Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8.pdf1.88 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 F()R ONFI('IA1. USE UNLY JPRS L/ 10291 29 January 1982 USSR Report AGRiCULTURE (F�OUO 2/82) FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt; in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original informa.tion was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. iJnfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- = cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020060-8 JPRS L/10291 29 January 1982 USSR REPORT AGR I CULTURE (Fouo 2/s2) CONTENTS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - Effectiveness of Industrial Seed Production in Siberia Noted (V. S. Verevkin, G. I. Novosel' tsev; SELIIZTSIYA I SEMENOVODSTVO, Nov 81) 1 AGRO-Erl'ONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION Effective Capital Investment in Dagestan Fruit Prncessing (G-G. A. S alikhov; PLANIROVANIYA I UQiET V SEL'SKOKHOZYAY- STVENNYKH PREDPRIYATIYAIQi, Nov 81) . . . . . . 4 Utilizing Productive Fixed Capital in Leningrad Area (Y. M. Larina, M. Ye. Zhil'tsova; PLANIROVANIYE I 11CEiET V SEL'SKOKHOZXAYSTVENNYKH PREDPRIYATIYAKH, Nov 81) 8 Recomniendations for Development of Private Sector Outlined (I. Vasil'yev, B. Frumkin; VOPRl1SY EKONOMIKI, No v 81).......... 17 TILLING E1ND CROPPING TECHNOLAGY Nbre Attention To Improvement in Seed Production Urged (G. P. 7hinov; SELEKTSIYA I SEMENOVODSTVO, Noir 81) 22 - a - [III - USSR - 7 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024060-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT UDC 631..14:631.531.01 EFFECTIVENESS OF INDUSTRIAL SEED PRODUCTION IN SIBERIA NOTED Moscow SELIICTSIYA I SEMENOVODST'JO in Russian No 11, Nov 81 pp 30-31 _ /Article by V. S. Verevkin, head of the division of seed production of the Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, and G. I. Novosel'tsev, candidate of economic sciences, senior scientific worker at the inatit.ute's divisio:L of econ- omics: "Experience in the Specialization and Concentration uf Seed Production"/ /Text/ Basic Directions in the Economic and Soctal Development of the USSR for 19817-1985 and for the Period Until 1990 note the need for an improvement in the system of production of seeds of agricultural crops, acceleration of its transfer to an industrial basis, the most rapid introduction of highly productive, new va- rieties and hybrids and improvement in the quality of seeds. - In accordance with the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers "On Measures for the Further Improvement in the SelectiQn and Produc- tion of Seeds of Grain and Oil Crops and Grasses" (1976) a system of industrial seed production was developed in Qmskaya Oblast. It envisages the production of seeds of the highest reproductions of grain and oil crops and grasses on the ex- perimental production farms of the Siberian Scientific Research tnstitute of Agri-- culture (Omskoy e, Novoural'skoye, Boyevoye and imeni Frunze), on the educational farm No 2 of the Omsk Agricultural Institute imeni Kirov and at the Siberian Oil Crop Station, wh ich should annually produce more than 14,000 tons of elite and first reproduc t ion seeds of grain crops, 50 tons of perennial and annual grasses and 110 tons of oil crops for strain changing and renovation. A production associatton for varietal seed r.aising--Oblsortsemprom--including 16 specialized see d producing farms located in rayons with conditions most favorable for seed produc t ion (steppe and f orest steppe) was established under the oblast production admin istration of agriculture. They reproduce elite seeds of grain crops to the sec ond reproduction and fully provide 68 kolkhozes and sovkhozes in six rayons of ta isa and subtaiga zones with them. The specialized seed producing farms of Oblsortsemprom were also entrusted with the production of seeds of crops occupying small sown areas (millet, buckwheat, peas, vetch, oil crops and grasses) and with the procurement of a significant proportion of seeds of grain crops (80,000 tons) an d perennial grasses for state resources and the oblast insurance stock. 1 FOR OFF[CIAL USF ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024060-8 buK uhriLiwL ubL UrLY Atotal of 18 intrarayon specialized seed producing farms were established in ra- yons of the northern forest steppe zone. On the basis of interfarm cooperation they should meet the need of all the farms in their rayon (65) for seeds of grain crops. On large sovkhozes and kolkhozes of stepp^ and forest steppe zones (161 farms) seed production for local needs is concentr3ted in seed producing de- ~ partments and brigades (intrafarm specialization), wt:ich now form the basis for the oblast's seed production. The introduction of industrial seed production has ensured an improvement in the qualbty of seeds. Most of the oblast's farms have high-quality seed stocks of the best regionalized varieties. Last year the oblast's sovkhozes and kolkhozes sowed 95 percent of certified seeds of grain crops, including 67.3 percent of f irst- and second-category seeds, whereas in 1970 these indicators were 85.2 and 57.9 percent respectively. During the lOth Fivs-Year Plan sown areas were basically varietal, 94 percent of the areas being occupied by regionalized varieties. Strain changing--replacement of old unproductive strains with highly productive ones--should be the main task of seed production at the present stage. The variety ratio in production improved considerably and more productive, new va- rieties appeared: of spring wheat--Omskaya 9, Tselinnaya 20, Sibakovskaya 3, Almaz and others; of barley--Tselinnyy 5; of oats--Risto and Omskiy kormovoy 1; of mil- let--Omskoye 5; of peas--Omskiy 7; of vetch--Omichka and others. On the average, in 1977-1980 on the Novoural'skiy Experimental Model Farm from an area of 9,920 hectares the Omskaya 9 spring wheat produced a grain harvest of 34.5 quintals per hectare and in 1980 from 3,400 hectares, 42.5 quintals per hectare. The areas sown with new varieties expand annually. For example, whereas in 1975 they comprised 2.4 percent of all the areas sown with grain crops, in 1980 they - made up 39 percent. Aloi.g with an improvement in the seed production system in the oblast much atten- tion is paid to the strengthening of the sector's material and technical base, im- provement in the crop structure and introduction of a scientifically substantatied agrocomplex contributing t-a the production of high-quality seeds. For example, the construction of 355,000 square meters of asphalted grounds, 330 grain cleaning flow lines and 32 seed complexes is envisaged for 1981-1985. In accordance with the technological systems developed in the Siberian Scientif ic Research Institute uf Agriculture clean fallow should comprise 18 td 20 percent and areas sown with grain crops,55 to 60 percent in the structure of arable land of seed producing farms during the llth Five-Year Plan. To raise the farming standard, specialized seed producing farms began to introduce the soil protective system of soil cultivation and the fertilizer system in crop rotations. In accordance with the recommendations of the Siberian Scientif ic Research Insti- tute of Agriculture plans are made to apply 57 kg of nutrient elements, including 1 34 kg of phosphorus fertilizers, 15 kg of nitrogen fertil.izers and 8 kg of potas- sium fertilizers, per hectare of arable land during the 11th Five-Year Plan. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The transfer of seed production to an industrial basis, its further concentration and intensification of specialization will create optimal conditions for a rise in - labor productivity, decrease in production costs and growth of production profit- ability. Calculations show that the level of prof itability of the production of varietal seeds of grain crops nn the experimental production farm of the Siberian Scientif- _ ic Research Institute of Agriculture will comprise 127 percent and on speciallzed seed producing sovkhozes, 110 to 124 percent. At the same time, when seeds are grown on specialized seed producing sovkhozes, tne production costs of grain on kolkhozes and sovkrozes decrease, the net income per hectare of sown area increases and the profitability of grain farming rises. The results of the general economic evaluation of seed production on specialized seed producing farms of Oblsortsemprom for kolkhozes and sovkhozes indicate that the specialization and concentration of seed production are effective for seed raising, as well as consuming, farms. The total annual economic effect from seed production oii an industrial basis is 2,501,900 rubles, or 33.2 rubles per hectare of sown area. ~ A rapid introduction of highly productive, new varieties of grain cxops and the transfer of seed production to an industrial basis will enable sovkhozes and kol- y khozes in 4mskaya Oblast Lo increase the grain harvest by 3 to 5 quintals per hec- tare and to additionally obtain 60 to 65 million rubles of prof it from grain pro- duction every year. ' COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Kolos", "Selektsiya i semenovodstvo", 1981. 11,439 CSO: 1824/114 \ 3 FOR OFFiCIAL USF, QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION UDC 336: 63 EFFECTIVE CAPITAL IWESTMENT IN DciGESTAN FRUIT PROCESSING Moscow PLANIROVANIYA I UCHET V SEL'SKOKHQZYAYSTVENNYKIi PREDPRIYATIYAKH in Russian No 11, Nov 81 pp 26-32 [Article by G-G. A. Salikhov, chief of financial divisian of Dagplodoprom: "High Effectiveness of Capital Investments"] _ [Text] The Dagestan specialized association for producing, storing, processing and selling fruits and grapes (Dagplodoprom) combines 36 sovkhozes, most of which have been organized since the March (1965) Plen�stn of the CPSU Central Committee on the basis of economically weak kolkhozes. During 1971-1980 more than 220 million rubles in funds from the state budget were used for the development of kolkhoz pro- duction. During that time the value of fixed production capital of the farms in- - creased 2.5-fold as compared to 1970. Under the Tenth Five-Year Plan the provision of capital for the sovkhozes,increas- ed by 26.4 percent as compared to the level of the Ninth Five-Year P'lan. An analy- sis of the assimilation of capital investments on the sovkhozes of Dagplodoprom, where perennial plantings comprise bl percent of the fixed production capital for agricultural purposes, shows that the capital-labor ratio aad the provision of capital for the farms increased under the Tenth Five-Year Plan as compared to the Ninth Five-Year Plan by 16 and 22 percent, respectively, and the output-capital - ratio decreased by 50 percent during this same period. But we do not think that one can draw a conclusion about a reduction in the effec- tiveness of the utilization of capital investments and fixed production capital just on the basis of these figures since the rapid increase in their volumes could not but affect the level of the output-capital ratio in agricultural production. A certain amount of time is required in order to obtain a greater return from in- vested funds, and it is very important to take all necessary measures for reducing the time periods for recouping the funds. According to our calculations, the time period for the assimilation of capital investments on farms with orchards and vine- yards is fram 6 to 15 years. Research has also demonstrated that, although Dagestan has been engaged in orchard growing since time immemorial, it did not hegin to plant intensive orchards on large areas using valuable low-growing strains from domestic and foreign selection until little more than 10 years ago. The regublic has every opportunity to exten- sively develop intensive industrial gardening in zones with mountain valleys and 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024060-8 plains. Still, the orchard growers are searching for optimal variants of the se- lection of crops which provide for ohtaining the largest volume of products with the least expenditures and for high effectiveness of capital investments. Dagplodoprom is taking measures for reconstructing less productive orchards on the sovkhozes and intends to replace them completely with intensive orchards in the future. In 1980 the sovkhozes of the association planted 815 hectares of orchards using new planting technology and distributing 400 to 1,000 trees on one hectare. In planting the new orchards preference is given to crops whose fruit has pits rather than cores, and the most valuable strains are being used. The sovkhozes of the association have a large selection of planting material for fulfilling their earmarked plans. Thus in 1980 the farms received 1,323,000 fruit tree seedlings (with a plan for 1.3 million) and, moreover, nroduced 9.6 million grape seedlings. In 1980 the sovkhozes received more than 2 million rubles in pro- fit from the sale of fruit and grape seedlings. In the next few years the nursery sovkhozes of Dagplodoprom will he able to supply planting material of valuable strains of fruits and grapes not only for kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Dagestan, but also for farms of other krays, oblasts and autonomous republics of the Northern Caucasus. In recent years large changes have taken place in grape yroduction in Dagest.3n where until recently mainly manual labor was used. We have assimilated new techno- - logy fo*- the cultivation of grapes and the kolkhozes and sovkhozes are planting planta that form the bush on a high stem with broad interrows, will make it possible in the future to fully mechanize all labor-intensive processes and, be- _ cause of this, to sharply reduce the production costs of products and to increase productivity. The areas planted in intensive vineyards are expanding from year to year. In 1980 alone the sovkhozes of Dagplodoprom used progressive methods to plant 911 liectares of vineyards. ; On multibranch farms which have achieved sufficiently high effectiveness of capital investments in orchard and grape growing, the indicators of the provision of capi- : tal for production and the capital-labor ratio are still low in other br.anches, es- pecially animal husbandry. For example, on an average for 1976-1979 the sovkhozes of Dagplodoprom produceu 375 rubles` worth of products per 1,000 rubles' worth of fixed producticn capital for agricultural purposes, and for a whole group of sov- khozes this indicator was even lower--only 112-217 rubles. _ The low level of provision of capital and the capital-labor ratio is explained by - the inadequate amounts of capital investments in these branches. Thus 80 percent . of- the overall volume of capital investments allotted to Dagplodoprom were used for ; the development of orchard and grape growing and for technical rearmament of their material base, and only 15-20 percent were used for the construction of buildi.ngs _ and other structures for production and non-production purposes. `i'he main impediment to increasing ::apital investments in tlle construction of build- ings and structures, and also in the reconstruction of animal husbandry facilities and production structures for other services, is the failure on the part of the 5 FOR OFFICIAL USF, ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 main contracting organizations to fulfill their plans for construction and assem- bly work. Each year they upset plans �or the startup of fixed capital. Thus in 1981 all seven contracting organizations that serve the association failed to ful- fill their plans for contracting work and, as a result of this, the volume of in- complete construction as of 1 January 1981 amounted to more than 4 million ruhles. Despite the great need for the construction of new facilities for production and non-production purposes, while the sovkhozes have temporary facilities and incom- plete construction on their books they do not have the right to include new facili- ties in their plans f.or capital work, even though the facilities that are under construction are not being introduced on time because of factors that are beyond the control of the farms. Specialized construction organizations pay little attention to construction in ru- ral areas and, for this reason, they delay the fulfillment of long-range plans for the socio-economic development of the farms. Further 3ncreased effectiveness of fixed production capital through reducing the time periods for its assimilation after startup, improving its atructure, and in- creasing the productivity of each branch in all ways. In practice the sovkhozes are also experiencing certain difficulties in providing for the volumes of capital investments from the appropriate sources of financing. This pertains primarily to perennial plantings, for which there are large differ- ences botween the volumes of investments indicated in the production and financial plans ot the sovkhozes and the plans for capital investments (form No. 3) that are submitted to the institutions of the Gosbank and sovkhozes. Each year the farms are forced to petition higher organizations for the aliotment of additional volumea of capital investments in excess of the glan at the end of the year. Under the Tenth Five-Year Plan the sovkhozes of Dagplodoprom assimilated an addi- tional 2,400,000 rubles' worth of capital investments without changing the plan for - capital investments, and 93 percent of this amount went for perennial plantings. The sources initially allotted according to the plan for financing capital invest- ments (form No. 5), as a rule, are inadequate for providing for the volumes of work that is done for tendir.g the newly planted areas, and by approximately October the sovkhozes have expended all the funds from the account for financing capital in- _ vestments for the yearly volume of work. As a result, the sovkhozes generally have no funds left for financing work for plantir.g new orchards and vineyards. Since they have no funds in their accounts for financing capital investments, the sovkhozes are unable to promptly pay for tne seedlings they receive or for the work of plowing the plantations which is done by tractors of Raysel'khoztekhnika. At the same time the farms that supply the seedlings and associations of Goskomsel- khoztekhnika require only preliminary, and not subsequent payment for the commodity- material values and services they render. As a result, in order to fulfill the plans for planting orchards and vineyards, the sovkhozes are forced to temporarily utilize their own circulating capital for these purposes, in the hope that it will be remobilized at the end of the year as a re- sult of additional funds being allotted by the higher organization. Moreover, the 6 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024460-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY additional funds that are allotted usually go into the accaunt of the farms in the last days of December, and the managers and workers of the hoakkeeping and planning- economic servi_ces cannot be sure that the immobilized internal circulating capital wi11 be remobilized in the same calendar year. In order to rectify this situation, in our opinion, it is necessary .`.or the RSFSR rlodoprom to prom::cly back up all volumes of capital work witn the appropriate sources of COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'scvo "Kolos'", "Planirovaniye i Uchet v sel'skhokhozyaystvennykh prepriyatiyakh", 1981 117;2 CSO: 182-4;116 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500020060-8 AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION UDC 351.9:63 UTILIZING PRODUCTIVE FIXED CAPITAL IN LENINGRAD AREA Moscow PLANIROVANIYE I UCHET V SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH PREDPRIYATIYAKH in Russian No 11, Nov 81 pp 28-32 [Article by Y. M. Larina, head economist for financing and organization of book- keeping of the Pobeda Specialized Production Association in Leningrad Oblast, and M. Ye. Zhil'tsova, economist: "Control Over the Utilization of Fixed Production Capital"] [Text] The Pobeda Specialized Production Association was organized in 1975. It includes 4 sovkhozes, of which 3 specialize in vegetable and dairy products and 1 in dairy products and potatoes, with the development of hog raising. They have all retaiied their legal independence and carry out their activity on the basis of the Provisions for the Socialist State Enterprise. The overall area of land included in the association of sovkhozes amounts to 14,260 hectares, including 11,761 hectares of agricultural land, of which 8,105 hectares is plowed. The structure of the association's fixed capital is shown in the table. From the figures in the table one can see that under the Tenth Five-Year Plan as compared to 1975 the amount of fixed production capital for agricultural purposes had increased by 16.2 percent and amounted to 64.5 percent. During this same peri- od the capital availability increased by 14.8 percent. For every 100 hectares of agricultural Zand and 100 hectares of plowed land there are 302,500 and 441,400 rubles' worth of fixed production capital for agricultural purposes, respectively. The capital-labor ratio increased by 17.4 percent, and the energy availability per one average annual worker increased by 6.3 percent and is equal to 26.5 horsepower. Under the conditions of comprehensive and consistent intensification of agricultur- al production and the growing capital investments, effective economic control must - play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the utilization of fixed production capital. In the association the latter is exercised hy the associations' council, the adviinistrative services and public or.ganizations. The association council organizes its work accordinb to a plan that is drawn up for the quarter. It envisions concrete measures for control and inspection issues, the time periods for conducting them and the individuals responsible for them. The council holds meetings no less than once a quarter. The decisi.ons it makes are 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500020060-8 Table. Structure of Fixed Production Capital of Pobeda Specialized Production Association (thousands of rubles) 1975 1976-1980 Value of % of Value of in % of 1976-1980 Groups and kinds fixed capi- overall fixed capi- overall in % of of fixed capital tal at end capital tal at end value of 1975 of year of year fixed capital Fixed production capital for agri- cultural purposes --total 30,244 66.3 35,157 64.5 116.2 Including: buildings 10,315 22.6 1.2,102 22.2 117.3 structures 10,924 23.9 11,415 21.0 104.5 Of these: irrigation and = fluoding machines, equipment 7,257 15.9 7,383 13.6 101.7 driving apparatus 3,385 7.4 3,988 7.3 117.8 means of trans- portaticn 725 1.6 816 1.5 112.6 productive live- stock 3,639 7.9 5,424 10.0 149.0 - capital expendi- tures on land im- provement 1,056 2.3 1,243 2.3 117.7 others 200 0.6 169 0.2 84.5 Fixed production capi- tal for nonagricul- tural purposes 2,399 5.2 2,872 5.3 _ 119.7 Fixed nonproduction capital 12,998 28.5 16,398 30.2 126.1 Total fixed capital 45,641 100 54,427 100 119.2 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 implemented through orders from the general director--the chairman of the associa- tion council. Control over their execution is the responsihility of the staff le- gal advisor, who reports each week on the implementation of the earmarked measures at operations meetings in the presence of the general director. The association council devotes a great deal of attention to control over the utili- zation of fixed production capital on the sovkhozes of the asiociation. Thus a number of ineasures have been taken for efficient utilization of the land, produc- ~ tion facilities, agricultural equipment, productive livestock and so forth. In the structure of the fixed production capital for agricultural purposes, land reclamation funds comprise 32.5 percent in the association, and fixed capital for croF growing--50.9 percent. Products obtained from reclaimed land comprise 68.9 perCent of the overall volume of the gross production of crop growing products. Therefore special attention it devoted to efficient utilization of reclaimed land. Specifically, the association council has developed a long-range plan for land re- clamation construction during 1976-1980, a plan for centralized care for the land reclamation network, and also a comprehensive set of land reclamation measures, including preparing a long-range plan for irrigation and dr:inage of land, conduct- ing technical crop work, assimilating poorly utilized sma'l1 sections of land (along roads, riverbeds, canals and farms), liming fields, planting meadows, restoring the fertility of the land and other measures for efficient utilization of the land. - They have also assumed control over the time periods for construction, the volumes and quality of work performed by contr:zctors in keeping with the calendar plan for construction, the availability and util-Lzation of land reclamation equipment, its ' storage and its removal from the books. As a result of tho aforementioned measures the gross production of products from reclaimed land increased by 19.7 percent under the Tenth Five-Year Plan as compared ' to 1975 and the output-capital ratio increased by 18.8 percent during this period. For each thousand rubles of average annual value of land reclamation funds we ob- tained 790 rubles' worth of gross output, or 125 rubles more than in 1975. As a result of plowing roadside strips and previously unutilized sections of land along canals, riverbeds and the edges of fields, undpr the Tenth Five-Year Plan the sovkhozes of the association put about 400 hectares of land into circulation and procured 33,000 tons of peat. The value of productive livestock in the associatiou increased by 49 percent during the past five-year plan as compared to 1975, and constiLUtes 15.4 percent of the fixed production capital for agricultural purposes. The cu?ling of cows increases from year to year. While in 1975 it amounted to 18.8 percent, in 1980 this figure was 26.9 percent with the plan calling for 25 percent. Th.e association council exercises strict control over the reproduction of the pro- ductive herd, increasing th? rr.llk yield of first heifers and recently calving cows, the maintenance and feeding of animals of the productive herd, a monthly analysis of the condition of the reproductive herd and the maintenance of the livestack on the sovkhozes, and also the fulfillment of ineasures earmarked for improving the work for reproducing the basic herd. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY The director and the head specialist regulaxly report at council meetings on the question of the reproduction of the productive herd on the sovkhozes. All this contributes to successful implementation of ineasures for improving the reoroduction of the herd and increasing the output of calves and the milk yield per cow on for- age. In 1980, for example, the output of calves per 100 cows in the association amounted to 83 head, while the plan was for 81 head. At the head sovkhoz, Pobeda, and the Petrodvortsovyy, with plans for 84 and 82, respectively, they each actually obtain- ed 86 head. The output of calves in the association as a whole has increased by 16.2 percent as compared to 1975. The milk yield per cow on forage amounted to 3,661 kilograms of milk or 8.9 percent above the 1975 level. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan the gross milk production increased by 53.8 percent as compared to 1975. In order to increase the efficiency of the utilization of the machine and tractor fleet, the association council has developed measures for implementing the decree. of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers, "On Measures for - Further Increasing the Efficiency of Utilization of Agricultural Equipment, Im- proving its Maintenance, Providing the Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes with Machine Opera- ting Personnel, and Ensuring That They Remain in Agriculture," and is exercising control over their implementation. At its meetings the council considers questions of improving the utilization of the machine-tractor and automotive fleet, improving - their structure and also stepping up control over the work of the interfarm complex and the combined detachment for prncuring feeds, the distribution of technical equipment for spring planting, the organization of the shipment of organic fertili- zers to the fields, and so forth. Additionally, the association council follows the course planning and constru.ction work, and current and capital repair. At the same time it checks on the way orders an d decisions for ensuring the efficiency o� the utilization of fixed production capital are carried out. The bookkeeping, economic and other services are very important Eor exercising con- trol over the utilization of fixed production capital. 1 T}ie organization of the accounting for fixed capital and economic analysis of its utilization are di.rected toward revealing reserves for increasing the ef.fectiveness - of the utilization of fixed production capital. The sovkhozes of the association have introduced a progressive method of accounting for fixed capital using card files. Comprehensive mechanization of accounting has been introduced in three of them, which makes it possible to obtain exhaustive in- for.mation on the availability of fixed capital in the care of each materially re- sponsible individual, in the structural subdivisions and in the various groups of Fixed capital according to the established classification, and also concerning a- mortization deductions and its distribution among the structural subdivisions and facilities whose expenditures are accounted for. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020064-8 . . Official instructions have been developed for all bookkeeping workers, including a complete list of accounting and control functions for each. For example, the re- sponsibilities of the head hookkeeper of the head sovkhoz include organizing ac- counting and accounting f or fixed capital, accounting for wear and tear and amorti- zation of fixed capital, and accounting f or the charter fund. Additionally, within the time period established by the plan for document circulation, he receives from materially responsible individuals documents for the receipt and transfer of fixed capital (form No. 52), do cuments for writing off machines, equipment and means of transportation (form No. 56), and documents for writing off huildings and struc- tures (form No. 55). He also checks to make sure that the receipt and writing off of fixed capital are correct. In addition to this, the deputy head bookkeeper must promptly, completely and precisely reflect the technical descriptions of fixed capi- tal on the inventory cards, check on the correctness of the deductions and distri- bution of amortization each month, make sure that the accounts with the suppliers of fixed capital are up to date and correct, inform administrative services about the existence of unused machines, equipment and also fixed capital that is unsuit- able for further operation, prepare the necessary bookkeeping information for con- ducting an economic analysis of the utilization of fixed capital, and, in conjunc- tion with specialists of other services, take an inventory of it. The bookkeeper in charge of auxiliary production is responsible for accounting for the operation of the mach ine and tractor fleet. His duties include keeping cumu- lative information about the operational indicators of the motor vehicles (shipped cargo [tons], ton-kilometers, the number of motor vehicle-days of operation, the expenditure of fuel and so forth) for the various individual vehicles and makes of vehicles as well as drivers, the respective work on conventional standard hectares, and the expenditure of f uel for the various makes of tractors and tractor operators; the determination of the production cost of a ton-kilometer and a conventional standard hectare; the drawing up of statistical accounts of the work of cargo transportation and the production costs of automotive shipments (form No. 2-tr) and the work of tractors and grain harvesting combines (form No. 1 and 2-mekh); control over the correc tness of ,journals for checking out motor vehicles and re- turning them to the garage, registration of travel sheets for the automotive fleet and tractors for transpo rtation work; the preparation of bookkeeping figures concerning the operation of the machine and tractor fleet that are necessary for conducting economic analysis. The association's economic service is partially centralized. The association's head economist is also the head economist of the head sovkhoz, and the economists are responsible for the same parts of the work for the association as they are for the head sovkhoz. The s upervisory function of the workers in the economic service are also determined by official instructions. Control over the utilization of fixed production capital (.except for productive livestock) is the respons ibility of the economist for cost accounting and analysis. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020060-8 Additionally, he analyzes and supervises the utilization of the fixed production capital of each sovkhoz and their structural suhdivisions; he promptly submits the results of analysis to the correspondiug services (agrono- mical, zootechnical, engineering, construction and so forth); he substantiates the economic ef�ectiveness of capital investments and the sequence for their rea.lization; he develops measures for improvir..g the utilization of fixed capital; he conducts economic training for workers of the association's sovkhozes. The duties of the senior economist for animal husbandry and the economist for crop growing include control over efficient utilization of productive livestock and the land, respectively. Each month the association also does an analysis of the reproduction of the produc- tive herd and the production of milk, the operation of the machine and tractor fleet, the motor vehicle fleet, the repair shop and the construction shop. For - example, the main economic indicators of the production of milk reflect the average number of head of cows, the g1�oss milk yield per cow on forage, their offspring, the production of calves per 100 cows and noncalving young cows, the production _ cost of one quintal of milk in terms of the various elements of expenditures, and labor expenditures per one quintal of milk. The main indicators of the operation of the machine and tractor fleet give detailed information about its utilization both in the association as a whole and on the sovkhozes that comprise it. Each year after drawing up the annual report, the workers of the economic service - make an in-depth analysis of the structure of fixed production capital as a whole and per one hectare of agricultural land and plowed land, the production of the gross output from crop growing and animal husbandry in terms of all of the kinds, the capital availability, the ratio, the level of development of agricultural production, the output-capital ratio, the capital-intensiveness, fi- nancial results and the profitability of agricultural production. Al1 specialists are informed of the results of the economic analysis and they are considered by the association council and in economic conferences. The latter are conducted monthly both in the association and on the sovkhozes. The results of the work for the quarter are summed up by balanc.e commissions. From the results of their materials orders are issued which earmark measures for eliminating existing shortcomings as well specific people responsible for executing them. The bureau of economic analysis exercises control over the implementation of the decisions of the balance commission. A large role in this is also assigned to the head spectal- ists in production technology--agronomists, zootechnicians, engineers and special- ists of the middle level. Their control functions are determined by official in- structions. Thus the head engineer-hydrotechnician is responsible for technical ' supervision of the construction of drainage and irrigation systems and other hydro- technical structures for all the sovkhozes of the association, and also control 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024060-8 over the condition and correctness of their operation, the organization of the pro- - per storage for land reclamation and watering equipment, prompt and high-quality repair of it and its preparation for operation. He simultaneously guides the development of ineasures for utilizing technical equip- ment efficiently, raising the level of inechanization of work for preventive main- tenance and repair of land reclamation structures, and he regularly analyzes the economic effectiveness of comprehensive measures and individual agricultural land reclamation measures that are taken for radical improvement of the land. The duties of the association's head engineer-mechanic include supervising the de- livery of new equipment t..) the sovkhozes in keeping with orders and funds that have been allotted, the meeting of schedules and making sure that planr.ed preventive repair of technological and mechanical equipment is carried out, and correct stor- age of agricultural equipment, spare parts and other material values. Agricultural equipment comprises 10.3 percent of the association's fixed production capital for agricultural purposes. As of 1 January 1981 the value of these ma- chines and equipment was 4,024,000 rubles. Operational expenditures for the ma- chine and tractor fleet last year amounted to 20 percent of all the production ex- penditures in crop growing. They spent 650,000 rubles on current repair of techni- cal equipment alone. Therefore the engineering service devotes special attention to making sure that agricultural machinery is always in a state of technical readi- ness, introducing advanced methods of its utilization into production and reducing expenditures on the operation of the machine and tractor fleet. As a result, in 1980 the daily output per one standard tractor had increased by 30.4 percent as compared to 1975, and the expenditure of fuel per conventional standard tractor had decreased by 1.5 kilograms. The number of machines in the automotive fleet had increased by 12 percent, and the cargo shipment--by 32.1 per- cent. While in 1975 the association produced 8,072,000 ton-kilometers, in 1980 - this figure was 10,651,000. The production cost of one ton-kilometer decreased during this time by 6 kopecks. But the coefficient of the utilization of the motor vehicle fleet is still low. In 1980 it was 62 percent. Operational infurmation provides a good deal of assistance in the organization of control. The association has 50 intrasovkhoz and 6 intersovkhoz radio stations, a central dispatch point and a teletype. Various kinds of information comes into the central dispatch point, including information that is used for control. All of it is initially processed and analyzed by the senior dispatcher and it is then sub- mitted to the head specialist of the association. 'Phe central dispatch point maintains communications with all of the sovkhozes and their production subdivisions and services, promptly transmitting the appropriate information so that it can effect the results of the economic activity. The senior dispatcher also keeps a special journal which he uses to check on the promptness of the implementation by officials of orders and instrucCions from the general di- rector and the head specialists. Public organizations also devote a good deal of attention to control over the utili- zation of fixed capital in the association: the bureau of economic analysis, the production-technical council and peoples' control groups and posts. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 The bureau of econocnic analysis wos created here in 1973. It is headed by the deputy general director for producLion. The hureau includes the head specialists of the head sovkhoz, the leaders of farms and hrigade leaders for �ield work, and also leading workers, amounting to`a total of 21 people. Its main task is to dis- c:lose internal production reserves and develop practical recommendations for in- creasing the production of products, reducing production costs and increasing labor productivity, the profitability of production and the efficiency of the utilization of fixed production capital. The bureau of economic analysis conducts its work on the basis of developed provi- sions and a plan that is approved by the general director, in close contact with the economic and bookkeeping services and peoples' control groups and posts. The bureau meets no less than twice a quarter. For example, the work plan for 1981 envisions conducting 8 meetings, 5 of which are to be on questions of efficient utilization of fixed production capital. Three peoples' control groups and 15 posts have been created at the head sovknoz _ of the association. The peoples' control groups are assigned the areas of crop growing, animal husbandry and work with machines, respectively. The farms and the subsidiary shop each have three posts, housing and municipal services have four, and other five are at the garage, the repair and mechanics shop, the construction shop, the section for minor mechanization and the machine and tractor fleet. A total of 96 people.have been elected as peoples' controllers, including 47 commu- nists and 8 Komsomol members. The peoples' control groups and posts are elected for a period of two years. The peoples' control groups of the head sovkhoz direct the work of the shop posts. The latter are under the Jurisdiction of the rayon peoples' control committee. The activity of the groups and posts is carried out in keeping with the plans. Long-range and annual (quarter-by-quarter) plans are drawn up for the work of the - head peoples' control group. They are approved at a meeting of the sovkhoz party committee. In keeping with the plan that is developed and on the basis of the Law on Peoples' Control in the USSR in 1979-1980, the peoples' control groups have conducted a number of inspections directed toward eliminating inefficiency and revealing in- ternal reserves for increasing the efficiency of the utilization of fixed produc- tion capital. In particular, a good deal of attenCion has been devoted to the implementation of ineasures for preparing for and conducting spring field work, providing the farms with seeds, efficiPntly utilizing agricultural equipment in spring planting, shipping inorganic fertilizers and procuring feeds, cultivating the soil well and conducting planting work, caring for the pastures and preparing ttiem for use, and also efficiently utilizing drained and irrigated land, land re- clamation structures and technical equipment, and providing for their maintenance. The work plan for 1981 envisions exercising control over the expenditure of funds for the maintenance of buildings, structures and technical equipment, the fulfill- ment of volumes of capital construction and its quality, efficient utilization of fuel-energy and other material resources, and also organization of the forthcoming wintering of livestock. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020060-8 Additionally, the peoples' control groups conduct various kinds of inspections un- der the mottos "production reserves in action:", "no idle time for technical equip- = ment:" and so forth. The materials from them are discussed at a.neeting of peoples' controllers where they earmark measures for eliminating shortcomiiigs that have heen revealed. The association's general director, the party committee and the workeret committee of the trade-union are in�ormed of their decisions. In order to provide for efficient utilization of fixed capital, it has been suggest- ed that the peoples' controllers arrange for continuous operation of the transport- ers that are used for loading hay for ventilation; increase the efficiency of *_he repair of technical equipment; hear at an expanded meeting of the party committee those managers of the construction shop, the energy service and the minor mechani- zation service who are not ensuring that the farms are properly prepared for the wintering of the livestock; and report to the head agronomist on poor control over . the utilization of technical equipment and the organization of labor in tbe opera- tions for placing root crops in clamps. Additionally, it has been suggestzd that the number of people working to prepare seedlings be increased in order to utilize - technical equipment more efficiently during the planting of cahbage. The peoples' control groups check on the implementation of the decisions that have been made by conducting repeat inspections. They also hear reports from individu- als who are directly responsihle for their implementation. AI1-around control over the association's production and financial activity has contributed to increasing the efficiency of the utilization of fixed production capital. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan there was a marked increase in the volume of production of agricultural products. Labor productivity also increasei?, F-nd one average annual worker employed in agricultural production produced a total of 7,387 rubles' worth of gross output, which is 12.8 percent more than in 1975. Direct labor expenditures per one quintal of output decreased as compared to 1975 (in man-hours): milk--by 0.8, gain of live weight of large horned cattle--6, hogs-- 3.9, potatoes--0.3, vegetables--0.1, and so forth. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan we obtained 525 rubles' worth of gross output per 1,000 rubles' worth of fixed production capital for agricultural purposes, or 17.7 percent more than in Lenin- grad Oblast as a whole. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Kolos", "Planirovaniye i Uchet v sel'skokhozyaystvennykh predpriyatiyakh", 1981 11772 CSO: 1824/116 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 AGRO-BCONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION RECOHMNDATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PRNATE SBCTOR OUTLINBD Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIRI in Russian No 11, Nov 81 pp 157-159 [Article by I. Vasil'yev and B. Frw.mlcin: "Development of the Private Sector and the Sale of Its Products") [Text] The first all-union scientific-practical conference dedicated to diacussing - the role of the LPRh [lichnnye podeobnoye khozyaystvo; private aector] in socialist agriculture convened in Moscow in April 1981. It was organized by IEMSS [Institute - of Economics of the World Socialist Syetem] of the USSR Academy of Sciencea, IE [Institute of Ecunomics] of the USSR Academy o� Sciencas and by VASKhNIL [A11-tTnion Academy of Agricultural Sciencea imeni V.I. Lenin]. More than 300 scientific, _ economic and party workers from varioua citiea, republice and oblasts throughout the country participated in the work of this conference. In opening the conference, academician-aecretary of the Department of Economics of VASRhNIL, VASKhNIL Academician A. Nikonov, emphaeized the great theoretical and practical significance of an overall atudy of the development of the LPKh in the USSR, in all of its aspects economic, social, legal, economic-domeatic, aesthetic- educational, ecol..;gical and so forth. The party and government are orienting the scientiets and practical agricultural workers in this direction: during the past 4 years alone, special decrees aimed at increaeing the production of agricultural products on the private plots were adopted on two occasions. 1~ao principal groups of problems were diacusaed during the course of the conference: the overall aspects asaociated with development of the private aector; problema concerned with the development of collectivu horticulture, gardening and other forma for participation by citizena in the private aector. In thc speeches by the deputy minister of agriculture for the USSR A. Iyevlev, the secretary of the L'vovskaya Oblast Committee cf the Communist Perty of the Ukraine M. Veayliv and others, emphasis was placed upon the importance of the LPRh for aupplying the population with food prod::cts and attracting additional labor, land and materisl resources into - agricultural. production. Thus, in 1980, the LPRh accounted for 64 percent of the overall volume of potato production in the country, vegetables, fruit and berries 33-34 percent, milk, meat and eggs 29-32 percent. Thia was promoted by the implementation of the mentioned decrees. For example, in 19$0 the number of awine being maintained in the LPRh increased by 19 percent compared to 1976, poultry by 11 percent, the production of:�vegetables by 15 percent, meat by 8 percent and 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 so forth. At the same time, full use is not being made of the potential available for implementing the measuras called for in the decreeao In a number of republica, oblasts and rayons the measures required for improviag the conditions for further increasing production in the 1PKh have not been undertaken and the requirements of the population for young cattle and poultry stock, orchard-gardening implements, light mechaniza*_:on equipment and agricultural chemicals are noC being satisfied. Serioua derelictions are taking place in the area of ensuring that the private sector is supplied with feed, haying and pasture landa and so forth. The provision of agrochemical, engineering, veterinary, agronanic and other typea of production services for the private plots of the rural population and for the horticultural- - gardesing aseociation8 of city dwellers is at a low level. The level of organizatton for the procurement, transporting and atorage of aurplua producta from the LPKh is still not very hig,h. Aa a reault, even in the rural areas only 69 percent of tho families are maintaining private plota and thi:;, is lowering the ability of the rural population to supply its own food producta and at the same time it is limiting the - variety of producta available in the kolkhoz markete in citiee. In those regions where the aupplying of feed is under control and zootechnical and other typea of services have been organized and extenaive uae is being made of credit and other measures for stimulating the development of the LPKh, as called for in the decrees, noticeable results have been ac.hieved. Thus, from 1965 to 1980, the gross production of the LPKh in L'vovskaya Oblast increased by almost 24 percenC, including by more than 30 percent in animal husbandry. The oblast's rural population is not only not purchasing meat producta in the atate stores, but rather it is selling them to the state and to the conaumer cooperatives. Receipts from the private plot constitute 33 percent of the totalincome of a kolkhoz family. Considerable capital investments have been saved in aonnection with the conatruction of animal husbandry facilitiea on public farms; additional labor resources persons engaged in non-agricultural branches, pensionera and atudents have been attracted to participating in agricultural work through the private sector. - The organization of logistical supply and trade services by kolkhozes, sovkhozee and consumer cooperatives is playing a great role in the development of the LPKh. Further information was furnished on thia subject by member of the Board of the USSR Ministry of Procurements S. Mysov and the chief of the Main Administration of Tsentrosoyuz [Central Union of Conaumers' Societies] M. Sinyakov. It was emphasized in the apeeches that growth in production and pro�iltability for the LPKh is greatly dependent:upon the development of production in the public sector (logistical supply, the furnishing of various services, the use of a production infraetructure and so forth). The organic link which exista between the private aector and the public sector is promoting the rranaformation of the LPKh into a component part of the socialist agroindustrial complex. Special attention was given to this matter during a diacussion of the theoretical problema of the functioning of the LPKh under socialiam. In the speeches delivered by Doctor of Economic Sciencea G. Shmelev, Doctor of Economic Sciencea M. Sonin, Doctor of Economic Sciences V. Grigorovskiy, Doctor :.f Hiatorical Sciences V. Ostrovskiy, Doctor of Economic Sciences I. Suslov, Candidate of Economic Sciences L. Nikiforov, Candidate of - Economic sciences E. Khyayal and others, a comprehenaive analysis was furnished on the socio-economic nature and functions af the private aector during the atage of developed socialism. It was emphasized (G. Shmelev) that a more precise definition of the social esaence and economic role played by the LPKh is required for preparing 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504020060-8 a long term concept for its deveiopment, for predicting the consequences of carrying out various measurea in this sphere and so forth. The socialist natu;e of , the LPKh derfves mainly from the fact that iC is operated by workers who are permanently engaged in public production, using their own labor; it is closely associated, in a production-economic senae, with the-public sector and it participates in the creation of the country's food fund, in reproduction of the work = force in the public sector and so forth. Cooperative ho--riculture and gardening _ organically combine active relaxatic+n by the municipal population with socially : useful agricultural labor, they promote the economic use of poor land and so forth. In the opinion of a majority of those participating in the conference, the chief - function of the LPRh, for an extended period of time into the future, will continue - to be that of supplying the rural population and the residents of amall cities and settlements of the municipal type with agricultural products. The aubsidiary farms of enterprises, which presently occupy more than 4 million hectares of land, have the same function. In the speeches by Doctor of Economic Sciences V. Venzher and Doctor of Economic Sciences A. I1'ichev, emphasis was placed upon the importance of disseminating the measures called for in the decrees on the LPKh to this type of subsidiary farm, encouraging their development in every possible Way and especially in regions of new development. In the future the marketable function of the LPKh will intensify in terms of a number of products based upon integration with the public sector. In this regard, a great amount of attention was focueed on the problems concerned with the epecific forms for regulating and controlling the LPRh. V. Grigorovskiy and Candidate of Economic Sciences Ye. Glukhov advocated increased planning for and control over the development of the LPKh, including the creation of special organs at the oblast and rayon levels. A. I1'ichev and L. Nikiforov emphasized the importance of economic methods for regulating production operations in the LPKh. A number of problema were addressed: the differences in the types of private plora for the rural and municipal populations, the importance of the LPKh for solving the social-demographic _ problems of the rural areas, the development of rural settlements and so forth (boctor of Economic Sciences I. Buzdalov, Candidate of Geographic Sciences G. Ginzburg, Candidate of Economic Scien.ces K. Kopach and others). In the opinion of a number of those participating in the conference (l7octor of Economic Sciences B. Rakitskiy and others), the organic link existing between the development of the LPKh and the developmenC of the public sector raises the need for taking it into account when determining the effectivenesa of producti.on in the LPKh and when solving the problems of price formation for its products and the financial relationships of the LPKh with the budget. During the conference, a considerable amount legal documents which regulate the management contractual forms for integrating the private contacts with the various pracurement systems the Legal Adminiatration of the USSR Ministry Candidate of Lawa A. Stamkulov). Df attention was of the LPKh and sector with the (noctor of Laws of Agriculture, given to improving the to the development of pnblic sector and its M. Kozyr', chief of k. Denisov and - For solving the socio-economic problems, determining the prospects for developing _ the LPKh and preparing appropriate recommendationa, great importance ia attached to 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020064-8 sociological studies. Zhe method employed for such studies and the results obtained were discussed during the conference by Doctor of Economic Sciences Ye. Bryansicikh, Canc:idate of Economic Sciences T. Antonova, A. Shaposhnikov and A. Shchannikov (RSFs2) and Candidate of Economic Sciences I. Rayg (BSSR). Control over the development of the LPKh requires consideration not only of the peculiarities of its various types but also of the regional conditions (availability of land and labdr resources, population traditions and othera). The rasults achieved in the use of a differentiated approach for developing the LPKh in various regions of the country were discussed by Candidate of Economic Sciences V. Nikitin, chairman of the Yaroslavskaya Oblast Council of Horticulturist Societiea Yu. Ririllov, Doctor of Economic Sciences L. Shepot'ko, Candidate of Economic Sciences I. Prokopa, Candidate of Economic Sciences Rh. Markov, Candidate of Economic Sciences A. Samoylov, Candidate of Economic Sciences E. Rhyayal and others. Recommendations were developed during the conference concerning the more important production-economic and organizational-legal aspects of the functionino of private plots. In the interest of improving the operation of the LPKh, a proposal was made calling for the organization of large-seriea specialized production of modern orchard- gardening implements and light mechanization equipment and also for expandfng the opportunities for maintaining and utilizing horses on the farma of the population. Recognition was given to the advisability for developing a network of state nurseries and seed production enterprises, taking into account the requirements of the population, ensuring that the kolkhoz and sovkhoz plans include a task aimed at improving the availability of livestock feed to the private plota and so forth. The recommendation was also made to have the plans of industrial a�d land reclamation enterprises include tasks for installing tramsport-engineering lines of communication and for furnishing other production aervices for the orehard and gardening associations. In order to improve the sale of LPRh products, the recommendation was made to oriecxt such sales mainly towards augmenting the local food funds; to intensify the role played by consumer cooperatives in organizing the procurement and marketing of highly perishable and difficult to transport products; to expand the network of the bureau of trade services, for the purpose of ensuring the sale of LPKh products at kolkhoz markets and so forth. Within the framework for improving the organizational-legal forms for regulating the development of the LPKh, it is considered advisable to combine in a general and systematized legal document the norms and statutes governing the management of the LPKh and the sale of its products; to introduce the latest changes having to do with the management of the LPKh into the Model Regulations for a Kolkhoz and civil legislation; to create, at the local and national economic levels, special administrative structures for the management of and control over the activities of the LPKA. In the interest of improving the organization of acientific studies and the preparation of recommendations on specific problems concerned with the development of private plots, the need is recognized for creating an a1l-union scientific- methodological council or aection at one of the councils of VASRhNIL, with problem 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020060-8 groups in individual regions of the USSR. Thls would maF:e it possible to coordinate studies and works concerned with LP'Kh mattera, increase their methodological unity and also the scientific va lidity of the recomnendations. The realization of these proposals, in the opinion of those who participated in the - conference, could promote a more complete and effective implementation of those party and governmental decisions having to do with the development of private plots within the system of aocialist agriculture. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda", "Voprosy ekonomiki", 1981 7026 - CSO: 1824/109 ~ u FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500020060-8 ruK urri%.KAL vac, vi.a.s TILLING AND CROPPIIVG TECHNOLOGY MORE AT.TENTION TO IMPROVEMENT IN SEED PRODUCTION URGED Moscow SELEKTSIYA I SEMENOVODSTVO in Russian No 11, Nov 81 pp 2-6 /Article by G. P. Zhinov, deputy chief of the USSR All-Union Production Association for Varietal Seed Raising: "Constant Concern for the Development of Seed Produc- tion"/ . /Text/ During the lOth Five-Year Plan, owing to the selfless labor of millions of Soviet people and the great contribution of scientists and agricultural specialists, - the average annual gross output of grain in the country reached 205 million tons for the first time. For the purpQSe of most fully meeting the demand for grain and for its processing products, the 26th CPSU Congress set the task of increasing dur- - ing the llth Five-Year Plan the average annual production of grain to 238 or 243 million tons, including of pulse crops, to 12 or 13 million tons. In order to at- tain such a level, great efforts on the part of all the workers of the agroindus- trial complex, a correct and economical utilization of the material and technical resources allocated to agriculture, introduction of advanced grain production tech- nology and mobilization of all existing internal reserves will be needed. According to the evaluation of scientists and agricultural specialists, the harvest and gross output of grain can be increased by 20 to 25 percent as a result of a gen- eral improvement in seed production and an annual utilization in sowing of high- quality seeds of new regionalized and promising varieties. Fulfilling the decrees of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Minis- ters "On Measures for the Further Increase in the Eff iciency of Agricultural Sci- ence and the Strengthening of Its Connection With Production" and "On Measures for the Further Improvement in the Selection and Production of Seeds of Grain anci Oil Crops and Grasses (1476), extensive work on improvement in selection and seed pro- duction has been done in the country in the last few years. Selection centers have been strengthened organizationally, a network of specialized seed producing farms has been approved and their material and technical base has been strengthened in a planned way in a number of republics and oblasts. A total of 183 new varieties of grain, pulse and hulled crops were regionalized during the lOth Five-Year Plan. They include 17 winter wheat varieties with a po- tential yield of more than 80 quintals per hectare (Krasnodarskaya 46, Akhtyrchan- ka, Zaporozhskaya Ostistaya, Odesskaya 66, PolukarlikOVaya 49 and others). Pro- duction received 13 new intensive winter rye varieties with a potential yield of 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020064-8 FOR OF'RICIAL USE ONLY 50 to 60 quintals per hectare--Chulpan, Voskhod 1, Voskhod 2, Belorusskaya 23, Be� zenchukskaya 3 and otherse Highly effective varieties of spring wheat and spring barley, millet varieties immune to smut and highly productive rice, oat and buck- wheat varieties were developed. There are signif icant shifts in the selection of pulse crops. Nonshattering varieties of peas--Neosypayushchiysya l, Tenaks and Voroshilovgradskiy Yubileynyy-- were developed. A total of 1,195 overall centers and plants of a varying capacity for the treatment and storage of seeds were put into operation on kolkhozes, sovkhozes and educa- - tional-experimental and experimental production farms in 1977-1980. The organization of specialized seed producing farms and the construction of over- r~ all centers and plants f or the treatment and storage of seeds on them initiated a new procedure for the provision of kolkhozes and sovkhozes with seeds of grain and oil crops and grasses and the transfer of seed production to an industrial basis. As a result, in many republics, krays, and oblasts during the lOth Five-Year Plan, despite the unfavorable weather condit:lons, work with seeds was improved, the plans for their storage in assortment were fu3filled and the volumes of insurance and carryover stocks were increased. In 1980 specialized seed producing farms pro- duced about 7 million tons of seeds of grain crops, 63,000 tons :,f sunflower seeds and more than 83,000 tons of perennial grass seeds. In the Union and autonomous republics, krays and oblasts, where the set of ineasures for an improvement in seed production and its transfer to an industrial basis is carried out in a planned and purposeful manner, the y'Leld and productior, of plant products increase. Work on the transfer of the production of seeds of grain crups and grasses to an industrial basis is most successfully organized in the Belorus- sian SSR. A total of 27 experimental bases for the production of elite and first reproduc- tion seeds are directly subordinate to the RepuSlic Production Association f or Va- rietal Seed Raising (Belsortsernprom). In the system there are also six oblast production associations for varietal seed raisitig. A total of 117 head seed pro- ducing farms (one in every rayon), at the base of which rayon interfarm seed pro- ducing associatians are organized, are subordinate to the latter. The construction of overall centers and plants for the treatment and storage of seeds is carried out successfully on specialized seed producing farms. The Belorussian SSR Ministry of Agriculture allocates material and technical facilities (tractors, motor vehicles, mineral fertilizers and so forth) to production associations for varietal seed A raising for their delivery to head seed producing farms. Specialized seed produc- ing farms are relieved of the sale of commodity grain to tile state. Plans for the production and sale of varietal seeds to kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the serviced zone are annually established for them. For varietal seeds sold in excess of the established sales plan specialized seed producing fanns receive mixed feed. The conclusion of the construction of overall centers and plants for the treatment _ and storage of seeds and the establishment of rayon interfarm associations for the production of seeds enables specialized seed producing farms to fully provide the repuUlic's kolkhozes and sovkhozes with high-quality varietal seeds of grain crops and grasses by 1983. 23 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020060-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500024060-8 FUR UM'M'1(,IAL uaE V1VLV There are examples of a good organization of seed production in a number of oblasts - in the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Lithuanian SSR, the Latvian SSR, the Kirghiz SSR and other republics. However, there are still serious shortcomings in the work on the transfer of this sector to an industrial basis and on accelerated strain changing. For example, in Vladimirskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kalininskaya, Kostromskaya, Ryazanskaya, Yaroslavskaya, Tyumenskaya and Kemerovskaya Oblasts, the Bashkir, Kal- mytskaya and Dagestanskaya Autonomous Republics, the Georgian SSR, the Uzbek SSR and a number of other republics and oblasts from 13 to 25 percent of the