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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/ 10282 26 January 1982 USSR R~ ort _ p POIITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 2/82) FBIS F'OREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420051-8 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-'anguage sources are transcribed or reprinted, with tha original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial r~ports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Px~ocessing indicators such as [TextJ or [FxcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- _ tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattrit~uted parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING 0'~1NERSHIP OF ~ MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THr1T DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTR~T.CTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024451-8 JPRS L/10282 - 26 January 1982 USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUO 2/82) - CONTENTS REGIONAL Tajiks Eualuate Natural Resources Conservation (K. Sh. Dzhurayev; IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK TAASHIKSKOY SSR: OTDELENIYE OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK, Mar-Apr 81) 1 - a- LIII - USSR - 35 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLiI APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020051-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ REGIONAL TAJIKS EVALUATE NATU?~AL RESOURCES CONSERVATION Dushanbe IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAtT~ TADZHIKSKOY SSR: OTDELENIYE OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK in Russian No 2, Mar-Api~ 81 (manuscript received Apr 81) pp 34-49 [Article by K. Sh. Dzhurayev, Dushanbe State Pedagogical Institute imeni T. G. Shevchenko] [Text] The "Rs~ort of the CPSU Central Committee to the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Upcoming Tasks of the Party in the Fields of Domestic dnd Foreign Policy"--the address ~ielivered by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee--and "Basic Directions - for the Economfc and Social Development of the USSR Over the Period of 1981-1985 and up to the Year 1990" represent a new historic stage of communist construc- tion in our country. , The CPSU teaches and requires that all issues concerning communist construction be resolved on a strictly scientific basis b~th in the c~untry as a whole and also in each union republic. "The Party of Communists takes for granted that construction of the new society is simply unthinkable without science," L. I. ~ Brezhnev pointed out.l The practical and theoretical questions c~ncerning harmonious interrelationship of science and nature--the optimum geagraphic location and development of the productive forces, economic and administrative regionalization, the shaping of seccoral and general geoeconomic complexes and so ~n--have been and are a driv- i~A;; fc?rce behind birth and development in the geographic sciences as in other sciences. "One of humanity's most ancient sciences--geography, is helping to speed up sci- entific-technical progress in many branches of icnowledge and production. Geog- raphers of various c~untries are conducting extensive research on our planet's nature, econamics and population and are thereby making an appreciable contr~b~:- tion to the cause of peaceful cooperation amot,g states. The Soviet Union is in- terested in expanding and strengthening international scientific relations am;:,n~; geographers of a11 countries aimed first of all at optimum utilization of nat:~- ral resources, economic development, and protection and improvement of the hucua~.i environment,i2 stated the greetings of the Soviet Government to participants i~~ _ the 23d International Geographic Congress in Moscow. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020051-8 In the Soviet Union, on the basis of sub~ect matter methodology and scientific research methods, Decree N~ 231 of the State Cammittee of the USSR Council of Ministers f~r Science and Technology, dated 25 May 1977, includes the following in the system of geographic sciences: 11.00.01 Physical Gea~raphy, Geophysics and Topographic Geochemistry; Economic and Social Geography; - 11.00.04 Geomorphology and Paleogeography; 11.00.05 Biogeography and Soil Geography; - 11.00.07 Hy~rology of Land, of Wazer Resources; ' 11.00.08 Oceanography; 11.00.a~ Meteorology, Climatology and the Physics of the Atmosphere; 11.00.10 Hydrochemistry; 11.00.11 Optimum Utilization of Natural Resources and Environmental Protec- tion. Other fields of geographic science which are d~velopi*~g successfully include the following: popu~ation geography, glaciology, medical geogrdphy, recreation - geography, political geography, historical geography, space geography and so on. I ~ Comprehensive development of the productive forces and econ~omics are the basis fer the gradual movement of Soviet society toward communism. V. I. Lenin said: "We value communism only when it has an economic ba~is.i3 The CPSU i~ guided by ~ V. I. Lenin's instru~ction to the effect that scientifically sound economic con- struction of our multinational state is the party's main policy. The supreme goal in the CPSU's economic strategy has been, is now and will be to raise the gpaple's material and cultural standard of living. In his address to the 25th CPSU Congress L. I. Brezhnev noted: "Specific concern about a partic- ul~r person, his needs and requirements, is the beginning and the end of the party's economic policy." The geographic sciences, especially the economic and social geography of ad- vanced socialism in the USSR= occupy the place they deserve in the scientifi- cally sound conduct of the CPSJ's economic policy. Under the conditions of ad- vanced socialism economic and social geography, along with the other social sci- ences, political economy first of all, serve~ as the methodological foundation of economic planning, management and development, furnishes the scientif.ic sub- stantiation of policy in the field of economic asaessment of natural conditions, natural resources and labor resources, environmental protection, optimum geo- - graphic loc~tion of the productive forces, economie regionalizaticn, the shaping _ of regional-industrial and agroindustrial complexes, of the combined economic and social development of the country, af the regions and un~on republics, of ~ intraregional and interregional economic relations and so on.4 The history of society is above all the history of the interaction among man, nature, the geogr~phic environment, the development and lor_�ation of the produc- tive forces, and ecotiomic relations. It is raell known that the mode of p-roduc- tion of material goods, the sL~m total of economic relations, is the decisive 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020051-8 FOR OFF[ClAI. USE ON1.1' factor in historic development. Society and economi~ relations develop on an economic-geographic foundation. K. Marx specifically pointed out: "The iocal life of Spain, the independence of its provinces and communes, the lack of uniformity in the development of society, which originally resulted from the country's geographic configuration, but which thereafter developed historica.lly because the different provinces had freed themselves of more domination inZependently, in so doing forming small indepen- dent states....i5 ' Production in the broad economic-geographic sense is the proc~ss of man's life _ and economic activity in a particular geosystem, bound together by particular production relations and creating material goods in the form of ineans of produc- tion and consumer goods necessary to the existence of human society. K. Marx writes: "In order to produce men enter into certain connections and re- lations, and only within the framework of those social connections and relations do relations exist to��~zrd nature and doe~ production take place.i6 ~ The questi~ns of the division of lgbor, the location and development of the pro- ductive forces, the growth af citiea and ruzaY areas and th,~ prosperity of the people are closely bound up with the size 2nd diversity of the economic-geo- graphic foundation. "The level of development of a nation`s productive forces is detected most vividly of aZl from the degree to which division of labor has developed in it,"~ K. Marx wrote. . Nature, the economic-geographic base, is not only the prime source of human life, - but also the field of its conscious activity. That is why these words have a particular relevance today: "Labor is the father of wealth, but land is its mother." V. I. Lenin pointed out that achieving higher produc~ivity of labor is the fore- most and most important thing for the victory of the new social order.e Raising _ the productivity of labor urgently requires a conipreheasive scientific-technical and economic-geographic approach. The division of labor, economic-geographic regionalizatiun, the knowledge of natural and economic conditions and peculiari- ties of localities, and the planning and management of the harmonious interrela- tionships of society with nature are an indispensable factor for a full-fledged general rise of labor pro~>>~=tivity. As K. Marx wrote, the productivity of ener- gies and labor is determined by diverse circumstances and "natural conditions.i9 - For example, while capital investments, the amount of labor, technology9 chemi- calization and so ~n have increased, the gross harvest of grain crops in our country has varied from year to year (Table 1).l0 The influence of a favordble or unfavorable geographic ye~.r, of natural condi- tiona on the productivity of labor, can also be illustrated by other sectors ~~F the country's economy and by economic reg3ons and republics. There is a part:~'.~.-- ular need, then, not only to study natural conditions and resources, but als~r r,~ take into account the peculiarities of geosystems, to make economic assessme,~~~; - of them and to make geographic forecasts of favorable and unfavorable years c:~ - regions and zones. This approach would be beneficial to the dynamic and 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500424451-8 - proportional development of the productive forces and to a growth of the na- tional income and resources of the country and af the union republics. . Table 1 Favorable Geo- Gross Harvest, Unfavorable Gross Harvest, graphic Years millions of tons Geographic Years m3.llions of tons 1973 222.5 1971 181.2 1974 195.7 1972 1.68.2 1976 223.4 1975 140.1 1977 195.7 1979 179.2 1978 237.4 1380 220.0 "Geography--the oldest science, which studies the world and the various coun- - tries--is at the present time performing an important social function in serving in every way humanity's optimum utilization of diverse natural resources, re- gional economic development and the location of the productive forces and set- tlements. "Social changes in the world and the present-day scientific:-technical revolution have confronted geography with crucial new problems. Important among them is - the problem of the protection and purposive transformation of the environment, ' which constitutes an organic part of a still broader problem--the interrelation- ships between nature and society,"li A. P. Aleksandrov, president and member of the acadeiay, has written on behalf of the USSR Academy of Sciences. II On the basis of the theoretical and practical requirements of communist con- struction, policy-making documents of the CPSU Central Committee and Soviet Gov- ernment, and the USSR Constitution, the plans for environmental protectian and optimum utilization of natural resources have in our country become an integral part of annual and multiannual plans of economic and social development. In the age of scientific-technbcal progress the socioeconomic importance of environmen- tal protection and of judicious utilization and reproduction of natural re- sources, will increase steadily. The 26th CPSU Congress pointed out the need "to improve the effectiveness of measures in the field of natural conservation, optimum utilization of the re- soi~rces o~ the biosphere The documents of the party forum pointed out: "Improve natural conservation, step up the effort to preserve farmland, combat _ erosion of farmland, increase the pace of efforts to bring land back under cul- tivation, provide protection of such land from torrents, landslides, cave-ins, and the processes leading to salinization, bogginess, submergence and aridity. "More comprehensive development of mineral deposits, preventing at the same time - losses in mining and processing. "Intensified protection of sources of water to prevent depletion. ~ FOR OFFICIAL USF 01`dLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020051-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONl,ti "Continuation of the effort toward protection and optimum utilization of unique natural complexes.... "Develop efforts to create and improve a system of survey registers of natural _ resources and to improve state management of exploitation of natural resources an~' environmental protection. Broader involvement of the public ia natural con- servation. t12 Diverse micro- and macro-economic and geographic conditions and peculiarities of localities, geosystems and the population have created and are creating a multi- - tude of different typ~s of production and ecoz?omic and cultural relations. Since in spite of the geographic and historical similarity "between individual countries, regions and even localities, there will always be a certain inequal- ity in the conditions of life, which can be reduced to a minimum, but will al- ways be beyond complete elimination. The inhabitants of the A1ps will always have different living conditions than those who live in the plains," as F. En- gels noted.13 - Everything depends on the conditions, the place and the time. L. I. Rrezhnev noted: "Tajikistan is a mountain republic. The highest peaks in the coun- try stand beneath the Tajik sky. And judging by the proportion of undertakings and the ~lans for the future, the republic is on a level its high moun- ta~ns . i1 "Even though I have seen a great many places, starting from Sicily to the Arctic Circle and from Transbaykal to the Pyrenees, here in Ta~ikistan I have seen much that is new to me (D. N. Pryanishnikov, member of the academy). "As an object of study Ta~ikistan islan interesting country in itself" (S. F. O1'- - denbiirg, member of the academy). "Discovery of the original cultivated flora in Tajikistan, unknown to science up until that time, has served as a point of departure for all future geographic explorations (N. I. Vavilov, member of the academy),~`6 = L. I. Brezhnev posed the task of a comprehensive approach to drafting a program - for development of the productive forces of regions in which economic, sociopo- litical, geographic and many other factors would be linked together.l~ The CPSU and Soviet Government, taking into account the unique historical-eco- nomic-and-geogr~phic conditions and peculiarities of this mountainous region, sent to Tajikistan an interdisciplinary scientific expedition for comprehensive study of the productive forces after the republic was formed. Participants in _ the expedition included the following outstanding scientists: A. Ye. Fersman - D. V. Nalivkin, D. I. Shcherbakov, N. I. Vavilov, D. N. Pry,~^ishnikov, V. L. 1:~- marov, S. F. O1'denburg, N. P. Gorbunov, I. P. Gerasimov, mem~ers of the acad- emy, and others. - On the basis of the expedition's results in April 1933 the USSR Academy of Sr_t ences, iointly with the Council of People's Commissars of Tajikistan, held a ~ scientific conference in Leningrad on the problems of studying the productive forces of TaSSR. The country's most important scientists, headed by A. P. Kar- - pinskiy, member and president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, took part in the 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020051-8 proceedings of the conference. The conference summed up the results of scien- tific research which has been done in Ta~ikistan by scientific expeditions and offered recommendations to the republic's government con~erning the compilation of plans for the development of the economy and science. The conference's mes- sage to Tajikistan's scientists specifically remarked that "the new method (that is, the method of interdisciplinary work) of a broad geographic coverage must be carried over to the entire effort of studying the whole country of the sovfets, its productive forces and their utilization."le The conference stated the problem in the economic study of Tajikistan as well. The resolution pointed out: "Economics research can be divided into two groups :of projects: regional economics and topical economics. In Tajlkistan the two li~es of research should develop simu~taneously and uniformly. "In the first case it is indispensable to set up the economic-geographic study and description of Tajikistan's principal regions. This work should be done ac- cording to a definite plan, and the first thing needed is to provide a descrip- tion of the most important economic (khozyaystvenno-ekonomicheskiye) regions.t19 Unfortunately, after the Tajik-Pamir Expedition there were no further major com- prehensive general-geographic and economic-geographic studies of the - natural conditions and natural resources, the population, labor resources, cit- ies and rural areas, nor the economic and sacial problems of development of the republic and the economic regions. Studies devoted to the economic problems of the development of the s~ctors of the economy of Tajikistan and the South Tajik TPK [Regional Industrial Complex] are now under way in the Economics In:;titute, the Council for the Study of the Productive Forces of the TaSSR Academy of Sciences, Gosplan and other scientific - and project plannino organizations of the republic. Among the projects along _ this line of research we should n~ention "Configuration of the Developm~~nt and Location of the Productive F~rces of TaSSR Over the Period 1971-1980," `',:haping ~ the South Tajik TPK," and others, as well as the projects of I. K. Narziktlov, R. K. Rakhimov, Kh. M. Saidmuradov~ I. M. Kleandrov, Ya. T. Bronshteyn, A. G. Khadzhibayev and others. These studies will be of great :~elp in solving the numerous scientific problems of economic geography re~ated t~ optimum organization of the development of 'laSSR's forces. Even the participants in the Tajik-Pamir Expedition noted that the problems of the geography and geology of Ta~ikistan-Pamir were boundlessly broad and fasci- nating "As the nexus of Central Asian problems and of Asian problems in ~en- eral."2o - 'fajikistan's historical, econosnic and geographic position, its conditions and - its peculiarities, the building of thA country's ma~or fuel and energy base here, the republic's present condition and prospects for location and develop- ment of its productive forces necessitate further comprehensive study of the general geographic problems and especially of the problems of economic geogra- phy: 6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020051-8 - FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY 1. Economic-geographic problems of the history of the Ta~ik people and of the Iocation and development of TaSSR's productive forces. - 2. Optimum utilization and reproduction of natural resources and natural con- servation. Identifi.cation and economic assessment of natural geographic com- plexes (geosystems). 3. The economic-geographic aspects of popul~tion: interrelationships between man and nature, the size of the republic's population and its dynamics in gen- eial: ~y oblasts, by rayons, by vertical zones, and by cities and settlements. Density, dispersion and regionalization with respect to dispersion criteria, la- bor resources by calculation and by count, diversity in the supply of labo~ re- sources to economic entities and the labor force participation rate, migration, the city, rural dispersion, the size of cities, rayons, kolkhozes and sovkhozes as a function of the economic-geographic context, urbanization, population map- ping and so on. 4. iKultipurpose industrial regionalization of Ta,jikistan. Comprehensive de- scription of the systems of existing industrial centers, industrial parks, in- dustrial districts and their peculiarities: structure, production relations, _ ascertainment of the economic-geographic reserves and prospects for their over- all development. S. Comprehensive agricultural regionalization of the republic anrl of economic regions, subregions and vertical zor~es. Study of the pattern of differences in the specialization of agriculture and establishment of the optimum relationships among the different branches of agriculture in particular geosystems. 6. Comprehensive agroindustrial regionalization of the republic and of economic regions. Identification of regions, subregions and zones where industry and ag- riculture approximate that level of development of the productive forces where their synthesis becomes possible. _ 7. Development of comprehensive recreation surveys af the republic and economic regions. Descriptions of rayons and zones aimed at development of health re- sorts, medical geography, medical-geographic forecasts and so on. The impact of the economic-geographic context on the shaping of health and the development of diseases, human adaptation to varioua geographic conditions. The geographic recreation resources of rayons and zones, the medical-biological-geographic na- ture of the therapeutic effect of geoeystems on the organism and so on. 8. Study of the problems of the social geography of Ta~ikistan and of the eco- - nomic regions--differences between city and country, determination of optimum systems for location of the institutions of public education, science, culture, health care, trade and the food service industry, consumer services and munict- pal services and utilities; studS~ of the influence of the economic-geographic context on the productivity of labor and so on. Compilation of a scheme for ti~e comprehensive social development of the republic, the oblasts, the rayons and sc on. 7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020051-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020051-8 - FOR OFFIC[AL USE qNLY 9. Historical-geographic studies of the political-administr3tive division of the republic and the oblasts. A~mini.strative division should in time conform to the eccnomic-geographic regionalization. 10. Econ~mic-geographic regionalization a: the basis for optimum location and development of the productive forces, for specialization and concentration of production, and for economic and management. The building of economic- geographic models of each rayon and microrayon, and models of interrayon rela- tions. Use of economic-geographic models for optimum mutual location and combi- nation of the productive forces of the republic, of the economic regions and so on. III The problem of optimum utilization and reproduction of natural resources and na- - tural conservation ia becoming an especially acute one from the standpoint of Ta~ikistan's overall economic a*~d social development. The scale of the planning, dev~lopment and location of the productive forces and the rise in the people's material and cultural standard of living depend on the size of the geographic foundation--on the diversity and effective utilization of the natural and economic conditions and the natural and labor resources. It is for that reason that V. I. Lenin regarded the task of optimum utilxzation of na- tural resources as an economic problem. Tajikistan's geographi~ foundation (143,100 square kilometers) has a distinctive shape and a complicated border configuration, reflecting the historical-economic- geographic peculiarities of the Tajik people's dispersion in Central Asia. The typical features which define the peculiarities of the natural-geographic context of its regions, its geosystems and its zonea are conditioned by the fact ~ that Tajikistan is typically an area of high mountains. With respect to hypso- metric position and the pattern of relief it is divided into severai levels: eminences up to 700-800 mei:ers, foothills up to 2,00~-2,100 meters, the middle mountain level up to 3,100-3,200 meters and the high mountain level up to 4,400- 4,500 meters. Mountain districts higher than 600-700 meters comprise more than 93 percent of the republic's total area. . Ta~ikistan's mountainous relief has a strong impact on the economic-geographic organization of the prcductive forces and in some places creates formiciable ob- st