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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540020061-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10292 29 January 1982 East Euro e Re o~t p p POLITICAL, SOCIOLOvICAI AND MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 1 /82) - ~BIS FOREIGN BF~OADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign _ newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language - sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characterisrics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are _ enclosed in parentheses. Giords or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original b;it have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as - given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREI[V REQUIRE THAT i~ISSEMINATION - OF TFiIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ODTLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10292 29 January 1982 EAST EUROPE REP~JRT POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS (FOUO 1/82) - CONTENTS ~ 13ULGARIA Bulgari~.'s Tanchev Views Macedonia, Mideast (Fetur Tanchev Interview; AF`RIQUE-ASIE, 12-25 Oct 8i)........... 1 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Government Moving To Crush 'Underground' Church (David Blow; THE TIMES, 18 Dec 81) 4 POLAND Poll Conducted Notrember-December 1981 in Pola.nd Published (PARIS MATCH, 25 Dec 81} 5. Commentary on PZPR-Solidarity Confrontation � (Jacques Renard; L'EXPREBS, 11 Dec 81) 12 - a - [III - EE - 63 FOUO] F(1R (1FFT('TAT TfCF l1NT.V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020061-7 NOIt OFFIC'IAI. USI~: UNLY BULGARIA BULGARIA'S TANCHEV VIEWS MACIDONIA, MIDEAST PM091403 Paris AFRIQUE-ASIE in French 12-25 Oct 81 pp 49-51 [Interview with Petur Tanchev, first deputy chairman of the Bulgarian State Council and secretary of the Bulgarian National Agrarian Union, by Bouzid ICouza, in Varna: "The Desire for Peace"--date not given] [Text] "We have been living in peace for 37 years. This is the first time that this has happen~d in our country's entire history. And we will do all we can to ensure that it lasts, to ensure that war is abolished and that the Balkans are no ionger synonymous with a powder keg." This remark by Petur Tanchev was the central idea ~ of the interview which he granted to us in the agrarian union's rest house in Varna where, in the company of hundreds more cadres and members of that party, the State Council deputy chairman spent a vacation which was in fact rather disturbed by and fo~eign visitora. "In the past," he explained, "there was a war every 10 or 15 years. That can be explained by the fact that Bulgaria is a strategic region: It is at the ~unction of three continents--Asia, Europe and Africa." � - Indeed the great roads o~ expansion and trade, religion and ideology have inter- sected in this little mountainous country for centuries and centuries. Everybody _ knows that it was in the Balkans in 1914 that the events which provided the pretext for World War I took place. "It was a question of establishing who would have control over the Balkans," Petur Tanchev added. "Today, following World War II, this region is a distinctive mosaic. Bulgaria and Romania ar~ Warsaw Pact members; Turkey and Greece are NATO members; Yugoslavia is nonalgined whereas Albar~ia is...China. Everybody can be said to be represented in the Balkana." It is obvious that this situation represents a con~3tant source of near confronta- tions, eapecially since the effects of the imperialist forces' divisive policy have not yet been removed. These are seen in, among other things, ethnic and territorial problema affecting Macedonia in particular. The originality of Bulgaria's policy lies in the wisdom of its leaders who have always upheld the principle of mutual respect and constructive dialogue. 1 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONL1' "T}~is policy led us to establish ttes with Turkey and Greece after World War II. - As you know we had had virtually no contact with them for a very long time. These ties are now well-established, as is shown by the very intensive trade between them and us. For instance, trade with Gruece amounts to $500 million per year while - Turkey buys all the electricity it consumes- from us. [sentence as published] This shows that the atmosphere is good. Of course, there is sti11 the Macedonian question which complicates our relations with Yugoslavia. But we dc not despair of a solution. This is what our Comrade Zhivkov constantly says, and I think that this wise attitude is now being imitated by the Yugoslavian leaders." Nonetheless, Macedonia, that bone of contention, is poisoning relations between the two countries and is particularly used by the Western imperialist powers to under- - mine the natural solidarity between two socialist countries. Petur Tanchev re- plied to this: "That's true. Everybody knows that Macedonia is inhabited by Bul- garians. But we certainly do not want to claim that territory. You know, we have waged three wars in the past and have lost all three. There can be no question af a fourth war when we can settle the question by constructive dialogue. What is - unacceptable is to say that the inhabitants of Bulgaria are Macedonians. This is ridiculous. Nonetheless, I repeat that it is necessary to go beyond the territor- ial aspect to see what is beneficial for our two countries." ~ But Bulgaria is not ~ust European, it ia also Near Eastern, only being separated from the Near East by Turkey. The same policy of peace governs Bulgaria's relations with the Arab countries. But the pea.ce policy in no way means the abandonment of ~ the principle of solidarity and support for peoples_struggling for their political and economic liberation. This principle found its sphere of application during the liberation wars in Algeria, Angola and Mozambi~ue. It is still being implemented today in those same countries and in others like Syria, Libya and Iraq which are struggling to build an independent economy and are facing imperialism's maneuvers. A Single Missile And then there is the Palestine and the Near East crisis on which Petur Tanchev gave a lucid ~udgment: "Our support for the Palestinian people in securing recogni- tion of their legitimate rights is known because our lin e has alwaya been one of helping the Arab people who form a total of 100 million souls. But in our view the ' essential problem lies in oil. The Near East Arab cour.trizs have a great de~l of oil. That is why the Americans wi11 do all they can to divide them and gain control over this strategic region's oil. However, a solution to the Palestinian problem - must be found. And we think this is only possible if the proposals put forward by the Soviet Union are taken into account. These proposals are constructive and guarantee the Arab people their freedom and independence." They do not seem to have been welcomed, I pointed out, although some Arab countries have shown some interest. [Tanchev speaks] Of course, it is the Americans who are opposing them because they want to remain masters of this region. [Tanchev ends] - With regarci to the man~ initiatives which have been emerging in Europe for some time, Petur Tanchev said: "It seems to us that the Europeans do not want to openly oppose 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504020061-7 FOR OFFtC1Al. USF: ON1.1' - the United States. If they reach agreement with the Arab countries, with the Soviet Union and with the other socialist countries thPn it is possible that a solutior. may be found. The fact is that the European countries are trying to establish a pre- sence in this region. That is understandable because, they h~ve strategic interests there. This is true of relations between France and Iraq, .`::~r example. We corisider that the European countries' attitude is not belligerent like the U.S. artitude, and that is very importdnt. But the Arab countries need guarantees. They must realize that without the Arab countries, withouth the PLO, the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries, no solution is possible. However, we think that the Europeans _ can play a positive role proviaed they take account of the factors which I have ~ust listed. But the fact is that U.S. infl+~ence exists. The United States is 13,000 km away from the Gulf and yet they have installe3 a nuclear fleet there. Against whom is it directed? What does it want? What is preventing it from realizing its plans for domination? The Soviet Union. Without the Soviet Union it would just take a few missiles to destroy the ~ahole region. But if they launch a single missile,the Soviet fleet will respond." This is a vicious circle for the people who live in a situation which they do not control: "Yes," Petur Tanchev replied," that is why a reasonable solution must be _ found quickly." _ How can this be done? Is the idea of an international confer.ence to which Bulgaria subscribes still valid and p~ssible? "It was possible under the Carter administra- tion, which haci officially accepted the principle of it," our interlocutor said, "but Egypt's about-face scuttled the plan. The United States is now urging the Arab countries to follow the same path as Egypt. It wants to establish military bases in those countries and have closer control over the oil resources. For our part we re~ect this way of viewing things and acting. The socialist countries do not have oil interests in this regior... Moreover we think it is up to the Arab coun- tries to fix the oi1 price." Can these questions of security in the Gulf region be treated separately or must they be tackled by including them in an all-embracing approach? To this question the ~ Bulgarian leaders reply that the peace problem is an integral whole and that it is necessary to do everything possible to move toward settling it. Consequently, _ it cannot simply bP a question of the Gulf or Europe but must also take in the Indian Ocean--another strategic region where a formidable armada is concentrat~d ~ with nuclear weapons capable of destoying the pianet. Petur Tanchev thinks that "event~ are very complex. There are the Arab couritries, Iran, Afghanistan, Paki- stan.... We think that an intern~tional conference is necessary to make an overall examination of security pro'olems which concern all peoplea. It is in this direction that the socialist countries' is deployed. This is also why we regard the proposals made by Indira Gandhi as very interesting." In short, all Bulgaria's activ~ty in the international arena is stamped with the desire to contribute to the consolidation of peace and understanding among people, to the suppression of war, the strengthening of detente and peaceful coexistence in internationai relations, and to the triumph of the national liberation re~olution. COPYRIGHT: 1981 Afrique-Asie CSO: 2200/35 ~ ~ F'OR OFF[CIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420061-7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY CZECHOSLOVAKIA GOVERNMENT MOVING TO CRUSH 'UNDERGROUND' CHURCH PM181411 London THE TIMES in English 18 Dec 81 p 6 [Dispatch by David Blow: "Czechs Try to Crush 'Underground" Church"] [Text] Vienna, 17 Dec--Security police are now thought to have been responsible for the mysterious deaths in Czechoslovakia this year of two Catholic activists, members of the "underground" or "catacomb" church. On 10 OctobPr the body of Pavel Sve~da, aged 20, was found at the foot of a crevasse.near his home city of Brno. The suthorities said it was suicide but refused to allow his relatives to see the body before it was buried. Mr Sve~da, who was due to get married 2 weeks later, was known as a devout Christian and had just returned from Rome where he had visited his uncle, a Jesuit theologian at th~ Gregorian University. Earlier, in February, Premysl Coufal, aged 49, was found dead in his apartment in Bratislava. On this occasion friends managed to trick the authorities into letting them see the body. They found the face and forehead heavily bruised, th2 left ear torn and a deep wound by the temples. Mr Coufal had also been to Rome shortly before his death and is thought to have been ordained there. _ The "underground" church in Czechoslovakia has become the target of brutal repression by the authorities. A special unit of the security police is even said to have been set up to deal with it. The declining numbers of of�icially authorized priests are expected to canfine the activities to the performance of church ritual, and are firmly discouraged f.rom any more active role in the community. It is this deliberate attempt to squeeze the life out of the Catholic that has given rise to the "underground" church. There are as many as 500 secretly ordained priests striving to keep the Catholic faith alive by organizing prayer meetings and bible readings. Anyone found to be involved in these activities is liable to be severely punished. Such trials are becoming increasingly frequent and there are now over 100 priests in prison. COPYRIGHT: Times Newspapers Limited, 1981 " CSO: 2020/15 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540020061-7 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY POLAND POLL CONDUCTED NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1981 IN POLAND P[iBLISHED Paris PARIS MATCH in French 25 Dec 81 pp 37-39 [Text] Just prior to the takeover, we questioned the Poles. This was the second time. A year ago, PARIS MATCH and Public, S. A. p.'_.led off a world "first": a survey behind the Iron Curtain, in Poland. Four months after the Gdansk agreements an.d despite the presence of Lech Walesa at the head of Solidarity, the Poles no ic:nger had faith in them. If they had not yet given up all hope, the~r enthusiasm had plummeted sharply. And at that time, PARIS MATCH reported that 3 percent of the Poles would vote Communist if free elections were held. Behind this survey loomed the picture of a great people, harassed but still indomitable. PARIS Ml~TCH and Publi~, S. A. returned to Poland. This survey took a month. In a11, 18 survey takers traveled thousands of kilometers, and 600 persons were interviewed. A few hours after this operation was completed, General Jaruz~lski decreed martial law. From this exhausted nation, this people bent on survival, some brutal conclusi~ns were derived. Solidarity and the [Catholic] Church represent the real country (88 percent). If the Red Army were to int~2rvene, there would be massive resistance (71 percent): The Pupe remains the most effective shield against the Soviets (59 percent). 63 percent of the poles contemplate leaving their country to live abroad, the majority in France (33 percent). And, like last year, only 3 percent _ would vote far the Communist Party if. free elections were held today. Henceforth, legitimacy is maintained at gunpoint.... No to the Dictatorship--63 Percent _ [Question] Would you accept a retuxn to a"hard-line" (neo-Stalinist) government today which would elin~inate poverty and reestablish authority, even if this would mean a"turn of the screw" with regard to freedoms? Yes, perhaps 22 Yes. certainly 15 No, never 63 This question, like the others, was asked before the Polish Army seized power. The responses justify the question as to whether the Polish people, despit~ "anarchy" and poverty, will accept a dictatorial regime, even if it promises order and "recovery." [Question] Might a national unity government including the PZPR and Solidarity be the best means of rescuing Poland from the crisis? Yes 67 :10 33 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420061-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY This answer perhaps offers the hope of a solution to the crisis~ But is such a national unity government possible when it would mean a~ end to the Party monopoly? For the Soviets, the tolerance threshold would then have been crossed. Would Vote Communist in Free Elections--3 Per.cent [Question] If free elections were held in Poland today and the followir.ig parties - nominated candidates, for which would you vote? 1981 19~0 PZPR (Communist Party1 3 3 Soc~aiist �arty 20 2~ Chris'cian Democratic Party 43 34 - Agrarian Part~ 5 4 Liberal Party 20 19 No opinion 9 13 The "bourgeois" parties as a::nole (Christian Democratic, Agrarian and Liberal) would represent 68 percent of. the potential voters! In any case, the Poles massively reject communism, the Party and the Soviet Union, but what Western statesman tias dared to date to urge that free elections be held in Poland? Identify with Solidarity and the Church--88 Percent [Question] What body best represents Poland and its people today? ~ Solidarity 45 The Church 43 The Government ~ The Army 4 The PZPR 1 The vast majority of the people identify with the Church and Solidarity (88 percent), aG compared to 7 percent for the government and 1 percent for the Party. Until 1980, the Church could with full impunity enjoy rather considerable freedom, since it was situated outside the "orthodox" scheme in the transmission chain of the Marxist-Leninist organization and ideology. Solidarity is a much greater threat to the vital organs of the system than the Church could be. The Soviet~ and the PZPR have drawn their conclusions from that fact. [Question] Is there a privileged class or group in Poland, and if so, what is it? The PZPR Members 56 The Government 21 The Members of the Security Service and the Militia 11 The Army 8 Other 4 Like everywhere else, the "Nomenklatur.a," or members of the Communist Party, are regarded by the Poles, in their vast majority, as the "privileged" class in the system. (It would have served no purpc+se to list at length the possible theoretical classes included here in the term "other," for "other" represents the Poles as a whole.) 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020061-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540020061-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . (Questl