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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10280 25 January 1982 Translation OPERaTOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY IN. MAN-MACH;NE SYSTEMS By K.A. Ivanov-Muromskiy, et al. 9 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020049-1 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials frnm foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets - are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicatP how the original information was processed. Where no pr.ocessing indicator is given, the infor- = mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically .,r transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINA'TION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USH: ONI.Y I CPERATQR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY . IN MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS JPRS L/10280 25 January 1982 Kiev PSIKHOFIZ?GLOGIYA OPERATORA V SISTEMAKH CHELOVEK-NIASHINA in Russian 1980 (signed to press 23 Nov 79) pp 2-342 [Book "Operator Psychophysiology in Man-Machine Systems" by Kirill Aleksandrovich Ivanov-Muromskiy, Oksana Nikolayevna Luk'yanova, Valentin Aleksandrovich Chernomorets, Konstantin Vladimirovich Lyudvichek, Vladimir Yevgen'yevich Alekseyev, and Dmitriy Ivanovich Chus', Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences and Order of Lenin Institute of Cybernetics, Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka", 2,350 copies, 344 pages] CONTENTS Anno t at ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter l. Labor and the Laboring Peison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1. ThE Origin and Development of SOL [Scientific Organi:.ation - of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2. Classifications of the Types of Human Labor Activity 11 - 1.3. Scientific Organization of the Schedule cf I,abor and Rest . 13 1.4. Vocational Guidance, Vocational Selection, and Vocational Suitability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 2. Investigating the Psychophysiological Characteristics and Social Orientation of the Individual . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter 3. Some Aspects of Evaluating the Activity of the Human Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 = 3.1. Psychophyeiological Prerequisites for the Quality of Human Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.2. Human Functions in Ergatic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3. Objective Methods of Evaluating Operator Work Capability 52 3.4. Description of Operator Activity and Evaluation of Its Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 - a - [I - USSR - C FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY ~ Ctiapter 4. State of tlie Urganism and Operator Activity in a Stress Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 ~ 4.1. Changes in the Organism During Stress . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4.2. Laboratory Model of the Stress Situation . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.3. Studying Operator Reliability in a Real Situation 120 Chapter 5. Modeling Operator Activity and Some Aspects of Its Practical Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.1. Classification of Models of Operator Activity 157 5.2. Synthesizing Mathematical Models cf Operator Activi`y 162 5.3. Situational Physical Models of Operator Activity 193 5.4. The Use of Models of Operator Activity for Expert Ergonomic Evaluation of Ergatic Systems . . . . . . . . . 199 5.5. The Use of Models of Operator Activity To Predict the Professional Success of ASU Operators 207 Chapter 6. Methods of Processing Physiological Data on the State of the Human Operator in Specialized Technical Units 211 6.1. Brief Analysis of the Physiological Parameters and Characteristics of the 5tate of a Person 212 - 6.2. Methods of Processing Electrograms in Technical Diagnosis Systems . ; � � � � � � � ' ' ' 219 6.3. Some Questions of PreliminaryProcessing of Electrograms 223 6.4. Sequential-Parallel Analysis of the Shape of a Curve Based on Expansion According to Base Functions 227 6.5. Encoding Time Functions by Artificial Neuron Nets Accdrding to Their Informative Signs . . . . . . � � � � � 239 6.6: Neuron Analyzer of OpeYator Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Chapter 7. The Fundamentals of Buildin$ Complex Bioelectronic . . . . . 253 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Appendix 1. Program of the Simulation Psychophysiological Model of Operator Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . � � � . � � � 268 Appendix 2. Program of the Simulation Information Model of Opera tor Group Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 - Appendix 3. Symbols of Variables in Information Simulation Model of Group Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Bibliogr aphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 89 - b - FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OF FtCIAL USE ONLY _ [Text] Annotation Research in recent years has graphically demonstrated the need to give spec;al . attention to the problem of raising the reliability of the "human factor" in control systems of varying complexity and purpose. Man-machine systems are much less efficient if the operators do not perform the duties assigned to them. This monograph presents results from monitoring the condit'Lon of the operator under experimental conditions, modifiee physical experimento, and tn the human work situation in production. These findings were obtained ttirough the combined efforts of physiologists, engineers, and mathemeticians. The book is intended for specialists working in the fields of ergonomica, human factors engineering, and differential psychophysiology. The book has 81 illustrationa, 10 tables, and a Fiibliography that runs from page 314 to 343. . Foreword Research in the field of neurobionics has become one of the most timely challenges of contemporary science and technology as the result of numerous factors: the accelerating pace of scientific-technical progress, tbe extensive development and introduction of general and enterprise automated control systems and tfie resultiing need to improve the reliability of the man-macfiine system by ins-u:^ing the reliability of the "human factor," the fight against nerve and psychol')gical illnesses caused by the steadily tncreasing stresses on the human nervous aystem, 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 POR OFFICIAL USF. ONLY and the search for possihilities of using the "concealed reserves" of the human brain. The achievements of scientific-technical progress contrast starkly aritfi the capa- - bility of human beings to control tfi e functions of the human Tirain, in particular - such complex functions as emotions, me?nory, and tfiinking. Tfie reason for this is that we have insufficient information on the mechanisms of brain activity and - do not have effective and adequate techniques for exercising a controlled influ- ence on the nervous system as a whole and on the brain in particular. Study of the role of the "human factor" in man-uachine systems has become par- ticularly important in recent years. This is related both to the fundamental aspect of the problem and to purely applied nuestions. With respect to the general anproach to solving the problem, "the conception of full automation of information processing, which arose in the exrly daya of the development of cybernetics and computer technology, has not wittistood the test of time chiefly in connection with creative problems.i1 (This does not mean we agree that complet.e automation 1,7 i.mpossible in general. But at the present time, the only way to set up qualitatively complex information procESSing systems is by de- vising man-machine systems.) The problem of the artificial intellect occupies a significant place in pure - research and development. Neurobionicists here are interested cfiiefly in the system and structural foundationsof the organization of the activity of the natsral intellect. ~ On the level of working out the biological foundations of the artificial in- tellect our collective has attempted tto study and model fiuman befiavior in the process of decision-making and learn about human ps;chopitysiology in conditions - where the distinctive features of self-regulation of higher nervous activity resulting from genotypic and sociological factors ar2 most vividly manifested, - in particular under conditions of stres= - In working out the foundations of the artificial inteilect it is important to insure optimal interarition of the huroan being and thc machine so that, as V. M. Glushkov observed, "each side gets room to use its own best talents." In the applied sense the "human factor," as a term tfiat appeared in the very beginning of the development of ergonomics and human factors engineering, has recently been formulated as follows: "Human factors are integral character- - istics of the link between the human being and the machine which manifest themselves in concrete conditions of intPraction &etween them during the func- tioning of a man-macfiine system related to achievement of a concrete goal. But the characteristics and properties that are embraced by the concept of human 1Glushkov, V. M. et al, "Chelovek i Vycfiislitel'naya Tekhnika" [The Human Being and the Computer], Kiev, "Naukova Dumka", 1971, 272 pages. _1 2. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 EOR 4FFICIAL USE ONLY factora are not diatinct, separate qualitiea of the components of the man- - machine system, but rather ite aggregate, apstem qualities."2 "Human factors, underatood as the key integral characteriatics of the man-macfiine system, thus represent a certai.n superposition of the initial indicators, and correspondingly also represent fixed or dynamic functional links components of.tfie man- machine spstem.r3 If the term "human facror" is tranBlated into.the language of objective statis- tics, we o6tain some very impresaive figures. Thus, onlp 8-16 percent of the persons employed in the different sectore of production meet the requirements with reapect to psycfiopfiysiological characterietics. This factor is responsible for more than 40 percent of the higfiaraq accidents, 65 percent of the ' industrial injuries and accidenbs in deep underground coal mtning, and 80-90 percent of the violations of operating conditi:ons at thermal power plantg.4 An analysis of 545 aviatton disasters in the United States (based on information in the foreign press) shDwed th$t 50 percent of these disasters occuired because the aircraft design did not correspond to the psychophysioZogical capabilitiea of human beings, the pilot had inadequate flying skill, the func2ional state of the organism was disturbed, or the level of psycFiological readYness fur flying was low. According to information from the United Nations, 72-80 percent of highway accidents, which kill 250,000 pereone a year and iiLjure 7 million, occur through human fault. In 63.3 percent of the cases wfiere shipe collide and aink human error is also at fault. It is for precisely thie reason that we have concentrated our attenrion on the questiona of human work in extreme coaditions of the man-macFiine system, in 6io- technical systema, on modeling the activity of the liuman operator, and on developing a system-structural approach to atudying the reliability of human oper- ators which envisions an evaluation oE their actions from the aociological, psychological, and phyeiological standpotnts. During tfiis we consider predicting ~ human acti.ons based on evaluations of the individual's personality traits and current states. At the same time we attempted to automate the processing of lata - from psychophysiological and seminatural experiments and the results of study of ' human activity under work condittons. All of thpse studi,~s are the basis for the next atage of our development work: using neuroelectronic systems for learning and practical purposes. The lst International Conference "Bionics-75" recognized the creation of bio- technical systems, in particular neuroelectronic systems, as one of the princi:pal areas of development of bionics. Reaearch is being done in this area on 2 Munipov, V. M., "The Cuzrent State and Developmental Trenda of Ergonomice and Human Factors Engineering," VOPROSY PSIKHOLOGII 1978, p 60. 3 Ibid., p 61. 4 See, for example, V. A. Buzunov et al, "Phystological and Psycholagical Crtteria for Occupational Selection in Occupations That Make Special Demands on the Organ- ism," in "Tez. Dokl. 10-go S"yezda Ukr. Fiziol. 0-va" [Abstracts of Reports at the lOth Congress of the Ukrainian Physiology Society], Kiev, 1977, pp 1-42. ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFii'IAL USE ONY,Y different planes and the results desexve our attention.s The systems tfiat en- vision active influence by physical and cfismical factors directly on the sufi-- atructures of the Firain fiave even more interesttng prospects. Our studies fit into the area of such disciplines as fiuman factors engineering and psychological bionics, about wfiich V. V. Parin, F. P. KosnolinEkiy, and B. A. Dushkov nave very accurately said; "One of the significant problems of fiuman factors engineering is devising reliaFile gys.tems of self-control and self- . regulation for machines wfiile the Tiuman operator continues to perform monitoring functions; this requires study and description of tfiQ mental processes in order to reproduce (model) them in tecfinical devices and thereby transfer a number of functions to the machine."6 These problems are matters for us tn study later, al- though there is every reason to fiope for significant results. ~ The present monograph is a summary of research done by physiologists, engineers, and mathematicians. The first two chapters and section one of cTiapter four were written by 0. N. Luk'yanova and are devoted to labor, methods of identifying psychophysiological properties, the social orientation o� the individual, and describing the state of operator activtty in a stress situation. The third chap- _ ter, written by V. A. qhernomorets, deacribes the problem of increasing the efficiency of operator activity. The fourth chapter presents findings obtained from work under the direction of the author of these lines (K. A. Ivanov- Muromskiy) by the collective of the division of neurobionics of the Institute of - Cybernetics of the Ultrainian SSR Academy of Sciences under both experimental and actual working conditions. The fifth chapter contains results from tlie work of K. V. Lyudvichek and V. Ye. Alekseyev on modeling operator activity. Tlie model of group activity by operators is, eapecially interesting tn this part of the book. ~ Working in close contact with the bionics laboratory of KWIAU [possiFly Kiev Higher Military Aviation Engineering School], we considered it uaeful for the book to include findings obtained by D. I. Chus', a member of this coliective (in chapter six). The final chapter, written by K. A. Ivanov--Muromskiy with the help of Yu. V. Paramonov, is devoted to the future prospects of our activity, to the use of neuroelectronic systems wiiose principles our collECtive has been developing since 1967. 5 See, fc.r example, K. A. Ivanov--Muromakiy and Yu. V. Paramonov, "Ways to Realize Complex Siotechnical Systems," VISN. AN URSR, 1472, Vyp 11, pp 33-40; K. A. Ivanov-Muromskiy, "Elektromagnitnaya Siologiya" [Electromagnetic Biology], Kiev, "Naukova Dumka", 1477; N. V. Cfiernigovskaya, A. S. Putskerman, and S. Patolichchio, "Features of Dtrected Regulation of the Human Alpha Rfiythm with the Use of Feedback," ZHURN. VYSSHEY NERVNOY DEYATELtNOSTI 1978, No 3, pp 547-556. 6"Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Meditsina" jSpace Stology and Medicine], Moscow, "Prosveshcheniye", 1970, p 143. -4 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR aFFIC1AL USE ONLY The authors express their gratitude to assoctates in the division of neuxohionics at the Institute of CyFiernetics of tTis Ukrainian SSR Academy oi Sciences who took part in designing the data processing systems, discusstng and plaiuttng the ex- periments, and mathematical processing of tfieir results: E. T. Golovant, Yu. V. Paramonov, I. D. Ponomareva, T. A. Berezanets, T. M. Semik, L. T. Shumilina, M. D. - Lobkova, T. M. Zyuganova, B. F. Sinel'nik, N. Ye, Afanasenko, and P. A. Petrenko, and also to A. N. Yanina for help in tecfinical preparation of tfie-manuscript. Professor R. A. Ivanov-Muromskiy 5, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 1. Labor and the Laboring Person Labor and labor activities have been with humanity from the fieginning. Lafior is the great calling and means of self--expression of each individual person. People labor all their conscious livQS in some field of social activity, attempting to reveal their talents as fully as possible. If a balance is found between indi- vidual capacities and the requirements of everyday activity, tfie person receives maximum satisfaction from the chosen form of la6or. Tfiis is a rule for any person, for any occupation. It is in precisely thts form of activity tbat a person can attain the heights of perfection. Labor is always "functions of the human organism, and eacfi.sucfi function, no matter what form and content it may fiave, is essenttally an expenditure of the human brain, nerves, muacles, sense organs, and the like." [1] Human heings carry on the procesa of labor using different technical devices which have ranged historically from the stone axe to tfie contemporary computer. Re- finement of the forme of interaction between the human Being and the technology has altered the requirements which the labor process makes of the human 6eing. Whereas the initial labor procese demanded that a person expend energy in tfie form of muscular force, at the present time people perform cfiief ly information functions, monitoring, programming, and controlling them. The refiaement of the labor procesa has hrought about a lowering of the pfiysical requirements of the human organism and increased the importance of the psychophysiological traits of the individual. For this reason, studying tfie activity of the human operator is highly relevant today. . Considering the human being aa a labortng individual K. K. Platonov [5] singlea out four aspects: life experience, vocational trgtning, forms of inental re- flection, and biological and natural traits. We single out tfiree aspects: the social (species and individual experience, training), the psycliological (traita of reflection and thinking) , and the biological (characteristics of tfie func- tional systems of tfie organism). At tfie present time the problem of interaction fietween human fieings and technical devices in the labor process is studied by varioua types of specialists, while the problem itself has become part of the eub3ect matter of various ecientific disciplines; psycfiology, labor physiology and hygiene, human factors engineering, vocational psychology, differential psychophysiology, and cybernetics. -6 FOR OFF[CIAL IJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thus, we may draw the following conclusion: labor, which in K. Marx',s ex- pression [1, p 1811 is a form of regulating tYe exchange of matter between human beings and nature, is thus the natural function of the human betng and de-- fines a person's full human essence. In turn, the liuman esaence is revealed during labor activity. The spectfic labor process makes spectfic demands of the social and psychophyaiological cfiaracteristics of tTiQ individual; the indi- vidual, depending on his or her inherent traits, puts an individual imprint on _ the occupation and creates what ia called an indtvidual style. Tn otfier words, - we have a closed system: laboring person # labor, in wtiich are may tdentify hierarchical levels that differ in complexity. The tectiniques of investigating human labor acttvttiea and human interaction with technical devicea can be claseified on the baeie of vartous factore: what aspect of the indivi3ua1 they help to study - sociological, psychological, and physiological; how the technique ie accompliehed -subjective and objective; how the degree of approximation to a real situation is achieved questioning, laboratory modeling, sctual activitiea; how active a role the investigator takes - observation and experiment; and finally, the degree o.f complexity study of documents, questioning, observation, the labor method, experimentation, and testing. Research uaually begine with a atudy of documenta. In this case the inveati- gator becomes familiar with the autobiographical data of the teat subject and studiea the technology of the labor procees, descriptian of the equipment, and official records of the course of the labor proress, accidents, injuries, and the like. The next form of familiarization with the labor process and the laboring person is asking questions. This can be done in variaus forma, for example talking with ~ the employees or with his-or her fellow workers, chief, or manager. Tfie cenver- sation follows a prearranged plan. Answera to queatiAna that are of iriterest - may also be obtained by having a apecially developed queettonnaire ftlled out. Questionnaires are usually uaed for large-scale surveys. Under the questioning technique we should also include the many standardized test-questionnaires that aim at identifying (by behavioral reactions) certain personality traits. The best known of them are the Minnesota Multtpfiaeic and the Cattel and Taylor tests - [6, 7, 81. The shortcoming in the questioning tecitniques is the subjectivene3s of the information that the investigator recetves. A deeper study of the labor proceas, the requirements it imposes on human psycho- physiological traits, and the dynamica of the condition of tha ororking person is achieved in the stage of observation. Observation resulta can be r�-?re- sented in the form of a stenograpliic or other reports, motion picturea and photographs, time-and-motion studies, and the like. It is particularly important during observation to record the physiological indicators of the - state of the subject being studied. In arder to obtain more complete informa- tion on the state of the operator an effort should be made to record indicators of the activity of the primary functional systems of the organtsm: cardio- vascular system (electrocardiogram, measurements of arterial pressure and blood volume per minute), central nervous system (electroencephalogram, rheogram), 7, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the respiratory system (pneumogram), the muscular s.ystem (electromXogram), aad the involuntary nervous aystem (skin galvanic reflex). Additional information can be obtained by the labor tecfinique that was tiroadly propagated and em- ployed by Sovtet vocational psyc:hologists of the 1920''s- [5, 9]. In this technique the researchers themselves master the occupations tfiey are studying. The next stage in the study of human labor activities is the expPriment, which enables the investigator to test a Iiypothesis that is formulated on the basis of observation, identify the essential operator characteristics in situations of varying complexity, and so on. Two types of experiments are distinguished: = laboratory and natural. The laboratory experiment may involve aimulating actual activity (the synthetic experiment using trainers) or a particular operation (the analytic experiment with psychophysiological modeling). A laboratory experiment may also be done by mathematical modeling techniques where the investigator expressea the activities of the operator by means of formulas, equations, and the like derived on the - basis of the findings of specialized writings or preliminary experimente. By solving these formulas and equatiens the investigator is, so to epeak, studying human activities under particular.condiCiona. By comparing the results ob- tained with actuat events the investtgator can determine the extent to which the ffiathematical model corresponde to reality. The laboratory eAperiment also encompasses tests made to identify or determine the meaeure of a particular psycriophysiological trait of the operator ("achievement tes*_s"). Tests are _ "brief, standardized psychophysiological examinations to establish, for practical purpoaes, interpersonal differences in intellect and ao-called special capa- 1.__4-ties ["sposobnosti"], expressPd in comparable quantities"[37]. The test subject must perfcrm the action writh an assigned precision witbin a set time. The tests are given in open form (the "paper and pencil" test) and in the form of an assignment using specialized equipment [10]. The advantage of the labora- tory experiment lies in the possibility of receiving more accurate measurements - of the parameters that intereat�us; the weakness is that it is not conducted in a real situation. The natural experiment presupposes studies made right at the work positian, which makes this a.full-fledged method [5, 11]. T~ao types of experiments are distinguished depending on the purpose of the investigation. The first type contemplatea an investi.gation of. the behavior of the test suTi,ject when the investigator (unnoticed by the worker) causes some deviation from the usual - course of the tndustrial process, some unforeseen situation, and the like; this - is called the verifying experiment. The second kind, the formation experiment, investigates the formation or transfer of skills when mastering an occupation - or undergoing retraining in connection witfi the introduction of some refine- ment, change in pu*pose, and the like. The verifying experiment enables the investigator to evaluatp the sigrzificance of a particular property A'or operator _ activity in different conditions; the formation experiment enables him to form , ,judgements about the mechanism or formation of labor skills and the possiliility of one personal trait compensating for another in the process of mastering an occupation. 8- FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY = The invPetigator most frequently usee the scheme of tecTini.ques sfiown in Figure 1 to study labor activitp- and operator cfiaracteristics. ei uccne o nnua u COou[m onenomene N Kuno; i v bece~a oc: ^)Qr,rc?mo ~5~ j~melmerOnDOfnu~u Ftgure 1. Methoda of Studying Operator Activity and Charac' teriatics - Key: (1) Methods of Studying Operator Activity and Cfiaractert.stics; (2) Study of Documents; (3) Observation - 1. Time-and Motion Studies, Motion Pictures, and Photographs; 2. Recording Pliysiological Parameters; (4) Experiment - 1. Lafioratory Experiment: a. Modeling, b. Achieve- ment Tests and Machine Tests; 2. Natural: a. Verifying, b. Formation; (5) Questioning - 1. Conversation, 2. Questionnaire, 3. Survey Tests; . (6) ' Labor Technique. , All these techniques. are used for the. purpose of better adapting the Iatior process and implements of labor to human capacities and also to search.for the optimal combination of peraonal characteristics to master an occupation and meet its requirements. Four problems are singled out depending on the aspect of study: (1) ratianal organtzatton of the schedule� of latior anfl rest; (2) voca- tional guidance and se lection; (3) organization of training; (4)* reconciling - human capacities and machine requirements (human factors engtneering). All of - these questions are included in the problem of scientif3c organization of la6or (SOL) in the broad sense (in the narrow aense SOL appltes to rational organi- zation of the schedule of labor and rest). 1. The Origin and Development of SOL [Scientific Organizat3on of Lafior] The. origins of scientific organtzation of laBor go tiack to the period of the birth and development of the capitalist metfiod of production, wfien the question of raising 'Latior productivity became. timely. It is customary to consider Frederick Winsiow Taylor the founder of gcientific organization of Iabor. In 1882 Taylor made studies of working mations 112, 13.]. Tfie purpose of fiis studies was to raise laTior productivity. Tfiis was attempted Tp differential wages for workers and standardt zation and rationalizatton of particular labor operations. But Taylor and fiis followers ("Taylorism") did not take account of the indi- vidual qualities of the worker and did not strive for a scientifically 9 FOR OFF[CIAL rJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 H'OR OFFtC1AL USE ON[.Y _ substantiated organization of tfis scfiadule of labor and rest. In tfis pursuit - of maximum profit the system whicfi tfiey proposed squeezed every fiit of strength out of the worker. - V. I. Lenin, wTiile calling for us to "borrow everything valuable� from this school, exposed the predatory essence of Taylorism and called it Ksubtle savagery" [3, 41. Scientific organization of labor began to be emploqed mucfi later in.Russia, even = though the foundations for itw successful development fiad been laid in the late 19th century by the work of I. M. Sechenov [14, 15]. The issues of scientific organization of labor received development in the works of the vocational psychologists (a term introduced liy the German scientist Stern). Tao per.iods'must be distinguished in the development of voca- tional psychology. The first was the pre-personality period wfien the investi- _ gators working on the prablems of scientific organization of labor did not take account of the individual characteristics of the suFiject, which made thts de- velopment similar to Taylorism. The German vocational psychologist Muensterberg was the major representative of this period. The second period is represented by the works on wfiose basis scientific trends sucfi as vocational tppology and psychological classification of occupations began to develog. The most striking representative of the ideas of this period uras 0. Lipman [16). In fiis work "On the Psychology of Occupatioris," fie reviews the requirements which different occupations make of a person and the relationship between occupattonal style and the person's individual characteristics. The-school of Soviet vocational psychologists took shape in the 1920ts and 1930's. Its founders were S. G. Gellershteyn, S. L. RuTainsfiteyn, and I. ~N. Shpil''reyn. _ Permanent psychological offices and laboratories were opened at many enterpr.ises through the efforts of the vocational psychologists. Tfie labor tecfinique that has already been mentioned appeared durtng these years. An all-Union congress of vocational psychologists and the 12th International Conference of Vocational Psychologists were held in Moscow in 1931. In later years, however, work on vocational psychology was stopped in the USSR. Tli.ere were two reasons for this: first, the USSR was experiencing an acute shortage of laTaor in connection with rapid development of its industrial potenttal (and for a time vocational selec- tion was not a paramount task), and secondly, the fundamentals of vocational psychology diverged from the fundamentals of general psychology, whicfi found expression in undestrable turns and scientifically unsound me~~fiodological ap- proachea. Large-scale work on scientific organizatton of labor began again after the 1957 conference on questions of labor psycliology, wfiicfi censured the - shortcomtngs of vocational psycfiology, and particularly after the 1967 all-- Union conference on labor organization. At the latter meeting, in connection with the dtrectives of the 23rd CPSU Congress, practical recommendations were - developed to intensify scientific research on the pfiysiolagy, psychology, and hygiene of labor. The 2nd All-Union Congress of the Society of Psycfiologists in 1963 already had a working section on fiuman factors engineering, and at the - 3rd All-Union Congress of Psychologists in 1968 there were sections on labor psychology 1nd human factors engineering. Many fundamental works were published 10 . FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY on reconciling the aubjective and factors in production, a charac- teristic profilem of human factors engineering 117-211. During tfiese qeara a number of major works on the pfiysiologtcal, psycFiopTiyaiological, and psycho- logical aspects of labor organtzation appeared 123, 28--321. The first all-Union conference on "TTie Human Being and the Automaton" was held in 1963. It marked the beginning of a broad range of domestic works on the - problem of the man-macfiine system (MS). Tfiis line of studp is cfiaracterized by development of the systems approacfi under the influence of cybernetics in considering the interaction of fiuman beings and technical devices [22, 23-27]. A new stage in the development of SOL took shape aflroad also [33]. All the areae of SOL are developing auccessfully today; vocational selection; vocational training; scientific organization of the scfiEdule of labor and rest; and, human factors engineering. 2. Classifications of the Types of Human Labor Activitiy The specific features of the tasks, metiiods, meana, and measurea of SOL depend on the type of labor activity for which it is being developed. . We fiave already observed above that labor acttvities in their htstorical aspect fiave changed from labor processes that required physical characteristics of a person - (strength, agility, and endurance) in the firat stage to primarily operator - types of labor today, a time of universal introduction of �ull mechanization and automation of production (tracking, monitoring, programming, and control). The human functions have also changed in this connection, from energy functtons to information functions. We still lceep the division of lahor into phyaical and mental labor today [34, 35], but fewer and fewer production proceases require pfiyaical labor, and it is usually not in direct form. These two large classes of labor activity _ impose demands on different functional systems of the human Tieing and are described depending on this as nluscular and nervous activitX or pfiysical and mental labor (see Figure 2 below). The criteria of difficultyfor the particu- lar types of activi.ty can be a physieal measure of labor for the first class of labor operations and intenaity for the second class [35]. The pTiysical measures of lataor are expreased in ktlogram--metera of work done or in gigacalories of energy expended. For example, jobs that requtre more ttian 4.17 gigacalories per minute are put in the middle category of heavy physical work. The intensity of lahor is usually determined by the density of various types - of information whtch the operator muat receive durtng a oaorking day-. WEien evalu- ating intensity it is essential a].so to evaluate the rate and evenness witfi whicfi information arrives, the ratio between primary and secondary information, and so on. The aecond class of human labor activity can iie broken down into subclasses which :iave their own speciftc features. For example, in fier work, - V. P. Solov'yeva [36] studies the following subclasses: (1) mental labor without nervous-emotional stress (the labor of a proof reader); (2) labor with nervous tension but without mental stress (a sub.way engine driver); (3) mental 11 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ _ _ - (1) 8udc~ mpyda - i I--1 ( Z)Aynrruuu vennOeHa ( 3 irynKUU010nonaa ZmeMQ peanu3QCUlL Owuwec.YUri 7 Ycm0er,nslri - ( 5 ) 'y�pzemuveurue un"'opuauuoopan~rur)o'e ( g) (anepam 6 nepGna- ~ ~ MWUl~4MOA 4ft77/JQADM0A MepCMOq cucmeMQ Figure. Types of Labor Key: (1) Types of Labor; (6) Nerve-Muscular; (2) Human Functions; (7) Mental; (3) Functional Systems Used; (8) Information (Operator); (4) Physical; . (9) Central Nervous System, (5) Energy; labor with nervous-emotional stress (a dispatcher at the console); (4) crea- tive mental labor with differing degrees of nervous-emotional stress '(junior and senior scientific associates, graduate students). K. M. Gurevich [37] classifies occupations by the intensity of labor (intense at all times, at certain times, and at indefinite timea) and by the presence of strain on the emotions and the will, - All of these classifications are constructed depending on which sphere of ac- tivity and whicFi human functional system receives tfie primary burden. In addition, attempts have been made to classify occupations according to the potential and characteriatica which a working person must have to succesafully perform the labor process. Thus, Lipman, who waa one of the most prominent representativea of the personality stage of vocational psychology, had already divided all occupation's into two categories [16]: 1. The higher or "intelleczual"occupati:ons, cfiaracterized by the lack of a standard style of performance. A person who fias masCered a fitgfier occupatton shapes tfiis - occupation to some extent depending on fiis or her own individual cfiaracteristics. Examples are doctors, artists, and the like; 12 - FOR OFFIC[AL USC ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY 2. The lower occupations, which require elementary, standard qualities for their performance. Examples might lie work on a conveyor line, sorting, and tfis lii.e. In addition to the psychological classification of occupations, Lipman also worked out an occupational typology. Iie asserted tfiat ttLe pfilegmatic was more interested in learning, while the sanguine was more attractQd to doing. ~ K. M. Gurevich 137] divides occupations into two types depending on the cate- gories of requirements whicfi the occupation makes of individual fiumar cfiarac- terisrics: (1) occupations that absolutelp require some anthropometric or psychophysiological characteristics (for example, reaction speed for ajet pilot, strength for handling a sledgehanner); (2) occupationa that make com- pensible requirements for individiial characteristica. For example, people wfio differ in the speed of their thinking processes can successfully the same occupation. Some will handle the job quickly and easily because tfieir _ thinking proceases are very fast; others who spend more time on the thinking process also do the job well tfianks to tfieir diligent care. 3. Scientific Organization of the SchQdule of Labor and Rest - When working out the foundations anl concrete steps of the scientific arganixa- tion of the schedule of labor and :est, the investigator identifies first tlioae factors which directly or indirectly influence the production indtcators of the worker and how he or she feels, There are some 2,000-3,000 such factors, but theq can be clasaified by groups. A. I. Prokhorov 138], for example, identifies seven groups of factors: 1- the type, character, and complexity of the task; 2- the character and characteristics of the pereon; 3- organization of the work position; 4-- organization of production activity; 5-- conditions of ac- tivity; 6- motivation for activity; 7- objective conditions of the setting of the activity. These are fairly broad groups and any factor can be reflected in them. Other investigatore propose a division of influential factors tfiat differs from this one by using narrower and more concrete groups. For example, - A. I. Samoyolova [39] feels that SOL measures should be concentrated on the following factors: the pace and rhythm of the production process, the equipping of the work position and work posture, the schedule of laFior and rest, the micro- climate, the air environment and illumination of the utork position, special work clothing and environmental esthetics, and organization of a rational diet. In the work of A. A. Adamovicfi-Ge.rasimov and otfiers [40], the factors whicfi.must be taken into account in studies of SOL are broken down into physiological, psychological, sanitary-fiygienic, sociological, and technical-economic. N. D. Levitov 141] identified three groups of factors on wfiich succpss in master- ing an occupation and attaining higfi production indicators depends: motiva-- tional components (the status.of the occupation in society, wages and worktng condittons); qualifications components (the level of tratning and natural capacities), and the individual psychophqsiological cfiaracteriatics. 13 FOR OFF'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OF FICIAI. USE ONLY - K. K. Platonov [5] believes tFtat scientific organization of labor should look first at the i:mpact of the environment, in particular the working collective, - as well as the presence of factors that fiave a negative tmpact on the worker's healtli, the development of occupational fatigue, and cfiaracteristics of the mental processes and emotional spfiere of the worker. Tfie work of V. G. Zfinkov _ and R. I. Ignat tyev [35] assigns the prima.ry role to the sanitary--hygienic conditions of labor (condition of the work position), the schedule of labor and rest, the equipping and mecfiar.ization of jobs, and taking account of cfianges in work capability during the day and the week. It seems to us that the factors whicfi.are reflected in the labor productivity, work capabilitq, and physical and mental feelings of the worker can be classified in four groups. 1. The specific characteristtcs of the assignment: requirements of the occupa- tion; complexity, type, and character of the task; degree of responsibility. 2. The potential of the peraon performing the assignment: experience of life, motivation, and interest; psycfiophysiological characteristics, sex, age, physical measurements, state of health, and tiefiavior in ordinary and emergency situations;-vocational training and qualifications. 3. Organfzation of the lahor process: scientiftc-technical advances in the par- _ ticular sector of labor, furnishinga and technical equipment of the particular production area, organization of the work position; pace, rhyttim, and sequence of-operations, rest periods, and industrial calisthen.ics; relations within the collective, the necessity of interactton with other mem5ers of the collective in the production process; meeting sanitarq-fiygienic and pfiysiological require- ments, the presence of harmful factors; esthetics, special work clothing, organization of the diet, and availability of rest areas. 4. Changes in functional state and work capability: during the working day; - during the work week; related to the person's biorhythms. After selecting a particular production area or type of activity for study,, the ; first thing the investigator must do is write up a so-called "professiogramma," which contains a description of the occupation, the place of the occupation in the technological sequence, the principal working operations, the work posi- tion and sanitary-hygienic conditions, the required level of education, and the psychophysiolagical requirements impoaed on the worker [42]. Tfien the list of indicatora of activity is comptled 1431. Thus, the work of an operator in charge of several weaving machines consists of orientatiun (surveillance of the ma- chines) and actuating activity; the latter ts divided, in turn into preventive and urgent (special) operations. The list of indicators of activity also includes the walking movements of the weaving machine operator to inspect the vacfiines, do preventive work, and perform special operations. - The time of the labor process is divided, in conformtty with the purpose of the work being done, into primary time (used for special jobs) and auxiliary time (preventive work and inspection); taken together they determine the operattonal 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY time of the working day. The working dap of aoork time consists of operational time (primary and auxiliary) and breaks for rest,meals, industrial cates- thenics, natural needs, and enforced idleness related to incorrect labor or- ganization. The list of occupational requirements aritfi respect to the characteriatics aad qualities of the worker is a mandatory element tn the description of the par- ticular type of labor activity. Tfiis list is compiled on the basis of the ~ findinga of the specialized ltterature, personal acquaintancs witfi the produc- - tion area, and consulting witfi experte. Bp evaluating each requirement in - connection with its aignificance for successful performance of the assign- - ment the investigator receives a table, graph, or diagram of the distributiori - of the significance of the occupational requirements 15, 44J. Then the invea- tigator determines the workload which the worker experiences during the work- ing day. It is measured, as already mentioned above, in physical terms for physical labor and by tntensitp for mental labor. Sut the workload of dif- ferent types of jobs cannot always be defined unambiguously 6y one of these criteria. The workload is usually a multidimensional indicator. It depende above all on the pace of performance of the work or receipt of informatton, on the evenness - of distribution of the workload, the required precision in performance of the A aseignment, the aeriousness of consequences in case the worker makes mistakes, the degree of responsibility, the complexitp of the algoritfim of activity, and so on. The nexC indicator of the person"s activity, the producttvity or efficiency of labor, is also multidimensional. EacTi form of labor activity has ite owa specific components. Thus, the efficiency of 1aBor of a locomotive eagineer [44] may be evaluated by three criteria: (1) reliability (accident-free work throughout the entire career; (2) skill rating; (3) conservation of electricity. Techniques of recording the acti.vity of different syatems of the organism and functional tests are used to study cfiange in the functional atate of the worker, to determine indicators of functianal atate that correlate with. changes in work capability, and to identify the moment of onset of worker fatigue. For example, the etate of the central nervous system is determined ~ by recording the biopotentials of tFie brain electroencephalogram). An enor- mous amountof experimental material fias now been accumulated on correlating changes in the electroencepfialogram and the level of alertness, attention, emotional and operational strain, fatigue, and the ltke. Therefore, the electroencephalogram is a valuable diagnostic technique. The i:nvestigato.r may receive additional information about the state of the central nervous system by using various functional tests, in particular analyzing sensory- ~ motor reaction time, recording the critical frequency at whicF flashes of light or discrete sounds merge, reacting to a moving object, picking up the rhythm of flashes of light or discrete sounds, tracking reacttons, and other such tests. 15 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY The state of the invoiuntary nervous system (which often plays the main part in a change in functional state or increase in the workload on the worker) is studied by recording the frequency of the heart beat, arterial pressure, blood volume per minute, frequency of breatfiing, the ratio of infialing to exhaling, the electrical resistance of potential of the skin (skin-galvanic reflex), body tem- perature and otfier sucfi quantities. Indicators of the activity of the.muscular system depend on the functional state and the state of work cgpability. Therefore the electromyogram is studied and dynamic measurements are performed. It is natural that the state of emotional and operational strain and fatigue are - also reflected in higher mental functions. From tfiis standpoint the indicators of the proof reading test have dtagnostic value , as do otfier tecfiniques: inter- twi.ned lines; the Schulte technique; adding numbers orith carrying; and, repro- duction of an image seen on a screen (shown for a minimum exposure of 0.05-0.15 seconda). These tecfiniques can be used to form judgements on intensity, switch- ing, attention span, and operational memory. The spectral composition of operator apeech "reacta" verq aubtly to changes in psychophystolo.gical state. This enables the inveatigator to use the apoken answer as an additional indicator. Biochemical tests (change of sodium content in the saliva, sugar in the blood, urine composition, and the like) can also provide valuable information. Recording indicators of the activity of different systems of the organism and es- tablishing the laboz productiviCy and work capabtlitp of the obligator enables the investigator to follow changes in theee quanttties during the working day, work week, year: Early in the 20th.Century E. Krepelin described the classtc work curve. Ye. A. Derevyanko modernized this curve (see Figure 3 beloW). He showed how maximum capacities, the productivtty of activity, emotional tenston, and the state of fatigue change at different points in the working day. Tfie periods of labor activity in the couYSe of the day differ bq time boundaries and quantitative expressions depending on the type of labor activtty, years of experience, age, sex, and characteristics of the operator, But tfiey are governed bq the pattern described. For practicaL purposes a less refined division of worTcing time into three periods is usually used: 1- period of 6eginning woxk and moving into a work rtiythm, characterized by a gradual increase in work capa5ility; 2-- period of stable maintenance of the level of work capability attatned; 3-- period of de- cline in work capability, fatigue. This sequence of periods during work time is repeated twice, at the start of the working day and after the mealtime break [35]. Investigators note a similar progression in the mork week [40]. And investigators studying change in the operator's work capability muat consider not only the pattern described above, but also the influence of various factora (years of experience, age, sex, and personal traits) on it. In addition, the changes in work capability depend on Btorhytfims, in particular the 24-hour (daily) rhythm. It fias been established 142] tfiat cfianges in Work capability and functional states are greater and the time required to get into a work 16 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Figure 3. Work Curve (by Ye. A. Derevyanko, 1959): Key: (I) CrT} Cnr? (1) C2) 0 ) (4 ) C5). (6) Level of Maximum Capacities; Level of Productivity of Acttvity; Level of Emotional Teneion; Level of Fatigue; Period of SettZing Into Work; Period of Opttmal Work Capa- fiilitp; � Period of Full Compensation; Period of Unstable Compen- sation; Final Spurt; Progresaive Decrease in Productivitq. rhythm ia longer for tfie second shift, artzile cfianges in biorhythms*at the end of the ahift are greater in amplttude. Researchers have given apeciai attention to studqing the process of fa'tigue, which develops aa the result of intense or prolonged work. Developing fatigue can be compensated for to some degree by motivational factors, efforts of will, and emotional factors. The following types of Iocal fatigue are distinguished depending on the sphere of activity: pfiyaical, mental, and emotional. Fatigue may also be general in nature. The forms of manifestation of fatigue may vary depending on its-type. Thus, V. P. Solov'yeva has demonstrated [36] that mental fatigue shows itself in the form of protective inhibition in the central nervous system (decl-ine ir.i the magnitudE and speed of reflex reactions, reduction in the mobility of nerve processes, and increase in tfie inertia of the inhibitory procesa). Emotional fattgue is characterized cfiiefly by unFavorable changes in the cardiovascular system and biocfiemical reactions. Fatigue caused by mental activity with emotfonal stress shows itself in the form of changes iti the cen- tral nervous syatem and the autonomoua nervoua system. Fatigue may be promoted by a diseased state, mental upset, and otiier indirect factors. Prolonged fatigue that is not compensated for may lead to a transition from func- tional changes tn the organism to organic ones. The nervous and cardiovaecular systems suffer particularly in this case. -17 ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 1 p 3 4 5 6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Measures for scientific organization of lahor are woxked out to preserve a high � level of work capa6ility and prevent fatigue in the worker. These measures, ~ based on study of changes in the work capability and functional staCe of tTiQ - worker in the course of the working day, aim at shortenTng and easing the period _ r,f getting into a work rhythm (initial exercises, remo-~; L of distracting factors, rhythmic music), prolonging the pertod of stable work capability (rational or- ganization of the labor process and work positton), and eliminating the firat si.gns of fatigue (industrial cal isthenics, instttuting additional rest hreaks, and consumption of vitamins). Researchers have been particularly interested in the possibility of maintaining ' high work capahility and a good general state tiy instituting sfiort pauses, addi- tional breaks of a few minutes (in addition to the 5asic mealtime break). It - is mast efficient to introduce 2-3 breaks of 5-10 minutes [35, 45]. In this period of time it is posaible to reatore functtona without losing the work _ rhythm that has been achieved. The need for additional rest is determined by - the magnitude of functional changes at a certain moment in time [35]. ' One of the ways to combat the development of fatigue is active rest, that is, industrial calisthenics or changing the work operations and emotional conditions. From the pfiysiological standpoint these measures should lead to a change in the focus of stimulation in the brain. TTie new focus of stimulation restores the initial state that functioned earlier Fiy inducing inhi5itton of neighboring zones [5, 30, 46]. Monotonous work makes special demanda for SOL measures. By causing a decline in the level of alertness it may lead to acctdents. Tfiis is especially dan- gerous in those cases where accidents may tnvolve a danger to fiuman life (for example, the engineer of a locomotive). Tfie simplest steps to combat monotony are introducing outside stimulants, periodicallq cfianging rhythm and operations, - and consolidating routine, monotonous siraple operations into more complex and diverse ones [28]. The following factors may serve as indicators of a correctly organized schedule of labor and rest, that is, indicators of the effectiveness of SOL measures: 1. Productivity and economic efficiency of labor; 2. Satisfaction with work, mobili.ty of personnel; 3. Level of work cap ability and general state during the working - day, reatoration of a normal state after work; 4. Number and duration of cases of temporary inabtlity to work, injury, and chrontc illness. Thus, we can identify the following stages in the work of an investigator studying scientific organization of labor [139]: - 1. Study of existing pTiysiological-fiygienic conditions of labor , and organization of the la6or process; 18 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. Characterization of work capafiilitp and tfie state of psychopfiysiological functions during work; 3. Analysis of the state of fiealtfi (zaking into account years of experience,' age, sex, occupation, and social- domestic conditions); 4. Development of SOL measures; 5. Testing the effectiveness of SDLmeasuree.. 4. Vocational Guidance, Vocational Selection, and Voestional Suitability A^ occupation (vucation) is a specific group of labor duties that fias existed for lozg time and took shape on the basis of division of laFior. The specific group of labor duties requires that a person ehaw qualities and cfiaracteristics that are specific to the particular occupation. Thus, K. Marx wrote long ago: "Dif- ferent operations performed in turn by the producer 4f a good and merging into a single whole unit in the process of his labor make dffferent demands of him. In one case he must develop greater strengtfi, in anotTier greater dexterity, in a third greater attentiveneas, and so on" [2]. He continues, But one and the same individual doea not have all these qualitieg in equal measure "[2]. It follows from this that different people will perform the aame workdifferently in qualitative and quantitative terms, using different amounts of strength and energy for this. The necessity of matching tfie capabilities (socialt mental, and biological) of the working individual and the requirements of the occupation is the problem of vocational guidance and vocational selection. The presence of the easential group of social and pspchophysiological qualities and traits insurea tliat the working individual wtll Fie snccessful tn mastering the occupation, achieve highly productive labor, and Be satisfied arith the labor activity. These factors are the criteria for the occupational suitability of a working individual for a particular type of labor. But the tasks of vocational guidance and vocatienal selectton are not limited to questioas of occupational auitability. This is just one aspect of tfie matter, the humaniptic side. Voca- tional guidance aZso considers tfie economic and social aspects of tfie question: the market for possible application of tfie laTaor and the social oreight of the occupation in the given society. Figure 4 below shows the "vocational guidance triangle" and its forms [5]. Conflicts often ariae between the humanistic and economic aspects. For example, in the first years of industrialization of our country when an enormous influx of labor wae required for industry, work on the study of labor psychology, which had beet ^onducted succeasfully by tfia voca-. tional psychologists of the 1920's and 1930`_ aas stopped. Therefore, a researcher heginning work on tfie proulems of vocational guidance, selection, and suitability with appli.cation to a certain sphere of babor ac- tivity must first of all study the following questions: 1. The economic or social need for tfie particular occupation; 19 . FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 NOR OFFICIAL IJSE ONLY ~ nQ oe / Figure 4. The "Vocational Guidance Triangle" and Its Forms (according to K. K. Platonov, 1970) Key: (1) (2) (3) (4) . (6) (7) (8) Vocational Education; Vocational Propaganda; Vocations (Their Requirements); Market for Potential Labor; The Individual (His or Her CapaFiilities); Vocatioaal Consultation; Vocational Selection. 2. The class of occupations involving the particular type of activity; 3. The social and psychophyaiological demands of the occu- pation on the working individual; 4. The characteristics which a person must fiave to succesa- fully master the occupation, achteve higfi arork tndicators, and receive moral satisfaction from tlie chosen tppe of activtty. Approaches to and views of the problem of the potential and capabilities of the working indtvidual are not uniform. Thus, tfiere have Fieen different estima- tions of the importance of natural and acquired cfiaracterigtics and of the . 2OI . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY manifestation of capahilitiea in different sphexes of -social activity. Some students of the question Fielieve tfiat a person is born with certain already established capabilities and tfiat no education and training can replace them if they are absent. Otfiers feel tfiat a pereon ig born with equrl inclinatione for all capabilities aud that any capability can be perfected bq education. In their works F. R. Dunayevskiy, A. K. Gastev, and otiiers deny that there ar2 persiatent natural differences [48, 49]. Tbep beliQVe that a person can de- velop any qualitp througfi Iong, fiard work. It is apparent that an orthodox defense Qf either the first or second point of view leads to incorrect conclusfons. A third point of view on the development of capabilities ts given in the worke of I. P. Pavlov and was formulated well by K. K. Platonov [5]: "Capabilities are afairly stable structure, but of course they also change under the influence of education and the fndividual psychoiogical ciiaracteristics of the personality." This point of view takzs ac- count of the importance of Fioth the inborn biologfcal principle and the ac-, social princip le. We have considered viecas concerning human capabilities with respect to mastering a particular sphere of activity. Views also differ as to the categorical nature of the requirements which an occupation imposes on a person. Thus, some re- searchers feel tfiat in principle any pereon can master any occupation, alth:.::gh the peraon may not always have all the characteristica needed for the particular occupation in the necessary degree [43, 50]. Tfiis occurs tfirougfi compensation for some characteristics by otfier cfiaracterietics. Thus, high indicators in any type of activity can be achieved by workers with the moat diverse paycho- physiological structure, by means of different personality traits that are re- flected in the individual atiyle of work. Therefore, occupational selection is not.decisive. Primary rttention afiould be focused on constructfng adequate training programs that can develop the essential characteristic or a compen- sating one in order to meet the.occupational requirements. K. M. Gurevich elaborates a different point of view [37]� He believed that there are two types of occupations. Tfie first type makes demands on the individual for which no compensation is possible. In tTiis case there must be ab$olute vocational suitability, which requires careful vocational selection. The second type of occupation makes demands on the working individual which can be compensated for by different characteristics. Tfie common occupations belong to this type. For them vocational selection is not so important and primary attention is given to correctly organiztng training programs and methods. But even for the aecond type of occupations, despite the posaibtlity of compensating for lack of some characteristics with otfiers, not all persons who have mastered the occupation can attain the fiighest levels of ekill. In tfiis case, therefore, the compensatory potential is lfmited and vocational selection is desirable [51]. This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that a fiigh percentage (up to 25 per- cent) of healthy people cannot master various occupations that differ by complexity because their nervous and cardiovascular systems become overloaded [52]. Thus, in vocattonal selection it is necessary to consider not only the existence of characteristics that insure vocational skill and the poeaibility of compensation for them, when lacking, but also the load on the organism in 21`. FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mastering the occupation and carrying on dailp activity in the cfiosen sghere of labor. The partial or complete unsuitability of a morking individual for a particular type of activity may sfiow up in different stages of acquiring vocational skills and in different situatians when performing occupational duties. Thus, in the training process people wTiose characteristics are mast in accord with the re- quirements of the future occupation master the vocational skills faster and more Pasily than people who do not fiave the optimal set of cfiaracteristics for - the particular occupation. Tfie latter may also master the occupational skills - (compensation by other characteristics if it is possible, or persistent, cor- rECtly organized training of the essential cfiaracteristics), but tfiey spend much more effort and time doing so. Thus, a significant spread is observed between the first and second groups in the beginning, followed by a convergence of tndividual indicators of activity because the second group is raised to the standards of the occupation by com- pensatory individual characteristics 1511. Under ordinary working conditions in the second type of occupations (according to K. M. Gurevich),the difference in characteristics will not lead to a sharp divergence in indicators of labor activity. But the difference in psychophysiological cfiaracteristics shows clearly in unusual, stress situations. Tfie stress may be the result [53] of the difficulty of the assignment (high requirements for precision and speed of performance, work when time is short, work under conditions of information overloads, and complexity of the assignments), wiien an emergencq is highly likely or exiating, when there are distracting factors, when an unforeseen change occurs in the ordinary course of the labor process, and so on. Failure to match the optimal set of characteristic$ also fosters exceasive nervous tension in the worker; which may result in serious cfironic illneas. These factora (taking economic and social need into account, of course) demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of vocational guidance and vocational - selection. Vocational selection is done as follows. First the researcher becomes familiar with the occ+zpatton and establishes its classification, place in the economy, - distribution, and future prospects. Tne "polytecfinic" quality of an occupation is important to study, because this makes it possible in part to apgly the re- sults obtained to other areas of activity. Next a list ia made of the operations that make up the occupational activity. Tfie operations must be broken down into basic (ones on which performance of the assignment as a wFioie directly depends) and subaidiary (preparatory and propfiylactic) operations. It is desirable to rank the operations by time spent and difficulty of performance. The investi- gator can uae any of the methods descri6ed above for this purpose. In conformity with the occupational description obtained in this manner, the researcher should make a list of the requirements tTiat the occupation imposes on the working individual. For example, the following list of requirements is uaed for vocational selection of locomotive engineers [44]: perception, atten- = tiotY, memory, ability to make decisione under time pressure, and emotional 22 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFF[C1AL USE ONLY stahility. The queationnaire compoaed fiy Lipman ia usually uaed to identify psychophystologtcal requirementa; ordinarily it is adapted in advance to the occupation under study [5]. TTien the investigator, beginning with knowledge that has lieen accumulated in the special literature, personal experience, and the findings of preliminary experiments, 3etermines the cfiaracteristics a person must have to master the occupation and perform tts operations. After - this vocational selection proper is done. Tfiis usually begins witli a medical examination and ends witfi identification of the social orientation and determi- nation of the psychophysiological characteristics of the individual, his or her compensatory potential, and the need to develop and drill vocational capa- bilities. - Training is a key element in the preparation of workers for occupations. The training program must take into account compensatory potential and the need to develop and train occup at ional capahilities. The specific features and significance of the occupation determine the degree of strictness in vocational selectione whether it is done according to the upper or lower boundary of the criteria used. Thus, vocational guidance and selection should include tYree basic stages: compiling an occupational description and list of psycliopfiysiological requirements of the occupation, identification of the essential capa5ilities, and working out ways to develop these capabilities. Figure 5 below d�agrams how the criteria of mastering an occupation depend on the potenttal of the person and how the atrict- = ness of the occupational requirements depends on the type of occupationa. ~ 1Kpume9UU 'RPIKOGfIb OFf4P.YUfl � (If~d~npuzcOnocnu . y0a0nemCopennocma y~ (2) ~ om[umCmduP nPOPnanOar,.?,-.q ~ - - !)couuoncHMQ ocnexm' ^curu4ie: ruu acne,rm aOemnoa yt.^o0uar ;;0 3KCmae.Nanono~r ucnu4up~' L'�P:,YUU arenm I) o,Tcymtm0ue Oa~Monrnot,nu ,+o ntnt0uuu COot7Cm0 (17p0;0m0a�) rre:m.roc'ne (6 ~ ( S ) z; Jo3Mo,wnocmo Keune.4cauuu np6�vr10J'10nud ,.ovc,n0 (17po~700yyer.ue) Chapter 5. Criterion of Vocational Suitafiility Key: (1) (2) ~ (3) (4) Criteria of Vo cational Suitability; EAae of Training, Labor Ac;iievements , Satiefaction, Lack of Excess ive Stress; The Person - 1. Social Aapects, 2. Mental Aspects, 3, $iologi- cal Aspects; Labor - 1. In Ordinary Condi- ti.ons, 2. In Extreme Conditions; (S) 1. Lack of Possibtlity of Compensating for Characteristics (Vocational Selection), 2. Pos- sibility of Compeneating for Characteriatica (Vocational Training); (6) Strictnese of Vocational Re- quirements. 231 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 2. Investigating the Paychophysiological Cfiaracteristics and Social Orientation of the Individual - The methods used by tfie investigator in vocational selectton must be (as in any investigation) adequate and informative, tfiat is, tfiey must directly identify the characteristic under study and describe it as fully as possible. Various methodo- logical procedures can be used to study the individual person: interrngation, observation of behavior (in ordinary life, on the job, and in the training process), and tests (paper and equipment teste). It is customary to consider Taylor, wEifl in tfie 1880's used testing as a tech- nique for vocational selection in order to raise labor productivity, the founder of testology. Later teating was used as a method for determining the mental capa- bilities of school children (54), and during World War I as a metfiod for assigning soldiers to particular branches of tfie military. Tests administered using fill- in blank forms are a fast tecfinique of investigation suitable for large numbera, butfor the most part they do not ideatify inborn cfiaracteristics (individual inclinations), fiut rather acquired knowledge and expertence. This is especially typical of verhal teste which immediatelq asstgn a semtliterate person to the lowest level of the evaluation scale, even when the peraon may possibly have good natural gifts. Therefore, in the hands of raciats and advocates of class dif- ferences verbal tests became a diecriminatory weapon and in this way discredited the idea of testology. Tests which uae pictures are to some degree without this shortcoming. Therefore, tests can be used primarily to determine tfie level of general human and vocational sophistication acquired at a given moment in time and are much less useful to identify inborn capabilities, intellect, and distinctive features of a person's thinking. _ Equipment tests iavolve technical devices which chiefly investigate tfie charac- teristics of the central nervous syetem, higfier nervous acttvity, the autonomous _ nervous system, and otfier functional aystems of tfie organism. Now let us consider the most widely used specific techniques of studying the in- dividual personality for the purpose of identifying its individual traits and - the cfiaracteristics of its organization. _ The social aspect of the individual personality tncludes character traits (ad- herence to principle, honeaty, initiative, activism, organization, optimiam, pliancy), social consciouaness (patriotism, progresaivism, moral makeup, ,24.. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY collectivism, atheism, and attitudE toarard oneself, other people, and laborl, capabilities (psychomotor, artistic, tecFiaical, matfiematical, nusical, literary, scientific, organizational, and so on), eaperience o# life, general level of sophistication, upbringing, and vocattonal training (qualifications, time of service). The motives tfiat insptre activity fiy tfiQ working indivtdual and the person's interests occupy a special place in the soctal aspect. The investigator obtains informatton on tfiese matters by studying referencea, autobiographies, personal records and otfier documents, applications, and ques- tionnaires filled out both by the subjects themselves and by persons around them. The investigator also learns about the person in the process of personal interviews and interrogation. Each sociological investigation is a new creative process, and its auccess de- pends on the inventivenesa, knoGrledge, and practical skills of the inveatigator. Therefore, the experimental method [55, 56] ie the principal method in socio- logical research. The psychological aspect of the personality ie deacrihed in terms of the char- acteristics of inental forms of perceiving and reflecting the world: attention, emotions and feelings, memory, and thinking. Wfien considering the emotional - sphere of a person aud describing i.t, it is also essential to inveatigate the peraon's volitional (will) capacities because the behavior of a person in emo- - tive situations depends on the characteristics of this purely fiuman quality (degree of fearlessnese, decisiveness, persistence, self-control, purpoaefulness, - and discipline). The correction test method is used to determine the stability, distribution, and concentration of attention [5, 57, 58, 591. The test suTject is given a blank witTi a series of letters on it and told to cross out a certain letter. In a second variation the subject is told to cros-s out one letter and underline an- other letter. The test lasts a few minutes (usually up to five mtnutes), and on a signal from the experimentor the test subject marks the form after definite time intervals (30 seconds). A table with Landolt rings can be uaed instead of a form wfth letters [60, 61]. The degree of stability of concentrated attention can be established by the intertwined lines technique. Several lines (10-25) are intersected a number of timea on the blank. They all start and end in boxes on the right and left.sides of the paper. Their ordinal numhers are placed on one side of the sheet. The subject must visually trace the line along its en- tire length and put its number in the appropriate 6ox on the opposite side of the sheet [5, 62]. Switching attention can be analyzed bp the metTiod of adding numbers with switch- ing [5]. The test is done in two waps. The first way is as follows: two one- - digit numbera are given in fraction form; tfiey must be added and the total entered in the numerator in the second row on the righ.t, wfiile the numerator of the first proposed row is put in the denominator of the second row, and so on. In this case, if the total is more than 10 only the the one's digit is written. 4, 69 0 6 6, 2, 89 and so on. 2 4 6 0 6 6 2 25., FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USF, ONLY When the s.econd method is. used, the total of the numerator and denominator of the first row is put in the denominator of the second row-while the numerator of the second row becomes the denominator of the first row. Tfie methods are alternated by instructions every 30-60 seconds. Switching of attention (which evidently is accomplisfied chiefly fiy the speed of inental processes and the ease of formation and modification of the mental Tialiit) can be considered - easy if a sub3ect is atale to perform 20 or more additions in a minutn. Switch- ing is difficult if the subject performed 10 or fewer additions. The volume and distribution of attention can be investigated by the Schulte method, It goes as follows. The suFiject must quickly find and point out a natural series of numbers of a given lengtfi in a table consisting of an appro- priate number of boxes in which numbers are written witfiout order. The test _ can he made more difficult tiy introducing different number types and sizes in - addition to the random arrangement of numbers [62]. ^ K. K. Plantonov [S] progosed a modification of this technique (called the Schulte-Platonov method) whtch makes it possible to test the volume, distri- bution, and switching of attention. Numbers from 1 to 25 are wr'L~.tten without any order in two colors in a table. Tfie test subject must quickly name and point out the numbers in order, beginning one colored Eeries from the largest (in descending order), and the other from the smallest (in ascending order). The different colored numbers are found in alternation (for example, red 25, blue 1, red 24, blue 2, and so on). Attention volume can also he studied by the method which K. K. Platonov [5] described as controlled display of a card with 16 boxes on a tachistoecope (exposure time varies from 0.05 to 0.15 seconds). Some (2-8) of the boxes contain dots. Tfie subject must lie able'to remember ttiem and write them in on a bl.ank form. Memory volume is determined by the number of dots accuratelyreproduced on several cards. The accuracy of perception is the average percentage of correctly reproduced dots on all the cards, and depends on the time of exposure, the complexity of the carde, and of course, on the characteristics of the test subject. Operational (short-term) memory is an important quality for the operator in many production processes. At the Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Zllnesa (Ukrainian SSR) this kind of inemory is investigated by a technique which involves direct memorization of geometric shapes and subsequently recognizing and selecting them. The test subject is given an asaignment card to memorize. It repreaents six equivalent triangular shapea with different internal fiatchures. In additton to the assign- ment cards, a file case containing 24 figures, including the ones Xepresented on the assignment cards, is also used. Tlie time allowed to memorize one card is 10 _ seconds. Then, in the file case, the sub,ject must find the figures that were - diaplayed. One minute is allotted far recognition and selection. The num5er of figures correctly recognized and selected is the indicator of short-term memory. Many types of activity make special requirements on characteristics of a person's thinking. Thought is that mental activity (at the level of the secondary signal system) which aims at knowledge of objective reality by identifying linkages and . 26. , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - relationahips between the ohjects and pfienomena under conaideration. Charac- _ teristics of thinking include the capacity of the working tndividual to make optimal dectsions in time, to diagnose the state of the entire labor proceas by particular manifestations, and to monitor correct performance of particular operations. The cfiaractaristics of a person's thinking determine the ability to plan strategy and tactics, the creative approacfi, and inventiveneas. The speed of thinking processes is especially important. It can be measured, - for example, with the set of teste proposed bp the Englisfi paychologist Eysenek' [63]. ITi the author's opinion, tfiese tests measure a coefficient of intellect [Russian ahbreviation "KI," possiblq EnglisTi "IQ"], wfiicfi correlates significantly (but not exhauatively) with speed of tfitnking operations. Thirty minutes are. given to perform eacfi test. Tfie number of problems correctly solved in thi; time is the index of the coefficient of intellect. EYsenek be- lieves that the coefficient of intellect reflects two aspects of intellectual development: the genetic, inborn foundation - the speed of thinking procesaes, and the social-psychological experienGe of the particular social group. The tests which he proposes have the same sfiortcomings as other ftll-in blank tests. When evaluating this method it is essential to consider that tfiese tests reflect socioeconomic status more than the inborn foundation of intellectual development ~ [64]. To reduce the contrihution of the social factors to the evaluation of capabilities some psychologists propose that the indes of intellectual aapabilities be con- sidered not the absolute number of problems solved fiy the sub3ect, but rather the rate of increase in this number when tfiree or four succeseive tests are - given. There are also several otfier methods of testing intellect [6]. The emotions and feelings of a person are one more form of inental processes which make an imprint on the person's behavior and labor activity [65]. Emo- tions are the si-mplest form of reflection (at the level of the primary eignal system) and reveal relationshiprj between environmental influences and the bio- logical needs of the organism. The limbic syatem is the morphological eubstrate of the emotional processes. - The feelings are the most complex form of reflection, charaeteristic only of human beings. They occur following the pattern of the conditioned reflex and - must involve participation of the cerebral cortex. The feelings reflect rela- tions between the external world and a person's social needs. The emotions are generated directly by the perception process, whereas feelinga _ arise indirectly through comprehension of wfiat fias been perceived. The difference in the morphofunctional substrate of these two forms of reflection also gives rise to different possihilities of sfiaping and coatrolling these processes. Thus, feelings can be effectively influenced by word stimulants, while a particular emotion can moet easily be supplanted by a atronger emotion. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Each person has his or her own quality and tntensity of emotional manifestations. Depending'on the nature of their emotional spheres, different people behave differently in the very same dangerous situation [5]. A distinction is made - ambng the asthenic reaction or the passively defensive reaction (becoming numb, purposelessness of actions, and immobilization), the sthenic reaction which fol- lows the type of the actively defensive reflex (panicky behavior), and the athenic reaction that expresses itself in militant excitatinn. The first two - types of reaction are unconditioned reflexes, occur with participation of the primary signal system, and are classtfied with the negative emotional manifes- tation. The third type is one of the conditioned reflexes and results from the operation of the secondary signal system. At the present time tfiere are vir- - tually no methods that allow an objective evaluatton of the quality and intensity of a peson's effiottonal makeup. But work in this dtrection is underway, in par- ticular at the Institute of General and Pedagogical Psychology (Moscow) under the direction of A. Ye. 01'shannikova [66]. A number of tecfintques have been de- veloped which use interrogation'to establish the sign and modality of the emo- tions typical of an individual in different life sttuations and to analyze their dynamic parameters (intensity, duration, and lability). A. Ye. O1'shannikova also attempted to establish a relationship between the sign of the dominant emotions and the background EEG [67]. She sfiowed that test sub- jects in whom the positive emotions typtcally predomtnate have lower values for the energy indexes of the Delta; Theta, and Beta rhytfims. The volitional (will) qualities oF the tndtvidual are very important for emotional- type reactions. They can suppress fear of real, existing danger and even evoke postttve emotions. Attempta have now been made to evaluate volitional qualities characteristic of a particular tndivtdual in quantitative terms. The InsCitute of Psychology in Kiev [9], for example, has develuped a spectal instrument called a volunto-- graph. The device consists of two dyramometers whicTi the test subjPcc must squeeze with the right and left hands. The subject's volitional effort is m,ea- sured by the number of correctly performed assignmeat cycles or the amount of ~ work which the subject does on the condition of maintaining an assigned level of effort for the maximum possible time. S. V. Korzfi [68] proposes measuring volitional efforts by the maximum time subjects can deliberately hold tfieir breath: In these cases the volitional.effort will, of course, be closely related tb the individual's specific physi_cal development. But according to experimental studies this does not always correlate with intellectual volttional effort [69]. The latter is better studied, for example, by the Thornton test. Tfie essential feature of this test is that the subject must "restore" a specially garbled text. Koos cube problems are suitablA for this purpose. The subject is told to com- pose several figurea from cube pieces, and the last assignment is insoluble. In this case the volitional efforts are determined by the time the subject spends trying to compose the required figure. The inborn characteristics of the nervous system are the third aspect of the per- sonality and constitute the object of study for a large branch of pfiysiology, differential psychophysiology. 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y The foundational development of the problem of individual differences in the ner- vous system came in the work of I. P. Pavlov and his achool. I. P. Pavolv formu- - lated the principle of the fundamental characteriatics of the nervous system (strength, equilibrium, and mobility of nerve processea), whicfi is the corner- stone of the hypothesis of four typea of fiigfier nervous activity [70]. Further studies done in the laboratories of S. M. Teplov, B. G. Anantyev, V. S. Merlin, and V. D. Nebylitayn led'to ela6oration of the ideas developed by I. P. Pavlov and raising them to a qualitatively nevr level. They sfiowed that the en- tire dtverstty of psychophysiologtcal fiuman tqpes cannot be reduced to four vari- at{Qns. They formulated the conception of basic characterietica of the nervous system, "which assumes as its leading premise the proposition tbat a highly or- - ganized ne7-vous system has a number of characteristics that describe the course of nerve procesaes of stimulation and inhtbition in it and, in tTieir combina- tions, make up the neurophysiological foundation of the varied psychological manifestations with their individual variatione." [71, 72]. The following scheme of nervous system characteristtcs was compiled by B. M.- Teplov and his students, and with particular clarity by V. D. Nebylitsyn [73]. I. Particular characterisLics of the nerve processes of atimulation and in- hibition of the nerve substrate whicfi receives prtmarp sensory information (that is, the analyzer): a. primary particular characteristics: strengtfi the ahility of nerve cells to endure prolonged, concentrated stimulation with- out switching to a state of beyond-tTie=limit inhibition ; mobility - speed'of alternation of stimulation and inhibition and vice versa; dynami,am - ease with wtiich the nervous syatem generates the processes of ettmulation and inTiiiiition,, in par-- ticular during the formation of temporary linkages; lability - speed of the activity of the nervous system, wTiich is deter- mined chiefly by the apeed of extinguishing the aftereffects from a atimulation pulse, that is, speed of replacement of one cycle of stimulation Fiy anotfier wfien stimuli are fed in series. The primary characteristics describe cfianges tn the fundamental nerve processes, stimulation and inhibition , respectively; b. secondary particular characteristics: balance or equilibrium of nerve processes - stimulation and inhibition for each of the primary characteristics (strengtTi, mobility, dynamism, and lability). It should be observed that sharplp expressed differences among analyzers of primary and secondary characteristics are seen in 20-25 percent of the people (therefore, the particular analyzer for which the cfiaracteriatic was deter- mined should always be pointed out). The particular characteristics give partial information on the role of neurophysiological parameter-s in the dynamics of inental function, so consideration of the particular characteristics alone results in an incomplete picture of the neurophysiological foundations of indi- vidual differences. 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOlt OFFICIAL USE ONLY It is necessary to study.the general characteriatics of the nervous system, the determinants of individual features of behavior and its most general manifesta- tions, to explain individual differences not only in those domains of the psyche directly related to the function of the sense organs, but also those domains which relate to the personality generally. II. The general characteristics are reflected in the physiological parameters of the processes of stimulation and infiibitton of complexes of brain structures not directly related to receiving primary sensorp informatton. These include the parameters of the nerve organization of brain regulatory formations. V. D. Nebylitsyn [73] considered two general characteristics: general activitq and emotionality. These characteristics may be similar to extrovertism/tntrovertism and neuroticiem in Eysenak's typological scheme [74]: a. general activism according to Nebylitsyn this refers to the personal qualities that engender the individual's internal need and tendency to effectively master the real world and find self- expression relative to the outer world. This need may find ex- pression on the mental, motor, or social planea. By extrovertism/introvertism Eysenek means the features of an individual's inter- action with the external environment, in particular with the surrounding eocial sphere, in other words sociability. Extroverte are drawn to society and follow events around them carefully. The source of their interest and enthusiasms is events in the objective world. They adapt quickly to the surrounding situation and to new people, and are so absorbed in what ia happening around them that they often "forget themselves." Introverts are people at the opposite pole. Tfieir interests and enthusiasms are directed to a subjective world. They are withdrawn and inclined to self-analysis and solitude. They have difficulty enduring changes in the environment and adapt poorly in a new collective. x'he morphophysical sub- strate of this characteristic is the properties of the frontal rettcular complex, which supports extended circulation of stimulation by circular channels. In this case the reticular formation of the brain is the generator and the frontal cortex is the modulator of general activism. This complex assigns the energy, rate, _ volume, and diversity of an individual's actions. b. emotionality according to Nebylitsyn - this is the set of qualities that descrtbes the dynamics of the occurrence, course, and cessation of different emotional states. This interpretation of the general characteristic makes it re- semble neuroticiam according to Eysenek [74] or anxiety according to J. Taylor [75], which are defined by a heightened feeling of personal danger, heightened sensi- tivity to personal failures and mistakes, dissatisfaction ~ with one's self, attributing mistakea to one's personal qualities, and internal unrest. The substrate of this char- acteristic is the frontolimbic system. In this --ase the limbic system is the generator and the frontal cortex is the modulator of the stimulation, which circulates in the circular channels of this system. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. In the current phase, we helieve, the number of general characteris.tice should be broadened to at least four, including emotional and regulatory sta- bility, two manifestations of human activity and BeTiavtor that have just begun _ to be studied. Emotional stability is defined as an integrated personal char- acteristic that is described Tiy the interaction of emotional, volitional, in- tellectual, and motivational components of individual mental activity to ac- complish a goal in a complex emotive situatton [76], constancy of inental and motor functions under conditions of emotional influences 177], and the ratio between the results of an individual's activity in a calm state and in an emotional state [78]. We define emotional stability as the optimal versi.on of adaptational biochemical, psychological, and physio?ogical changes taking place imde!' extreme emotional conditions to keep the purposefulnese of the tndividual's behavior and a,ctivity at a high level. The emotional atate is purpoaeful adaptive behavior tha.t occurs as the result of reflection of surrounding reality [79-81]. But when we consider varioue case.Q of the influence of emotions on a person's state and activity, we are forced to ob- serve not only the positive regulating role of emotions but also cases of confu- sion and unpurposeful behavior related to the development of emotional strese. This usually occurs in difficult situations with a aignificant intensification of emotional stimulation [76, 82]. The well-known Yerkes and Dodson curve re- flecta the relationship of the influence of the strength of emotional stimulation on activity. The next general characteristic arises from features of the organism~s regulatian of reactions. This characteristic reflecta individual speed, amplitude, and duration of reactions in response to a particular influence, whicfi ultimately de- termines the possibility of preserving optimal ronditions for organism func- tioning under changing living conditiona. Viewing the organism as a-complex self- regulating system [83] and using the terminology of sutomatic regulation theo'ry we can call this charact.eristic regulatory stability. It determines the typo-- logical featurea of adaptation mechanisms 134, 85]. Each morphofunctional system that determines the particular and general charac- teristics of an individual's nervous syatem (the syatem of analyzers and aystem of regulatory complexes) has two levels of aelf-regulation of behavior: 1-- the lower, genetically conditioned, automatically regulated level (supported Sy the neuron level of interrelationships); 2-- the higher level, cansciously regulated by speech-oriented thinking or speech and auliject to educational and environmental influences (supported by the interrelationships of the complex of nerve forma- tions). Each morphofunctional aystem, and even more each level of a morpho- functional system, can have ita own diatinetive atrength, dynamism, lability, mobility, and equilibrium of the processes of stimulatton and inhibition. This is the reason for the difficulty of diagnosie and the large number of combinations of these characteristics, which in turn givea the individual personality ita uniqueness. Let us now consider methods of analyzing the following characteristics of the nervous system. 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONiY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ilynamism of the process of atimulation (referent indicator - speed of formation of a posittve temporary linkage). Measuring the index of the Alpfia rhythm in the EEG is an adequate metTiod of analyzing this characteristic. Tlie studies of V. D. Nebylitsyn point to a significant correlation between this quantity and the characteri:stic being analyzed [71]. L. B. Yermolayeva-Tomina [86, 871 has proposed techniques to analyze dynamism by the nature of changes in the skin galvanic reaction [SGR]. She establisfied a positive correlation between the height of the amplitude of tfie SGR as a com- ponent of the orientation reactton to the first application of a new stimulus and the dynamism of stimulation. In people with fiigh dynamism of stimulatton the SGR is extinguished more slocrly as tfie new stimulus is repeated. Ttits same characteristic can 6e analyzed in an experiment to develop a conditioned SGR (the conditioned signal is a flash of light, and the unconditioned reinforcement is pressing on a reaction button). The presence of tFie tested in at. least three isolated tests of the light flash as tfie numher of combinations is ~ increased. The indicator of speed of development of this reaction (numFier of combinations hefore the appearance of tfie first conditioned reflex SGR) cor- responds to the dynamism of the stimulati.on process. Study of tfie assimtlation of the rhythm of light signals in the EEG at frequencies 11-20 Hz gives an idea of the dynamism of stimulation: the lower the percentage of assimilation, the greater the dynamism of the stimulation process (the correlation is at the boundaries of significance) [71]. The dynamism of the process of inhibition (referent indicator - speed and ease of formation of different forms of internal inhifiition). Investigation of tfie characteristics of the SGR as a component of tfie orientation reaction to a new stimulus and the speed of extinguishing a conditioned SGR 187, 88], as well as the features of the EEG and the EEG-reaction of rhythm asstmilation 171, 881 are adequate methode of analyzing this characteristic. A high dynamism of the process of inhibition corresponds to a low amplitude of the SGR and rapid extinguishing of it as the new stimulus is repeated. Low frequency, a high index, and a high total energy of the Alpha rhythm and a high - percentage of assimilation of the Cheta and Alpha rhythms (to 10 Hz) correlate positively with dynamism of inhibition. The strength of the nervous system in relation to inhibition (referent indicator - caffeine test). The existence of a high correlation between this property and the threshold of sensory aensations (sensitivity), the type of the spontaneous and induced electrical activity of the cerebral cortex, and the endurance and "noise suppression quality" of the nervous system are uaed to analyze this chax- acteristic. The worka of B. M. Teplov and his associates eatablished experimentally that a higher threshold of sensory sensations corresponds to a stronger nervous system in relation to stimulation [89, 90]. The existence of this dependence led to the development of a whole series of specific techniques for analyzing tfie strength of the nervous system: by the threshold of the ortentation and reaction to a new stimulus (the stronger the nervous system the higher the threshold will be [71]); and, by changing the threahold of sensory sensitivity during the orientatton 32 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY reaction (a larger increase in the tfireshold corresponds to a strong nervous system [91, 92]) and after it is extinguisTied in response to an additional etimulus (decrease in the threshold for a strong nervous apstem [92]). Tfie re- action to stimuli of growing tntensity is very instructive for analyzing the - strength of the nervous system [71, 90]. Regardless of the type of reaction (reaction time to a sound or light srimulus, critical frequency of inerging of flickera with atimulation of the eye, induction of rhythm tn the EEG for a flickering light atimulus), in all cases we encounter the saate rela- tionship: the weak nervous system has a larger initial effect and approaches the limit of the particular function more rapidly. The behavior of the strong nervous syatem is the oppoaite. The "gradient of force" techniqtle accoxding to Nebylitsyn is used extensively in practice [71, 78, 93, 94, 95]. The level of strength is determined by the ratio of the average time of the motor reaction (presaing the button) in response to a weak sound stimulus (20-40 db) to the average reaction time to a strong stimulus (90-120 db). More often the sound is taken at a height of 1,000 Hz and reaction time is totalled for 15 stimulations. The evaluations may be done by the angle of in- clination of the curve of the relationship of reaction time to intensitp of the atimulation (the angle o� inclination is greater for a strong nervou& system). As indicated above, the atrength_of the nervous system may b.e analyzed also by the type of spontaneous EEG and EEG-reaction of rTiythm assimtlation. It fias been established that a Iower total energy of Delta rhythm [96, 97], low induc- tion of the Delta rhythm [96, 97], and a low effect of total induction of rhythm [96-99] correspond to a stronger nervous system. A promising method has been developed by V. S. Klyagin [100], who established a dtrect significant correlation between the strength of the nervous system and the average values of dispersion of the Alpha rhythm (right hemisphere). In people with 8-strong - nervous system the Alpha rhythm is generally well expressed, variable, and Iias a high amplitutde. Attempts have been made to analyze the strength.of the nervous system by the time characteristics of a nonspecifiC slow evoked potential taken from the motor zone - of the cortex [101]. It has been established tfiat a test subject with a large time segment between the A and C semiwaves has a stronger nervous system. The laboratory of V. S. Merlin [102-105] has developed a technique that is widely used at the present time for determining the strength of the nervous system. This technique is based on identifying the degree of endurance of the nervous system. The experiment in this case consists of the following. The subject is told to press a button quickly following a signal, wfi icfi may be, for example, a sound stimulus (45-90 db). The sound is repeated 75-100 times. The interval be- tween stimuli is 5-15 seconds (the time necessary to restore normal neuron ac- tivity after the preceding stimulation). The level of strength is determined by the percentage relationahip between the average reaction time of the last 15-20 stimulations and 15-20 stimulationa at the start of the experiment (the ftrst five times the button is pressed are not conaidered Iiecause they are still 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY influenced by the subject's orientatipn reaction). If the average reactian time to the lasC stimulations.if 15-20 percent greater, it means tfiat the sub- ject has a weak nervous system. V. S. Merlin also developed the method of analyzing strength by the-skin gal- vanic reaction (SGR) [102]. This is the method of extinguishing witfi.reinforce- ment of a conditioned adaptive*SGR. It ie based on the ability of nerve cells to endure prolonged concentrated stimulation created by numerous repetitions of a conditioned stimulus. The experiment consists of the following. A sound (conditioned) stimulation (50 dTi) is given to the test subject. The sound oper- _ ates in isolation for 10 seconds, and then (after the researcher gives the instruction "Press the button!") for another seven seconds against a reinforce- ment background (the subject presses the button until the command "Enoughl"). Thirty sound atimuli are fed at intervals of 1-1.5 minutes. The SGR is taken from the hand which is not occupied working the button. The strengtfi/weakness indicator based on stimulation is the percentage relationship of the logartthms - of the average amplitude of the three SGR's (in millimeters) at the beginning and end of the experiment (lg M1/lg M2)� 100 (tfie first five SGRts are disregarded to preclude the influence of the orientation reaction). Where the nervous system is stronger the value of this coefficient will be higher. This method is a modification of a method proposed earlier by V. I. Rozhdestvenskaya [106]. She _ evaluated not the amplitude of the SGR, but the conditioned reflex ef- fect on the first and many subsequent repetftions of the conditioned signal with reinforcement. V. I. Rozhdestvenskaya [107] also worked out the induction method of analyzing the strength of a nervous system. It is based on facts that are widely known in the Pavlov school. In the first place, a weak stimulus causes irradiation of stimulation, while a medium atimulus causes concentration and a strong one again causes irradiation. In the second place, caffeine has " practically ao effect on the focus of atimulation in persons with strong nervous systems, wfiile it greatly intenaifies this focus in persons with weak nervous - systems. V. I. Rozhdestvenskaya observed the influence of a supplementary ligbt point stimulus on the threshold of anotfier point testing light stimulus before and after the administration of small and large doses of caffeine. Witfi subjects who have strong nervous systems the administration of both small and medium doses of caffeine changes the shape of the background curves of the influence of the supplementary stimulus on the threshold of the test sub3ecr insignifi- cantly. In the case of a weak nervous system a distortion of the influence of the supplementary stimulus is observed under the influence of inedium doses of caffeine. Thus, a weak supplementary sttmulus (in the initial state causing a lowering of the threshold for the stimulus being tested as the result of irradi- - ation of stimulation from a weak center of sttmulation) now evokes an inhibitory effect (as the result of intensification of the focus of stimulation and induc- tion of inhibition to surrouhding zones). As the result of an incresse in the sensitivity of nerve tissue after administration of the caffeine the average - supplementary stimulus acquires the properties of a strong stimulus and as a re- sult the concentration of stimulation (inhibitory effect to the stimulus being tested) is replaced by irradiation (heiglitening of sensitivity to the test stimulus). 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The etrength of the nervous spstem in relation to stimulation may fie ana- lyzed as the possibility of witfistanding the distracting effect of an outside stimulus (tfie "external ir_hibition" metfiod) [108]. Tive indicator of strengtfi is the relationship of the average times for 15 simple motor reactions to a sound stimulus where there is an outside signal to the average time of 15 reac- tions where tfiere is no such signal. The sound stimulus (4-5 seconds long) is given every 5-6 seconds, which is about six times a minute. The greater the strength of the nervous system, the lower this ratio will be, The strength of the nervous syatem in relation to inhibition. At the present time the adequate methods of analqzing this cfiaracteriatic in human beings fiave a limited arsenal of ineans. In 1963 V. I. Rozhdestvenskaya proposed measuring the effect of lengthening and multiple repetttion of a differentiattng stimulus on absolute light senaitivity (by analogy with animal experiments) [109]. When the differentiating stimulus is extended or repeated a number of times for people with weak nervous systeme in relation to infiibttion, the stimulus loses its inhibitory effect and begina to operate like a poeitive stimulus. But in people with a strong nervoua system in relation to inhibition the dtfferenti- ating stimulus continues to act as an inhibitory etimulua in both cases. The mobility of nerve procesaea is the speed of replacement of nerve pr4cesses - (stimulation and inhibition). There are various adequate techniques of ana- lyzing this characteristic: finding the speed of delaying and following con- ditioned reflexea [110, 111], the dynamics of the aftereffect (subsequent irradiation and induction) of the stimulus [43, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117]; and, urgent alteration of the signs of inhibitory and positive stimuli after preliminary production of the corresponding conditioned reflexes [43, 110, 118, 119]. However, these methoda are not monometric indicators of moFiility. Thus, the speed and ease of production of delaytng and following reflexes depends not only on mobility but also on the strength of the nervous spstem and the dynamism of nerve processes [120]. The aftereffects of the stimulus and alteration of the signs of stimuli also depend on the mobilitp and strength of the nervous system: the weaker the nervous system is, the deeper and longer the after- effect of the stimulus will be [112, 114, 115]; the stronger the nervous system is, the quicker and more eaeily the aignB of stimuli are altered [110, 118, 119]. The method proposed by N. S. Leytes can serve as an example of analyzing the mobility of nerve processes by the aftereffect of a atimulus [113]. The sub- ,ject is shown a series of letters on a screen in raptd sequence (rougfily one every second). The test subject knows from the tnstructions tfiat there are three types of lettera: positive (after whicfi, for example, a Button is to be pressed), negative (after these letters a poaitive letter afiould be perceived - by the subject without pushing the button, that is, negative + positive letters - "conditioned inhibition"), and indifferent letters. They are sfiown in random order. By measuring reaction time to a poeitive signal comtng in the immediate vicinity of an inhibitory one (after one, two, or tTiree intervals) and in the background (after at least four intervals) it was established tfiat for people ' with high mobility of nerve processes the reaction time against the background is very important, while the reaction to a positive signal coming one or two intervals after an inhibitory signal does not reflect the inhibitory effect of 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE Oia[.Y the earliEr stimulus. People with low mobility of nerve processes show a 5horter reaction time against the background; after the inhibitory stimulus reaction time to a positive stimulus coming one, two, or even three intervals later is significantly greater. When measurements are repeated a number of times during one test adaptation may occur (a shortening of reaction time, ap- proaching the background level).~ _ The modification of the above-described method devised by Ye. A. Klimov [43] can serve as an example of analy-zing mobility by a special alteration of the stereotype. He substituted colored flashes for the letters. The subject pro- duced a motor reaction only to the red light (R), and was not supposed to react to the blue light (B). Standard signals were alternated at intervale of five seconds using a scheme of RBBR 15-second pause - RBBR - 15-second pause - RBBR, and so on (20 times). After the stereotype was reinforced, an alteration of it was undertaken: the subject was supposed to press the button for the blue light and the button for the red light (signals continued to be fed in the same pattern). F'or subjects with high mobility of nerve processes reaction time decreases quickly during formation of the new habit, but continues to be variable during the tests; with "inert" subjects reaction time decreases slowly, but the degree of variation decreases rapidly. The number of mistakes is also indicative. L. M. Abolin [781 used the percentage relationship of the average latent time of the six reactions after alteration of the stereotype and before it as an indicator of the mobtlity of nerve processes. A lower value for this ratio corresponds to greater mobility. Labilitv of nerve processes - aveed of occurrence and cessation of a nerve process. The independence of this charactertstic ts hypothetical; tt may pos-- sibly coincide with mobility [89, 121]. A number of indicatore have tieen pro- posed to analyze the speed parameters of the work of the nervous system [71, 115, 122, 123]: (1) critical frequency of flickers with an intensity of flashes 15 times greater than the individual threshold; (2) speed of restoration of ligfit sensitivity after "lighting up" [possibly, exposure to strong, direct light]; (3) ratio between the thresholds of appearance and disappearance of a spot of light when measuring light senaitivity; (4) adequate optical chronaxie. It has been established experimentally [124] that these indicators, which ini- tially were adopted on a hypothetical basis as an indicator of the higfi-speed processes of nervous activity (lability), produce a significant correlation with those characteristics of inducing rhythms in the EEG which many authora believe correspond to the level of lability of the cortical cells of the cerebral cortex [125-127]. This proved the actual exiatence of labtlity as an inalienalile char- acteristic of the nervous system. Work done under the direction of E. A. GoluBeva [96] has demonetrated that the lability of nerve processes may be meaeured by indicators of the total energy of Beta rhythms (the greater the energy, the greater the lability) and assimilation of rhythms in the Beta frequency range (the greater the assimilation, the higher the level of lability). 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At the present tttne many s.tudies propose different EEG indicatora as indicatora - of lability. For example, a significant negative correlatton has been estab- lished between asymmetry in the lengths of the ascending and descending phases of the EEG at rest and the indicators of induction of fitgh frequencies of stimu- lation (that ta, lability) [128]. The ratios of the energies of the Alpfia rhythm witfi eyes opened and closed and the energy of the Alpha rhythm in the 10- 14 Hz range with eyes closed to the eame wfien an Asfiner test is conducted have . also been proposed a$ measures of lability [129]. We should also note the deter- mination of lability by the technique of registering the aftereffect in the myogram developed by A. Ya. Kolodnaya and modified tiy M. K. Akimova [130]. There are two types of self-regulatton for the above-listed, so-called primary characteristics of the nervoue system: lower, and higher, consciously r egulated by speech-oriented thinking. Both levels can have characteristics that dis- tinguish each of them from the primary cfiaracteristics and therefore, tfiey re- ~ quire independent study. The methode we have considered deal chiefly wi th the lower-level primary characteristics. At the present time a great deal of attention is being devoted to working out methods that analyze higher-level primary characteristica. The speed charac- teristica of nerve processes atthe higher level (speed of thinking procesaes) - can be analyzed using the above-described Eysenck technique [63], as well as the method developed in the laboratory of K. M. Gurevich and V. T. Kozlova [131]. In the latter method the subject~ develops a thought-speech;stereotype (for example, the experimenter names animals and plants and the subject muet say _ "Nyet" ["No" ] to every third animal name) ; then the stereotype is altered (for example, the subj ect must say "Nyet" to every ftfth animal name). The s ame characteristic can be studied by having the subject make numerical sesociations - in random order within the first 10 numbers. The subject musC multiply even numbers by two. Then it can be suggested that this operation be performed with odd numbers. The time which it takes for the subject to make the change and the number of mistakes that the subject makes serve as indicators of the mob ility of nerve proce3ses. Similar tests can be made by the technique described by 0. N. Luk'yanova and co-authors [52]. ThP lability of thinking-speech activity can be analyzed hy means of the "per- formance of instructions" and "code" methods [132]. Ustng the first method the investigator gives the subject instructions: listen,to the assignment care- fully (the assignment is repeated once, and no questions can be asked), begin performance of the assignment only after the command �tBegin," and stop after the command "Stop." The subject works with a set of cards, each of whicTi fias a specific assignment. A certain time ia allocated for performance of the asaign- ment on each card. At the end of the experiment the number of assignmen ts not completed and done incorrectly is counted, and thts is the measure of labiltty. ' The "code" test uses a set of cards with different variations of standar d symbols. A number between one and 10 corresponds to eacfi symbol and the subject has a de- coding table to use during the experiment. The goal of the subject ia to assign the appropriate number to the standard symbol as qutckly as possible without mak- ing mistakes. Sutijects who have fitgher levels of latiility do better with tfiis task. 37 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The speed characteristics of thinking-speech activity can also be studied using the A. Ye. Khil'chenko method [132). Research is underway today on the speed characteristics of speci.f ic forms of thinktng. The work of Ye. A. Rushkevich and I. D. Golova [133], for example, studies the speed of formation of conditioned reflexes for complex groups of symboltc stimuli taken from mathematical logic. TEiis makes it possible to'ana- lyze the characteristics (in particular dynamism) of abstract thinking necessary for successful assimilation of mathematics and ma'thematical logic. Thus, we have reviewed some methods that allow study of the characteristics of the nervous system at the highest hierarchical level, at the level of analytic- synthetic activity which characterizes the features of thinking. Following V. D. Nebylitsyn's classificat.on we have reviewed the particular primary character- istics of the nervous s!;jtem. The particular aecondary characteristics are equilibrium (balance), :hat is, the ratio of each of the above-listed charac- teristics related to stimulation and inhibitions: 6alance for strength of nerve processes in relation to stimulation and inhibition, balance for mob'ility, dynamism, and lability. In principle two types of ratios are possihle: inde- pendent variation of characteristics where any level of the particular cha.rac- teristic relative to the process of stimulation may correspond to any level of the same characteristic relative to inhi5ition (type A),or dependent variation of characteristics where the values of any characteristic for stimulation cor- respond strictly to a certain value of this characteristi.c for inhibitton (type B, which in turn can be broken down into B1 - positive dependence, and B2 nez3- tive dependence). It has been demonstrated experimentally that an intermediate type of dependence - (semi-independence) is possible where one level of a certain cfiaracteristic re- lated to stimulatibn correlates with the same characteXistic for infiiiiition for type A, while another level correlates with type B1 or B2. Analysis of the secondary characteristics is more complex, and there are only a few methodological procedures available today for rapid and precise analysis of them. Inveatigation of the balance of nerve processes for dynamism revealed the existence-of both type A and type B2 dependence and semi-independence [71]. - The authors of this work believe tfiat the interrelationship of nerve processes for dynamism is accompliahed according to type A. In tfieir opinion, the - referent indicator of the predominance of the dynamism of the stimulation - process over the dynamism of the inhibition process is low values for the Alpha index (no higher than 65 percent)j88], low total energy of the Alpha rhythm [96], and high values for assimilation of frequencies in the 1.5-7 Hz range in compari- son with assimilatton in other ranges I134]. The opinion concqrning the type of relationsfiip among nerve processes according - to strength is mora clear-cut: any level of strength of the intiifiition process may correspond t--� any level of strength of the inhtFaition process. Tfiis is vividly demonstrated in the study by Ye. F. Melikhova [110], who processed an 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY enormous amouat of experimental material �rom the literature. Works devoted to studying balance for mobility describe relationehips of type A[135], B1 [136], and semi-tndependence [137]. = Thus, we have constdered the parEicular cfiaracteristics tfiat describe the work of those branches of the nervous eystem tfiat are directly involved in recetving primary sensory information, that is, the work of the analyzer eystems. It ahould be remembered that the resulte of ineasurement of the particular primary - and secondary characteristics for one analyzer may not coincide with the same measured far a different analyzer. In this respect the manifestation of char- acteristics of the nervous system ia partial. The general characteristics of the nervous system are an integrating indicator of a set of personality traita (not related to direct reception of primary sensory information) which constitute the basts of different tqpes of perception of the world by a person and behavior in different life situations. In addition to working out direct experiments to analyze a particular general.charactieristic, the investigator aearches for correlations between tfiis cfiaracteristic and the particular characteristics, and with the physiological parameters of various functional syatems. At the beginning of this chapCer we cited the classifica- tion of general characteristics accordiag to Nebylitsyn. The firat of them, general activism (extrovertism/introvertism according to Eysenck.r primarily re- flects the type of activity of the frontal-reticular complex: to wfiat extent the activism of the reticular formation is expressed, what particular'division of it, and how strong are the regulating in�luences of the cortex. General activism unquestionably depends also on the nature of the primary aad aecondary particular characteristics of the analyzer systems, Eyesenck tried to find correlates of ext rover t ism/ int rover tism among the particu- lar characteriatics of the nervous system by experiment. The findinge of fiis studies were treated in the monograph by V. M. Bleykher and L. S. Burlacliuk [138]. There is reason to believe that extrovertie= ia positively related to the strength of the process of stimulation and to the mobility of nerve processes. General activiem can be analyzed using the Eyesenck questionnaire and modifica- tions of it [74, 139, 140] based on the correlation between this characteristic and the type of behavfor in different eituations (tFe questtons were written relative to the character of behavior). A modification of the Eqesenck ques- tionnaire could be the L. D. Gissen queationnaire [139], which contains 57 questions: 24 questions determine the Ievel of extrovertism/introvertiam, 24 questions analyze the level of neuroticism, and the remaining questions define the degree of authenticity of the answers. The aubject's answer must Fie un- equivocal: "yes" or "no." General activism ie related to the tndividual pace of motor activity, the indi- - vidual's inclination toward diversity of actions, and the need for activity; it correlates with the expression of the Beta rhythm in the 21-30 Hz range when an EEG is taken from the fxontal region [73]. Tfiis reflects the ascending influences of the reticular formation. Because of tfieir cfiaracteristics extro- - verts do better with work tfiat requires maximum activism and intensity. 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Introverts work hetter under monotonous conditions�, b,ut in such.a si.tuation extroverts develop reactive inhibition. The second general cfiaracteristic is emotionaltty, anxiety, and neuroticism. This characteristic describes features of tfie emotional background of the indi- vidual and is analyzed by means of tfie questionnaires compiled by Eysenck and Taylor, as well as various modifications of tfiem [I41-144]. The indicators of the EEG are used in addition to questionnaires to measure the level of neuroti- cism. It has been proven experimentally that tliere is a direct correlation dependence between the expresston of tfiis cFaracteristic and Beta activism [145, 146]. A low Alpha index, a high frequency and low amplitude of the Alpfia rhythm [147-149], and the existence of periods of desynchronization against a background of a low-amplitude and higfi-frequency alpha rhythm [150] correspond to a high level of neuroticism. The relationship between the level of anxiety and indicators of a person's ac- tivity and behavior is not always unambiguous. In ordinary situations a - heightened level o� anxiety promotes more attentive, circumspect, and scrupulous performance of the assigned task [151]. It is customary to consider [144] tfiat in extreme conditions a heightened level of anxiety reduces the effectiveness of action,-introducing disorganization into performance of assignment and the pur- posefulness of behavior. But L. D. Gissen f139, 141] and L. M. Abolin [78] have shown that this dependence is observed only for an extraordinarily higfi level of anxiety. In other cases a high level of anxiety, as an indicator of positive adaptational mechanisms, strengthens emotional stability and helps acfiteve good results of activity in extreme situations. Thus, the dependence of the results of activity on the level of anxiety is probably described by the Yerkes Dodson curve. The third general characteristic, which is also an integration of a number of personality traits, is emotional stability 19, 76, 77, 78, 152-1551. Tfiis is also a multidimensional parameter, and at the present time researcfiera are trytng to find its physiological, mental, and behavioral correlates (for example, see [78]). Emotional sta6ility is determined by u:any qualities of the individual. It is influenced by both the social and psychophyaiological characteristics of the person. Thus, people who have roughly the same level of emotional reac- tivity reveal differences in emotional stability depending on the level of motivation [76]. Emotional stability also depends on mental characteristics such as the ability to orient oneself quickly and to distribute or concentrate attention, as well as on the speed of tfiinlcing. The emotional makeup of tfie in- dividual, that is, the character (sign and modality) and intensity (depth and duration) of the emotional manifestations typical of a particular person in different situations, exercises a special influence on emotional stability. L. M. Abolin [78] has established a significant pos.itive'correlation fietween tfie emotional stability of soccer players and posttive intensive emotions. Tfie - players who are characterized by tntensive negative emotions have loar emottonal stabi3.ity tn important games (emotionogenic situations). Emotional stahility also depends on such a general cfiaracteristic of the person- ality as anxiety. According to L. M. Abolin [78], a fairly high level of anxiety 1 40�. FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY combines wirh high emottonal stability. ThQ same kind of positive correlation exists between tfiis general property and general activism (or extrovertism). It is apparent that a fairly fitgfl level of general activiem and anxiety is- an expression of the broad capabilities of adaptational mecfianisms and promotes emotional stability [78, 139]. Tfiis relationship continues to a certain point~ after which a rise in the level of these qualities lowers the emottonal sta- bility of the individual. Many studies have found that particular characteristics, of the nervous system in- fluence changes in state and activities in extreme situations [36, 37, 78, 95, 156-161]. It has been established that in difftcult situattons created by the conditions of work themselves (high pace, information overloads) or Tiy acct.dents, such properties of the nervous system as its etrength in relation to stimulation, the balance of nerve processes, lability, and mobility become very important. The relationship between emotional stability and different charactertatics of the nervous system is not always unambiguous or significant and depends not only on occupational requirements, but also qualificationa and age. L. M. Aboltn [78] showed that the emotional stability of young soccer players correlates signifi- cantly with the atrength of the nervous system relative to stimulation. Tfiis dependence is not found in older, more experienced players, but they show a sig- nificant correlation between emotional stahility and the qualtty of regulation. This subject is considered in more 3etail below. A persistent search is now undenray for the phyatological correlates of indt- vidual emotional stability. The work of Z. P. Turovskaya [161] gives findings that testtfy to a positive correlation between emotional stability and equilibrtum of nerve proceases and present an EEG characterization of a balanced indivtdual who is resistant to stress. In the background EEG of such a person, the Alpfia and Theta rhythms are usually well exgressed, and under stress the indicators of the Alpha and Theta rhythms decrease while the indicators of the Delta rhytTim ~ increase slightly. A person who is not reaistant to stress (untialanced) shows- a - low content for the Alpha and Theta rfiythms in the background EEG, and under stress shows an increase in Theta and, especially, Delta activity against a _ background of reduced Alpha activity. Various laboratory models of emotional states have been developed to analyze the level of emotional stability. For example, there is the well-known conjugate methodology technique proposed by A. R. Luriya and modified by K. K. Platonov and L. M. Rozet [32]. The tectinique goes as follows. Tfie test suFi3ect must perform a certain action (squeezing a Mareyev capsule witfi the tfiumb) under ordinary conditions and in an emotive aituation (falling forward onto a soft mat from a"standing" or "kneeling" position on the command "Ready, go!"). Emotional-motor stability is determined b.y the relationship betoieen results of ~ performing the assignment in an ordinary situation and in a stress situation. The experimental findings almost (85 percent) coincide witli.a real situation. The ratio of reaction time in a calm state to the time for the same reacCion under threatening conditions may lie an indicator of emotional staliiltty 178]. Some works give physiological descriptions of the state of test sufijects during the period of waiting for unpleasant influences. Tfiese correlate with poor , 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 2 Couuaneyoirl arneKm( e IlcuMvetnuu atneKm (o 4 I 6uannzuvecKUd ornenm (CNC) ( Z j meN (Y) (z) (aa) (bb) (cc) (dd) (ee) (ff) bunnnacma,duna� Ounsnocme,H!/4MDC~77D) (gg) M!l4MOC/Ab) FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY Co36ymDenue (tuna,J moQvanrenue (cana, no0J1umnocmn.nv r,oddu'yocm Mi ~ (b ) Ifapmn ucnamyewnzo ~u3nenna0 Onn~m, Docnumvnue, poDe~ n nem a ~ c n ameCY'uonannnor0 onam ruUnorQR tmanr x ~anu unouua ~ ~menenocme q) Mo enonac omnorurnue K m/ ~ ~roDaw , Konnedu u eunocm . ) nvmpuomuJM 3 an 3 ou u uf Kv unmenCU NOCmc Zr~ (no cune, Long-Term; Biological Aspect (Self- Adjusting System) GEneral Activism; Particular Characteristics of Analyzer Systems; Characteri$tics of Regulatory Formations; Emotional Stability; Anxiety; Quality of Regulation; , 42. ~~d) ee) Figure 6. Subject Card Key: (a) Demographic Data, State of Health; (b) Subject Card; (c) Experience of Life, Upbringing, Cultural Level; (d) Occupational Experience; (e) Social Aspect; (f) Capabilities; (g) Social Conscious- ness; (h) Time in Service; (i) Qualifications; (j) Attitude toward Labor, People, the Collective; (k) Motives, Inter- eStB; (1) Character Traits; (m) Morality; (n) Progressive Ide- ology, Patriotism; (o) Mental Aspect; (p) Will; (q) Emotions; (r) Intensiveness; (s) Speed of Think- ing Processes; (t) Attention; (u) Sign; (v) Mpdality; (w) Memory; (x) Operational; (gg) Stimulation (Strength, Mobility, Lability, Dynamism); (hh) Inhibition (Strength, Mobility, Lability, Dynamism); (ii) Balance (by Strength, Mobjlity, Lability, and Dynamism); (,jj) Quality. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY stability under stress (for example, see [162]). Among these correlates are a state of confusion, bradycardia, retardation of EEG frequencies, general hyperhydrosis, arterial hypotension, and a decrease in venous tension. - The fourth general characteristic is regulatory stability. Like the otfier characteristics, it can be considered on different fiierarchtcal levels. This characteristic can be evaluated at the central nervous system level [84, 85, 163, 1641 by analyzing the EEG and evoked potentials. It is clear that this param- eter reflects characteristics of the interaction between specific and nonspe- cific systems of the brain in the perception of deviation in the environment. This quality should also be considered on a different functional level: with the example of change in the parameters of various autonomous reactions. Individual differences in autonomous reactions to any stimulus can fie reduced to two types: plastic and inert, areactive and reactive, with low and high autonomous reactivity, or with different levels of emotional reactivity [78, 85, and others]. Such a division reflects the typological characteristics of regulation of autonomous functions, whose highest center is tfie hypothalamus. The features of regulatory stability in the sphere of higher nervous activity manifest themselves in regulating one's own actions and behavior i;, evaluating a given situation [87, 165, 166]. The indicators of the regulatory stability of different hierarchical levels and morphofunctional systems do not necessarily correlate among themselves, of course. Thus, we have grouped all the many characteristics of the social worldview and thinking and living processes (usually studied separately) in three aspects of manifestation of the human essence: the social, mental, and biological. Figure 6 (previous page) presents a chart of individual characteristics dratian on the basis of studies of these aspects. The time has now come when we need a generalization of the conceptions of per- sonal characteristics proposed by various researchers. We have proposed our version, which may be far from perfection. Similar attempts are being made by other authors [16]. 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Chapter 3. Some Aspects of Evaluating tfie Activity of the Human Operator Through the entire history of the development of technology and aluast to the = present day the mutual relations of human beings and machines have been one- sided, involving human adaptation to the macfiine. During tfie development of technology machines increasingly look over human motor functions, broadentng the human capability for processing matter, while the human being performed prepara- tory and repair work. The limited range of jobs done in systems of this type, the low speed, and the simplicity of control promoted rapid develaptaent of dy- namic stereotypes of movements in human beings. W[ien these systems were em- ployed, the primary workload fell to human muscular sqstems, while psyciw- physiological characteriatics were conBidered secondary and the designers of machinery did not have to consider them. The continuing increase in the capacities of machinery and the growing com-- plexity of control processes caused a shift in tfie human workload to the mental sphere, making increasingly higher demands on such human characteristics as speed and precision of thinking,'quicknesa of reactions, and the like. Finally, in some areas of technology these requirements came very close to the limits of _ human capabilities under the given conditions. For thia reason questiona arose concerning matching human and machine characteristics, mutually adapting them. _ For the human part this meant selection by special criteria, a higfi level of vo- cational training for work in a limited clasg of systems, and so an. For the machine part, it involved refining techniques of repreaenting information appli- cable to human analyzers, coordinating the input devices of the machine with human effector systems that perform control acttons, taking account of human anthropological characteristics, and others [73]. Moreover, it became necessary ' to transfer a number of human functions to faster and more reliable automatic devices, and at the present time the growing trend is to assign human beings only those technically complex functions involved with selecting system strategies, monitoring the work capability of the syetem, and the like. Under tliese condi- tions the environment, with which human beings had direct contact during labor activity in earlier times, is replaced by a certain information model of the environment [97]. Thus, the most important issues today are no longer fiuman _ interaction wtth some particular macfiine, but rather the more general problems of the interaction of the human being and a certatn arttficial environment [107]. Until recently, concrete problems of interaction between fiuman heings and machines were solved by separate study of human and macfiine characteristics [26], whereas ;�44. ~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY the very concept of the "man--machine� s.ystem (M--MS) presupposes that it is in- correct, in the general case, to analyze and syntfiesize such systems on the basie of findings from separate study of the characteristics of the human being and the machine. From tfiis comes the problem of evaluating the work of the M-MS as A whol.e, despite the qualitative differences among processes taking place in the machizLe and the accompanying human mental activity. But from the standpoint of systems analysis, wfiicfi presupposes an adequate breakdown of a complex system into simpler subsystems, the problem of studying human cfiaracteristics does not lose its timeliness; on the contrary, it becomes even more signiftcant and mean- _ ingful. Representing the operator as a functional element of the M-MS assumes from the standpoint of the eystems approach tfiat exfiaustive descriptions muet be given of all the "inputs" and "outputs" that exist for the work of the given sys- tem. Furthermore, this description must be done on the same level (and in the same language) as the description of the entire M-MS. In addition, because this . element has memory, its output signals are determined by a function whose inde- pendent variables are not merely the input signal, but also a state. In this case memory means both the ability to accumulate informatton and the inertia of psychophysiological processes. The sections that follow present a hrief aurvey of work in the field of studying the characteristics of human Iieings and M-MS's. Proceeding on the Basts of our ideas, we will consider in order a des:.ription of fiuman activtty, a description of the human psychophysiological state, and the evaluation of resulta of ac- tivity. 1. Psychophystological Prerequisites for the Quality of Human Lafior Activity The methodological foundation for understanding the interrelationsfiip hetween human activity in a system and the accompanying mental processes is the principle of the unity of the psyche and activity, according to wfiicFi there exiats a epe- cial psychophysiological mechanism between the environment and fiuman behavior [i4i, iss). From the many approaches that analyze the interdependence of the goal and strategy of human behavior we may single out the following: the "tiieory of the functional system" [8]; the "physiolof;y of activity of the living organism" [21]; "feedback for forecasting" [1061; the "conception of the set" [219]; the "model of the future" [237]; "plan" [161]; the "nerve structure of the stimulus" [200]; and, the "image" [19]. It is possible to generalize these approaches in an interpretation of anp ac- tivity from the standpoint of self-regulation of one's own behavior not only at the level of the conscious, but also enlisting otfier mechanisms [239]. M. D. Mesarovich and co-authors [256] introduce the princtple of "satisfactoriness" to explain the nature of interaction among systems in the organistn. "Satisfac- toriness" is in*_erpreted as follows: "Being subjected to the influence of unde- sirable disturbances, the organism changes its control so that the Fiasic vital characteristics of its systems remain in a certain satisfactory range as long as the disturbance continues, and any control tfiat brtngs about this state is preferable for the organism in the giveii condittons." , 45� EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Work [125] considers a possible model of the process of self-regulation of be- havior by the operator. In the authoris opinion, self-regulation tnvolves re- distribution by the operator of stress to the performance of particular stages of the activity in conformity with an assessment of the degree of the significance of performing particular stages in the overall structure of the activity. The - diagram of self-regulation can be represented in the form of two components con- nected in series. The first of tfiem relates to heigfitened energy expenditures to activate the appropriate systems of the organtsm and includes feedback ac- cording to the probability of not achieving the goal. During tfiinking activity based on past experience images of a higher level of generalization are gener- ated and increase the probability of achieving the goal. Thus, in the first case a more complex task is compensated for by increasing energy expenditures, while in the second case this is accomplished by an intensification of informa-- tion activity. It may be supposed [170] that self-regulation of b.ehavior by a person involves an empirical determination of the tenaion of the organism's physio?ogical syatems adPquate to achieve the resulta of the activity and meet the required quality criterion. ' Work [238] shows that in its interaction with the environment the organism strives to stabilize the parameters of the particular physiological systems in a certain range of their states. The tension of the physiological systems corresponding to this state makes it possible to use the different resources of the organism more economically taking into account the specific features of the activity. On this level learning can be viewed as the process of acquiring special ha6its that enable operators to perform their functions with minimum stress. As a result of the ability to forecast the time of action of stimuli and tfieir properties, the operator can optimize the distribution of stress in different phases of the activity. The characteristtcs of human forecasting of time and structural characteristics of signals are closely linked to the individual characteristics of rhythmic processes in the organism. For example, the over- estimation and underestimation of the same time sequences made by people with heart rates up to 86-102 and 58-64 beats per minute were commensurate with these heart rates [144]. People witli a normal pulse rate may deviate in either direction. No relationship has been discovered between the basic rhythmic processes, the frequency of the Alpha rhythm, the rate of heart activity, and frequency of breathing. Variation in signal processing time is linked to the strength of nerve processes. But this condition is ina3equate for rliytfimic activity [119]. In addition to it the constancy of reactions is influenced tiy the ongoing functional state and degree of automatiam of the activity 6eing ca.rried out, that is, adaptation. The operator's adaptational capabilitfes can be assessed iiy a quantitative description of the sensomotor reaction constructed with due regard for the number of signals in a training series [124]. Adaptation to the activity being performed is accompanied by changes in the parameters of physiological indicators. TC1eae changes are proportional to the activity being performed. The impossibility of adaptation shows itself in a significant deviation of physiological indicators from background indicators [110]. Brief nerve disturbances related to abrupt cfianges in the nature of 46. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' activity are defined as a"state of prostra-tion" I1531 which. ia accompanied by a sharp drop in the effectiveness of activitp, all the utay- to cessation of it. Despite the individual character of tFiese reactions, thQy are accom- panied hy relatively singular physiological reactions of different degxees df expression. There is a sfiarp increase in the variation of cardiac cycles in the direction of retardation (from 84 to 66 beats a minute), followed Fy a - sharp increase in the rate. The amplitude of the slcin galvanic reflex grows and high-amplitude slow waves appear in the EEG. The action of nonstationary sig- nals that the operator does not expect causes a state of emotional unstaFiiltty, which sharply increases the spread of indicators of the quality of activtty [184). Complete operator adaptation takes place in two stages. First the indi- cators of sensomotor activity stali.ilize, tfien the indicators of autonomous func- - tions stabilize. Quantitative evaluations of tFia processes of restructuring the functioning of the organism applicable to ongoing tasks can tie determined by the charactertstics of the EKG [34]. Work [206] investigated the adaptation characteristics of the brain in the process of information overload. The metfiodology of intensive foreign language study was used. Two types of change were observed in the restructuring of the _ bioelectric activity of the brain in different stages of learning. These stages were clearly linked to the nature of the basic activity of the test subjects. It may be supposed that multiple repetitions of the conditians of appearance of a signal and performance of a sertes of actions would not lead to the elimination of thinking operations through the development of "automatism" but ratfier to de- veloping a higher-level program of actiona taking.into account the statistical structure of the learning sequence. Evaluation of the leve.l of training can be constructed taking into account the amount of information which the operator processes in a unit of time 180, 203]. For the case where the number of possible answers Fiy an untrained operator may be large and the probability af selecting alternatives in work is not identical [83], an integrated criterion is obtained by computing the number of cases of correct behavior in response to an indefinite signal and relating this sum to the total number of operator actions for each of the habits being formed. Work [114] considers the case where operators do not receive. information on the quality of their activity. In such conditions as the number of signals in an array that the operator processes increased, the average sfgnal processing time for this array approached a certain range charactartstic of the particular oper- ator and signal parameters. The degree of adaptation was determined Tiy the Frobability of finding procesatng time in the range of these values. - Work [203] established that there are two components in the structure of a habit: level of training in the procedures and technique of the particular type of activity and operator adaptation to the concrete conditions. The levels of development of these components are measured by different statistical parameters of the initial set of realizations of the process: 1. the mode defines the actual level of training in the habit; 47: ; FOR OEFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFEICIAL USE ONLY 2. the median evaluates tfie actual fiahit taking background into account; 3. the arithmetic mean evaluates the effectiveness of tfie practical action. A.s the tests are repeated asymmetry decreases, and therefare it is proposed that this phenomenon be explained on the 5asis of the follocaing functional relatton- - ship: bias = level of training adaptation x distractahility. 2. Human Functions in Ergatic Systems - There are many different forms of interaction fietween human beings and technical devices in man-machine systems. The operator can perform a brc,ad range of tasks to support the work capability and operation of sucfi a system. Accordingly, operator activity can be analyzed fram different standpoints. In the literature devoted to the problem of the human operator we can identify the following basic areas today: classification of man-machine systems; physiological aspects; and, human interactions with technical devices and development of special mathe- - matical apparatus oriented to describing the functioning of systems of this class. In work [182] the systems that require human presence (ergatic spstems) are classified by a functional characteriatic defined by the degree of hiiman partici- pation in the work of the system. Two boundary cla$ses are identified: deter- ministic systems and probabilistic syateme. In deterministic systems tfie oper- ator can estimate the values of parameters in tfie future at any time according to a known law of change. In these systems the operator's functions involve servic- ing various program units. The operator performs preparatory work: repair, adjustment, preparation of programs, and the like. In nondeterministic systems the values of system parameters may be predicted with a certain probability. Therefore, human presence in all stages of its activity is extremely essential. This is owing to the purely human capabtlities which determine successful oper- ator acrivity as a part of the control contour [98]. It is proposed tfiat inter- mediate classes be ranked by levels of the hierarchy, dpnamic properties, form _ of data representation, and other such features. Work [216], in classifying ergatic systems, uses the following factors as determining: number of pereons _ working in the system; degree of operator participation in the work of tfie syatem (in systems of the firat type the operator performs the tasks of monitor- ing, analyzing malfunctions, evaluating work capabiltty and tfie like; in syatems of the second type the operator is directly engaged in control in a tracking mode). The works of A. I. Gubinskiy (for example, see [157]) classify systems of this type by the following features. 1. By mode of functioning. Depending on the degree of tfi,eir use at tfie moment under consideration systems may be in the standfiy mode, mode of preparation for functioning, and functioning mode. Moreover, there may be one-time preparation and functioning or repeated preparation and functioning. 48., FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. By the role of the human being in tfiem. Sqstems of the first txpe are sys- tems in which the aperator performs the functions of monitoring and restoring work capa6ility. In systems of the second tqpe the operator works togetFier with the technical units. In systems of the third type the operator works onlp after a machine mal�unction, performtng its functions. In systems of the fourtfi type the operator handles requesta only when the machine i.s loaded wftFi prior re- quests. The comprehenstve approach, which includes two inseparably linked areas, the static and the dynamic, is usedto e7aluate the functioning of an ergatic system. Work [181] gives a general descriptton of these areas. In the opinion of the authors, the atatic component of system state is a set of parametera that describe the propertiea of the system, while the dynamic component is a set of values of the parametera that describe the procesaea which take place in the system at cer- tain momenta in time. The syatem-structural approach is used to describe the essential activities performed by the Qperator [160]. The distinctive features of this approach are clarification of the specific activities of the operator, determining the concrete difficulties tfiat arise during the process of mastering this type of labor activity, the effect of individual cfiaracteristics on work indicators, and the like. Realization of the system-structural approacfi with ap- plication to operator tasks involves deacrtbing the general structure of oper- _ ator activity in order to establish the psycfiological and causal relattonsTitps that determine the reliability and efficiency of operator labor [75, 142, 145]. A generalization of psychological findinga from the study of operator acttvity in different branches of industry made it possitile to identify the following 6asic groups'of operator-type workers [159]: 1. the techzologist-operator, who performs the functiona of observation, monitoring, and regulating industrial processes to maintain them witfitn assigned limits; 2. the supe.rvisor-operator, who performa traffic organiza-- tion tasks; 3. the operator who performa remote control of a mobile or imanobile object; . 4. the operator who directly controls a moliile object. A number of researchers try to classify the mental activity of an operatpr in performing various control tasks. For example, work [79] proposes tfiat oper- ator mental activity be broken into three types: sensory, sensomotor, and logical. Sensory-type mental activity covers operators who receive information on one channel and transmit it, without conversion, on several channels. The typical example of this type. of activity is the work of a person in a communications system. Sensomotor-type mental activity involves processing directive information and outputting results in standard form for the particular process. Tfiis type of activity is typical for drivers, pilots, dispatchers, and operators oP industrtal systems, among others. For the most part, the motor form of laBor involves the operator's performance of sequential actions in response to a dtrective atgnal or , 49. . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFLCIAL USE ONLY a change in the situation in the system. Tfiis type of activity is typical for several stages of pilot activity, for adjustment or preparatory jobs done by an operator, and in other such situations. During logical-type mental activity operator functions involve receiving and processing information, making decisions, ared issuing control actions to the appropriate units of the system. In tfiis case the operator experiences- the prtn- cipal workload during information processing and decision-making. Witfi a limited number of problems to solve operator actions take on features of automatism and this type of activity can be.classifie.d with one of the above listed groups. In actual situations all three types of activity by an operator occur. Therefore, ~ the ratios among the different types witfiin the limits of a selected time inter- val can be the basis for describing operator activity according to the selected characteristfcs. According to work 1131], operator functions in an ergatic system can be repre- _ sented as the realization of three modes of activity. The monitoring mode is - characterized by the operator's receiving information on the work of the system. In this case the number of parameters being monitored, their features, the periodicity of monitoring, economic and paycfiophystological indicators, and other such factora may be taken into account. The regulaKion mode presupposes periodic operator intervention in the activity of the machine part to maintain certain parameters or for purpoaeful change in these parameters according to an assigned program in conformity with control olijectives. The control mode involves direct intervention by the operator in the activity of the macfiine part of the system - for the purpose of controlling system parameters. This approach to some_ extent echoes the ideas presented in work [12] relative to levels of control in a liv- ' ing organism. ' At the present time many authors are inclined to interpret man-rmacfitne systems as single-channel data processing systems (for example, see [98, 179]).. Ac- cording to thie idea operator activity can be represented in the form of a sequence of elementary control cycles consisting of distinct, completed stages. The following stages are identified as the principal ones: recetpt of informa- tion, processing and decision-making, and isauing control actions. Where necessary theae stages can be broken down into more detailed components. For example, work [166] breaks the control cycle down into the following parts: 1. receipt of information - isolating the signal from the information background and determining the message which the signal carries; 2. processing and decision-making extracting the algoritfim for processing tfiis signal from memory, processing witFi due regard for computation and logical conclusions, and formulating the result (formation of information-instructions); 3. carrying out control actions searching for a means to realize information-instructiona, and realization of the result: issuing information-instructions. 50', . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500020049-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY - The control cycle is considered to begin at the moment that the operator re- . ceives information on a change in the parameters o� the processbeing moni- tored, and the basis for execution of all stages is the point wliere these parameters reach or approach the boundaries of pexmissitile values. The total time of realization of the control cycle, including the time of cfiange in con-- trolled parameters, is defined by the signal delay caused bp the fiuman being and the hardware. The quality of operator performance of functions tn di.fferent phases of signal - processing differs. According to figures given in work 1222] the largest number _ of errors (81 percent) made by a pilot comes in the pfiase of receiving informa- tion. The process of vtsual perception is broken down into aeveral more de-- tailed phases: perception, recognition, and classification [7, 228]. Tfie ftnal goal of tfiis process is to assign the spectfic object to a certain category [57]. Investigation of the stage of information receiving is based on the dual function of the signal. On the one hand, it ie a carrier of information that elictts a certain reaction in the sensory system; on the o ther hand it is an indtcator of the characteristics of the state of the environment or technical unita gnd has a certain meaning to the operator. Tnerefore, the principal areas of research in this field today involve identifying methods af opti.mal c:oding of informa- tion by display means [149], study of the psychophysiological characteristics of perception of tnformation by the visual analyzer [187], study of errors occurring when the operator ts performing the tasks of d i scrimination and identification, and investigating the relative sensitivity of different analpzer systems [88]. Because the vieual analyzer of the operator of a contemporary control system is heavily loaded, the possibility of converting p art of the flow of information for receipt by other analyzers such as the tactile analyzer is under inveati-~ gation [235]. Another approach to the investigation of these operator functions involves esti- mating the influence of internal factors on the quality of irLformation receiving - by the operator. The individual topological characteristics of the operator's nervous system, ongoing characteristics of func tional state, motivation, and ' level of training are considered the principal ones [229]. Work [79] showed that the signal classified in the stage of information receining determines the nature of subsequent operator a ctions. In the opinion of the author, the operator works out a control strategy in the form of operations to make decision9 on the situation in the system and necessary techniques to influ- - ence it. According to [96], the operator in thia case uses a conceptual image model of the situation. The selection of the necessary signul processing algorithms Tap tfi.e operator is largely determined by the operator's abtl{ty to extrapolate future situations. This capability has been studied by many resear chers (for example, see 155, 180]). Extensive findings have tieen made on processin g discrete signals 1122]. It is observed that the results of predicting depend on many factors related to the probabilistic structure of arrays of signals, motivation, the presence of feed- back, and the like. All decisions made by the operator in the pro cess of activity are divided tnto groups. One of the groups is based on logical 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY deductions that follow from an evaluation of the situation, while the other is conftned to selecting decisions worked out earlier. It is not possible to draw a clear boundary line between tfiese groups of decisions because they involve close interaction by tfie primary and secondary signal systems 1108]. Based on the results in work [78], A. A. Krylov [131] supposes that most reactions are transitional between reactiona of tfie first and second types. A special scale that includes different categories of decisions has been pro- posed to evaluate the intellectual 1eve1 of difficulty of a decision. The stage of operator realizatton of control is carried out today in the form of motor or speech reactions. The basic requirements for the corresponding devices were considered in work [73]. Attempts are being made to use bio- electric signals that arise in the nerve-muscular tissue for these purposes [6]. - Raising the efficiency of realization of this stage is closely linked to con- sideration of the anthropological characteristics of the person [45] and formu- lating rational methods of coding signal informatton on the results of activity [40]. 3. Objective Methods of Evaluating Operator Work Capahi..lity Evaluating the Quality of Operator Performance in the Stage of Receiving Information Lvaluating the quality of information receiving involves analysis of a number of informative indicators which.adequately reflect the influence of "internal - factors" on this process [18]. Because most of tfie information in operator ac- tivity comes to the visual analyzer, aperational monitoring of its work capa- bility is an important component part of the general problem of monitoring the efficiency of operator activity. The muscle balance of the eyes, the size of the - pupil opening, the length of sequential images, the "stability of clear vision," - the frequency of eyeblinks, the critical frequency of image merging, the threshol.ds df electrical stimulatability, reaction ttme, and other qualities change under the effer_t of fatigue [28, 99, 127, 183]. _ Work [118] reviews methods of evaluating the visual work capability of a person. Two, classes of criteria for evaluating this type of activity are identified: a priori, and empirical. The class of a priori crtteria include criteria in which visual work capability is evaluated indirectly: 1. the optico-phyaiological criterion (qualitative and quanti- tative evaluations of visual functions sfiarpness of vision, binocularity, and the like); 2, information criterion (carrying capacity of the visual ana- lyzer worktng under different conditions).. The empirical criteria include the criteria according to which visual work caga- bility ts evaluated by the results of performance of a particular type of ac- tivity: _ 52 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY 1. productivity of labor Cvolume. of arork in a un:Lt o# time, number of mistakes); 2. operator fatiguabili.ty. The a priori crtteria, despite tfieir fiigh prognoatic value, in.volve interven- tion in operator activity, whicii signtficantlp limits tfie posaiTility of using them for the problems under consideration [207]. With reapect to the general problem of evaluating operator work capabilitp to evaluate the quality of information receiving tt is necessarq:to analyze a number of informative indicatora that reflect ongoing psychophysiological char- acteristics of the senaory system. Many investigators fiave sftDwn that cfiange in the activation of the sensory systems is reflected in the parameters of tfie EEG, the EKG, the EOG (electrooculogram), the EMG, pulse, and respiration (for example, see [2301). Work [229] singles out ahifta in the indicators of the EEG, EOG, and SGR (skin galvanic reaction) caused by the detection of signals as the activation complex which characterizes the functional state of the operator during signal receiv- ing. It notes the individual quality in selective distribution of activation of those systems which occurs wTien a signal appears. It is believed that this fac- tor may serve as an indicator of rational expenditure of psychophysiological reserves of the o.rgahism in the process of performing this tppe of activity. V. I. Myasnikov and I. P. Lebedeva 1162J recorded EEG's, EKGts, and EMGts of the muscles of the deep flexor of the fingers of the rigfit fiand in CTi.e process of information receiving by the operator and identified a direct correlation between the latent period of the response reaction and tTis expressed orieatatton reflex. ' t Work [13] established differences in the proceas of fatigue of the visual ana- lyzer when worki.-g with a mandatory rate of perception and a random rate. Tfie electrooculogxam (EOG) and the biopotentials of the eye movement muecles are an important indicator of the state of the visual analpaer and tn large part meet the requirements made for monitored parameters.- Recording the EOG makes it possible to obtain manp important characteristics of the process of operator receipt and processtng of vieual information practically without inter- ference to the operator. Tfie main types of eye movements and,their phyeical characteriatics are given in [59]. Tfie work of the eye movement apparatus is closely linked to certain functions of operational memory-, which.determines the preservation of traces �rom earlier ftxationa 187]. In tfiis sense eye movement . activity tn the process of the "information searcIi" is instr!�-*ive 196]. The essential feature is active identification and conversion of elements of the _ information field relevant to the proTilem being solved. In certain stagee the. information search may be viewed as an independent type of activitp that in- cludea ordering objects, identifying useful information bp assigned criteria and sorting, recalculation and nonselective retrieval of ob,jects, and so on. These tasks are performed by means of perceptive'and mtmicking actions which 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ manifest themselves in prolonged fixation of the eyes on particular elements-of the information field. Attempts to divide time expenditures into perceptive - actions and intellectual acttons.proper are extremely complicated because work ig done in tfiis case with a conceptual image model of the situation formed during the familiarization process [41, 60]. Dependtng on the nature of tracTcing movements, eye movement activity is suti- divided into three levels [197]. Tfie lowest level reflects imprecise tracking movements, whtle the middle level is the second tppe of imprecise tracking move- ments, and the htgfiest level is precise tracking movements. L. D. CTiaynova [230] identifies tfiree levels of activation of the sensorp spstems depending on the effectiveness of performance of visual activity: the most complex regime, the optimal regime, and the preferable regime. Indicators of the activity and certain objective indicators of the information search process (number of steps, length of fixations, and the EEG and EKG) are used as quantitative cfiaracteris- tics of the regimes. The frequency of blinking movements is an important characteristic of the reli- ability of the visual analyzer of an operator. An increase in the frequency of blinking movements may occur as the result of various irritants in the air, ab- normal lighting, and the effect of otfier physical factors [127]. During oper- ator activity this charactertstic of the visual analyzer changes mainly as the result of fatigue. According to ftndings given in work [103], the number of mistaken actions by the operator increases synclironouslp with increase in the frequency of eyeblinks. A study made by the autfiors of this book on the fre- quency of eyeblinks for an operator performing the operation of to a computer under time deficit conditions showed that the number of mistakes grows -as the volume of information proceased tincreases. Wfien the density of the in- formation flow reachtng the visual analyzer increases, the area of the EEG - decreases, the frequency of the Alpha rfiytfim rises., and it becomes desynchron- ized. In this case the energy expenditures in the eye movement system decrease, pulse frequency increases, and slow Fiigh-amplitude osctllations occur tn the SGR [230]. K. K. Ioseliani and co-authors [112] recorded EEG's (integral ac- tivity for five seconds), EOG's (vertical and horizontal components), EKG's, SGR's (amplitude and length of reactions), EMG's (flexors of the fingers of the right hand), electrotensograms, and spoken answers during the process of the operator`a search for and recognition of cartograpfiic objects. Tfie results of activity were evaluated by these criteria: recognition ttme, accuracy and de- gree of confidence (according to the latent period of the spoken response). The experiments showed that the most sensitive indicators of the complexity of an information search.are the ocuologram and its baeic characteristtcs: time of eye movement activtty, number of steps, and average length of fixations. In the EEG during intensive activity the Tfieta rhythm dominated when difficulties ap- _ peared and the Beta rhythm dominated wfien work was done efficiently. The conditions of activity have a large influence on the visual work capaFiility of the operator. The resolutton capaTiility of the eyes declines with an in- crease in the frequency of'vibration. Tfie resonance frequencies 4--5 Hz are _ particularly sensitive for an operator [58]. P. M. Suvorov [209], who studied the effect of accelerattons on the work capaFiility of an operator, oTiserved an � .54~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY v intenstfication of Beta activity in this peri.od without aigni.ficant ehifts in the spectra of the other rhytfims; tTiis intensification continues when visual impairments appear. The appearance of a"gray" or "black" sliroud in the `ield of vision is preceded (5y 3-10 seconds) bp the disappearance of pulse from the vessels of the floor of the auricle or a decline in pressure tfiere to 40 mm merc col. Indicators svch as the EEG, EKG, respiratton, and the spstolic indicator do not change significantly; some indicators also remain uncfianged during the period of loss of consciousness. The parameters of the EEG, which are simple in a computational.sense, are uaed for purposes of diagnosing and monttoring the state of the visual analyzer. Attempts to relate the average values of EEG amplitude and the value of the Alpha index to sensomotor characteristics fiave produced some results [245]. More promising findings have been obtained bq investigating the interrela- tionshfp of the form of oscillation witfi the speed of information proceseing in the visual-motor system [50]. In work [51] a calculation of the mutual correlation of the average level of asymmetry and average period of the spontaneous EEG and various indicators of sensomotor activity showed that the average pe.riod of oscillation is not re- lated to these characterietics. According to the findings of this work the number of mistakes made during a correction test witfi rings correlates well with the average level of asymm~.,try of the EEG, But also depends strongly on the motivation of the test subjects. Another approach to evaluating the visual work capability presupposes the ex- ietence of a relationship between oscillationa in the pulsation of central neurons and mental processes taking place in microintervals of ttme [143]. A theoretical ca?culation of some patterns of visual perception by frequency characteristics of the EEG revealed a direct relationship between the frequency composition of the oscillations of brain structures and typical features of visual images, in particular the tnformatton capacity of the images. After _ working out a frequency model of the neuron, the authors [136-139] obtained a good coincidence of calculated results with experimental results for the time of the sensomotor reaction in a choice situation, for the time limits of per- ception of a sequence of viaual signals, for the minimum time from the moment of the visual effect to the moment of maximum operator readiness to receive subse- quent visual stimuli, and for various other characteristics. In our opinion, - the experiments confirm the hypothesized reZationship tietween the frequency composition of the EEG and the."spatial frequency" of elements in v3:sua1 images. This made it posaible to use the results of processing evotced poten- tials to determine accurately which stimuli were perceived by the operator. Analogous resulta were obtained by B. Berns, who used a different approach [20]. The patterns detected cannot yet be used to monitor the state of the systems of the operator organism related to receiving information, but there is no doubt of the promise of this approacfi for tfiese problems, 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY Evaluating the Quality of Information Processing Recording and analyzing the EKG is an essential part of monitoring the state of the operator. This is related to the.fiigfi.informational value of the cardiac rhythm for these problems and the methodological simpltcity of recording 1175, 176]. Work [79] establisfies the existence of an almost linear dependence of pulse rate on the amount of tnformation coming to the operator. A number of works have shown change in the variability of the heart rfiythm in different stages of inental activity. Tfius, work 1135] ofiserves that the phases of getting _ into the work rhythm and active work are accompanied by a decline in the vari- ability of the heart rhythm. Wtien work capability decreases slow waves appear in the.EKG and may be used to forecast the work capalitlity of the operator [84]. Findings on oscillatory components of the EKG during prolonged mental activity are given in work [135]. When the intensity of activity grows there is an abrupt increase in the frequency of heart contractions and their varialiility [30, 195]. Work [247] contains data on the exisCence of a correlation between the varia- bility of the frequency of the heart rhythm and the number of mistakes made by the operator. The mathematical expectation and coefficient of variation of pulse frequency were used as the most informative indicators to evaluate psycfiophysiological ten- sion in work [25]. Maximum-efficiency of activity was observed for minimum de- - creases in the coefficient of variation, V. A. Dushkov and co-authors [78] recorded the average numher of heart contrac- , *_ions and the instantaneous values occurring at each contraction in order to evaluate the effect of inental tension on change in the functional state. They established that the correlation coefficients between time of performance of the assignmant and change in pulse were statistically signi.ficant, but these indicators are not well protected against individual differences related to motivation, level of training, characteristics of compensatory mechanisms, and the like. The authors of [44] used a set of eight indicators of the ca;:diovascular system, including pulse rate, tachooscillographic adrenalin values, and data from phase analysis of the cardiac cycle and stroke volume to distinguish the state of rest and emotional tension caused by waiting for stroke loading. They evaluated in- formational value by the linear discriminative functiona method according to Fisher. Pulse frequency and average adrenalin proved most informative. According to the results presented in work [236], the average values of the amplitude of the EKG and RR intervals taken at one-minute intervals do not have a reliable correlation. Under pfiystcal loading the periods of existence and absence of a correlatinn during'the transitional process occur in regular order which reflects individual characteristtcs and is preserved regardless of tfi e number of tests. A generalized indicator cfiaracterized By the ratio of the averaged frequency of the background EEG to average amplttude was proposed to evaiuate the current functional state of the central nervous system. 56, , FOR OFFICIAL USE OIYLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A. V. Cfiu6arov and V. V. Petelina 1231] efiowed tfiat it is most convenient to use an tnverse relationsfiip to aimplify tfis apparatus in tfiis case. Tfiis in-- dicator reflects- operator activity in the addttion mode very orell. A number of works have noted tfia tendencp for errors to appear arTien operators wfio have spent more time on computation multtply pairs of two-digtt numbers. In this case the test subjectg who normally fiad a loar amplitude for the Alpha rhythm or transformation of the EEG in tFi.e unfavorafile direction (irregular acute. and Theta waves, and low-frequency Alpfia rTiqthm transforming into Th.eta oscillations of 7 Hz) allowed concealed malfunctions (errors) more frequently. The Alpfia index, the amplitude nf the A1pTia rhptFim of both fiemispfieres, asym- metry of oscillations, and difference fletvreen *tfie ascending and descending wave phases are considered to Fie psycfiological indicators tfiat determine the productivity of operator activity. The indicators of asymmetry, amplitude, and frequency of the Alpha rhythm correlate significantly among tTiemselves. Work [214] notes the existence of a relationahip between dispersion of the re-- action time to directive signals and the coefficient of opening and closing the eqes (the ra.tio of the rate of aynchronizatton of biopotentials of the brain to the rate of desynchronization). Tt ts also emphasized that there is an extreme value of this indicator where the efftciencp of operator is maximal (for the accepted time criterion). Its numerical values are not constant, even for one subject, in different experiments and varp within tfie limits of a certain range af values. Tfie intensitq of a person's activity is , reflected by change in certain parameters of the EEG. Thus, it was observed earlier [248] that as tension related to concentration of attention increases, desynchronization (depreasion),of the Alpba rhytIim occurs. In addition, a de- crease in the number of spontaneoua depressione of the Alpha rfiytfim fias been observed when the probability of the appearance of an expected signal in- J creases. A number of works, hqwever, fiave also described the onpoette phe- nomenon during mental tenaion: a rise in the Alpha rfiythm. According to the findings of work [198], moderate tension is accompanted bp a rise in the in- - tegrated capactty of the Alpha rhythm, Fiut a furtIier increase in tension leads to its depression. Investigators attempt to interpret ttiese contradictory- findings by considering depression to be the result of directed tfiinking, while exaltation is viewed as the result of generaltzed tFiinking. Direct differentiation of a peraon's states hy the parametera of tfis EEG wae first presented in work [49]. During analysis of the interrelationsfiips of three EEG readings (from just below the crown, from tTiQ back of the head, and from the temple), the author found statistically reliable differences for different types of inental activi.ty. He used the average level of asymmetry of the oscillations of spontaneous activtty as the indicator. In later studies using this indtcator several types of inental activity-were consistently class�t- fied, despite individual differences. In certatn cases the correct classifi- cation of arithmetic counting, squeezing the left wrist, and reproduction was 85, 88, and 70 percent respectively 150]. A simi].ar studp witfi otFi,er EEG indi- cators was done tn work [2601 to clasgify five different mental states. In this case the average amplttude of the Alpha rhytfim in the crown-back of the 57 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY head region, the average period a.n the crown region, coherence in the zone be- tween the back of the head and the crown, and cofierence in the zone fietareen the crown and a biopstpital reading sensor selected from a group of 15 indicators were recorded in advance. The average results of classification of states were correct in 62-69 percent of the cases. In the work of A. A. Genkin 151] two - types of activity were correctly dtstinguisfied by the coefficients of interac- tion of pfiase lengtfi and correlation of the period and amplitude in 91 percent of the cases. Recording the EEG during a correction test witil circles revealed a significant decline in the average level of aspmmetry during periods of skips. In additton, ~ the dispersion of slow oscillations of secondary values of asymmetrq in the back-of-the-head and forehead readings increases at the moment of an error. A number of authors [147, 227] consider the dispersion and mathematical expec- tation of integrated activity in the zone of the Alpha rhythm to be the most informative pRrameters in the EEG. The coefficients to distinguisFi these stages have been established based on the parameters of the distribution lams of the Alpha rhythm for operational rest and in a state of heightened attention. Change in the nature of the distribution law of the background EEG with a change ir.. the person's functional state is also noted in work [169]. Work [65] proposes a method of obtaining a"current index of activitp" of the EEG based on computation of the ratio of the low-frequency index to the higfi- frequency index. Evaluating Operator Work Capability bq Data from Multi- channel Recording of Phqsiologic Indicators Under actual conditions different.types of difficulties may face tTiQ operator _ in different stages of the funct,ioning of an ergatic system, and for this rea- son the load on the physiological systems o� the operator's organism may vary. Therefore, monitoring of the current state of the organism involves all systems related to the performance of operator functions. Evaluation of the current state by analysis of one physiological aystem is not a reliable tecfinique for this purpose in many cases. According to work [79], the basic reasona for the need to monitor multtple - parameters of state are the following: a. the significant spread of individual characteristics of operators; b. the presence in the organism of possibilities of compen- sattng for disrupt3on of the function of one pfiysiological - system hy means of other systems; c. the multiple elements of a"functional system" responsible for performance oF a particular type of activity, whicfi cre- ates the problem of determining the weakest element in the - system at the particular moment; S8 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY d. the requirements of predictafiility of monitoriag pre- suppose an evaluation of reserve arork capability. TEzia evaluation can be oTitained on tfie 5asis of an analpsis' of the characteristics of specialized structures by preferential processing of information and energy sup-- port for the vital activittes of the organiam. V. I. Myasntkov and I. P. Lebedeva were amoag.the first to investigate the pos- sibilities of semieffector analysie of tfie operator*s state during tTie proc- essing of visual information [1~2], . Work [71] propoaes identifying leadtng aad secondary parameters in the set of symptoms that characterizes a certain functional state of the operator. They suggest using weighted ratios of parameters as the basis for autQmattc diag- nosis. The suthors of work [168] recoroed EEG's, EKG's, SGR's, and reapiration. They found that a rise in the emotional tension of the operator manifested t.taelf in an increase in the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms, the amplitude of the - SGR, and increases in the frequency of the EKG and reapiration. V. A. Bordov [27] recorded pulse rate, reapiiation, akin temperature, local perepiration, and a number of biochemical indicators while tension was created by various means. He observes that the most significant changea tn all the indicators monitored were observed when performing discontinuous counting at a aet pace, dts- tinguishing tonal signals under ttme deficit condittons, in.the case of infor- mation redundancy, and with an increasing flow of information. In work [791 - while the test subjects performed assignments at a given rate using accounting methodology thcir EEG's, monopolar right and left frontal-readings, ERG's, SGR's, and EMG's were recorded. T4 resul.ts of the experimenta showed that during the period of block work in the EEG a maximum frequency shtft is ofiserved-in the direction of the high-frequency rhythms. A change in the objective indicatora of state was noted only for those mietakes of which the operator became aware . during moments of complications in the work. The most informative indicators, aignaling the approach of a breakdown in work, were the EMG and SGR. The peak ' valuea of the EMG for nonworking muscles differed by 300-400 percent from ini-- tial values, while for the EKG the difference was 20 percent. Proceeding Prom this, the authors [79] concluded that there is not an unambiguous correlation between the character of breakdowns in the work of t$e fiuman operator and their functional nat+�--�. Indicators of the dynamics of functional state wfiicfi precede or accompany the time of an error deacribed a physiological situation fraugfit with the danger of all kinds of error. The suthors of work [90], analqzing the ~ very same experimental material, think tbat the physiological indicators re- flect not tfie quality of activtty, but rather a subjective characterization, - tension. . Work [64], investigattng the sens.omotor reaction under conditions of uncertninty and Grtth a warning signal, recorded a num&er of ph.psiological tndi- - cators simultaneous-ly. In addition, Before and after the experiment tfiey measured arterial.pressure, analyzed the lilood for content of sugar and adrenalin'lfke _ substances, and analyzed the urine for corticosteroid content: Tfie greatest 59 FOR OFk'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY changes were found in the SGR, EKG, and biochemical indicators in experiments with uncertainty. V. S. Genes and V. A. Mako tchenko [53] compared the information capacitp of 10 different indicators of the adrenal cortex and peripfieral lilood with carriage - of inercury (witliout signs of intoxication) and witfi mild mercurp intoxication. The most informative tndicators tested were those related to the functional test. The results of comprehensive processing made it possible to establish thar the information value of the complex is no greater tiian the information value of the best indicator inclnded in the complex. Work [213] proposes that the distinct physiological indtcators of the dynamics of operator state be joined in groups. Its author believes that change in the intensity of aperator activity is reflected above all in change in relations within the groups. , - The requirements for parameters subject to monitoring are presented in work [90]. The suthors believe that the opttmal operator state is zonal tn nature, so the work capability of all the systems of the operator's organism cannot be evaluated by separate indicatora. In the*opinion of V. V. Kopayev and co-authora [123], the overall effect of the _ influence of all physiological systems can be represented, when evaluating functional state, in the form of a certain "pnysiological index." Tliey suggest that for identifying the existence of correlations among parttcular pliystological indicators considering that quantitatively equal components of a physiological index are not alwaya physiologically equivalent, tlie particular physiological reactions should be integrated into a single expression based on the principle of - central nervous regulation of work activity. The authors of [123] tielieve that a precise evaluation of functional state presupposes the use of crtteria for the information value of the p articular physiological indtcators and sets of symptoms. Studies of operator activity under real conditions, on trainers, and in labora- tory experiments have shown that a uniform qualitative structure of physiologtcal shifts is observed in all ca$es. According to the findings. of [201], changes in the physi_ological indicators of operator-type workers (proofreaders, subway engineers, power system supervisors, and air traffic controllers) depends on the volume of information.received by the operator, the level of its complexity, and accountability for decisions made. The greatest changes in the EKG (increase in the pulse rate to 130 bits per minute) occur in pereona in whom high-frequency rhythms predominate in the EEG. Work [2] givea a comparative description of phyaiological changes that occur in operators during monotonous work and tension-filled work. Tfie autfior sfiows that the indicators of Yability of the visual analyzer and tfie memory and attention functions decline toward tfie end of the working shift for an operator engaged in monotonous activities. No deviattons on the part of autonomous functions were identified. But during tense acttvtties disruptions occur in the visceral and autonomous spherea [113]. 60 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ANLY In work [35] the EKG and EMG of the right forearm and SGR vere taken for ptlote. Growth in the frequency of heart contractions relative to a atate of rest, the mathematical expectation, mean quadrattc deviations, and envelope of the EMG, and the area of the SGR were used as indicators. Linear diecriminant functiona vere calculated to evaluate information quality. Tfiis made it possiTale to express differences between classes of oBservations witfi due regard for linear connections among variables. It was establisfied that the tnformativeness of particular indi- cators depends on the type of activitp, but the Tiighest information value oc- curred for evalLStton 5ased on it set of indicators. The authora of work j85J believe that the degree of psychopliysiological tension of a pilot is well reflected in the effort of randomly gripping the control.wheel. From the reaults of investigations of fligfit activitp on trainers tfieq determined that in thia case the most informative parameters are the SGR, length of cardtac intervals during moments of activation of the SGR, ratio of the length of infiala- tion to exhalation, and involuntary delays in respirattan. Work [86) suggests that pulse frequency, the amount of the pilotts reserve attention, the volume of lung ventilation, and the grip on the control levers should be considered tfi e most informative indicators or a pilot's level of training. An integrated indi- cator of the quality of flight activity is introduced to evaluate tIis quality of flying with due regard for psychophysiological reactiona. V. G. Denisov and co- authors [74] also propose an indicator of the quality of flight activity tfiat takes into account the criterion function of psychological tension. Studies using laboratory models under different conditions of activity considered the tndicators of the person's state and the quality of activity being performed [133]. The generalized criterion of human functioning took into account the in- dicators of the quality of activity by specific criteria and change in the func- tional state of the operator. The EKG, FVD [expansion unknown], skin temperature, adrenalin, EEG, pulse rate, SGR, EOG, and a number of other indicators oTitained - by special techniques were used for an obJective evaluation of state. Among these other indicators were pzoblem-solving by vieual observation, evaluation of operational memory, decision-making, types of motor reactions, and solving prob- lems involving maintaining an operational linlc. In construction of the general- ized criterion of efficiency it was presuppoeed that the nature of the relation- ship between the quality criterion and indicators of functional state does not - change throughout the entire range of changes in conditions of activity. Tfie ongoing values of the quality indicator are determined not tiy the nature of the relationship, but rather by change in state. For each type of acttvi.ty, the quality indicator was represented in the form of a polynomial of a certain fixed degree from corresponding values of selected psychophysi.ological indicators. The mathematical apparatus employed was based on the least squares technique and al- lowed evaluation of the informativeness of selected psychophysiological indi- cators. Based on the findings obtained the authors of tfiis work conclude tfiat indicators related to evaluation of the quality of activity and indtcators of the variability of parameters are most informative. But the information value of the particular physiological indicators is not the same for each type of operator activttq. Work [258] presents a possible approach to evaluating the informativeness of physiological indicators hased on the techniques of dispersion analysis. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The contradictory character of shifts in parameters of physiological indicators of operator states, especially when the operator's activity becomes more complex, is noted by many authors j4, 37, 1671. Tn work I1171, the EKG, respiration, time = of the pilot's spoken reaction, and flight parameters were recorded in an emer- gency situation artificially created when the plane was approaching the runaway for a landing. Trwo types of pi1Qt reactions were found in similar situations. The first type is- an increase in the parameters of all pfiysio- logical tndicators at the moment that the emergency signal is expected and rapid restoration wfien the problem is removed; the second is characterized by a de- cline in all indicators at the moment of expectation and more prolonged restora- tion. Work [210] hypotfiesizes that such manifestations of indivtdual charac- teristics are caused by the prevalence of sympattietic or parasympathetic regula- tion. Work [42] considers operator fatigue during tense activity to be the re- sult of additional mobilization of the organism's internal resources. In con- nection witfi this it proposes that the stages of fatigue be classified by certain indicators of the sensomotor reaction. A number of devices have been proposed to automatically monitor the values of physiological indicators. As standard values they use data on mean statistical norms of these indicators or their background values [71]. The vast biomedical findings received from experimental work are not always sub- ject to adequate mathematical processing. This is primarily because of the lack of sufficiently correct methods of describing. a complex obj ectlike.the human organism. In addition, study of operator activity under real conditions-is made more complex by the lack of necessary apparatus for taking and recording many - potentially highly informative indicators of work capability� Tfierefore, the traditional psychophysiological metliods wfiich successfully haridle the problems of vocational selection are poorly suited in practice for evaluating actual oper- ator work capability. PsychophysiologicaT Aapects of Operator Reliability The reliability of performance of functions by an operator is broken down into three types [67]: 1. psychological reliahility reliability in relation to ir- regular failures (errore) because particular actions are done incorrectly or at the wrong time; 2. physiological reliability reliahility in relation to temporary, regular failures owing to shortage of time or the development of,fatigue, injury, streas, and the like; _ 3. demographic reliability reliability in relation to ul- , timate failure (aging, in,jury witfi disability, and death). Work [163] considers operator reliaLility together with the operator's individual characteristics in light of -the doctrine of types of higher nerve activity. From the wark characteristics the author singles out those which are based on in- born properties of the operator's nervous system: long-to-rm endurance, endurance in relation to extreme tension, resistance to interference, ability to ~ Ltch, and the like. 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY This view has fieen confirmed i.n numerous later ororks (for e,xaffiple, see 169, 152]). According to the findings of Ye. A. Mileryan I154], psytTiclogical studp-of the structure of operator activity makes it possible to identify several regimes of operator activity in which.reliafiilitp tndicators differ subatantiallp. Tfie optimal and extreme regtmes are considered basic. Tfie gradation of regtmes is done by indicators of operator activity, and so the questtons of operator reli- ability in tfiese regimea are discussed. A number of autfiors j53, 95, 2021 note the great impact of the individual operatorts volitional qualities on reliability, indicators. E. V. Bondarev and co-autTiors [29] believe tfist operator activity in extreme conditions te characterized 5p selective redistribution of functional capabiltties. In thts case the primarp activity is done with maximum efficiency, whtle other functions are performed with gradually decreasing results as peycfio- physiological resources are exhausted. Some works (for example 1251]) cite data to the effect that paychological tests do not reflect change in the psychophqst- ological capabilities of the operator under tfieae conditions. Operator activity in extreme conditiona caused by various faetors is analyzed in works [1, 101, 199, 211, 233, 242, 2501. Work 1128] atudied operator activity during prolonged waiting for a signal (2-10 minutes). For an objective evalua' tion.of the operator's state they recorded the time of the simple sensomotor reaction, reaction time and number of mistakes in differentiating two ligfit stimuli, time required to solve-thinking problems, the monopolar EEG from the back af the head., the SGR, the EKG, the vertical component of the EOG, the RMG [expansion unknown], and eye movementa. A relationship between the probability of error when solving thinking pro}ilems and clianges in physiologtcal indicators was experimentally established. Thus, a decrease of 20-30 percent in fre- quency of the EEG relative to the background EEG before an assignment is given increasea the probability-of error. Tfie best results for the sensomotor reac- tion were obtained against a Iiackground of diffuse alertness: a stable Alpfia rhythm in the EEG, a constant EKG frequencp for the particular operator, a large number of eye movements, and maximum observed value of the SGR. Errors in- volving skipping signals occurred against a background of a sligfi.t decltne in the level of alertness: appearance of the Tfieta rTiytfim, decline in the frequency of the EKG, lack of the EOG of reactions, and a minimal EKG. Tfie character of errors in operator activity is an fmportant source of tnformation to the oper- ator. Operators correct their activities by the qualitattve diatribution of such errors. In this case operator motivation has an importazt tnfluence on ahaping the tactics of subsequent befiavior [164]. Many works note tfiat regard- less of the degree of zmotional stability, tn all cases operators cfiange tfieir tactics depending on the magnitude and nature of deviations in results received. But according to the findings of 12321 during the stages of training and getting into the work rhythm, increasing the completeness of information on the qualtty of work done does not always fiave a positive effect on the formation of the required habtts. This is because tfiere are two categories of information moving in the feedback channels: (1) informatfon which does not fiinder operator adaptation; (2) information wfiich does fiinder operator adaptation. Tfie second type is typical for cases when the operator's sensomotor habits are inadequately developed and feedback increases the activation of the corresponding nerve centers. 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE nN1.Y 4. Description of Operator Activity and Evaluation of Its R?s.ults Numerous autfiors use logical probafiilistic methods to descriIae operator activity [56, 471. In this case the algoritfim of operator activitp is considered as a , set of elementary operations to process information and the selected logical conditions tfiat define the order of their performance in performing control tasks. Performance of elementary operations is cfiaracterized bq average time of execu- tion and prooability of errors. Tfie logical conditions map be deterministic and probabilistic; they can also fi e considered as distinct operations. TCie time of the logical transition and the probability of error--free performance of the logical transition are used to evaluate these conditions. In work [92] G. M. Zarakovskiy introduces the coefficients of logical couiplexity - and assignment stereotyping to evaluate concrete operator activity. T'his ap- proach to describing operator activity is based on the assumption that time expen- ditures to carry out particular operations in the algorithm of activity fiave ade- quately stable statistical features. Work [157] systematizes known data on time expenditures for particular elementary operations (such as reading information from various types of display media, processing time, decision-making, pressing - buttons, and the like). The structural method of describing operator activity [157] involves represent- ing operator functions as distinct completed operations that are joined together depending on concrete conditions into blocks of operations from which the algo- rithm of operator activity is formed. The advantage of this method is that it = permits a preliminary assessment of system reliability because statistical data on the time and quality indicators of performance of particular operations are used. But its significant drawback for practical application is that tfiese data are obtained without reference to the impact of constraints on time of performance of the corresponding operations, which must be taken into account when using logical-probabilistic models. Information theory methods are somewhat more free of this proTilem. The first works in this field gave a substantiation of Hick's law [2531. Tt appeared - later, however, tFat the linear relationship between the amount of information in the stimulus and reaction time is preserved within a limited range of experi- - mental conditions, but the amount of information whtch a pexson can process varies widely depending on conditions of activity, age, criteria.for evaluation of the quality of activity, and so on [32, 67, 72, 132, 179]. Work [46] showed that in the process of training a person forms an internal model - of the environment and conditions of activity and optimizes befiavior tn con-- formity with this model. Applicable to the problems of information retrieval, at first the operator groups elements, tfien devises an internal sequence for processing 'them, and carries out the required action. 0. K. Tikhomirov and co-authors [217] present findings to the effect tfiat when solving problems of classifying objects the operator first uses fieuristic solu- rion techniques, and then gradually makes up more informative tests. In this case operator activity is reduced and may coincide with the optimal algoritfim for the given conditions. Otlier authors also note the increase in the operator's 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FaR OFFICIAL USE ONLY carrying capacity during the process of increaeing akills [80, 81, 1321, This process is linked to change in the signtficance of the information recei.ved. Two approacfies are tieing worked out today to evaluate tTiis indicator. One of them involves determintng the significance of the tnformation received; tfie extent to which it promotes acfiievement of the goal 181]. According to the - second approacli [126], the significance of the information will be greater when it testiftea to a lower probaFility of achieving the goal. A. Ye. 01'shannikova [167], studying the acttvitp of higfily qualified operatArs, es- tablished that where they worked by the criterion of avoiding all errors in action, reaction time to stimuli of different intens:ity hardly d^?ended on level of training at all. Her explanation was tliat the operators monitor their activ- - ity extensively. According to the findinga of work [70], the use of pilot monitoring instruments to give the pilot the most ajgnificant information on fliglit parameters does not promote an increase in the pilot'g time reserves. The authors believe that the pilot prefers to operate with an internal model of the significance of the in- formation being received. ; . Work [80] proposes that ongoing reserves of carrying capacity be evaluated iiy the amount of additional information which the operator is cap able of procesaing - while performing the primary activity. Work [166] gives summary findinga on operator carrying capacity while performing diff erent operatians, but the condi- tions to which these operations correspond are not stipulated. Works [16, 83] . also review probabilistic-information methods of evaluating operator activity. V. 'N. Trofimov [218] uses the intensity of the flow of information, an.indicator of the speed of creation of "diversity," as the measure nf the efficiency of an ergatic syatem for the tracking regime. In ttiis case the criteria of efficiency _ are the intenaity of the informatioA flow and rnatching errars. - The following requirements, presented in work (179),may be considered general constraints for information theory techniques: ' a, constancy of conditions in which assignments are given; - b. constancy of operator characteristics; ~ c. the ueriod a� signal tracking must be greater than the re- fractory p eriod of operator reactions; - d, assignments should be similar in complexity, type, and sig- nificance. Work [76] also considers the number of conditions, number of possible solutions, _ character of the decision algori.thm, level of assimilati.nn of the algorithm; and existence or nonexistence of feedfiack on result of activity as limitattons - on the operator`s carrying capacity wlien processing information and making deci- s ions . - 65 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Despite the he.uristic character of human tfiinking activity, many operator characteristics can be obtained tTirough probatiilisttc information models of operator activity in the form of mass service systems. In this case the human operator is considered as the service apparatus and the time reQuired to servtce a request is a random quantity [10, 155]. Tn tfiis case "requests" _ mean signals tfiat come from tecfintcal units to the operator. Tfie floar of re- quests is broken down into classes Whose cliaracteristics may iie regularity- of arrival, requirements for precision and reltaFiltty of execution (service), . priority (order of processing),.and so on. The distrib.ution of request arrival time is found the algorithm of the system's functioning. The law of distribution of time of request handling is determined experimentally or on a model. The workload on the operator and its boundaries are characterized by the average queue length, waiting time for ser- vice, and intensity of service. In this the indicators of the quality of operator activity are the probability of failure and the extent to wfiich results obtained from processing particular signals correspond to the given criteria for processing them. One possible approach to the application of masa service theory in problems of evaluating operator activity is given in work [115]. In this case the ergatic system is viewed as a mass service syatem with an input flow con:cisting of fail.urea of the ohject. The normal regime for this system's functioning is - where the failure is handled immediately after it is reported. The mathe- matical axpression obtained. for time of servicing requests and probability of the occurrence of d queue may be used as a preliminary evaluation of the relia- bility of a conttol system. The works of B. A. Smirnov propose that all types of complex human operator ac- tivity be represented as sums of particular elementary operations according to procedure, information processing, and implementation of control actions on ap- = propriate units of the machinery. Time expenditures to solve any complex problem without experiment are calculated by means of the hypothesis of the independence or parallel-sequential execution o.f particular elementary actions witfi known time expenditures for these operations. A good correspondence between calculated and experimental findings has been shown for the sensomotor reaction. Work [196a] considers the operator as a single-channel mass service system witfi.waittng. The index of the reliability of its functioning is the proFiability of errors, which includes the following factors: Pail, Pi Pomr, where P1 is the probahility of overfilltng operati.onal memorp; P2 is the proba- bility of occurrence of a time sliortage (where operattonal memory is not over- filled); P3 is the probability of information overload; and PoWli is the condi- tional probability of occurrence of an error duri:ng the pracessing of algorit:im i. _ In the opinion of the author of tfiis work, giuen an exponential law of service with parameter M and an elementary input flow witfi parameter T, the probability of the existence of queue Pr in the system can lie computed bp the .formula _ P. - C ~1 jr X (I / 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY When developing various control systems tfiat presuppose the presence of a fiuman _ operator, a precise quantitative consi3erati.on of its characteristtcs in dif- ferent regimes of functioning of tfiis class of system is necessary. Tfie appar-- atus of graph theory [56], sensitivity tfieorq 1104], and others 11891 may also be used to determine the quantitattve cliaractertsttcs of operator work. From an engineering point of view, the most convenient way to describe operator func- tioning is the method of equivalent transfer functions [186]. The transfer functions of the human operator may be used to analyze the statitlity of manual control systems and to determine the constraints imposed by the dynamic range of operator characteristics on the corresponding characteristics of the control object. In the process of designing control systems these c3ata make tt possible to evaluate the controllability of the object when it is tmpossilile to use full- scale modeling. In addition, this offer s an opportunity to reproduce factors whicti affect the quality of oper4tor act ivity but are difficult to evaluate under real conditions. The essential feature oL this technique is that the characteristics of the opera- tor performing the role of a link in the control system are described by a certain linear transfer function. The part of operator reactions that does not correspond to this transfer function is represented in the form of interference applted at the same point as the operator output. If the interference is commensurate with the magnitude of the usable signal corre sponding to the transfer function, the function is subject to further adjustmen t. In the general case, the transfer function of the operator has this form - K 1'~l (S) i~~p (S) = v (S) e-St, where KP is the coefficient of intensif i cation; T is the delay time of the reac- tion (0.13-0.2 seconds); M(S) and N(S.1 a re polynomials wiiose coefficients are determined by the concrete conditions of the problems lieing solved. In the elementary case when interpreting this class of systems in the form of a single-contour tracking system, the operator receives an error stgnal and produces - the control actions, attempting to nullify the matching error. The dependence of the parameters of the transfer function on the form, spectrum, and range of control signals and the dynamics of the cantrol elements is investtgated in work [244]. It is an important result to estahlish the fact that the type of operator tranefer functions obtained in concrete systems is applicable to a restricted class of sys- tems. Operator transfer functions, whil e meeting the requirements of preliminary investigation of ergatic systems, fiave 1 imited capabilities in tfiose cases where precise evaluation ia required. The limitations presented in work 1240] can be conaidered the principal sfiortcomings of models in this class. In the opinion of the author, the most significant short- comings are the fullowing: 67' , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL.Y l. Linear analog models cannot have at the output frequencies which are not przsent in the input signal; 2. These models cannot interpret experimental facts wfiicfi testify that the operator in many cases acts discretelp; 3. Tfiep do not consider the ability of operators to adjust their behavior in conformity with an evaluation of the probabilistic structure of the arrays of incoming signals. Work [259] has proposed a pulsed model of the operator to eliminate the sfiort- comings of linear analog models. This model includes a linear continuous part and a pulsed element in the form of a periodically operating key. The linear part of the model consists of a corrected linear transfer function and a shaping circuit which is an extrapolator that constructs the function of the input stgnal in time based on information obtained at the moment that the key is closed. This type of model describes operator actions very well using transfer functions. But it is poorly suited for describing multichannel systems. As a rule, operator actions are linked to the results of processing information that arrives by dif- ferent channels. These may be scalar instruments, dfgital indicators, sound and optical signal devices, and the like. A model of this type is based on the as- sumption that the operator is for the most part a single-channel regulator who switches among different controlled contours. Tfie model permits evaluation of many important operator parameters related to reading information. Senders [259] used this model to predict the rate at which an operator would read instru- ment readings and obtained a good correspondence. The basic ideas realized in his model have been confirmed in many works by other authors [125]. Situations are possible in operator activtty where the operator acts as several regulators, controlling several variables [113]. In tfiis case each parameter has its own contour of regulation. Preferabic conditions for the use of types of models to describe operator activity in a multichannel system still need careful investi- gation. Work [172] proposes that instead of conventional operator transfer functions gen- eralized work characteristics that give functional descriptions of the param- eters of the input signal and prpcessing algorithms be used. Discrete models o2' the human operator give an adequate representation to fre- quencies of 2 Hz (analog 1 Hz). The spectrum of output quantities of discrete models of the human operator correaponds better witIi experimental data [174]. Adaptive models of the human operator are presently in the development stage. But certain successes have already been achieved in this area [15]. The general drawback of the purely tecfinical approach to descriliing the func- tioning of the operator is that it does not adequately consider the unique. character of information processing by a human tietng. Such features of the func-- tioning of the human element as the effect of motivational aspects on indicators of activity, the use of personal experience, and the existence of vast compen- satory capabilities raise the challenge of working out a special matfiematical 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY apparatue to evaluate the reliability and efficiencp of - systems. Comprehensive Methods of Describing Operator Activity Methods of this type attempt to combine a stri.ct formalized descrtption of pur- poseful activities by a person 61ving various applied problems witfi natural science data on the human being as a uiological system with an indivtdual prior history, individual characteristics, and an individual current etate, The indi- cators of operator activity are vi.ewed as a result of a certain "integrated" state of the man-machine system [43, 165, 221]. The simulation modeling technique ts most higblp developed at the present time [94]. To obtain preliminary evaluations of the reliability of complex human- machinery systems the authors of thts work uae the techniquea and data of reli- ability theory, mass service theory and human factors engineering. The simula- , tion modeling technique, which considers the technical apecifications of the devices used, the structure of operator activity, the parameters of the internal states of operators, and their impact on the quality of activity, makes it possible to obtain average characterization of system efftciency with due re- gard for psychosocial factors (emotional state of operators, motivation, team- work in crews, and the like) in the stage of system design. The drawback of the method is the averaged character of the resulting descriptions, which makes it difficult to consider the tmpact of individual data on tTi.e quality of group ac- tivity. In addition, the psychological etructure of tlie group of operators (leadera, follQwers, theoreticians, and tTie like) ia not adequately tpLken iilto account. The operations psychology method [47] is based on a consideration of data on the contentual aspect of psychophysiologtcal processes realtzed in acttons and psy- chological operations. It is based on the following proposttions: a. The breakdown of activity is done By dividing the struc- ture of operator activity into standard actions for whi'ch initial values of time and reliability of performance are. obtained; b. When synthesizing the structure of activity consideretion is given to the influence of parttcular types of tenston - on the integrated indicators of activitp and to the mutual influence of particular actions; c. When calculating the reliabili.ty of performance of operations and groups of them it is assumed that human beings can monitor their actions with more tfian the afferent system. In thts case, self-monitoring of reaults oFatained is specific in nature. The method developed tn the works of V. V. Pavlov is a promising describing the characteristics of ergatic svstems. In tFii.s case tfi,e man-macfiine 69 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY complex ia viewed as an "ergatic orQanism" which has the following basic fea- tures: _ a. functional hnmeostasis, directed to solving the pro, foundly technological problems of self--preservation; b. the principle of minimum interaction, which means tliat operators in all cases try to organtze tfieir work to obtain the maximum efftciency of the entire system witfi minimum tension; c. the principle of functional compatihility, according to which the functional capabilities of the operator included in a certain way in a closed system must permit purposeful actions by the entire system. The mer'-nd af nenlinear in- variance and autonomism proposed Ty the author of work [170] is used as the mathematical apparatus. The calculation of a space "ergatic organism" done by this method in work [171] shows that the method already has vast potential in its con- temporary level of development. The integrated approach to evaluating the efficiency of ergatic systems is elab- orated in [172, 181]. The authora of these works consider the integrated states of man-machine system and conclude that in the interaction of the human operator and technical devices is so strongly, manifested tfiat it is prac- tically impossible to evaluate them separately. Therefore, they poae.tfie problem of developing a branch of reliability theory applicable to the evaluatidn of such systems. _ Numerous investigators try to perform factQr analysis of the influence of dif- ferent environmental parameters on indicators of the functional state of the operator. Work [255] describes a model of operator stress. The input parameters of the model are temperature, acceleration, vibration, motivation, training, and com- plexity of the task; the output parameters are time constants, dispersion of'tfie noi'se of the motor reaction, and dispersion of the noise of observations. The identification of the model according to expertmental data was done on the basis of the principle of maximum probability relative to the vector of state. Development of integrated methods of deacribing operator activity is one of the problems of the awiftly developing science of ergonomics. Tfie first results ob- tained in this area synthesize data from the natural sciences with an ade- quately correct use of mathematical metfiods to analyze them. This makes it pos- sible to suppose that analpsis of all elements of an ergatic system from a uni- form standpoint is the most promising approach. Tension of Operator Activity The concept of "tension" [napryazhennost'], which'is used as one of the evalu- ators of operator activity, does not have a clearcut unambtguous definttion to- day. , 70, . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY A. Sidzhel and Dzh. Vol`f [191] draw a parallel fietxeen tension aa an indicator of the psychophysiological state of the operator and the time resources tfiat the operator has. In their interpretation tension is the emott.onal state of the operator before solving subproblem i, whicli is computed according to the formula :ti1= T E >l' � where M is the indicator of tension; Ti is the average time available to per- form all remaining significant and tnsignificant tasks on the assumption that the operator makes no mistakes; PY is the total time used to solve preceding problems; T is the total ttme allocated fqr problem-solving. . It is easy to see that the average time of problem-solving, wfien used to evaluate tension, does not reflect the actual psychophysiological state of the operator, in other words, the actual level of tension reached at the moment tfiat signal iis processed. In works [215, 216] the term tension of the ergatic system is used for a state charactertzed 1ay identification of the processes ctrculating in it under the in^ fluence of external factors. The authors diatinguish two types of tension: Q- tension, which ts the state of a system to whicfi it switches under the influence of physical factors (vibration, noiae,, illumination, and the like). Tlie opera- tion of tfiese factors disturbs the interaction of parttcular macliine untts and increases the probability of failure, which increases the load on the operator. The second type ta S-tension, wfiich is the state of the syrstem caused bq human reaction to the occurrence of a time shortage. The quantitative measure of the second type of tension is determined by the formula given above. Many authors describe the measure of difficulty of conversions done by the oper- ator with a signal in terms of the time during wfiicFi,the operatdr performs func- tions with a given level of accuracp. The quantity-inverse to' tfie matliematical expectation of time of trouhle-free operator work tn an erggtic system is defined in this case as tension. It is considered expedient to represent tfiis quantity in two componenta, deterministic and random, wfiich refer respectively to the mathematical expectation and dispersion of this indicator. The dependence of tension on precision of performance of the algoritfim of signal processing and their complexity is rionlinear in nature, and several ext-remes of tenaion are ob- served for different combinati-ons of tfiese parameters. V. V. Pavlov [171] believes that tension ts a measure.of difficulty in operator performance of functional conversions on a signal, quantitattvely equal to the average time of exiatence of the quasistable staCe of the system. The authora of work 123] believe that the degree of operator tension may Be da- fined as thg ratio between the number of unfulfilled assignments and the time remaining to tulfill them. Some investigators try to evaluate tfiq tension of operator activity by the results of processing psycRophysiological indtcators of operator state and the results of operator activi,ty (for example, see [101]). - - 71, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 HOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In work [47] the types of tension are sufidi.vided into speci.fic, nonapecific, and specific pace tension. The coefficients of the influence of tfiese types of ten- sion on the qualttity-time indtcators of activt.ty presented by the autfiors were _ obtained on the basis of tfieir own findings and data in the literature ustng a point scale and converting the potnts to percentages. Works [74, 257] find the numerical values of psychophysiological tension from a criterion function determined Fiy the deviation of selected phpsiological indi- cators relative to background value taking into account the weigfits of the par- ticular indicators. The authors of works [116, 208].!tnterpret tension as a copmensatory intensification of "autonomous support" agatnst abackground of declining capaci-- ties for higher nerve activity. With this approach tension is constdered a mea- sure of human energy expenditures in the process of labor acttvity. B. A. Smirnov [196a] gives an evaluation of operator tension taking into account conditions of operator activity. He believes tliat the primarp factors t~iat pro- mote growth in tension are the load on the operator, overfilling the operator's operational memory, the existence of a service queue and a time sfiortage. . It seems to us that the approaches considered above try to invest the concept of "tension" with hoth the meaning of an indicator of the economic characteristics of operator activity (precision, time, reliaTiility, and the like) and at the same time indicators of the measure of difficulty of the activitp for the particular persons. It seems to us that for convenience in analyzing operator activity a distinction should be made between tension j"napryazhennost"`] as an indicator of the complexity of the activity and stress ["napryazhenipe"] as an indicator - of the changes in the functioning of the physiological systems of the operator organism that occur in this case. State of the Operator Because the organism represents a complex hierarchical system, there is good rea- son to use the apparatus of systems theory to describe its functioning. But the concept in systems theory that interests us does not fiave a clearcut, unambiguous definition. Thus, work [5] uses the term "state of the system" to refer to a set of existing characteristics wfiiafi the system has at the moment under considera- tion. In work [36] state is defined as an ordered set of coordinates of the system in*a configured space whose dimensionality coincides witfi the numTier of its degrees of freedom.. Numerous authorB [151, 156] consider the state of a system to be a certatn instruction for converston of input signals to ontput signals that meets definite requ{rements. In other scfences whicfi use tliis con- cept, for example physics, the metiiod of its definition depends on the level of consideration of a dynamic system. Tb.emacroscopic level makes it possiFile to analyze integrated characteristics ofan object which are �ormed By the param- eters of the particular components of whicfi the given oTiject is composed. Tn this case the state of the ob.ject means the current value of_ these integrated characteristics. At the microscopic level state is a description of these components which depends, in turn, on the nature of tFieir interaction ; 72. . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL LiSE ONLY wirhin the limits of the volume under consideratton. In both cases the texm "state" describes the tnstantaneous values of the parametera of the object under considexation 1134]. - We intuittvely understand the concept of tfiQ state of a Tiuman being to be some kind of charactr:rization of the processes taking place in tfis person's organism. A precise definttton of the psycTiophysiological state of a person involves numerous difficulties. Tfie matn ones result from the lack of techniquea for a clearcut definition of the levels of functioning of the pfiysiological systems of the organism [226]. The divergence of opinions on tfiis issue relates chiefly to defining the norm for an organism. Some investtgators assert tfiat it is not possible in principle to give an exact definition of the concept of the "norm" becauae it is a purely abstract concept without physiological meaning. Work [79] proposes that the norm be defined as the range of changes in physio- logical indicators within which the organtsm maintains optimal vital activity for the given conditions. In the opinion of its author, in relation to oper- ator activity the norm restricta the range of the organism's compensatory capa- bilities which defines the optimal functi.onal state for the given activity. Many authors take the texm "psychophysiological state" of the operator to refer to a certain variable that depends on the values of the indicators of function- ing of the physiological syatems' of the person's organism. TTius, in work 11481 the current psychophysiological state is interpreted as a multidimensional vec- tor for which the values of a set of phyaiological indicators are taken as coordinates. In work [52] the state of the operator is considered a function dependtng on neurophysiological phenomena in the organism and on external factors that influ- ence the organism. The state itself is characterized by a certain range af , stable values of the multidimenaional vector; the axes of its coordinates corre- spond to the selected indicators. The authors of tfiis work believe tfiat it ts most expedient to use the apparatus of image xecognition theorq to diagnose the state of the operator. They mention the following factora wizich make this task significantly more complex: a. the vasiahility of the responding reaction even with the same suti j ect; b. the similarity of the reaction with.significantly dif- ferent states.; c. the variability of the reaction among different persons; d. the relationship hetween characteristics of tha reaction and the pfiase of oscillatory processes :Cn ph.ysiological systems. V. G. Denisov and co-authors [74] deftne the current functional state of the oper- ator on the basis of an analysis of the modified function of the cardiac rhythm, . 73;.. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFNICIAL USE ONLY which is a Euclidian norm of the int.tial level and a deriwative of the fre-- quency of heart contractions. They believe tfiat the influence of the organ-- ization of activity on indicators of operator effi.ciency can fie evaluated by tfiese parameters of the cardiac rfiytfim. Such contradictory definitions of the state of the operator are a result, in our opinion, of the formalistic application of the tecfiniques of inedical diagnosis to the problems of operator activity. Hut witfi the contemporary level of our knowledge on the nature of inental processes we cannot consider a cfiange in the parameters of the indicators of the functioning of pfiysiological systems of the operator's organism isolated from the essential features of the activity being performed by the operator. This is because various deviations in the state of the operator are primarily the result of adapttve reactions to situations in . the system of which the operator is an element. The flow of inf.ormation re- - ceived by the operator becomes unobserved from the moment it enters the human sensory systems. Therefore, when conaidering its impact on operator cFiarac- teristics the observer must be guided entirely by signals circulating outside the operator and by certain objective indicators of the operator"s state. Thus, the "state of the operator" may be viewed as an integrated description of operator stress and the tension of operator activity. Optimal Working Stress on the Operator Evaluation of the efficiency of operator activity on the psychophysiological - plane involves a determination of the optiffial stress on the physiological systems of the human organism while performing operator functions [89]. This prolilem was first considered by Yerkes and Dodson (1908). They noted that a person must maintain a definite function of the physiological systEms in order to attain the - best results in any form of activity. The concep,t of the "op.timum of a phqsiological process" was proposed by N. Ye. Vvedenskiy [39], but he referred to the strength of the stimulus, not to the physi- ological process itself. _ Works by contemporary authors contain information on particular propertiea of op- timal physiological processes obtained on isolated fibers, in the study of the secretory and motor systema of humans and animals [226], and in study of the full organism�. But available findings are inadequate to solve the practical problems of evaluating the integrated efficiency of operator activity. In reality, these questions today are decided by means of searching for empirical relationshipa among working conditions, individual characteristics., and indi- cators of the person's activity [109]. The activity of the human operator in processing signals arriving at certain time intervals has been most fully inves- tigated in thts respect. In thie case the indicators of activity are usually de- termined by criteria of the precision and length of the process of processing in- coming assignments [157]. The lasti criterion can be gtven in the form of a = period of tracking assignments within which the operator distributes time expen- dutures independently for particular operations in the processing algoritfims. Accordingly, the activity of the operator can be considered as fulfillment of aa- signments at the natural pace and at a forced pace [146]. Based on tfiis monoto- nocity is divided into two types [11, 100]. ,74,. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONY,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY l. Operator activity in an unchanging situatinn with.passtve observation of the process; : 2. Operator activity at a high pace witfi.repetition of the - same actions. In the first case the main factor of tension ts related to the need to maintain at all times a higher level of acttvity wttTiout the tontng effect of afferent stimuli; in the second the main factor is the Fiigh level of the local load. Work [42] gives data on resulta of observations of change in work capability for different types of iccupational activities. In jobs with low stress and short duration working procedurea are carried out on the basis of dqnamtc production stereotypes. Later, as teuston grows, rontinuation of the work is possible nnly by additional mobilization of internal resourcea. Opinions differ on the usefulness of assigntng a certain type of time criterion. Some authors prefer work at a forced pace, while othera consider tt advieable to organize people's activities so that the}r themselves set the pace. Ar_cording to the findings given in work [I46], apecial experiments that modeled acttvity tn both regimes identified a significant decltne in operator stress when awitching from an assigned pace to one they could regulate themselveg. After a certain time of acti.vity under these condttions 95 percent of the test subjects showed a desire to step up the pace. _ S. T. Sosnovskaya [204] investtgated operator activity, including 26 motor opera-- tions (throwing switches on and off, pressing buttons and the like) and infor- mation retrieval and tracking at different asstgned paces. The fiighest quality indicators were achieved for work at an average pace. It has been ahown that the maximum possible pace of a person's activity is de- termined by adding the latent period to the response time. Systematic errora begin to appear when this quantity exceeds the period of signal tracking. Applied to the complex reaction of choosing at a forced pace, work [3] has es-- tabli:shed that there is a positive relationship between tnittal and sults. If the quality crtterion of activity ts given in the form of acfiieving a uniform pace, the activity of the slower aperators (according to initial tests) in the final phase is characterized by a eharp increase in the numl5er of mis- taken actions and a refusal to continue the activity. McNemar 1254) noted tfiat drill does not lessen the genetic tnfluence on the speed potential of a peraon. To select the optimal load for work on a conveyor it has been pr.oposed 11981 to compute the load at the ratio of the averaged least time of performance of the operation bas.ed on stopwatch results to the average ariicfimetic time. In tFit$ case the variants with the lvwest values ofteri coincide atitfi thQ mtnimum values obtained in special tests. When processing dfscrete aignals one of the tndtcators of completion of the proc- ess of training and adaptation to the given type of activity is rfiythmic reaction to incoming signals [121, 234]. ; .75; . - FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON1.Y According to the findings of [135], when rfiythm is dis,rupted erroneous actions re- lated to uneven distribution of stress occur. Gtith rhythmic action if errors are made, they are highly stahle in time and frequency. Work [251] established that when signals come to the operator at di.fferent periods, the processing a.nd tracking time �or them are inversely related. Ttiis relation-- ship is disrupted only through tfie action of interference that causes competition between stimuli. The stability of processing time ror rtiythmic signals may occur _ through compensation for the functions of a weak element by means of other sys- tems [81]. A. V. Levshinova [140] gives experimental results on modeling typical visual and motor functions of a dispatcher, carried out with a steady increase in the pace of activity. The physiological indicators (EEG from the back of the head, in- ternal speech - taking an ENG in the upper lip region, the EOG horizontal and vertical components, and EMG's of the general extensor, the general flexor, and the extensor of the right thumb) had the same high cross-correlation given func- tional comfort and in other regimes, but in the opinion of the author this corre- - sponded to different leve].s of activity for the systema tested. Eff iciency of the Human Operatorts Activity The contemporary interpretation of the efficiency of operator activity is pre- sented mast thoroughly in work [181], where the conclusion is drawn ttiat "'efficiency of operator activity' should be taken to mean the ability to per- form assigned tasks iit a timely and precise manner within the assigned time (re-- liably) and minimum expenditures of efforts, energy, and materials." : � With this approach the concept of the efficiency of human activity in s control system has two components: efficient performance of asstgned tasks and effi- cient use of reserves, which encompasses tioth material-energy reserves of tfie system and the psychophysiologtcal reserves of operators themselves. At the present time operator activity is 6eing studied in several closely re- lated fields concerned chiefly with evaluating one of the components of "inte- grated efficiency." Natural science techniques that study human labor activi.ty are being enlisted to evaluate the efficiency of use of the psychophysiologtcal reserves of tfie oper- ator's organism [92]. To evaluate the quality indicators of operator activity as an element of the control system, well--developed methods for evaluating anala-- - gous characteristics in technical devices are emploqed. Despite the qualitative difference hetween pracesses taking place in a machine that is processing information and in fiuman mental activitp, many indtcators of their functioning can be defined from the same standpoint 168]. Secause the operator is viewed as an element of the control system, tfiere is every reason to use the methods of formalized description of dynamic oTijects applied in the cor- responding fields of engineering to evaluate operator functioning. ; 76, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY The term efficiency of a technical system" ordinarily means a quantitative evalu- ation of the results of its use under concrete condi.ttons 191. TTie dif�erent schools of analysis of the efficiencp of tecfinical systems are basicaliy linked to evaluating their techntcal or economic indicators j38, 190]. Tfie concept of "reliabiltty" is used to evaluate the tecfinical state of a system and its work capability in every possible st2te. A generalized tndicator of the tecfinical effi- ciency of a system can be obtained from this expression 148] n E E;P;, ~ where Ei is a particular indicator of efficiency; Pi is the relia6iltty of the sys- tem in each possible working state; n is the number of possible working states. With a purely technical approach to the evaluation of aperator acttvity, its efft- ciency is characterized by operator productivity in different regimes of syatem work. Thus, work [92] defines the effictency of human operators bp the AL1IIIbpT' of operationa which they can perform according to a definite algorithm, in a unit of = time, under given working conditions. A. I. Gubinskiy and co-authors [66-68] have propoaed, by analogy witli tecfinical systems, that a distinction he made between ideal and actual operator effictency. Real efficiency is measured by multiplying ideal efficiency times the probaTiility of trouble-free work. Work [224] reviAws the influence of the specifi.c features of functioning of the human element on actual.efficiency. Its author believes that the indicator of real operator efficienc:y should include an evaluation of the operator''s heuristic capabilities, the paramei.ers of the environment and technical units, the length of time in which the operator performs functions, and so on. Work [66] has investigated the effect of failurea on the indicators of the effi- - ciency of receiving and rrncessing information and issuing control actions. Some features of the functioning of the human element in a system, related to the influence of motivational aspects on indicators of activity, the use of personal experience, and the existence of vast compensatoxy-capatailities in Fiuman beings, impose certain limitations on the range of use of technical methods for evalli- ating and forecasting operator activity. Indicatore of the Quality of Operator Activity According to work [18], any human activity in a gystem may he reduced to these - four stages: ~ 1. search for and decoding of information; 2, evaluation of information and identification of informative features; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY 3, forming a conceptual model ar.d naking a decision; 4. practical realization of the decision tfiat azas made, In the general case, considering the accepted definition of efficiency of ogerator activity, we may consider two crtteria systems of quality indicators of the per- formance of their functions by operators. Tfie ftrst system is a set of time, precision, and reliability cTiaracteristics, while tfia second considers the effi' ciency with which the available psychophysiologtcal reserves of the organism are used [155]. A number of works [33, 120, 157] include the following fiasic components in evalu- ations of the quality of activity: 1. indicators of precision, specifically; a. current error; b. average error; c. integral error; 2. time indicators: a. latent per�iod; , b. mAtox reaction time; c. time signal isheld at given level; d. full time for processing incoming information; 3. information indicators: a. amoiint of information processed; b. quality of information processing. A number of authors think that a generali.zed quality criterion for activity can be formulated by combining particular criteria witfi different weight factors that take account of the distinctive characteristics of the particular type of operator ac- tivity [228]. - To evaluate the efficiency of activity investigators use data on the output charac- teristics of the system, for example economic indicators, and data on the func- tioning of the physiological systems of the operator's organism during the per- formance of.the assignments. The indicators of bioelectric activity of different physiological systems or the results of solving test problems axe used to evalu- = ate the psychophysiological reserves of the organism jlll]. The indicators of quality of operator performance of f unctions are usually evalu- ated on the basis of a classification ef the particular type of activity. Tiie evaluation uses concrete critEria adopted for the particular type of system. In special cases wliere difficulties arise with evaluation of the predominant type of activity, it is sugges*.ed tfiat efficiency be evaluated hy the most complex algorithm of activity encauntered in the particular system 118]. Work [139] reviews the criteria,for evaluating the quality of operator activity in controlling a spacecraft. It stngles uut particular criteria that alloar ; 78, . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY consideration of different types of mietakQS made during flying, and identifiea the main criterion as the area qf the inte.rsection of the particular and aup' lemmentary indicators. - Despite si.gnificant differences among the many, criteria used to evalu- ate particular cases of operator activity, most of them can fie reduced to two types: preciston indtcators and Rpeed indicators. In some cases the criterion of maximum speed is not specially stipulated, but can be an implicit part of - the precision criterion. This is espectally typical for work under condittons of limited information processing time. Work [157] analyzed the relattonshtp hetween tfiese cri.teria. It establIshed ex- _ istence of an analytic dependence between indicators of operator activity re- ceived according to the criteria of precision and speed. Work 1205] presents - averaged figures on indicators of prectsion of operator performance of particu- lar opeLacinns and combined indicators of precision and speed. Generalized qua?.ity criteria are usually oriented to evaluation of concrete ac- tivity. Various indicators may be us.ed fiere dependtng on the purpose of the investigation. For example, the number of error-free read-outs in a unit of time was used in work (68] to evaluate the efficiency of information receiving. V. N. Trofimov proposed that functional efficiency be used to evaluate activity when an operator is working in tracking regimes. By funetional eff iciency he ~ means the ability oF an ergatic system to achieve its goal by the most rational _ means [218j. Work [311 propoaed a criterion for evaluating the eff ect of train- ing on indicators of activity. Works [62, 129] also used tlieir own criteria. Evaluating the Reliability of the Human Operator - Reliability characterizes the capab ility of a system or element to perform its functions in a given time. Changes in the system tliat cause.partial or complete loss of work capabiliry are defined as failures 114, 105]. - Work [67] proposes that the criterid for evaluating the relisiiility of techriical = equipment which may be used with application to the problems of fiuman factors _ engineering be put into three groups: l. criteria of no-failure operation; 2. criteria of restorability; 3. readiness criterta. These criteria include the Eollowing basic indicators: _ - prooability of no -failure operation; - average time of no-failure operation; - frequency of failure; ~ - average restoration time; - readiness factor. Quantitatively, reliability is expreased as the numerical value of the proba-- bility of no-failure operator work under definite conditions for a given period of time [45]. With respect to human operators failure is considered as % 79, FOR OEFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY complete or partial loss of work capability as the result of which the operator can no longer meet one of the given efficiency criteria 1154.]. Technical methods of evaluating the reliability of control spstems presuppose a determination of the quantitative indicators of static reliability (tFis ability of the system to maintain adequacy to assigned goals for a given time) and dy- namic reliability (ability to maintain quality of functioning afiove an assigned level) [48]. The apparatus of reliahility tlieory is well-developed applicable to determining static reliability. Attempts to use it to evaluate operator reliability have demonstrated that it has limited potential in relation to diagnosing stable failures because it does not take account of the specifics of the person's work capability. Therefore, a number of authors have proposed their own tecfiniques for determining the reliability of ergatic systems taking operator error into account. In particular, A. Sueyn [160] introduced the metFiad of forecasting system reliability by evaluating the probaliility of an error during performance of elementary operations in the algorithm of operator activity. R. Kaufman [160] showed that simple empirical formulas may be used for prac- tical calculations of reliability. In this case the number uf operator errors is defined as a function of the product of the cost of equipment, its weight, and its volume. Other methods of calculating operator reliability are given in work [160]. The most highly developed calculation method of determining operator reliability tuday is the structural method [157], wfiicfi is based on the following prin- ciples: - evaluation of system reliability based on analysis of the structure of operator activity; - a hierarchical structure of levels of description of the activity. Assuming that operator activity can lie regresented in the form of distinct ele- mentary operations, the author proposed evaluattng the results of activity by no- failure operation and speed of performance of eacfi structural function. In this case the reliability indicators can be determined on the basis of experimental findings or data in the literature. Tfie author believes tfiat operator relia- bility when performing the particular actions that make up the algorithm of ac- tivity comprises program, parametric, and time reliability. Program reliabs.?_ity is determined by the probability of error-free or erroneous perfornnance of par- ticular operations, while parametric reliability is an indicator of the proba- bility of precise or imprecise performance of operations and time reliaTaility means the probability that the operation will tie done on time. The method presented in [62] is based on searching for a certain functional of the indicator of the goal of control. Operator reliaTaility during control of an actual system is determined on the basis of modeling the environment 80, FOR (C "IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY that influences the system. It is proposed tfiat the probabi.lity of system failure owing to operator failure be determined fi.y modifying its impact witfiin the working range of the sygtem and assigning we.igfited coefficients. Types of Failures Permitted By tfia Operator A. I. Gubinskiy and G. V. Sukhodol'skiy 167] have propos;ed a classification of failures taking account of human psychophpsiological cfiaracteristics. They-con- - sider a failure to be an action performed b.y the operator etther mistaTcenly or at the wrong time. Work. [68] gives an example of designing a"system to monitor - the human being." _ All mistakes made by the human being can be arbitrarily broken into three groups: - 1. mistakes in time of performance of action; ; 2. mistakes in the actions themselves; 3. groas blunders. Gross blunders involve sub.stituting one action for another. Accordtng to the . findings in work 1131] this most often occurs as the result.of operator fatigue, - poor health, or lack of training. But gross 5lunders ma.y also be made by experienced operators when the activity is we1Z-organized. In work [24] oper- ator failures are classtfied into predictable and random. Tfie predi.ctable failures include errors which may be identified 5y the research process and eliminated when creating optimal conditions for the activity, wfiile random failures involve errors caused by the stochasttc nature of fiuman behavior. More- over, the latter type of errors cannot, in the autFeDr~s opinion, be identified or studied because its nature is unknown. When performing a series of arithmetic operations the true answer, according to the findtngs of work [212], can only be ohtained after numerous repetttions of the process of computation,.which is improbable for actual.conditions. Tiiere- fore, it is praposed that a modal value of the answer he used as the correct re- sult of calculations. According to the fi.ndings of tfits suthor; the distrtbution of precision of responses can be represented in the form of two parts: a trun- cated symmetric,! part that is close to normal, and the remainders on the left and right resulting from gross blunders (misreading, carrying mistakes, and the like). The estimated probability of these responses is� 0.2. Tfi.e answers, whose devia- tions are not more than 1.5 times from the modal, make up a symmetrical distrihu-- tion. Despite the random character of the results, the probabi].ity of receiving the correct answer grows witfi an increase in the professional training of the petson doing the calculation. Works [66-68] distinguish types of failures hy fio,,7 tfiey are eliminated: - temporary, unstable failure - a failure wh.oae cause is - self-eliminating; - si, FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY - operational failure caused by fa:~lure to acfiieve the goal owing to shortage of time; - te*_aporary, stable failure, which is eliminated hy creating special conditions; - terrninal failure, wfiicfi cannot be eliminated or is eliminated only after replacement nf tfie spstem. A special feature of the functioning of an ergatic system is that its reliability depends on the amount of time allowed fo r the operator to carrp out the algoritfim. In tfii.s case, even though the tecnical equtpment and operator are in working con- dition, failures related to inadequate t ime to perform the series of operations within the algorithm occur [191]. A decline in operator reliability in the time area may occur not only as the re- sult of a time shortage, but also because the operatorTs operational memory is overloaded. This type of mistake is qui te thorougfily analyzea in work [196a]. The author there believes that it is mo st convenient to analyze the probability of errors related to information overlo ad as the reault of time shortage or over- _ loading the operator's operational memo ry by the methods of mass service theory. Numerous authors [17, 631 distinguisfi errors made by an operator into those re- sulting from inadequate qualifications and those determined by the cfiaracteristics of the individual person. The information given above is far from complete. Rather it illustrates the multi- plicity of problems that arise in studying the rules and patterns of fiuman labor activity, which are thoroughly illumina rpd ti,y advances made in this field. None- - theless, on the level of ineeting the cfia llenges of diagnosing and forecasting human work capability in cantrol systems we may consider the following fact to be established: the,-e is a definite relat ionship between the results of operator activity and the dynamics of the peychophystological indicators of the operator's - state, and this relationship is in some way linked to internal (tndividual char- acteristics, the person's previous history) and external (content of the activity) factors. The methods used toJ,ay to identify this relationship were developod for solving similar prolilems in relation to technical devices. Adaptation of tfiese tech- niques to the new problems requires a more flexible consideration of the nature - of work capability in the object under study, in particular, the special features of purposeful human hehavior. We know that in the process of activjty to achieve an assigned result the operator chooses the necessary sequence of actions with due regard for the tecfinical capa-- bilities of the system, the magnitude of existing disturFiances, an,qlysis of ~ analogous sttuations in the past, and. s o on. Investigators F elieve tfiat in this case a certain "functional system" oriented to acfiieving the concrete result is formed within the operator's organism. The material foundation of the "functional system" and the carrier of the essentia 1 sequence of control operations will be 82 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the psychophysiological systems of the organism, Fietareen which linkages are es- tablished for the peri.od of working toward the result. Tn other words, thE farmation of the "functional system" is accompanied Tip a change in intersystem interaction witfiin the organiam, which must inevitaHlp Fie reflected in the dy- namics of the psychophysiological indicators of the operator"s state rhat are recorded. In addition, the physiological syatems (carri.ers of the program of action selected ~ by the operator) perform functions related to the vital acttvity of the organtsm. Therefore, the "functional system" formed on tlieir Fiasis performs at least two tasks: support for the functioning of the operator as an element of the control system, and support for the functioning of the operator''s organism as a bi9- logical object. It is difficult to dtfferentiate the features of the impact of the information flows related to these taska on the character of intersystem interaction within the organiem because signals on the "internal sphere" of the organism cannot be observed. Tfiis may mean that even in similar situations (from _ the standpoint of conditions of activtty), the cfiaracter of the relationahip be- tween the results of activity and the parameters of psychophysiological indi- cators will be unique, that is,corresponding only to the given interval of obser- vations. This is prob.ably why extsting models of operator activity fiave limited spheres of appltcation. Because these featlires of descrih.tng operator activity apply to the analysis of purposeful tiehavior by biosystems in general, thep can be summarized in the form of a principle of adequacy of description of tiehavior, wfiicfi we will state as follows. When describing purposeful behavior b.y liiosystems, the form of the relationship between indicators of the process of pursui^_g the goal, tTiQ cfiaracteristtcs of signals on the process, and change in indicators of the functioning of informa- tion processing and vital systems is preserved only while tfiere exists a con- crete "functional system" formed to acfiieve th{s goal. 83 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 4. State of the Organism and Operator Activity in a Stress Situatiun 1. Changes in the Organism During Stress The contemporary phase of development of human society has an exceptionally in- tensive rhythm of life. This rhytfim is dictated by the conditions of higfily in- tensified production processes and the need to process an enormous amount of every possible kind of information daily and to participate actively in different areas of human activities. This situ:.*_ionis an (,rganic consequence of contem- - porary social transformations and scientific-technical progress which (consider- ing the significance, speed, and extent of the transformations) may be called a second scientific-technical revolution. - I.n the given stage of technical development the principal structural unit of production is the automated "man-automaton" complex. Therefore, the problem of human beings in automated control systems fias become a pressing one, in par- ticular preserving the efficiency of activity of the human operator and the oper- ator's functional state within optimal ranges. The state of operators and their work capability must be monitored constantly to prevent emergency situations. ' Many investigators [1, 2, and others] have demonstrated that operator activity has a nonmonotonic dependence on the degree of the physical and mental loads that accompany the particular production process. Tbe efficiency o� activity in- creases with growth in the intensity of the labor process; it is as if the oper- ator's potential were stimulated. However, this relationsfiip lasts only to a certain point. Further growth in the intensity of the production process leads to a decline in the quality of work all the way to a complete refusal to work. The capability for steadily maintaining optimal working parameters (work capa- bility, "vigilance," noise resistance, and so on) during assigned time intervals and with every possible complication of the situation determines the operational reliabflity of the worker [3]. There are many different ways to improve the efficiency of operator work and re- duce the number of emergency situations caused Fiy the human factor in automated systems. Among these ways are vocational selection, training, and turning oper- ator functions over to automatic machinery. But it seems to us tfiat these methods will not 'ie adequately founded until we have learned to relialily analyze the srate of maximum exertion of the operatorts mental and physical strengtfi, - which precedes an emergency situation. It is also important to define tfiis state because prolonged tension may have a bad effect on the person's healtti. -1 84 F04 OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Cardiovascular problems, in particular iiypertonia, ulcexs, neuroses, and psy- choses, may result from excessive nervous tenston. The problem of stress, of inental tension , is a multifaceted one. It can be viewed from a general biologtcal standpotnt as a system of adaptive acts tfiat was developed and refined in tfie process of evolution. In its pTiysiological aspect stress involves mechantsms to regulate tfie activity of various func- tional systems of the organism.. Tbe psychological congideration of stress looks at its influence on variuus aspects of inental acttvity: perception, memory, attention, mental operations, lihks to personality traits, cfiaracter, and ex- perience, adaptation to different types of stress, questions of preventive psy- chological training, and tha role of the psycfie tn post-stress recovery [4]. - The social aspect of stress involves fiefiavior in a collective, biological com- patibility in atress situations, and the influence of tTie collective atmoaphere on change in the functional state of a person. If stress as considered from a medical point of view the main interest is disruptions of the normal activity of various functional systems, organs, and the psyche as the result of long- operating or especially harmful stress stimuli and working out recommendations for treatment based on subtle knowledge of tfie mechanism of stress-related changes in the organism. We will consider the problem of stress in greater de- tail in the physiological aspect. Stress may be referred to as a multifaceted problem in another respect as well, which is to speak of the integrated (overall) activity of tTie organism, including biochemical changes and changes in pfiysiological indi.cators, befiavtor, and mental _ functions. When studying this problem one must not overlootc any of these facets. Thjs is especially important because many scfiools of physiologtsts assign the principal role in the course of a state of stress to FiiocfiQmical clianges, con- sidering them the primary correlates of the state. But experience demonstrates that biochemical changes during stress are well ek-pressed in acute periods but poorly expressed durin; prolonged chronic strain. Where there is mild strain practically no changes at all will be detected because the mechanisms of fiomeo- static regulation nullify the chznges almost immediately. In addition, there are individual differences whicfi produce a great spread in the quality and magnitude of biochemical changes. In view of ttiese factors, biocfiemical cfianges cannot be considered preeminent among the correlating changes. Hased on material that has now heen accumulated, we may say that bi.ocfiemical changes are the background against which different mental and physiologtcal changes occur. flut no one physiological parameter, nor biochemical cfiange,.can be a reliable indicator of the state of tension. This ta graphically illustrated by cases described in the literature wfiere arterial pressure is invariant in stress situations because the increas.e in the systolic volume of the heart is-compensated for by a decline in pressure in the pexipheral vessels. Somatic changes are more or less subject to artiitrary regulation. The mental categories, unfortunately, are difficult to subject to direct objective monitorfng, whil.e tha indirect tecfi-- niques used in these cases introduce an element of sufijectivity and do not take account of the possibility of random influences. Tfie forms of befiavior tfiat re- flect internal changes in the organism axe also to some degree subject to random regulation. Thus, we may acknowledge tfiat we do not have an adequately reliable 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY correlate for tension. The only way to make diagnosis of the state of tension better is to increase the number of indicators of this state. The term "stress"(in Russian "napryazlieniye") is borrowed from pfiysics (deriva-- tive of force and resistance) and in translation to iiiological language signifies the impairment and defensive reactions of the organism CtfiQ action wfiicfi leads to the changes is called stress). The biological concept of stress aas formulated some 40 years ago by the Canadian scientist Selye, who�said that stress ts "excessive strain," "a state that occurs under the influence of.some particular stressor and is found in the form of a specific syndrome which includes all the changes nonspecifically reproduced in the biological system" [5]. He called the full set of reactions in a state of stress the adaptation syndrome, because it is the basis of adaptive behavior. Therefore, stress is a set of adaptive and defensive reactions hy tha organism to all influences which have a tendency to disturb the dynamic equilibrtum of various processes in the organism. As we will see later, the set of adaptive and defensive reactions is a neuroendocrine cycle of great complexity whtch causes changes in literally all manifestations of vital activtty of the or- ganism. A number of works use the term "stress" not to mean general stress, but rather its highest point, when organic changes take place in the organism. Pre-stress states are vi.ewed as various types of emotional statps [6]. But tfiis division does not - cover a whole number of states which are unquestionably states of heightened tension and fiave virtually no emotioizal coloring (for exan?le, solving "indif- ferent" probler.,s that require great self-control and intenaity of tfiought). After analyzing information available in the specialized literature, we made an attempt to classify the different states of extreme stress and the methodological procedures necessary to create it (see Table 1, next page). Systematic study of the atate of stress hegan in the 19th Century. Tfie famous French physiologist Bernard (1813-1878) stated the proposition tIiat the funda- mental feature of all living beings Is their aliility to maintain constant I,n- ternal environment despite changes in the external environment. Any change in the environment that matters to the organism elicits defensive reactions by the organism to restore the disturbed balance. Tfiis occurs tfirough special regu- ~ latory mechanisms that monitor the constancy of different parameters of the internal environm(nt [7]. The American physiologist W. B. Cannon (1871-1945) introduced a special term, homeostasis, for the ability of the organism to maintain a constant internal environment [8]. Any influences leading to disturbance of homeostasis lead, the scientists believe, to vegetative and fiormonal changes that can Fie viewed as a manifes.tation of the organism's mobilization of energy-to avert the danger: readiness for resistance or fligfit. Such changes in parameters of the internal environment from tfieir ini.tial level are reversible if they lie within the range of capabilities of the homeostatic 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tafile 1. Streasars Emqtional Coloring Imagi- Posi- Nega-- Methodological Classification nary Real tive tive Procedures EMOTIONAL Physical Stressors that cause un- - + - + Physical injury, irri- pleasant or patnful sen-- sations _ Stressors of unexpected- - neas Stressors of failure Stressors that cause a feeling of fear Emotionally colored materials Pharmacological aub- stancea that cause emotional states Stressors of pace and speed Complexity of problem- solving + + + + - Mental + - + + - + + OFERATIONAL - + + + - tants that exceed the background, discomfort, hypokinesia,,and so on + New unexpe.cted stimulus + kecalling past failur.ea, fmagining failure + Emergency, darkness, ex- pectation of criticism or evaluation, threat of punishment, and the like + Showing a film or picture, the presence -of an enemy,,vr friend, playi.r.g out vari- ous aituations in the mind + Piperoxane, adrenalin, and so on Time.shortage, informa- tion overload - Canflict situations, merging of two similar mental processes (black- red tables), a difiicult mental problem, and in- solufiility 87 , , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY mechanisms and irreversible if the magnitudes of the deviations are signifi- cantly greater than the range within which the.fiomeostatic mecfianisms can function normally. In the latter case the organissa dies. Russian and Soviet scientists made major contrt5utions to formulation of the theory of stress long before Selye. I. P. Pavlov wrote many ti~mes tfiat harmful influences on the organism elicit local reactions and reflex-nerve-humeral changes which are a"phpsiological measure" of the organism"s defense. L. A. Orbeli [9] and his students made detailed investigations of the adaptattonal role of tfie coordinated acttvity of the cerebral cortex, spmpatfiQtic nervous system, pituitary body, and adrenal glands. At the present time the concept of stress is an established concept and it is most commonly defined as the attempt to rQstore the disrupted homeostasis of ~ mental, physiological, and biocfiemical processes in the organism. Stresses are , caused by any conditions that disrupt fiomeostasis 110, 111. What are the regulatory mechanisms that guard the well-Fieing of the organism? All attempts to explain the adaptive reactions of the living organism can be schematically classified as follows j121: 1. the hume. theory,of inedicine, which goes back thou- sands oi -irs; ' 2. the theory c. neurism, wfiich has develcp�d in the last -150 years; 3. the "cellular" theory of Virkbov; 4. the neohumeral theory, wfiose founder can be considered At the present r.ime the neurism theory and Selye's. neohumeral theory are gen- erally accepted, and we will deal with them in greater detail. Selye's theory considers the endocrine-btochemical aspect of stress in detail j13-161. Any adequately strong and unusual influence of exogenic or endogenic origin (sound or light, infectious disease, and so on) on the organism, except for an effect specific tothe given agent (for example, vibration of the tympanic membrane to sound) evokes a whole complex of nonspecific reactions. These rki' actions aim at better adapta:ion of the organism tothe unexpectedly changed ILtv- ing conditions and, ae already mentioned, were called the adaptive syndrome by Selier, while the state of mobili:.ation of defensive.forces itself wss called streas. Selier distingu:.shes between the generalized adaptational syndrome (GAS) and the local adaptational syndrome (LAS) or adaptive reactions in the limited part of the bo3y which is directly affected by the stimulation. Tfie generalized syndrome is a response reaction by the entire organism wfiich goes througfi.three successive stages when the action of the str2ssor is sufficiently long (see Figure 7 below). 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY LII Level of Resis- S tance in Initial State Figure 7. Stages of the Generalized Adaptation Spndrome ~ During the first stage - alarm - the initial level of organism stability and resistance at first declines slightly (sTiock), and then returns to the norm (countershock). Selye called tfits stage the "call to arms of the organism's defensive forces." If a very strong or harmful agent acts on the organism, it may perish during the alarm period. But if the effect is moderate, the alarm stage is followed by adaptation to the inf luence, the stage of resistance. The level of organism stability in this stage exceeds the initial level [14, 151. Reactions in the alarm and resistance stages are opposite. When the harmful agent is active for an extended period, the resistance stage may be followed by the third stage, exhaustion and death of the organism. The symptoms of the third stage recall the symptoms oi the first stage, but now they are irreversible. But what happens in the ozganism during stress and allows its resistance to vary within quite broad limits? During the first stage (shock or alarm) a number of phenomena are observed in the organ'am: hemoconcentration, fiypochloremia, hyper- calcemta, generalized tissue damage wrlth predominantly dissimilation phenomena (catabolism), hypothermia, lowe'ring of blood pressure, vascular and muscular - hypotonia, leukopenia, eosinopenia, and heightened permeability of the serous membranes of the capillaries. In the second stage there are changes in the oppo- site direction, specifically thinning of the blood, hyperchloremia, anabolism of - tissues with return to normal weight, alkalosis, and so on. The reactions of the exhaustion phase resemble the alarm phase. During the developnent of stress a nurber of morphological changes are also ob- served. The most expressed changes are "nvolutton of the thymico-lymphatic apparatus and enlargement of the adrenal cortex with signs of intensification of secretion. It has now been established [17, 18, 19] that changes are ob- served during stress in other organs and tissues as well: pituitary body, epiphysis, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, sex organs, liver, myo- cardium, kidneys, membrane of the stomach and intestines, and cells of the brain. In each of these organs histologists find two groups of phenomena: damage and defense [18]. In the first stage two groups of reactions are ohserved, while in the second defensive.phenomena predominate and in the third damage phenomena are dominant. In a n-.imber of his works Selye tries to represent the intimate mechanism flf changes that lie at the foundation of the generalized adaptation syndrome on the basis of vast experimental material (see Figure 8 below). ' 89 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 StaRe II APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Figure 8. Mechanism of Cfianges - Taking Place in tfie Organism ~ During Stress aa rup ay AX1r2 ( Key: (1) Somatotrophic Iiormone; ~3) (2) Pituitary Hody, adreno-~ corticotrophic fiormone; OEotn ~r~~rnondUnpac~o (3) Adrenal Gland; "Do`~~�~�~mux0u0 ~4) (4) Anti-Inflammatory Corti-- ~ coid; (6) _...MUrutnc< < 7) (S) Inflammatory Corticoid; ~ (6) Target; (7) Field; (8) Stressor. In some way (which Selye does not explain) tfie stressor causes stimulatton of the hypothalamus, which produces a certai n adrenocorticotrophic liberating factor. stimulates the pituitary body and causes it (the front part) to secrete adrenalcorticotrophic ho'rmones, whic fi stimulate the secretion of hormones of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex h ormones are divided into two groups: the anti-inflammatory hormanes or glucocorticoi ds (of the cortisone type) and the inflammatory hor-iones or mineral corticoids (such as desoxycorticosterone and aldosterone). The anti-inflammatory hnrmones affect carbohydrate metabolism (whicfi is the source - of their second name, glucocorticoids), enfiancing glycogenesis throt�,,h proteins, which increases the sugar in tfie blood and intensifies tfie precipitatian of gly- cogen in the liver. They intensify tfie breakdown of proteins, which promotes catabolic processes and is detected by an increase of nitrogen in tfie urine. _ They retard the development of the basic substance of connective tissue by reduc- ing the number of mast cells that produce hyaluronic acid, whicfi lowers the in- flar.w3tion potential of the organism, thus increasing orgarism sensitivity to infection,' retarding the processes of healing of wounds, and diminis:iing allergic reactions. They repress lymphatic tissue and cause involution of the thymus, which is accompanied by a decrease in the quantity of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The inflammatory hormones are to some degree tfie antagonists of tfie glucocorti- coids. They promote an incre3se in inflammatory potential of the organism (resistance to infections and rapid healing of wounds), increase protein syn- ' thesis, and have little effect on carbofiydrate metabolism iaut a sigrificant eff ect on water-salt metabolism (therefore they are also caused mineral cor;:icoids) by retaining sodium in the organism and removing potassium. During stress more anti- inflammatory hormones than inflammatory hormones are usually secreted. It is in precisely this element of the organism's response reactions to the effect of a stressor that the meaning of tfie term "stress" as an integrated response bp the organism, including elements of damage and defense, is very graphically demonstrated. 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY - It should be noted that the front portion of the pitui.tary b.ody affected by , stimuli from the hypothalamus secretes not only adrenocorticotrophic fiormones, but also somatotropliic hormones, which affect overall growth of tfie organism and cause enlargement of the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver and hypet- - trophy of the adrenal cortex, while increasing sensittvity to corticoids. Thie hormone is similar to the mineral corticoid in its effect on tfie internal sphere. The fiormones of the front part of the pituitary body and adrenal cortex are customarily called the adaptive hormones. In addition to the general reaction of the organism which follows the "law" of the GAS, a local inflammatory reaction, the local adaptation syndrome (LAS), appears at the point of the damage. This reaction has the same stagea as the GAS: shock during which a certain necrosis of cells and connective tissue fibers and an acute inflammatory process are observed; resistance during which different types of cells form (defensive granulation barrier). If the influence is especially harmful and long-lasting, the third stage ensues: necrotic dis- integration of tissues. The LAS and GAS not only share common features in their courses, but are closely interrelated [15]. Any agent which causes a local in- flammatory process also produces ageneral effect because pulses from the damaged area reach the hypothalamus and set the mechanism of the GAS in action. Then ~ the corticoids, having been secieted in a certain stage of the organism's general reaction, affect all tissues of the organism and thus influence the local center of damage. In a number of works Selye acknowledges that not everything occurring in the organism fits perfectly within the proposed scheme. For example, it cannot 'oe said that the adreizal cortex-pituitary body system is the only system responsible for the rull range of GAS reactions. It is the main one, yes, but not the only one. The reactions observed with the GAS can occur partially when stressors act on animals whose pituitary bodies and adrenal glands have been removed. It is thought that the reactions observed in this case are the result of the ac- tion of hormones from the thyroid gland [14, 20, 21]. The liver probably also plays a significant part in adaptation processes, and it is where steroid hor- mones ar.e broken down [21]. Works have been written on the role of the pancreas in the GAS (20]. The conception presented by is interesting for its abundance of experi- mental material.. Lt has received wide distribution in domestic literature [4, 10, 11, 13 1 19, 21-26, and others]. But Soviet specialists take a critical approach to Selye's conception, correctly noting that it has a number of ~ shortcomings. Above all this refers to the one-sidedness of the conception: attention is directed exclusively to humeral-endocrine reactions. Tfie role of - the central nervous system and cerebral cortex in regulating the activity of the internal secretion glands is overlooked. The author makes only incidental mention in some works of the fact that he is not denying the significance of the nervous system in shaping the GAS , It is possible that an unclear under- standing of the leading position of the central nervous system and the _ organism's systemic reactions to maintain its optimal state was the liasis for Selye's idealistic philosophical views. Attemgting to construct a general theory of inedicine, he declares himself an advocate of the teleological prin- ciple in biology and medicine [11, 27]. Thus, Selye`s conception represents 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY only a partial manifestation of total vital activity, one link (the fiumeral) of the long and complex chain of processes which unfold in the organism in response to an extraordinary stimulus. Leading scientists of the past and our contemporaries today, especially Soviet physiologists-, have developed the materialistic direction defined by I. P. Pavlov as "nervism," which recognizes the decisive importance of the higher sections of the central nervous system for all vital manifestations of the organism, and particularly for adaptive behavior. The foundation of "nervism" as a scientific school was laid by S. P. Botkin and I. M. Sechenov, who proved that the nervous system influenced the very diverse processes in the organism. The works of V. M. Bekhterev convincingly demonstrated the dependence of the ac- tivity of internal organs and internal secretion glands on influences from the cerF,hral cortex. The conditioned reflex method of I. P. Pavlov and his school �~1 O 41 ~ �rl D 0 �rl O u �rl U 41 ro cd a 6 0 cn o0 160 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the operator transfer functinns are syntfiesized by the techniques of automatic regulation theory. The sign-mathematical models are matfiematical symbolic sqstems tfiat homo- morphically represent a system of ergonomic indicators. Tfie models of psyclio- physiological acttvity based on analysis of nonstochastic algoritfims [4] where ergonomic indicators are homomorphically represented in algorithmic structures - (logical-matnematical models according to the classification in Table 3) are an example of the sign-mathematical models. The cybernetic models are mathematical symholic systems and definite computer structures that homomorphically represent a system of ergonomic indicators. The cybernetic models simulate the basic patterns of operator activity using a computer. Regardless of the class of mathematical models, the process of mathematical modeling of operator activity can be broken down into fbur stages. The first stage is study of particular aspects of operator activity (ergonomic - indicators) and forming qualitative representations of the links among ergo- nomic indicators in mathematical terms. For example, after analysis of the psychophysiological structure of operator activity in work [5], a multifactoral mathematical model of the folldwing type was synthesized X = QZ + U, (5.2) where X is the matrix of origirial factor space, Z is the factor matrix, Q is the matrix of loads of the common factors on the signs being investigated, and U is the matrix of resic3ual factors. The second stage is analysis of the model using the chosen mathematical appar- atus and computer technology. This produces the output data (values of ergo- nomic indicators). In the examples cited the mathematical apparatus is multi- dimensional statistical analysis, and a computer is used for computation. The third stage is evaluating the adequacy of the model, that is, evaluating the - degree of correspondence between the reaults of operator activity and the theoretical consequences of the model. The fourth stage is subsequent analysis and updating of the model, because in the _ process of the development of ergonomics new findinga on ergonomic indicators ac- cumulate and there comes a time when in light of these findings the originally proposed mathematical model is outdated. Physical Models of Operator Activity Considering the definition of a physical model (5.1), physical modeling of oper- ator activity involves representing the set of normalized ergonomic indicators Y in set MQ of models of arbitrary physical nature, that is, f: Y; M4. Physical modeling of opesator activity is based on the physical resemblance of ergonomic indicators and the model, that is, at simtlar moments in time the 161 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 ruK urrILiwL u.Ijr. urvLY values of the ergonomic indicators should b.e adequate to their values for the model. The existence of adequacy makes it possible to compare escperimental data obtained for the model with real operator activity. The work of an aperator on a simulation trainer that models the dynamics of the controlled object is an example of piiysical modeling of operator activity. This means that each element of information model a k A can be mutually and uniquely matched with an element of the real equipment b E B; each operation Fa of a cer- tain class of ope.rations which transforms element al.;_: A into a2 4-: A, Fa(al) _ a2, can be mutually and uniquely matched with operation Fb, which transforms ele- ment bl E B into b2E B, Fb(bi) = b2, that is Fa Fb. In other words, operator activity on the trainer is a reflection of the structure of the real activity. 2. S.ynthesizing Mathematical Kodels of Operator Activity Analysis of Mathematical Models of Operator Activity from the Point of View of Practical Application Considering the classes of mathematical models of operator activity proposed (see Table 3 above), we can state that from the standpoint of practical application the analog models have the greatest limitation. - Because ergonomic indicators depend on many factors, creation of an adequate mathematical model of operator activity using the apparatus of automatic regu- lation theory is a very complex problem" [7]. Therefore, the usual procedure is to devise mathematical models that consider some one characteristic of tfie human operator that predominates in a particular type of activity. This makes - it necessary to formulate a new transfer function in each particular case and to test the adequacy of the model under conditions of the very rigid constraints imposed on ergonomic indicators. Sign-mathematical models of operator activity have received the widest applica- tion at the present time. Their indisputable advantage is formalization, which makes it possible to represent particular components of activity and relation- ships among them in the form of symbols. This makes it possible to manipulate them in conformity with rules established by such formal sciences as logic and mathematics. Work [7] describes certain multidimensional statistical models and nontrivial ways to apply them in practice. In otir opinion, simulation modeling of operator activity is most promising. This is because human behavior is distinguished by great complexity and is described by a system of erganomic indicators, only some of which can be formalized without serious limitations. In these cases simulation modeling makes it possible to ob- tain quantitative values of ergonomic indicators with adequate computer memory and available machine time. It should be noted that logical-mathematical models of operator activity, in par- - ticular algorithmic models, are often an essential attribute of simulation modeling. 162 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Simulation Psychological Model of Operator Activity Tfie construction of a simulation model of group activity is based on the prin- cILples set works 18, 9]. The model simulates tfie activity of two _ operators interacting in tfie.process of running a technical system, as well as the work of thfis system. An essential condition for modeling is the availa- bility of a known aequence of actions by both operators, that is, an algoritfim - of operator activity. Tiius, the algorithmic model obtained by analyzittg the - algoritfim of operator activity is a const:Ltuent part of the simulation model. The algoritfim of operator activity was constructed by the mLchodology of G: M. Zarakovskiy [4). But the special features of simulation modeling necessitated a certain modernization of the graphic representation af the algorithms. In constructing the algorithm of operator activity a word algorithm (presented in oper.ating instructions) that desFribes the functicning of the ergatic system is t3ken as the basis. The algorithm being analyzed is usually represented in tabular form where the operations (actions, instructions, and the lilce) carried ou~ concurrently are written on one line. The table also notes fixed moments in time before which the operator does not have the right to begin work. - After further analysis the algorithm is broken down into line-subzasks, each of . which belongs to one of the following types: 1. joint, if operations performed by several operators are written on one line of the table; _ 2. machine, if only equipment work is written on the given line; 3. individual, if operations performed by one aperator are written on the given line. For each subtask the degree of importance is established, that is, an evaluation is made of the impact of successful performance of the given subtask on suc- cessful execution of the entire algorithm. A line entry of the algorithm of ogerator activity is written, for example: Ei ~ Da iri T 1 i Ds z, (5.3) where E, D, and I are machine, individual, and joint subtasks respectively; V is the index of significant sub*ask; N is the index of insignificarit subtask; E1, 12, and 14 are subtasks 1, 2, and 4 respectively; Dg 1 is. subtask 3 performed by by operator 1; D52 is subtask 5 performed by operator 2; and the arrows fJ~ indi- cate the further order af performance of subtasks if the subtask preceding the arrow pointing upward bas not been performed. The construction of algorithms of operator activity is an important stage of : modPling, because the fi.nal efficiPncy of the investigation dep ends on con- structing the algoritnm carrectly (an over-detailed algorithm leads to an un- - justified increase in ttie volume of work and machine time, while an aver- simplified algorithm reduces the precision and reliability of results). 153 " FOR OFFICIAL iJSE OtVLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 ruK urrILiwL ubh unLtr The line entry of the algorithm of operator activi.ty (5.3) is not sufficiently graphic, which makes it difficult to use it during analysis. Therefore, it is useful to represent the algori.thm in graphic form. Figure 27 Uelow gives an exgmple of writing an algorithm of operator activity. Tfie diagram represents thp work of just one operator performing monitoring and control actions. Figure 27. Example of Writing an Algorithm of Operator Activity In the figure the following symbols are employed: an elementary statement pressing and/or releasing a but- .y ton, throwing a switch on or off, and so on. The numbers ~ inside the circle represent the conventional number of the control organ (if the number is underlined the button is pressed; if it is overlined the button is released; if there is no line the button is pressed and released); 1 a logical :.ondition (lighting up a transparency) ; the number (12 1 is a branch which work takes if the logical condition is ~ fulfilled, that is, if the transparency is lighted; the num- ber 0 is the branch which work takes if the condition is not met, that is, if the transparency is not lighted; _ f - logical condition (extinguishing of the tiansparency); the number 1 means the Cransparency is extinguished; the number 0 means it is lighted up; -~i - the symbol + is ajump from one element of the algorithm to _ another; ~ - expectation of a certain moment in time before whicli.tfie op- eration must not be performed; 1.8 seconds is the moment in p time from the beginning of performancQ of the particular algortthm; 164 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOIt OFFIC'IAL l1SF ONLY - signal for equipment malfunction. The basic parameter of the model is the time of operator performance of the par- ticular action (subtask), and as a.result the time of performance.of tfie entire joli (task). The time of performance of the subtask is determined stochastically according to normal distribution by the Monte Carlo method. The average time of performance of subtask -fij (average time necessary for operator j to perform sub- task i) for typical subtasks can tie obtained by calculation from the relationships and tables given in work [9]. Where there are special control and monitoring or- gans for which reference figures are not availaliYe, experiments are made with 30- 40 operators as the result of wYiich it is possible to obtain the value tij and mean quadratic deviation cs ij . The mean probability of succesa in performance of subtask Fij (the probability that operator j wilZ successfully perform subtask i) is an important parameter of the model. The quantity Pij can be obtained from the tables given in work [ZO]. The time of performance of subtasks and the probability of success depend on the - level of tension and speed of the operators. Simulation of operator activity involves sequential computation of the values of the variables for each subtask. The task is considered completed when both oper- ators have successfully performed all subtasks in the allotted time. The work of the modeling program begins with feeding the parameters and initial conditions of simulation to the main computer memory (see Figure 28 below). In - this case the control punchcard contains the following quantities: Ti - maximum time of performance of tfie assignment by operator j; Np - assigned number of iterations in the run; Non- number of operators; Ni - number of subtasks in the algorithm. The input values nm and N i are used to determine the dimensions of the matrix of raw data, after which the logical structure of the algorithm is fed to tfie main computer memory: iJ� and ii r are the numbers of the subtasks performed by operators j and j ' ; dij are the numbers of the &ubtasks performed by operator j after per- formance of subtask i; Ii is the code of subtask type (Ii = 1 is a joint subtask; Ii = 0 is an individual subtask; Ii = 3 is an equipment subtask) ; Ei is the code of significance of the subtask (Ei = 0 is an insignificant subtask; Ei = 1 is a significant subtask). - In addition to logical quantities, each subtask uses the following parameters: - tij - average time of performance of subtask i by operator j; 6 ij - mean quad- ratic deviation of time of performance of subtask i tiy operator j; Pij - average probability of success in performance of subtask i; Iij early moment of comple- tion of subtask i by operator J. Then the operator characteristics are introduced: Mj - tension threshold af operator j; Fj - indicator of individual speed of operator j; Gj - level of demands of operator j. 165 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FUR UFFICIAL USE UNLY BboD novano Gnpedenenu� oa3.Neoed y0ad noeuvec� nQU ~mpy�my BOod napaMempoC noi.~ ycx0uf: NUmouuu ~ M;,ccu0od ut,rodnaa por antapumMa nod3oBav ~ . . T N,n N dannau v = i~,ij~.d~~,I,E ti6i�Pi�Ii P.; n av' i (1) (2) (3) (4) BOod 9cmano0 enue /flP01pOMMD/ O ycmanoDnenue npo2pax.wa d ~oe 0~ pam OO2BfNlfDIX donnmx ucxodnaedna navana oveped ucxo0nae Ona noyanaave~e0- � o 0 nau umepauuu 0avu ne0 no0~a (,M , G/~J c, Fp NR�N�-1 Ni =Ni-1 u 3 - Figure 28. Feeding Parameters and Initi al Conditions of Simu- lation. Key: (1) Input of Initial Conditions of Simulation; (2) Determination of Dimensions of Arrays of Raw Data; (3) Input of Logical Structure of Algorithm; (4) Input of Subtask Parameters; . (S) Input of Operator Parameters; (6) Printing of Data Fed; (7) Setting Program at Starting Point for Beginning of Next Iteration. The parameters fed and the initial conditions are printed out to monitor correct comgilation of data, and then the program is set in the initial state for the be- ginning of the next iteration and simulation of the subtask. Selection of the operator is done in the first stage of modeling (see Figure 29 - below). This is done by comparing times Tij and TIIjr used by operators j and j' by the moment of simulation of the particular subtask. The operator who has spent the least time is selected, and if the times are equal the operator with the lower number, that is operator j, is selected. If the operator selected must wait for the partner (this is determined by the logic of the algorithm, in other words by the value dijl), the actions of the other operator are simulated in ad- vance. If thia is not the case, a determinatian is made whether the operator must wait for the arrival of moments in time Iii to perform the next subtask i. If time T= Iij has not yet arrived, then Tij is set equal to Iij and the operator whose actions are to be simulated is determined again. Next it is established whether subtask i is one of the joint type (Ii = 1). In this case the full time of the operator who worked longer is taken as the-time of the slower operator. For the operator finally selected, a computation is made of the urgency of situ- ations, tension, and the cohesion of the group during performance of the particu- lar subtask (see Figure 30 below). First the time TocT left available to the operator to perform the entire task is determined, and the urgency of the situa- tion is analyzed. If there is enough time remaining to complete all subsequent subtasks, the situation is considered nonurgent and the operator is not under ten- sion, in other words tension is taken equal to one (sij = 1). 166 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ Figure 29. Operator Selection and Spnchronization of Working Time. Key: [ Qct - Yes; - Nem- No. ] Figure 30. Computation of Urgency, Tensian, and Cohesian Key : [ Au - Yes ; Nem- No. ] In the case where the time remaining is aufficient only to complete the significant subtasks, the Frugram ignorea insignificant subtasks, considering tension sij = 1. But if the time remaining is less than is needed to perform r.he remaining signifi- cant subtasks, operator tension is computed by tIie formula _ _ Nij T' TE ; s;j (5.4) = y ~ Tj - TV - ~ 167' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 rtJx Vrrll,tAl. uJC. U1vLY where y~~TE is the sum of average times of performance of remaining significant J ~ subtasks; Nij is the number of significant sutatasks in the tasks; Tj is the time of performance of an assignment (determined by initial modeling data); and, Tvi is the time spent for performance of preceding subtasks. In the model group cohesion is a variable whoae magnitude rangea from 0 to 1, and is a function of tension. The coheaion coefficient, which permits an assessment of the condition of the group, is determined for performance of each subtask by tfie formula C`j (5.5) waere Cij is the indicator of group cohesion; sij is the tension of the operator per- forming subtask i; sij is the tension of the partner; Mj and Mjv are tfie tension thresholds of the operator and partner heing simulated in the particular subtask (tha tension threshald is the tension value at w'~tch activity is disrupted and the number of mistakes and time of performance of sucn tasks increase sharply). Next the time of performance of subtask i by the operator is determined (see Figure 31 below). The pseudorandom quantity Kij formed by generator 1 according to Figure 31. Determining Time of Performance of Suhtask i. Ke,: (1) Generator; f iR ct - Yes; }Ae m No. ] (Kij = 0; Q K= 1.0) is selected for this. The quantity Kij is used to calculate the intermediate quantity Uij , which takes account of the initial parameters of the sub task V{j = t;; + h+jQ,;. 168 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OF'FICIAI. USE ONLY When calculating the time of performance of subtaeks it is neceseary to use the magnitude of total tension, which is equal to _ slj = A ij -F- s;;, - - (5.6) where Aij is the magaitude of tension arisin8 in the operator when the partner ia under tension. It is taken as equal to zero if the partner feels no tension, that is, sij i = 1. Where sij > Mj+. and Aij = 1, in the remaining situations it is de- termined by the farmula ` ~ i f~~� A,, For the case where total operator tengion is lesa than the threahold value (sij < Mj), the time of performance of the subtaek is computed in the following sequence: (1) The standardized value of total operator tension is determined r=~ - (2) The coefficient of distortion of time of performance of the subtaek under tens.ion is calculated ' 7iij = Q2'n j7xn-1 + . . . -f- cx d, (5.7) where a, b, and c axe polynomial coefficients; n is the indicator of the power of the independent variable; and, d is the intersection; (3) The time of performance of subtask i is determined taking into account the operator's individual speed (Fj) tj' - F'vl,Z'' (5.8) In the case where sij > Mi + 1, the time of performance . of subtask i is determined from the expression Q{; = 3Vii - i,;, , where Qi is the time of performance of the subtask with- out consi3ering individual operator apeed. Finally, we receive _ t{j = QiiFI. (5.9) In the remaining cases, the following order ia employed to determine tij: (1) The intermediate quantities are computed Hij _ ?Sti -I- 1 -2A1 j; (Dij ~ HijVj; Lij -mj) ttj; (2) The time of performance of the subtask is calculated by tfie formula _ - t{j _ Pii L,ti) Fi� (5.10) ~ 169 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 The quantityUtij determined by one of the expressions (5.8)-(5.10) is added to total time Tij used by the operator from the beginning of the iteration. Then comes the next stage of modeling, determining success and failure in performance of the current subtask (see Figure 32 below). Figure 32. Determining Success and Failure. Key: (1) Generatar; [ Au - Yes; Hern - No. ] Analysis of success and failure hegina with selection of a pseudorandom number R formed by generator 2 accordtng to a uniform law of distribution in a unit inter- val. This number is used to compute the criterial quantity ei. There are three variations for determining ei (depending on the value of current operator tension). In the case where sij< Mj., these intermediate quantities are found Ei = (ILI, -1 1) R - '11; st� and they are then used to compute the criterial value e' + i (5.11) E{ - � e; wheie si3 > Mi + 1, the following expression is used R i g{ - 2 . rvx vrrn,iwL u,L ViVLIc (5.12) In the remaining situations, inteXmediate quantities are determined by these f ormulas - ei=s;;-ll1;-}-B; et=s;-Df;-f-1, after which we finally find ei et = - . ei (5.13) The value of the criterial quantity ej, obtained from one of the expressiona (5.11)-(5.13) is used for comparison with a given probability of success in per- formance of subtask i: f{ 170 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024449-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY In this case fi > 0 sign3fies successful completion of the subtask; other cases are continued failures. The success or failure is registered by a success or failure register, and then the subtask wfiich must be performed in the next step is determined. The modeling sequence {ncludes an evaluation of the level of operator demands, which takes the operator's purposefulness into account (see Figure 33 below). Key: (1) Generator; (2) End of Computations; (3) Printing of Results; [ Q U - Yes; Nem - No. ] To analyze the influence of thie characteristic the degree of divergence between the operator's goals and the results of the operator's labor are computed for each subtask: 171 EOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 Figure 33. Evaluation of the Level of Demands and Completion of Computation. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020049-1 rvn vrra~.ini. voc vi%l,� iv r tv B_G;- ia' I (5.14) j E tj i;=i where B is the degree of divergence in goals; Gi is the level. af demands of oper- _ iy ator j: 1{E~yis the number of subtasks successfully performed by the operator; , 11; is the total number of subtasks performed by operator J. After this one of five situations may arise with using the quantity B to correct operator activity. If B>+0.02, then two cases are poasihle: (1) where sij > M�, the value of the probability of successful performance oi the next subtask hy operator J is lowered: - P;+j.; = IPi; [1 - O,OSB]; _ (2) where sij < M, the value of the probahility of successful performance oi the suhtask by the operator increases P{+is = Pi1(1 + 0,088). If the divergence in goals is within the range -0.02 < B 0, L4 (Z~ = i~l ~ ~1 n (6.10) ~ f or: V 0{.x; 6 Q~ i=1 where -0 (t) is the frequency of pulse the output of the neuron; ai is the magnitude of synaptic coeff icient i; xi is the numerical value of the input action; 0 is the neuron threshold; k is the steepness of the input--output cfiarac- teristic of the neuron; and, n is the r.umber of inputs of the neuron. A comparison of expreasion (6.9) and (6.10) makee it obvtous tfiat tfia neuron realizes a hyperplane in the space of the input stgnals and is a decislon ele- ment. When the vector-image X{xl, x2, xn} is presented to the neuron, it may be either excited or not excited. If the neuron is not excited, this means that the linear function y= Xt'A - 0 is less than zero at the point represented \ by set*{x}, and the end of the vector is o3tside the hyperplane (on one of the sides of the space). In this case A= ai, a2, an is the vector of wetght coefficients. If the neuron is excited, the linear function assumes a value greater than zero and the end of the vector is located in another area relative to the hyperplane. Therefore, the neuron assigns every set of input signals to one of the semispaces, Zand this division is accomplished hy means of the linear function y= Xt A 0. _ Thus, the.neuronal structure can realize a large numher of hyperplanes and evalu- ate the location of the point that depicts input information. 'By cbanging the weight of particular "synapses" and the value of tbreshold 0, we obtain dividing - hyperplanes yl, y2, yn, whose slope can be changed in the proceas of train- ing or adjustment.. It is clear from the above that devices that model the primary characteristics of the neuron can be used for the purpose of shaping the dividing situation of a - surface, and will simplify the classifier in thie case. , A large number of various devices have been developed today that model the pri- . 'mary functional capabilities of the biological prototype (29, 30). A number of glgorithms have been written for adjusting the weight coefficients and ttireshold according to the aet of situations presented in order to optimize the quality of situation recognition. Most of the training algorithms proposed for linear adaptive situation recognition devicea are systems that search for the vector of weight coefficients and neuron thresfiolds and minimize a preassigned error function. The gradient metfiod is most Widely used [31]. The neuronal clasatfication structures obtained By changing the training pro- cedure are mucfi simpler than classifications on digital computets. Some variations of them are considered 5elow. 238 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. Encoding Time Functiona by Artificial Neuron Ne.ts According to Their Informative Signs. Let us constder one more mettiod of encoding complex ttme functionsp fiaered on using the princtples of processilig data in the sensorp- systems o� fii.ologtcal systems. Researcfi done by Eccles, Mattfiews, H. I. Katets, P. G. Kostyuk, and others on - stimulation of nerve-muscular structures has identified tfie baeic principles of neuron processing of time signals 128, 32]. Tfiey sfioared tTiat the reaction of nerve tissue is deacribed by the expression ~ T _ TV = f v ct,, ~ U ct> dt , a ~ t where U(t) is the amplitude of the signal; T is ite length; and, fU (t)dt ie the er_ergy component of the atimulus signal. Thanks to tfie action of the adaptation mechanism, the excitability of nerve tissue depends signif icantly on the firat and aecond derivatives of the stimulating stgnal. Therefore, its ' reaction is expressed by the functton dU (t) d2 L' (t) + f U (t), `U (t) dt, dt , CU2 0 whose independent variabZes are the primary componente of the signal. Eacb of these componenta has ita own weight (a, Y, d) so control of excitability in general form can be represented linearly; uU (t) 1- ~ d.--~ y`r U(t) dt d d'~,(t) = 1. I 0 The mecfianism of adaptation, which influenceg the procesa of encoding stgnala, is linked to the interaction of the processes of stimulation ar~d inhiBition in the membrane of the neuron and, dynamically, to the characteristics of'the neuron. -Analysie of processes on the memhrane permits us to hypotheaize that the passing stimulation signal triggers a simultaneous inhibiting process which develops exponentially and compensates for tfie stimulating procesa after interval T. . The process of conversion of information in the synaptic cell and eummator of the neuron leads to the atructural diagram ahown in Figure 67 below. Link 1 of the diagram is proportional to the input signal. Link 2 with the transfer function of the aperiodic link developa reactive inhibitian. The transfer function of the summator is represented by aperiodic link 3. Tlie transfer function of this segment of the neuron model is descrtbed by tfie expreseion tti~o ~P) _ [ki TiP -F- (kt - k.)] (T iP + 1) (TxP -i- 1) . 2 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024449-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ~ I ~ I ~(t! ~ ~ ~ Modens 9m~o93) 3 cOnr.cto rer izp�1 ~ wuno,Ye~-aon~ 2 ht ~ ~ rIP� ~ I I CunartmuaecKaa averiKV 4- cyM,wamopoM (2) - L--------------------- Figure 67. F1owcTiart of a Neuron Model. Key: (1) Input; (2) Synaptic Cell with Summator; (3) Output; (4) Model of Axon Hillock ["Kholmik"] of Neuron. Because T1 � T2, delay in tfie s.ummator may 6e ignored. The transfer function assumes the form j'vo~ ~P~ = k1T 1P -I - (kt - k2) . ' - TiP +1 On the condition that kl = k2 (inhi5ition completely compensates for stfmulation), it ia converted into the transfer function of the differentiating link W o9 (P) = kiT iP ~ TiP -f- 1 . Investigations of neurona of different modali.ties lead to the conclusion that the neuron is the differentiating element of the nervous system. Neuron-type "on," "off," and "on-off" reactiona also testify to this [28-30]. The potential that developa according to the transfer function acts on tfie threshold generator of standard pulses 4. As a result, the output signal of the neuron ia described by the expression -------r- n - y ~t = kL-' j W R (P) \1 aix, (P)} - 0, where L'1 is an inverse Laplace transform, and k is tfie coefficieat of amplifi- cation of the converaion characteristic of the neuron. The neuron or neuron ensemble realizea a certain transfer function only on tfie condition that J aixi (t) 7 U. 2 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Combining the positive and negattve rigid and flexihle feedbacks, it ie possible to receive a number of essenttal tranefer functiona of neuron structures. Thus, in Figure 68 below part a shouzs a structure with_ a transfer function WH(p) = kTp (differentiattng link or neuron witfi.rapid adaptation), arhiYe part b shows a structure with a transfer function WH(p) = k/2T x 1/p (integrating link). ' Figure 68. Functional Model of' (;a) Dtf- ferentiating Neuron, and (b) Integrating Neuron. 0,G 0.0 h x2 4k e�o w�fp!�kTp h~o 1 Q T . T 1 k w"O`2T P b These characteristic s of the neuron model were used to encode the informative points of the ahape of the curve of electrograme. The ability of neurons and en- semblea of neurons to single out the informative componente of time functions was investi&ated on technical models of neurons including synaptic cells and a model of a neuron wi th summator. The basic synaptic cell is an operational amplifier that works in the regime of an aperiodic filter with time constant T depending on the parameters of the circuit. When it is stimulated the threshold of the neuron increases exponentially Ug = U'CT exp (-t/T), where U'CT is the amplitude of the stimulus. Change in the atimulating postsynaptic potential is described by the expression . - i Uisucn = - U(,r - U� = - UoT (1 - c t . where U g~cTr is the amplitude of the stimulating poetaynaptic potentisl. Figure 69 below showa change in Un and UB,rcn. An "on't reaction or adaptatton is ob- tained at the output of the neuron model depending on the value of T selected. t . / Un - j,/'-_ / U~m - - - �encn Figure 69. Change Over Time in Total Stgnal at Input of Neuron Model. 241 FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020049-1 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I I (2) (1) ~ I I~~~ (3) ~ II I~~ i I (5) Ftgure 70. Example of Neuron Coding: (4 f' Key: (1) Minimums of Time Signal; (2) Maximums of Time Signal; (3) Positive and�Negattve Derivatives of Input Signal; (4) Points of Signal Passage Through Conventional Zero; (5) Maximums and Minimums of Time Signal. To obtain a code that is invariant to the magnitude of the amplitude of the signal being analyzed, it is enough. to feed it to the input of the neuron structure shown in Figure 71 below. Work [33] considers the mechanisms of identification of tte informative components of a signal in greater detail. It can be seen from the above that differentiatiag neurons and ensemTiles.of tfiem in- efficiently convert continous functions afdnang tTheetask of formation to a digital computer or classi yig neuronal structure the latter maYrcodeewith standardgintervals intervals points of the time this process. Measurement of the timvwithinwtfie esta6lishedsclearances can tieodoneiby of the signal when it is located means of a neuron ensemble (see Figure 72). It is possible to identify a Firoad class of informative components of the time signal by means of individual neurons and elementary neuron ensembles by changing their thresholds and the parameters of the synaptic cells included in the stimu- - lating and inhibiting inputs of tfie neuron (see Figure 70 below). Tfiis ensemble 242 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020049-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Eigure 71. Neuron "Normtngn Structure. T, t T Tz 2 ~Tr) f=(T< 72 ) 3 f3(l FO THEN 200 _ lA'J LET FO a F(XI - 200 NEXT X 300 LET T9 m 1/FO 810 [F 20T9 ] TO THEN 1300 320 FO R X- 1 TO M 330 LET TJXI - !/FIX) 340 LET S[XI = R(XVT(XI 342 IF SfXl > 1 THEN 350 344 LET SIX) _ 1 350 IF S(X) < M[X] THEN 380 360 LET D[X) m 2 ~ 870 GOTO 430 380 LET 0[X) m(S[X) - f)/(M[X] 985 LET N8 - O[X) 390 LET D[X) e K[f + K[21�0[X) - 400 FOR J~ 3 TO I 405 LET N8 s N600(X] 410 LET D[X) = D(XI + K[Jj*NB 420 NEXT 7 430 LET V[XJ - T9/T(X) 440 LET C[XJ ~ CIXI + VlXJ - 1 450 IF CIXI < f THEN 480 460 LET V(X] - VfXJ C[X) 470 LET CIXI - CIXI - INT(C(XJ) 480 LET V[X) m INT(V(X)) 530 NEXT X 540 LET Ri 0 0 550FORX- ITOM 560 LET Lm L+ V(X] 570 LET L[X) - L(XI V(X) ,575 LET N5 m V[X) 580 FOR Y~ i TO N5 590LETR0m 0 800 FOR Z9 - i TO 48 - 810 LET AO m RO RND(0) 820 N E X T 29 830 LET RO - GIX1'R0/2 (AIXJ 12*GlXI) 640 LET RO m RO�DIX) 850 IF RO ) T(XJ THEN 870 ~ [Continued, next page] 2 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020049-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420049-1 FOR OFF(C1AL USE ON[.Y 880 IF (P[XJ - RND(0)) ] 0 THEN 690 670 LET NIX) m N[X] f 880 GOTO 710 890 LET W[XJ = W[X] i 700 LET SO = 50 f 7!0 NEXT Y 712 IF W[X] # U THEN 720 714 LET C5 = C5 + 1 720 LET R! - Rf + W[X]/L[XJ 730 NEXT X 750 LET ZO o ! 780 FOR X- f TO M 762 IF C5 - 0 THEN 770 784 LET B[Xi - f/M 735 IF Ri = n fiHEN 790 788 GOTO ?80 787 IF WIX] s 0 THEN 790 770 LET A[XI _ (1V(Xj/L(XJ)/R1 780 LET ZO = ZO�B[XI 785 LET U[X) - U[Xj S[X) 790 NEXT X 795 Ls-T C5 m 0 800 LET ZO a Zn�(Ai - bf) 810LETZf=Zf+ ZO . 820 LET C2 = C2 -i- f 830 LET EO = F/F1 840 LET E1 = Ef EO 850 LET Qt = SO/L 880 LET Tt ~ Tt T9 890 LET TO = T- Tt 900 LET Ii0 ~ H- SO 910IFT0