskoye refractory clay deposit; accomplish renovation of the molding sarld pit on the Banty:~hevskoye depo~it; Kirovograd Mine Administration: step up geological exploration activities and confirmation of refractory clay reserves in the new Left Bank section, prepare design documentation and begin construction of a pit in this section; 1~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 - FOR OFFICIAI. USE nN1.Y ~ Priazovskoye Mine Admin.~etration: step up preparatory activities for expand- ing the production of refractory clays and kaolin in Section No 1; continue con- - struction of approach spur and in-pit tracks; Vatutino Refractories Combine: accomplish construct3.on, movement on-stYeam and achievement of designed output at the Murzinskiy kaolin pit; construct an e.~:- perimental commercial-scale kaolin concentration unit; Ovruch Mine Administration: cut and prepare for working lower levels of the quartzite deposit at the presently operating pit; be~in preparation of technical documentation f.or working a new quartzite section. Growth in volume of converter steel production at metallurgical plants in the southern and central part of this country in the llth Five-Year Plan ma.kes xt neces- sary to increase production of top-grade tar-dolomite refractories. It has been established on the basis of 8massed experience as well as laboratory experiments and full-scale tests that the highest-quality raw material.for making ~ar-dolomite refractories is dolomite from the Bosninekoye deposit, which is pi�oduced by the Kavdolomit Quarry Administration. Rsaerves of these dolomites are practically unlimited for the foreseeable future. This quarry is to undergo renovation in the llth Five-Year Plan, with the aim of increasing production of Bosninskoye dolomite to 1 million tons per year and satis- faction of the requirements of enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Ferrous Metal- lurgy and Ministry of Construction Materials Industry. During the period of renovation and development of the Bosninskiy quarry, beginning in 1981, dolomite from the Tkvarchel'skoye deposit is to be utilized, produced by the quarry of the Rustavi Metallurgical Plant. In the llth Five-Year Plan the con- verter shops of the metallurgical p_lants of the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan will be supplied with refractories the manufacture of which will involve magnes~te powders from the Magnezit Combine and dolomites from the Alekseyevskoye depo~it. In the llth Five-Year Plan obsolete and worn-out mining transport and auxiliary equipment is targeted for replacement at enterprises producing refractory raw materials. On this basis there will be obtained further improvement of mining operations and increased labor productivity with the aim of increasing production - volume and meeting plan-specified raw materials production targets. I~ necessary to step up exploration of the Kriushanskoye (Annenskoye) refractory clay deposit for the Semiluki Refractory Plant; the U1'yanovskoye deposit for the Suvorovskoye Mine Administration; refractory clay sections adjacent to the Nizhne-Uvel'skoye deposit; the second unit section of the Yuzhnaya Poldnevaya refractory clay pit; the Zapadnyy section for the Druzhkovka Mine Administration; = tlie Left-Bank refractory clay section f.:r the Kirovograd Mine Aciministration; refractory clay and kaolin sections of the Polozhskoye deposit for the Priazovskoye Mine Administration; kaolin sectiorLS near the town of Zvenigorodsk for the Vatutino Refracturies Combine. The 26th CPSU Congress has specified an ambitious program of further growth and _ development of our coun~try's industry, including ferrous metallurgy, of which the refractories industry is an integral part. 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY The Soyuzogneupor All-Union Production Association, the Ukrogneupornerud Republ.ic Production Aseociation, and all enterprises of the refractories industry have elaborated measures aimed at succeasful enterprise growth and development, improve- ment of production tecr~nology, mechanization and automation af pr~duction processes, adoption of scientific and technological advances,~scientific organiza~ion of lgbor~ improvement in the quality of produced refractory raw materials, and establishment of safe and highly productive working conditions. To achieve successful accomplishment of the assigned tasks, it is necessary to communicate the targeted measures to each and every worker and to support accomplish- - ment of these tasks with appropriate high-output mine-transFort and auxiliary equip- ment, material-technical resources, and scientif ically substantiated organization of labor, working daily on indoctrinating working people in a spirit of axcellent pro~uction discipline and responsibilit;~ for the assigned task. Mine workers of the refractories industry will apply all their resources, knowledge and experience in order honorably to accomplish their asaigned task. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgiya", "Ogneupory", 1981 3024 CSO: 1842/22 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC: 669:66.018.4; 66.043.2 tlIC~1-'IENII'~RATURE HEAT.-INSUT,ATING MATERIALS Moscow VYSOKOTEMPERATURNYYE TEPLOIZOLYATSIONNYYE MATERIALY in Russian 1981 (signed to pr~:ss 25 Mar 81) pp 2-11 [Annotation, table of contents ~ind introduction from book"High-Temperature Heat-In- sulating Materials", by Samuil Milchaylovich Kats, Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgiya", 3,72(1 copies, 232 pages] . ['TextJ This volume presents the first systematized information in the area of technology and properties of. high-temperature heat-insulating and heat-shielding materials based on refractory met~ls and their com~ounds, oxide ceramics, carbon- graphites, and composites. New methods of obtaining them are examined, as well as specific features of employment in furnacea, testing equipment, power generating _ equipment and other structures operating at high temperatures (2500-3200�C). The author presents calculated characteristics and methods of estimating the physical-mechanical properties of highly porous materials of cellular-powder, foam and fibrous structure. This volume is intended for engineers and technicians employed at scientific re- search ins~titutes, higher educational institutions, design institutes and design offices of the metallurgical, machine building and chemical industries, working in ti~e area of ~.evelopment and application of these ~;aterials. = Contents Page Introduction 4 Chapter 1. Nonporous Heat-Insulating and Heat-Shielding Materials Heat Shielding and Thermal Insulation of Heat-Resistant Oxides 12 Heat Shielding and Insulation of Non-Oxide C.ompounds 35 Pyrographitic Materials S1 Chapter 2. Fibrous High-Temperature Thermal Insulations _ Physical-Mechanical Properties of Fibrous Materials 59 High-Temperature Thermal Insulations of Highly Refractory Oxide Fibers 83 Thermal Insulations of Carbide and Other Non-Oxide Fibers 92 ' 22 - FOR OFFICIAI. ~.JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIA[. USE ONLY ' Chapter 3. Highly-Porous Heat-Insulating Materials Prapertiea oz PorouR Materials of Cellular Structure 112 Physical-Mechanical Propertiea of Powder Material~. 137 Physical-Mechanical Progerties of Cellular-Powder Materials 152 - Physical-Mechanical Properties of Cellular-Cellular Materials 164 Physical-Mechanical Properties of Enam Materials 169 Highly-Poroua Oxide Insulations 177 Foamed Carbides and Other Non-Oxide Insulations 199 Highly-Porous Carbon-Graphite Insulationa 206 - Multiple-Screen Thermal Insulations 215 223 Bibliography INTRODUCTION Heat-insulating and heat-shielding materials are extensively employed in the most diversified areas of inetallurgy, power engineering, machine building, and c~nstruc- - tion. In recent years extremely high-t~mpera*_ure materials, with a working tempera- ture from 1500-2000 up to 3000-3500�C have become increasingly important. Increased requirements in such m~terials in the metallurgical industry are due to increased temperatures in heating, roasting and melting furnaces. It ia also due to the necessity of further increasing the efficiency and economy of equipment and production processes as well as equipment boosting. Extremely high-temperature insulations and heat shields (linings, coatings, screens) are required in foundry operations, especially in die casting, in press forging (for insulating induction heater-containers), in the aerospace industry (for in- sulating gas turbines and combustion chambers), in thermal converters, in test equip- ment for testing materials and structures, and in a number of other areas of tech- nology. A substantial increase in operating temperatures should be expected in coming years in nuclear power engineering, in rocket engi.nes and spacecraft, magneto- hydrodynamic generators, in vacuum arc furnaces, etc. The need for heat insulatior~ ar.d shielding for the temperature range 2000-3500�C, which exceeds the operating temperature of the ma~ority of conventional high-tem- _ perature thermal insulating materials based on oxides, metals and other heat- resistant materials, has required the development and application of new alloys and composites in these materials, in particular possessing the requisite mechanical properties at the apecified temperatures. In ~onnection with this, attention was focused on compoun3s of refractory metals with carbon, nitrogen, boron, as well as various compositea. The heat-insulating properties of such materials are determined chiefly by their highly porous structure. This dictated the development of new in- dustrial processes for producing highly refractory compounds 'n the form of foam materials, felts and other porous bodies. Theoretical method~ were ~eveloped for analyzing the physical-mechanical properties of various highly-porous b~~dies, processes of molding and aintering, ete. In addition, the specific features of these materials and the conditions of their employment required the development of - special methods of bonding, reinforcement, application of coatings, gaseous-phase 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500024043-7 FOR OFFtC1A1, USE ONLY deposition, new structural forms of composites, reflective shields, etc. Thus there has developed in recent years the area of heat-insulation and heat-shielding technology, which should be called ultrahigh temperature, as an addition to existing categories of high-temperature or highly refractory materials with a melting point of up to 2000�C. We shall first discuss the general classification of heat-insulating and heat-shield- in~ materials contained in Table 1. Thermal or heat insulation serves to limit the conductive, convective or radiation heat exchange between the insulated medium and its environment. Heat insulation is employed either independently or as a%omponent part of a heat-shielding device. kieat shielding serves as a barrier separating the protected structure from the ef- Fect of a hot environment, and is in the form of a coating, facing, lining, or more complex layer of compact or porous materials. Requirements on heat-shielding and heat-insulating materials differ, although in many cases their function coincides. Table 1. Cl~ssification of High-Temperature Heat-Insulating Materials _ m�,^~ Designation Diagram Peculiarities and Areas of Application 1 2 3 4 . Heat-Insulating Materiale I Nonporous Material: refractory oxides; thermal conductivi- _ I.1 Isotropic ty 2-6 w/(m�K); high. etrength; heat resistance 2200-2500�C . 1.2 Anisotropic Material: pyrographite, BN; thermal conductivi- ty 1-2 w/(m�K); high strength; high cost II Highly-porous Heat resistance to 3000�C; all refractory II.1 Powder: materials employed loose ,r^ Porosity 20-60 percent;thermal conductivity O.Ql-2 w/~n�K); does not bear load, requires packing; high specific surface; significant rate of ablation by vaporization; danger of . . . caking of finely dispersed pow~ers bound (granular) Porosity 20-40 percent; thermal conductivity ~ 5-30 w/(m�K) _ II.2 Cellular ~ Porosity 10-70 percent; structural stability . at high temperatures; relative thermal con- . ductivityJ~/~0=0.8-0.1. Simplicity of manufac- ture II.3 Cellular-cellular Porosity 30-80 percent; relative thermal con- ductivity ~/7~p=0.5-0.05; enhanced mechanical properties tI.4 Cellular-powder: Porosity 50-85 percent; relative thermal con- loose ductivity ~/h 0=0.2-0.03; enhanced mechanical bound (granular) properties 2~+ FOR OFF[CIA,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USF ONLY l 2 3 4 II.S Foam Porosity 50-99 percent; relative thermal con- ductivity ~=0.3-0.01; enhanced mechanical properties II,6 Multiple-screen Material: graphite, refractory metals and com- - pounds, ecreen thickness 0.05-2 mm; low radiant ~ and conductive thermal conductivity [10'3- � � . � 10-2 w/ (m�K) ] ; maximeim temperature 2200�C III Fibrous ~ . _ III.1 Nun-fabric Fiber material: oxides, carbon-graphitea, (felt) oxygen-free compounds; porosity 50-99 percent; ~ relative thermal conductivity~t/~p�0.1-0.001 III.2 Fabric Low strength. High Heat resistance III.3 Composite Porosity 30-70 percent. Enhanced atrength and rigidity ~ Heat-Shielding Devices IV. Barrier < Material: oxides, graphites; heat resistance to IV.1 Facing 2500�C; thermal conductivity 0.5-10 w/(m�K) (lining) ~ IV.2 Coatings Material: oxides, metals, metal-like cermets - ~ (carbides, borides, nitrides) and ceramic-like _ ~ cermets (SiC, BN, etc); heat resistance to � 3 3000�C ~ V. Heat-radiating ~ . ` " ' V,1 "Hot" design _ V.2 "Cold" design " . , ;f' ' VI Heat-absorbing. , VI.1 Passive heat . N absorbera VI.2 Active cooling ~ systems: /!n cooling by sweat- -a ing J,~~ film cooling - ~i',a VII Self-destructive i~~~ n . ~ A n. (ablation) _ VII.1 Non-carbontzing n a c. i VII.2 Carbonizing _ ~ = Note: :l screen; H-- insulation; T.n. heat absorber; f1.M. porous materia~; 0-- coolant; A.M. ablation material; O.c. carbonizing (or permeable) = layer 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500020043-7 FOR OF~ICIA1, l1SE ONLY The principal characteristics of heat-insulating materials are their maximuui oPerat- ing temperature and coefficient of thermal conductivity. High-temperature insulating~materials can be subdivided into four groups on the basis of temperature level: 1. With a maximum operating temperature up to 700�C. These include many general-use construction and industrial insulating materials, organic and inorganic: mineral wool, glasa wool, cellular concretes, foamglass, asbestos, sovelite, kaolin and other heat-insulating materials. - 2. Refractory, fibrous and loose insulating materials with a maximum operat- ing temperature to 1750�C, chiefly based on oxide ceramics of Si02, A1203, MgO, Zr02, ZrSi04, lightweight fireclay and silica brick insulation. 3. Highly refractory porous insulation materials with a maximu.m operating temperature to 2300-2500�C of cor~mdum, magnesite, chrome-magnesite and zirconium dioxide, as well as of highly refractory oxides of beryllium, yttrium, scandium, etc. 4. Especially high-temperature insu~ating materials with a maximum operating temperature in excess of 2500�C. Insulation of this group is made of carbon- graphitic materials, based on refractory metals and their compounds and allays, as well as of certain oxides: Th02, Hf02. Commercially manufactured heat-insulating materials of the first two groups [158- 160] [bibliography not included] are currently classified not by coeffic�ient of ~ thermal conductivity but by volumetric mass. They are subdivided into grades (15- 700) according to voTumetric mass (kg/m3). The coefficient of thermal conductivity of c~nventional heat-insulating materials at room temperature ranges from 0.03 to - 0.17 w/(m�K) for moderately efficient and to 0.25 w/(m�K) for low-efficiency in- sulating materials. ~ ~ This estimate shifts considerably in especially high-temperature heat insulating mate- rials. In the temperatuve ra~ 2000-3000�C a thermal conductivity of 2-6 w/(m�K) - is generally considered.satisfactory, while insulation with a thermal conductivity of 1-2 w/(m�K) is considered very eff ective. Therefore in a number of instances certain highly porous materials are examined in this book, which were not designed specifically for utilization as insulation but possess low tyermal condect~fvit~~e All insulating materials can be subdivided into four basic t pes by typ p structure (see Table 1)0 The first type includes certain nonporous materials possessing low thermal con- ductivity at high temperatures. A thermal conductivity of less than 6 w/(m�K) at a temperature of more than 1800�C can be claimed by many oxides: Hf02, Th02, U02, _ Zr02, Y203, Sc203, A1203 [6]. Some pyrolytic anisotropic materials possess satisfactory heat-insulating proper- ties [7~< 2-3 w/~t$K)l in a direction normal to the surface of deposition: various - kinds of pyrographite at 2500-2800�C, and boron pyronitride at temperatures up to 2000�C. 26 FOR OFFIL'YAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 NOR OI~FIC'IA1. l1SF ONI.? The other kind~ of heat-insulating materials achieve a reduction in thermal con- _ ductivity as a ~onsequence of their porosity. An extensive class of highly porous insulating materials (Type II) can be subdivided into several groups: powder, cullular, cellular-powder, and foam. The porosity of powder (granular) materials (T~pe II.1), with loose pouring or ~sintering of tightly packed grains does not exceed 0.3-0.6. Loose powder insulat- ing materials possess low thermal conductivity due to considerable thermal ~ resistances in the contacta between individual particles. Tnerefore not only poor- ly conducting oxide but also carbon-graphite, carbide and other powders the intrinsic thermal conductivity of which is high are employed in these materials. Friable cellular-powder loose materials (Type II.4), the porosity of which is 0.7-0.9, . - possess even less conductive thermal conductivity. in these materials, however, as a con~;?quence of an increase in size d of the cellular pores, there is a sub- stantial increase in heat transfer by radiation between particles, a multiple of d and T3. One substantial limitation in the employment of powder and other porous insulating material with a large active surface figure is the considerable ablation as a consequence.of vaporization and elevated temperatures. The refractory _ metals tungsten, rhenium, niobium, molybdenum, dense graphite, and carbides of , tantalum, niobium, hafnium, and zirconium possess the lowest rate of evaporation in a vacuum. For example, the vaporizability of particles of tungsten 200 microns in diameter (specific surface fsP=1.65 x 10-3 m2/g) at 2500�C is 0.5%/h. The rate of removal oi like particles of zirconium dioxide at 2500�C is significantly greater up to 97%/h. Usually removal of 20% of mass is considered allowable in estimating resource of loose powders, just as other highly porous insulating materials. We should note that the rate of eyaporation of mater~als in an inert gas is as a rule 5 to 10 times less than in a vacuum. In addition, as a consequence of the�low heat conductivity of powder insulating materials, temperature in these mat~rials drops off sharply through the.thickness of the layer. Widely used cellular-powder materials with a porosity of up to 0.9 possess excellent hea.t-insulating properties; they are obtained mostly from oxides by the methods of gasification, expansion, o~~ introduction of burning additives. The best materials of this type can operate at temperatures up to 2300�C and have a thermal conductivj.ty of not more than 1-2 w/(m�K). Employment of highly porous insulating materials in stressed structures i~ limited due to the sharp decrease in strength and creep resistance. Foam materials, which can be manufactured today out of practically all refractory substances, possess superior mechanical properties. Successes achieved in this area have made it possible to obtain highly effective foam thermal insulating materials (Type II.S) graphite foams, carbide foams and others with a porosity of up to - 0.85-0.99 and a coefficient of thermal conductivity of 2-3 w/(m�K). The principal methods of obtaining them are based on utilization of carbonizing plastic foams. Highly porous heat insulating materials based on ceramic 3nd carbon microspheres - have become particularly widespread. ~ - The class of fibrous insulating materials (Type III) is developing the most inten- sively at the present time. Fibrous insulating materials combine excellent heat- insulating properties and convenience of utilization in the form of flexible mats, sheets, felt pads, and cloths. Fibrous insulating materials possess mechanical 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY ~ ~>ro~~erties whlch are superior to cellular and other highly porous materials of ec;ual porosity. Materials of high-temperature heat-shie lding systems can be broken down into heat- shield barrier f acings, radiation-type heat-dispersing systems, heat-absorbing systems, and self-destr~:ction (ablation) coatings. Thick-walled barrier-type facings. In rnany furnaces, high-temperature flues and ' combustion chambers the metal or cerami c structure which forms the hot cavity should be faced with a more highly ref ractory layer. Such a layer, assembled of separate prefabricated components, serves to protect the main load-bearing structure from the effect of hot gases, mel~ts, and abrasive particles. It is made of heat- resistant oxides, non-oxide ceramics, metals, and carbon-graphites. A refractory facing of oxides is extensively employed in melting refractory metals, in aerospace vehicles as jet and rocket engine exhaust nozzle inserts, and to heat-shield leading edges and nose cones which heat to 220 0-2750�C. The majority of oxide refractory linings are also heat insulators, which reduce heat losses to the environment, and therefor e should possess minimal thern?al conductivity. Considerable efforts are directed at reducing brittleness and increasing the heat resistance of oxide linings. This is achieved as a xesult of reinforcing oxides with metal, oxide, and nitride filaments, impregn~~tion with resins and thickening with pyrolytic carbon, as well as creat ion of a microcrack structure. Thin barrier-type coatings can be single and multiple layer, and in chemical com- position can be metal, cermet (meta~-1 ike and ceramic-like), oxide and silicate. In the simplest case a heat--shielding coating is formed directly on a metal surface. Some coatings possess comparatively po or thermal conductivity and can appreciably reduce the heat flow to the shielded metal structure. Heat-insulating properties are improved with the application of porous coatings, by plasma vaporization coating, for example. Employment of refractory metals (molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum) as heat-shielding coatings and layers is connected with their high operating temperature, low volatility in a vacuum and in gases, and high reflectivi- ty. Refractory metal coatings deposi t ed on graphite from gaseous phase improve its gasti~ltness, wear resistance and eros ion resistance in high-temperature oxygen- free environments. Crystalline oxide coatings are extens ively employed as heat-insulating coatings. Drawbacks of oxide coatings include po or heat resistance, brittleness, poor - coh~sion with protected surfaces~ and limited refractoriness. - Many metal-like and ceramic-like cerme t coatings possess high hardness, resistance _ to wear, and refractoriness. Coatings of inetal-like compounds based on silicides, - borides, and carbides of d-transition metals possess comparatively high thermal conductivity, which ensures their heat resistance, but their heat-insulating properties are diminished. Of special interest among heat-shielding coatings based on ceramic-like compounds with h igh refractoriness and resistance to wear are coatings of pyrolytic boron nitride, boron carbonitride, a-SiC, A1N. Radiation-type heat-dispersing systems are suitable for shielding against large radiant flows. An equilibrium temperature can be achieved in a thin outer layer 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420043-7 FnR OFFICIAI. IJSF, ONLY witl? i~Lgti rei~lectivity, whereby the bulk of the arriving heat flow is reflected back into the surrounding medium. Heat insulation is one of the component elements in these systems. With interior placement of insulation, a metal power- _ generation structure facing shields is subjected to external heat flows. Such a design is sometimes called "h~t" (Type V.1). Exterior facing can be of smooth o~ corrugated metal sheets with protective coatings, equipped with stiffeners, in the form of girders or honeycombs, fcr example. Facing can be uncooled or have supple- mentary cooling, but in all cases the exterior surf ace should have high radiating - capacity or reflectivity. A"cold" design is extensively employed, especially in electric furnaces, a design in which the heat insulation proper is subjected to external heating, this insula- tion being placed on the surface of a metal shell (Type V.2), or heat insulation _ faced with a denser lining, which also has comparatively poor thermal conductivity. Cther types of high-temperature heat-sl~ielding systems heat-absorbing and self- destruction (ablation), which are characterized by short duration of operation, ~ characteristic chiefly of space hardware, are not examined in this volume; informa- - tion on formulas and the mechanism of destruction of the principal classes of these lieat-shielding coatings is given in [14]. Therefore we shall limit ourselves to _ the classification in Table l. Heat-absorbing devices include systems which employ passive heat absorbers, with - gas and hydrodynamic cooling, as well as containing partially removed materials. Systems with passive heat absorbers are based on utilization of the heat capacity of a material possessing high values of specific heat and coefficient of thermal conductivity. In addition to accumulation of heat due to a material's heat capaci- ty, part of ttie applied heat is radiated by the exterior surface. High thermal conductivity is essential for uniform heating of the heat absorber, avoiding sub- stantial temperature fluctuations. To prevent intensive heat transfer to the protec~ed structure, addition insulation is placed between it ar.d the heat d~sorber (Type VI.1). Heat absorbers employed for heat shielding can operate for a very short period of time. With very high thermal loads and high friction stresses, active gas- and - hydrodynamic cooling systems are employed (Type VI.2). They include cooling sys- tems in which cooling agent is fed into the flow through porous material, and sys- tems with film cooling. Heat-insulating materials employed in the range 1500-1700�C are not examined in this volume, since they are described in detail in [158-160]. The same applies to the manufacturing process and pr.operties of commercially-manufactured highly - refractory oxide materials discussed in books written by prominent Soviet in- vestigators [2, ~6, 19, 21, 130]. Principal attention in this volume is devoted to especially high-temperature materials, including those based on oxygen-free compounds and graphites, which make it possible to achieve operating temperatures of 3000-3500�C, including the most effective fibrous, cellular-powder, foam and multiple-screen insulating materials. 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USF. ONLY Selection of an optimal (for specific applications) type and parameters of heat- insulating materials, as well as a scientifically substantiated area of technology in developing a new heat insulating material with specified properties is possible , only if one takes into account the functional relationship between the physical- mechanical properties of the material and the specific features of its concrete porous structure. Toward this end the book undertakes to examine various properties of the basic types of porous bodies based on an analysis of their generalized structural models. In view of the complexity and diversity of actual porous structures, such a model analysis cannot be considered completed. The aim of this work was further development of theory and practice of especially high- temperature insulating materials on the basis of a critical examination, synthesis and classification of the la~est advances in this field. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgiya", 1981 3024 CSO: 1842/33 ~ _ 30 ~ FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USF. ON1.Y MISCELLANEOUS UDC: 629.12.002.3(075.3) MATERIALS SCIENCE AND SHIPBUILDING Leningrad MATERIALOVEDENIYE DLYA SUDOSTROITELEY in Russian 1981 (signed to press 24 Jun 81) pp 4-6, 246-248 [Introduction and table of contents from book "Materials Science for Shipbuilders", � by Viktor Vasil'yevich Andreyev, Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 18,000 copies, 248 pages] [TextJ INTRODUCTION Various materials, the number of which is increasing year by year, are utilized in the shipbuilding industry. In the past ships were,constructed of wood, and it was not until the 19th century that iron began to be employed in building ship hulls, and later Bessemer and open- hearth steel plate. Up until approximately 1945 carbon ste~el was the principal material in Soviet hull construction. After the Great Patriotic War low-alloy steel began to be extensively employed for ships' hulls. Today almost all large vessels are built of high-grade carbon and low-alloy steels. Aluminum-magnesium alloys began to be utilized in shipbuilding in the 1930's. Earlier attempts had also been made to use aluminum alloys. At the end of the 19th century, for example, torpeda boats ~aere built in Russia of aluminum alloys, but they failed to receive recognition at that time due to poor corrosion resistance and strength. Extensive employment of high-strength and corrosion- resistant aluminum-magnesium alloys in the shipbuilding industry began in the 1950's. - Structural components made of these alloys weigh half as much as corresponding steel ones. This makes it possible to increase a vessel's load-carrying capacity, to increase its speed or lessen the horsepower of the propulsion units. These alloys are used in building ship superstructures, hulls of hydrofoil vessels, rescue vessels, etc. Extensive employment of new materials, such as plastics, is a characteristic feature of modern shipbuilding. A ship is a complex man-made structure, construction of which requires a large quanti- ty of diversified materials: carbon and alloy steels, aluminum-magnesium alloys, - titanium and titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, cast iron, concrete, wood, plastics, paints and varnishes, etc. 31 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFI('IA1. USE ONLY Material is selected on the basi_s of the requirements imposed on a vessel, - structure or component part (mechanical strength, durability, economy, reliability, etc). By making a correct choice, one can increase a vessel's reliability and service life, increase its speed and load-carrying capacity, reduce its weight, reduce operating coscs, reduce cost of construction and increase labor productivity in construction. A mastery of materials science will help determine the question of the suitability of the inaterial for specific purposes. - Materials science is the science which investigates the composition, methods of producing, physical, chemical and mechanical pr.operties, methods of heat treatment and combination chemical and heat treatment of materials, as well as their function. Ttie fundamentals of this aci,ence were laid down in~the third decade of the 19th century, when a general concept was formed of the structure of inetals and alloys and when commercial methods were developed for producing steel and the fundamentals of heat treatment were elaborated. From that time forward physical metallurgy began to assume increasing importance in determining questions of the suitability of metals for various uses, production of alloys with specified properties, imparting to them the required properties with the aid of heat treatment and combination chemical and heat treatment, etc. The fundamentals of theory and the scientifically substantiated technology of heat treating steel were laid down in the writings of D. K. Chernov (1839-1921) on the metallograph}~. of iron and steel, which gained international recognition. He also developed the theory of crystallization, created one of the most advanced - quenching methods isothermal hardening, and pointed out the advantages of crystal- lization under pressure and centrifugal casting. The biggest discovery of the 19th century was the periodic law of D. I. Mendeleyev (1834-1907), which enables one to establish the relationship between properties, composition and structure of inetals and to predict change in both physicochemical . and mechanical properties. ' Further successes in physical metallurgy are inseparably linked with the names of Soviet scientists N. A. Minkevich, S. S. Shteynberg, N. T. Gudtsov, N. S. Kurnakov, A. A. Baykoa, A. A. Bochvar, G. V. Kurdyumov, and many others. Today plastics and other nonmetallic materials are utilized throughout the economy, ~ the creation of which became possibZe thanks to the work of A. M. Butlerov on theory of the cliemical structure of organic compounds; S. 9. Lebedev, who demonstrated the possibility of the commercial manufacture of synthetic rubber; V. A. Kargin, who performed structural investigations of pol.ymeric materials, and others. The 26th CPSU Congress assigned industry large tasks. For example, the "Principal Directions of Economic and Social Llevelopment of the USSR for 1981 and 1985 and the Period up to 1990" specify that the ferrous metallurgical industry is to prQduce in 1985 117-120 ~.illion tons of finished rolled ferrous metal products. Cold- rolled sheet output is to increase by 50-150 percent. Electric furnace steel production is to increase by 60 percent; in nonferrous metallurgy aluminum output J 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020043-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY is to increase by 15-20 percent, copper by 20-25 percent, nickel and cobalt by not less than 30 percent, with a production increase in zinc, lead, titanium, magnesium, precious metals, as well as tungsten and molybdenum concentrates, niobium and other alloying elements; in the chemical and petrochemic2l industry there is to be an in- crease in production of synthetic rubbers, replacing natural rubber, with increased production of high-grade polymers with prescribed technical characteristics. Im- proving the quality of produced materials and their economical utilization in the economy are no less important tasks. CONTENTS Page A.uthor's Note 3 Introduction 4 Section Une. Fundamentals of Physical Metallurgy Chapter I. Basic Information on Metals and Their Alloys 7 1. General Information on Metals and Their Alloys 7 _ 2. Internal Structure of Meta].s and Their Alloys 8 3. Constitutional Diagrams of Alloys 12 4. Methods of Studying the Structure of Metals and Alloys 14 Chapter II. Properties of Metals ~-7 S. Physical Properties of Metals 17 6. Chemical Properties of Metals 21 7. Corrosion of Shipboard Structures 24 8. Methods of Protecting Metals Against Corrosion 26 9. Mechanical Properties of Metals 29 10. Testing Metals for Tensile Strength 32 11. Testing Metals for Hardness 36 12. Testing Metals for Toughness 42 13. Testing Metals for Fatigue Strength (Fatigue Resistance) 44 14. Calculating Strength of Machine Parts and Structures 46 15. Processing Properties of Metals 47 Chapter III. Production of Pig Iron 50 - 16. Starting Materials for Producin~ Pig Iron SO 17. The Blast Furnace and Its Auxiliary Devices 51 18. Blast Furnace Operation 53 Chapter IV. Cast Irons 56 _ 19. Effect of Impurities on Properties of Cast Irons 56 2J. White and Gray Cast Irons 57 21., Al1oy Cast Irons 60 Chapter V. Steelmaking 62 33 _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FOR OFFIC'IAI. IISF nNLY 22. General Information on Steelmaking 62 23. Converter Steelmaking 63 24. Open-Hearth Steelmaking 67 25. Electric Fu,~.nace Steelmaking 26. 1'~uring Steel 27. Ingot Crystallization ~ 75 Chapter VI. Steels 28. Classification of Steels 29. Carbon Structural Steels 83 30. Alloy Structural Steels 89 31. Carbon Tool Steels 9~ 32. Alloy and High-Speed Tool Steels 93 33. Special Steels and Alloys 95 34. Clad Steels 99 Chapter VII. Nonferrous Metals and Their Alloys 101 35. General 101 36. Copper 101 ~ 37. Brass 101 ~ 38. Bronze 105 j 39. Nickel, Copper-Nickel and Nickel Alloys 107 I 40. Aluminum ~ 108 41. Forming-Quality Aluminum Alloys 110 42. Aluminum Casting Alloys ~ 113 43. Magnesium and Its Alloys 114 44. Titanium and Its Alloys 115 - 45. Refractory Metals and Their Alloys 119 ~ 46. Tin, Lead and Their Alloys ' Chapter VIII. Obtaining Metal Semifinished Products 122 47. General 122 48. Producing Ingots 122 49. Rolling 125 50. Types of Rolled Stock and Its Grading 12~ 51. Wire Drawing 134 52. Pressworking 135 53. Forging . 137 Chapter IX. Heat Treating Carbon-lron Alloys 140 54. General Information on Heat Treatment 140 55. Constitutional Diagram of Carbon-Iron Alloys 141 56. Conditions of Heat Treatin, Carbon-Iron Alloys 147 57. Annealing ~ 148 58. Normalizin~ 150 59. Quenching ~ 1S0 60. Tempering 153 61. General Information on Combined Chemical Treatment and Heat Treatment 154 3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 FnR OF'FICIAI. USE ONLY Chapter X. Hard Alloya and Cermet Materials 157 62. Hard Alloys 157 63. Cermet Materials 159 Section Ztao. Nonmetallic Materials Chapter XI. Plastics 161 64. General Information on Plastics 161 65. Types and Properties of Plastics 162 66. Methoda of Producing Finished Goods and Semifiniahed Products of Plastics 167 67. Employment of Plastica in Shipbuilding 170 Chapter XII. Rubber Materials and Glues 173 - 68. Rubber Materials 173 69. Glues 175 _ Chapter XIII. Paints and Varnishes 178 70. Use and Basic Components of Paints and Varnishes 178 71. Basic Types of Paints and Varnishes 180 Chapter XIV. Lubricants ~83 72. General Information on Lubricante ~ 183 73. Lubricants for Launching Waya 187 Chapter XV. Abrasive Materials 189 74. Uses and Types of Abrasive Materials 189 75. Abrasive Tools 191 Chapter XVI. Ceramic Materials and Glass 194 76. Ceramic Materials 194 _ 77. Glass 195 Section Three. Special Materials (Additional Materials Employed in Shipbuilding) Chapter XVII. Wood and Wood Materials 197 � 78. Employment o� Wood in Shipbuilding and I~s Properties , 197 79. Types of Wood Materials Employed in Shipbuilding 199 Chapter XVIII. Concrete 202 80. General Information on Concrete 202 35 F(1R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7 - FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY 204 81. Employment of Concrete in Shipbuilding 206 Chapter XIX. Insulating Materials 206 82. Uses of Insulating Materials 207 83�. Types of Insulating Materials Employed in Shipbuilding 21~ - Chapter XX. Materials for Facing Interior Spaces and Covering Decks 211 - 84. Materials for Facing Interior Spaces 213 85. Materials for .Coveri~tg Decks 217 Chapter XXI. Sealing Materials aad Fasteners ~ 217 86. Sealing Materials 22p 87. Fasteners 224 Chapter XXII. Welding Materials 224 g8. Materials for Arc Welding 234 89. Materials for Gas Welding 236 Chapter XXIII. Materials of Nuclear Reactors 236 90. Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors 239 91. Nuclear Fuel and Heat-Transfer Agents ~ 242 Appendix 1. Laboratory Study Activities Appendix 2. Correlation Between U~tits of the SI System Used in This Book, 244 Units of Other Systems, and Other Units 245 Bibliography COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1981 3024 ~ CSO: 1842/3 9 36 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020043-7