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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430004-9 FOIt UH'FIC'IAL US~: UNLY JPRS L/ 10296 2 February 1982 U SS R Re ort p - PC~LiTICAI AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIR~ (FOUO 3/82) ~ Soviet Studies of Religion and Nationatity: Fiftsen Years of `PROBLEMS OF SGIENTIFIC ATHEISM' _ FBIS ~OREIGN BROADCAS~' INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430004-9 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but alsa from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-la~nguage sour~es - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, inC.icate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. 4Jords or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. . Other unattributed parentheticsl notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. T'he contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF 'rfATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT PISSEMINATION OF THIS PU?~LICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE OiVLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500030004-9 FOZ OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10296 2 February 1982 _ USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SC~IOLOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUO 3/$2) ~ SO'JIET STUDIES OF RELIGION AND NATIONALITY: FIFT~EN YEARS OF 'PROBLEMS OF SCIE~iTIFIC ATHEISM' Moscow PROBLEMY NA'UCHNOGO ATETZMA in Russian No 2, 1966; No 10, 197G; No 14, 1973; No 17, 1974; No 22, 1977 - CONTENT~ Contemporary Islam Modernization Process Characterized 1 Nationalities, Rel.igion Questicxis Solutions Sought 10 Socialist Nations' Role in Overcoming Vestiges of Islam 25 Chechen~Ingush ASSR Subject of Sociological Study 39 Islamic Studies Problems Discussed 4~ - a- [ I II - USSR - 35 ] - ~'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030004-9 FOR OFF(CIAL USE ONLY SOVIET 3TUDIES OF RELIGION AND NATIONALITY: FI~'TEEN YEARS OF 'PROBLFMS Q~ SCIEN- - TIrIC ~rHEISM'. CONTEMPORARY ISLAM MODERNIZATION PROCESS CHARACTERIZED Moscow PROBLEMY NAUCHNOGO ATEIZMA in Russian No 2 1966, pp 322-334 [Article by: Yu,G. Petrash and R.M. Khamitova: "Toward a Characterization of the Process of the Modernization of Cont~mporary Islam in the USSR"] [Text] Islam lang ago proved its ability to adapt to changing conditions and to / one or another concrete situation. In this it in no way differs from all other religions. A study of the changes in Moslem ideology, especially the_changes ~ which are taking place in the con~ary epoch, is one of the most important pro- blems of Islamic studies. Unfortunately, these changes have not yet been studied - sufficiently deeply. In some cases science simply does not possess the necessary materials. In particular, the current state of Islam in the USSR is known only , in the most general features. The authors of this article have set themselves the task of acquainting the reader with certain facts which characterize the process of the modernization of Islam in our country. The material being presented shows ~ basically the kinds of positions taken by the clergy as it reforms dogma and rit- ' ual. The article was written chiefly on the baeis of the materials of ICirghiziya ~ and Bashkiriya. In speaking about the views of present-day Moslem ideologists in our country it should not be forgotten that reformist teachings among the Moslems of Russia took shape as early as the end of the last century. One of these currents was Djadidism. Its basic idea consisted in a re~ection of the medieval methods of teaching in Moslem educatienal institutions and in the introduction of a Europeanized system of teaching with a mandatory study of general educational subjects. The refurmist ideas attracted definite sr.rata of the national intelligentsia of the peoples among whom Islam was widespread also during the first years of the existence of Soviet power. The struggle '~etween Djadidist and Kadimist currents in Mohammedism had not ceased when the October Revolution occurred and, to a certain extent, contin- ues to exist in our day also. This has to be kept in mind when we are dealing with the questions of the present- day ideology of Islani in the d~velopment of whose official cannons the top Moslem ~OR Cr F[CIAL ~ 1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430004-9 FOR OFFI(7AL USF ONL.Y clergy takes part. Tlie ~ruces~ ul renewing and adapting Islam to changing eo- cial conditions already has certain traditions. This ia an objective process which reflects the progressive movement of tht development of society. What are the basic features of official Islam in our day? First of all, loyalty to the Soviet state. After suffering defeats in open act- ions against Soviet power, the clergy quite rapidly began to state its devotion to socialism. The decisive role here was played by the feelings of the broad masses of believers who approved the socialist transformations in our country. Th2re are known facts showing that many representatives of the clergy sincerely wel- comed Soviet power, seeing in it a defender of the interests of the workers. Loyalty to the Soviet state is based on the fact that every state power is from God, sent down by Him "as He understands." In their sermons, especially those of a didactically moral character, the mullahs attempt to convince believers to pi~usly perform their civic duties to their h~me- land, f~r, in carrying out the orders of the authorities and supporting the pol- icies of the Soviet government,believers perform their "Moslem duties" to Allah. Not so long ago in one of his holiday sermons the Imam of the Dzhalal-Abad mosque ~Kirghiz SSR) said, addressing his parishioners: "We, like true Moslems, in keep- ing with Allah's commands, have to honestly observe the order which has been es- tablished in our countr}~ and be disci~Zined in production and honest citizens of our country. We have to be ready to carry out all of the orders of the Soviet government, for they are directed toward strengthening the might of the Soviet Union and towards the attainment of cherished goals. Our Holy Book al-uoran teaches us to obey A1?ah, his Emissary Mohammed, and our leaders--those who have power. We have had occasion to hear similar sermons in other mosques--in Moscow (from the lips of the Tmams Mustafin and Sali~hov), Alma-Ata, Oah, and Ufa. The , cl~rg; presents religion as the natural ally of Soviet power, equally responsible for the fate of the people. The Moslem clergy supports the peace-loving policy of the Soviet government. The theme of peace is constantly present in sermons; the struggle for peace is con- nected with the teachings of Islam. The mullahs find passages in the religious books and see in them a statement of the necessity to maintain peace fn the entire world. The Moslem clergy attempts to identify communism and Islam, s~ying that the ideals of both teachings coincide. More than that, one can hear that the doctrine of communism was already being disseminated by the ancient prophets, and that Mo- hammed who formulated Islam in the most harmonious way sought throughout all of his prophetic work to realize communist principles. The Arabe, led by Mohammed, are said to have struggled for a universal "communist kingdom," but the material and ~ultural level did not permit its realization. Now, however, all of the con- ditions exist for this, and the efforts of the workers have to realize the "ideals of Mohammed" --to build communism. The goals of Mohammed and of communism are the same;" "We, Moslems, are the continuers of the work of the Prophet Mohammed; 2. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030004-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY communism is our dogma.19 Al1 of this can now be heard from authoritative repre- sentatives of the Moslem clergy. The worda of the Oeh mullah K. in a personal conversation are curious: you, Marxists, simply do not understand the deeply com- munist essence of Islam. If you think about the meaning of Mohammed's teachings, it will become clear that ~,~e, Moslems and Marxists, are going forward shouldes to shoulder--for the realization of the ideals of Mohammed." K. believed that in the not too distant future misunderstandings will be dispelled and the alliance of Marxism and Islam will be realized. It has to be said that such arguments exercise an influence on believers. Fre- quently one can hear from ordinary believers that the mullahs "are probabZy com- muni~ts." To the question of why they think so, the answer follows: "Fsut you lis- ten to what Im~m so-and-so says about communiets!" Frequently believers try to prove with enviable conviction that Islamis a necessary means in the struggle for the construction of communism. When it attempts to present Islam as a communist teaching the clergy bases itself on the moral and ethical side of religion. Nowadays in the mosques there ia con- siderable restraint in apeaking about the miracles of the prophets and the pious. More attention is given to the questions of morality. The preachers and activists in the local pariahes aeek to convince thP simple believer that the moral princi- ple.s of the builders of communism are in full accord with the moral prescriptions of the Koran and the Sunna. The clergy compares certain passages from the sacred books with the norms of morality which are accepted in our society; hence, the con- clusion regarding the identity of Moslem and communist morality. Under the influ- ence of these aermona, many beltevers today reason as follows: "In our Koran every- thing was long ago said that is in the moral code of the builders of communism. Islam teaches us only the good...." ~'requently Islam is understood by believers tn general as a universal moral system which embraces the moral code of all of mankind. Today literally not a single s~armon takes place in which the Imams do not touch upon the questions of morality and do not seek to convince believers of their duty to observe the "Moslem laws" and the rules of behavior which have been approved by Soviet society. The ministers give praise to the Communist Party and the Soviet government for seeking to achieve so firmly and consistently the complete triumph of "true" morality whose basis is made up of the teachings of the Koran. In one of his sermons the Imam-Khatib of the Moscow mosque Salikov reminded his parishioners of the harm of alcoholic drinks which are prohibited to Moslems. "It is necessary," :?e said, "to give every welcome to the measures of the Soviet gov- ernment which are aimed at a struggle against alcoholism. This corresponds en- tirely to the demands of the Prophet Mohammed." ~ Approximately ttie same presentation is given in the sermons of the activities of the Soviet govern~nent which are aimed at strengthening labor d{scipline, improving the everyday life of the workers, and so forth. The clergy summons Moslems to honest labor and production and to strengtheniz~g the family. According to the mullahs, any labor for the good of society is as compulsory and good a deed as reading prayers, maintaining fasts, and the other prescriptions of xeligion. Hon- est labor by Moslems will be evaluated by Allah no lower than God-serving acts. 3. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030004-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430004-9 - :,~r~t ~r' ~s:=. - ta ~�:~rd, if o~ie ~elieves ti~e eermone, Moelem morallty ie the most humane and j:: ' morali~~�; it ~s ar. all-ewbrac:ing moral code by which people will always be guide~ the renewed Sharia*_ does not contain divergences from Soviet laws and is in ful! accord with the interests of strengthening the Soviet family and developing com- munist relations amon~ people. Islam allegedly cultivates honesty, ml,~tual resper:' ::zc a r.~~aliag ~~,~.^.