Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3.pdf6.22 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10287 28 January 1982 I~SSR Re ort . p METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLO~Y No. 11, November 1981 Fg~$ FOREI~N BROADCAST INFORMATION SER~?~ICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500020056-3 NOTE JPRS publi.cations contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency _ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language - sources are translated; thuse from English�-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original Y'.:rasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) or [Excerpt~ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the or.iginal information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phoneticalLy or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as - given by source. The conCents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGI~T LAWS AND REGULI.'aiIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020056-3 FOR OFFICI~?L USE OIVLY JPRS L/10287 28 January 1982 r~ - USSR REPOP,T METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY No. 11, November 1981 � _ Translations or abstracts of all articles of the Russian-language mczthly journal METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA published in Moscow by Gidrometeoizdat. CONTENTS Influence of Upper-Level Clouds on Atmospheric Thermal Regime and Circulation.. 1 ~Dendroclimatology t4ethods in Studying liistory of Clitnate ................o...... 16 Empirical Analysis of Influence of C02 on 24odern Changes in t4ean Ann:~al Air Surface Temperature in Northern Hemisphere 17 _ *Temperature Distribution in Turbulent Near-Wall Currents With Allowance for Airflow Stratification 35 _ *Evaluation of Statisticai. Interrelationship of Horizontal and Vertical Resolutions in Geopotential Field 36 Charge Separation With Partial Coalescence of Droplets 37 *Evaluating Spatial-Temporal Variability of Heat and Water Balance Componen~~ in Eastern Sector~of Baykal=Amur Railroad Route 43 = New Methods far I~e Forecasts for the Northwestern Atlantice 44 Mechanisms of Formation of Upper Quasihomogeneous Layer 3.n Ocean 51 *Derivation of. rxpres4ions for Predicting Maaimum Tce Jam (Ice Run) Water T.evels ir, tlie Bre~kup of SiUerian Rlvera 59 lt;itc of Gr~wth and Development of Winter Wheat During Winter Thaws 60 *Computing Wind Velocity During Gusts in Narrow Cold Front Zones 66 * ~ Interaction of Sweli Wa;;es With Head Wind 67 *llenotes items which have been abstracted. - a- [III - USSR - 33 S&T FOUO] FOR OFF[CIaL USE O~LY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY *Joint Evaluation of Intraannual and Long-Term Probability of Exceeding of Mean Daily Water Discharges............,, 68 *Sd~ri~.Problems of Visibility ~hrough Clouds and Fogs 69 *Experiment~i. and Synoptic Studies of Atmospher~ in Publications of 0. G. Krichak (On the Seventieth Anniversary of His Birth) 70 Review of Monograph 'Earth's Atmosphere From the 'Salyut-6 "(Atmosfera Zemli s'Salyuta-6'), by A. I. Lazarev, V. V. Kovalenok, A. S. Ivanchenkov and S. V. Avakyan, Leningrad; Gidrometeoizdat, 1981 .............................o.. 71 *Seventieth Birthday of Boris Grigor'yevich Rozhdestvenskiy 74 Activities at the USSR State Committee on Hydrermeteorology and Environmental Monitoring............~.,.~ ...............................................o..... 75 Conferences, Meetings, Seminars 78 * Notes From Abroad 91 *Obituary of Yevgeniya Samoylovna Rubinshteyn (1891-198~) 93 *Memorial to Feofan Farneyevich Davitaya (1911-1979) 94 Denotes items whict~i have been abstracted. - b - FOR OFFICIAiL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020056-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ ~ . ~ . UDC 551.576:551.511+551.513 INFLUENCE OF UPPER-LEVEL CLOUDS ON ATMOSPHERIC THERMAL REGIME AND CIRCULATION Moscow METEORGLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 11, Nov 81 (mar~uscrigt received 23 Feb 81) pp 5-17 [Article by Ye. P. Borisenkov, professor, V. P. Meleshko, candidate of physical and a~athematical sciences, and A~ P. Soicolov, Main Geophysical Observatory] [Text] Ab~tract: A study was made of the response of components of tlie radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system to changes in cloud cover at difLerent levels. Numerical experi- ~ ments were made with use of a model of genzral circulation of the atmosph~re in which there - was no upper-level cloud cover and its forma- tion in the region of an anticyclonic disturb- ~.nce was reproduced. A detailed analysis was m~::3e of the changes caused by cloud cover, the ~thermal regime and atmospheric circulation. , Computations show tfiat during the formation of ~ upper-level cloud cover there is a change in the thermal regime of the atmosphere, which re- sults in an attenuation of the anticyclonic dis- turbance tn the lower half of the troposphere lncl ~Lts Insignificant intensification in the upper troposphere and lowez~ stratosphere. 1. Introduction. As is well knc-~an, the development of a number of negative phenomena over great areas and over the course of a prolonged time is related to the formation of a stable anticyclonic circulation. Over the territory of the USSR quasistationary rinticyclon~c formutiona in winter lead to the setting-in of anomalnusly cold weather, :incl in summer tl~e development of arid conditions is associated with them. Cloud cover _ i:; ~ib:~ent in .i region of anticyclones. , a~?r `['he authors of [2] mentioned some f.actors of natural and anthropvgenic origin which are capable of leading to the formation r~f an upper-level cloud cover over an anti- cyclonic formation and causing its evolution. In this connectioti it is of interest to investigate to what degree these pressure formations ~lre responsive to possible changes in the thermal regime caused by the formation of a claud cover over r,hem. ~ 1. . . ~'~3t i~~'F~~[AL US~ 4D1VL1~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420056-3 MUK UMM'1(:IAL U~~: UNLY There arc~ ~i Kre~it m~ny studic.~ Ln which an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect5 caused by tt~e influence of cloud cover and radiation both on individual I~eteorological elements and on the tfiermal regime of the atmosphere as a whole (fdr example, see jl, 13] and othE~s). In most of them the evaluations have been made without allowance for feedback mechanisms between the principal interacting physical processes and this circumstance makes very difficult the interpretation of the results applicaUle to the real atmosphere. As is well known, cloud cover exerts a dual effect on radiation transf er in the ~tmosphere. As a result of the fact that the albedo of clouds on the average for l:lze earth is considerably greater than the albedo of the underlying surface, an ' ~increase in cloud cover leads to a great reflection of solar radiation into space, a decrease in its absorption by the atmosphere and the underlying .,urface. This favors a cooling of the earth-atmosphere system. On the other hand, an in- crease in cloud cover causes a decrease in long-wave radiation passing into uni- ver~al. space as a result of a decrease in the effective temperature of radiation from the boundaries of clouds in comparison with a cloudless case. Thereby the sec~nd effect favors a relative heating of the atmosphere. In the example of a one-dimensional radiational-convective model of the atmosphere Mution5 of differences between reflected solar radiation (a), long- w,ivc~ rridi.:ition (1~) :ind tot:~l r;idiation balance (c) of earth-atmosphere system (W/ - ~nl) uhL.iined usIn~; d~it.~ frum tli~ experiments C~X A~~d C1EX (C1~X-C~Y) ~for 5th-lOth ~Iny:-c ~,I' I'c~r~c.~st. ~ 'Cllcrmal regime of atmospliere and underlying surface. Figure 3 shows the distrib- uti.ons of differences in reElected solar radiation, outgoing radiation and the total radiation balance, computed using data for two experiments (CEX-C1EX) for the 5th- - lOth days of� the forecast. 9 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020056-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420056-3 rvK vrr~~,~p?~ a~ac ~i~Ly ir follows from Fig. 3a that a~ a result of formation of total upper-level cloud cover the re~lection of short-wave radiation into universal space was increased by 3~-40 W/m , which is approximately 50% of tile total radiation balance of the 9j?Stem over the polygon in the control experiment. On the other hand, the lono- wa~e radiation changed Uy a value approximately twice as great as the reflected ~ radiation (Fig. 3b). Since these two effects have different signs, the resultant influence of upper cloud cover on the radiation balance is some~ohat less and causes a heat influx to a colur.?n of the atmosphere equal to 40-45 W/m2 (Fi~. 3c), which corresponds to a change in the r�diation heat influx by 0.3�C/day. With an in- crease in cloud cover there is a decr~ase in tlie value of the radiation balance - at the earth Uy approximately 10 W/ri2. Table 2 Mean Chan~es in Radiation Heat Influxes (�C/day) in Atmosplieric Layers Caused by Change in Upper-Level Cloud Cover in "Clear-Total Cloud Cover" Interval Atmos}~lieric layer Change in heat influxes due to solar due to long-wave full radiation radiation influx Above-cloucl layer 0.09 -0.84 -0.75 (:loud layer 0.59 -1.10 -0.51 Under-cloud layer 0.16 2.02 2.13 ~ntire column of atmosphere 0.2~ 0.03 0.31 Ttius, analysis only of the components of the radiation balance at the boundaries of the atmosphere ~rlthou~ altowance for. mechanisms with feedbacl:s shows that an in- crease in upper-level cloud cover should cause heating of the atmosphere. Now we will examine how heating of the atmosphere is distributed vertically and what contribution to it is made by heat influxes as a result of short-wave and long-wave radiation in the polygon r.egion. For this purpose we made cumputations of heat influxes in three layers of equal mass for the conditions of cloudless - sl:ies ,ina a complete upper-l.evel cloud cover. The computations were made usin~ data un temperature, humid3ty ~ind ~ilb~do of the underlying surface characteristic for tl?e considered region. The uppc:r layer of the atmosphere is situated above the cl.~~ud cover, the middle level is si[uated in the cloud layer and the lower layer i;, i.n Clic re~;lon laelow tl~e cl.ouds. 'fr~hle Z~;ives the mean changes in the ileat influxes caused by an increase in upper- level clo~ids. With an increase in cloud cover the heat influx due to short-wave r.adiaLLon increases in all layers: in the upper layer as a result of the addi- I:i