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JPRS L/10301 4 February 1982 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY USSR Report ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT (FOUC 1/82) ;1] . .T’hV. — I --. . IITeTeT.’a]IL -]i .I1T1IIZ1 .1iTiTiT1ThiL.IiTiL ri ) ___________;0] LFBISI FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original Dhrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [] are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Textj or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a.brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the information was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a question mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. ;1] ivi - . —i’i -. -i—i. (A1 I -‘flu ,.. ..— u. rI•7iYiT. 1A -] 1 .T.iTir•14i -IiYiTiT4’VTiL,IiTat Ii;0] the poli COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MêTERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATtON BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY USSR REPORT ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT (FOUO 1/82) CONTENTS JPRS L/10301 4 February 1982 1 5 8 ;1] .1.1eIa’iVA.II W.. ;0] MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING Abstracts ‘f Articles in Collection ‘MARINE POWER ENGINEERING AND EL UTILIZATIONt Abstracts of Articles in Collection ‘STRENGTH AND SEAWORThINESS OF SEAGOING SHIPS’ Abstracts From Collection ‘WORKS OF THE CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE NAVY: AUTOMATION OF OCEAN GOING SHIPS’ NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Reactor Fuel Channels and Fuel Elements Equipment and Tooling for Repair of Channel Type Atomic Reactors.. Repair Equipment and Tooling for Vessel Type Atomic Reactors INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Systems—Morphological Approach in Designing Atomic Equipment Selected Abstracts From Collection ‘EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND DIAGNOSIS OF ROBOTS’ HIGH—ENERGY DEVICES, OPTICS AND PHOTOGRAPHY Macroscopic and Molecular Processes in Gas Lasers Electric—Arc Converters With Interelectrode Inserts 14 15 18 22 25 32 34 - a — [III - USSR - 21F S&T FOUO] I-’ I- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP2-OO85OROOO5OOO3OO1O-2 FOR OFFICIAL IJSE ONLY MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN COLLECTION ‘MARINE POWER ENGINEERING AND FUEL UTILIZATION’ Leningrad TRUDY TSENTRAL’NOGO NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATEL’SKOGO INSTITUTA MORSKOGO FLOTA: SUDOVAYA ENERGETIKA I TO?LIVOISPOL’ZOVANIYE in Russian No 260, 1980 (signed to press 20 Oct 80) pp 109-111 Pu’rrl IG TOGETHER POWER PLANT SYSTEMS FOR SPECIALIZED SHIPS [stract of article by Maslov, V.V., and Feofanov, A.V.] UDC 629.12—8 [Text] The authors discuss the structure of power plant systems with low- and medium-revolution internal combustion engines that have been built in recent years, along with the outfitting of these systems with auxiliary equipment. Technical and operating requirements for the structure of these systems and their priiuction as complete units have been developed. Figures 10; references 6. UDC 621.431.74:621.436/—192 ;1] iV —I i W1 - -] —i• —V’I I.,.. r.j n.— nu .Y IITiI.I VA -j 1 .iiTi1(I1 JfT (ITTWi’ITh , i;0] TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTING FiE RELIABILITY OF MARINE DIESEL ENGINES [Abstract of article by Karpov, L.N.J [Texti The author proposes a technique for predicting the reliability indicators of marine diesel engines that is based on the use of the reliability indicators of the basic assemblies of the engine in question in comparison with a base indicator, because of the various improvements in assemblies that have been modernized that make it possible to make a quantitative evaluation of the degree of improvement in their reliability. Figures 2. UDC 629.12-o:53.08 ON ACOUSTIC-EMISSION DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS [Abstract of article by Ignatov, V.N.] [Text] The author discusses the problems connected with, the basic construction principles, and the use of acoustic-emission equipment used in technical diagnostics. He presents the results of experimental data on the use, under both marine 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY al—nfl APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 and laboratory conditions, of the acoustic-emission equipment that has been developed. Figures 3; references 6. UDC 621.438 THE POSSIBILITY OF USING THE AI-20 GAS TURBINE ENGINE AS THE AIR SOURCE IN A PNEUMATIC WASHING SYSTEM [Abstract of article by Roslik, Ya.F., Selyugin, N.G.,, and Pogrebnik, N.y.] [Text] The authors present the results of bench tests of an AI-20 aviation gas turbine engine with increased counterpressure beyond the turbine and air takeoff beyond the compressor. They also describe the stand and the noise suppressors at the compressor’s air intake and the gas’s point of discharge from the turbine. Figures 5; references 4. UDC 621.438 INVESTIGATION OF THE FUNCTIONING OF PNEUMATIC WASHING DEVICES UNDER FULL-SCALE OPERATING CONDITIONS [Abstract of article by Gitel’man, A.I., Selyugin, N.G., and Levykin, B.P.] [Text] The authors give the results of an investigation of the performance of a pneumatic washing device under various operating conditions. They also present a technique for determining the air source’s basic parameters according to the drop in pressure at the compressor’s intake. Figures 8; references 2. UDC 629.12—757.42 ;1] 1 .1-1 YV -I 4 1T. -tAL1 -k7V2 ..— m-y I1ThT.i Vh -] ;0] RATIONALITY OF THE UTILIZATION OF HEATING OF A SHIP’S HULL TO COMBAT ICING [Abstract of article by Roslik, Ya.F., and Selyugin, N.G.1 [Text] The authors discuss the heating of a ship’s hull as one method for eliminating and preventing icing. They present a calculative technique, the heat ‘cransfer coefficients, and specific energy consumption required for efficient utilization of heating. They also compare their calculations with the results of a full-scale experiment. Figures 4; references 5. tJDC 629.12.066 POWER INDICATORS OF MODERNIZED, THREE-SPEED, INDUCTION MOTORS IN THE ELECTRIC DRIVE OF MARINE CARGO-HOISTING MACHINERY [Pbstract of article by Babayev, A.M., Baranov, L.N., and Brovkin, A.S.] [Text] Th authors discuss the possibility of using the working characteristics of three—speed, induction motors with modernized rotors to calculate static and dynamic losses and determine the values of the temperature excesses of stator windirigs on the basis of data from operational tests of electric drives on the motorrhip “Komsomolets Uzbekistana.” Figures 9; references 3. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL 1JS ONLY UDC 629.125.001.5 VIBROACOUSTIC CHARACTEIISTICS OF THE MAIN DIESEL GENERATORS OF ThE ‘VITYAZ” FLOAT!NG CRANEI WITH 6ChN3O/38 DIESEL ENGINES [Abstract of article by Loshakov, V.1., and Yel’nik, A.G.1 [Text] The authors discuss çuestions concerning the vibration and noise of main diesel generators of the 24DG type, with 6ChN3O/38 diesel engines, that have been installed on the “Vityaz” floating crane. Figures 4. UDC 621.125.001.5 ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF THE CHANGE IN STE?M PARAMETERS IN THE VOLUME IN FRONT OF THE TURBINE IN TRANSITIONAL MODES [Pthstract of article by Basalygin, G.M.] [Texti The author formulates a system, based on the First Law of Thermodynamics, that makes it possible to investigate the actual nature of the change in steam parameters, with due consideration for the variable value of the polytropic exponent, in the steam chamber between the regulating valve and the turbine’s nozzles. Fig— ures 3; references 3. UDC 629.12.06:628 A CHEMICOMECHANICAL METHOD OF UTILIZING PETROLEUM RESIDUES IN TANKERS [Abstract of article by Bol’shakov, V.F., and Reshetnikov, I.P.] [Text] The authors discuss the physicochemical characteristics of the petroleum residues that form in tankers. They then present a technique for preparing washed- out crude oil for use in bunkers. Figure 1. UDC 629.12.06:628 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOZZLE-TYPE HOMOGENIZING DEVICES FOR THE UTILIZATION OF PETROLEUM RESIDUES THAT FORM ON SHIPS [Abstract of article by Reshetnikov, I.P.] [Text] The author presents the operating parameters of nozzle-type homogenizing devices that are designed with the help of cavitation theory and methods from the dimensional analysis of similarity and modeling. UDC 621.125 SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE OF THE HEATED SURFACE OF A r1ARINE STEAM TURBINE ‘S HOUSING [Abstract of article by Volosov, M.I.] 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - .jrsday, June i I- I Jfl ‘‘• S • •fl& ,ItLi [TextI The author examines the effect of the opening in which the thermocouple is installed on the error in determining the transient temperature of a heated surface. He points out the possibility of a theoretical evaluation of this distortion by the solution of a unidiznensional transient thermal conductivity problem. Figures 3; references 6. UDC 629.12-52 MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING THE HEATING OF VISCOUS CARGOES IN SEAGOING TANKERS [Abstract of article by Moshriyanskiy, A.F., and Mul’ko, V.1.] [Text] The authors present a mathematical description of the processes involved in the heating of viscous cargoes in seagoing tankers. Figures 4; references 10. UDC 629.12—52.001.5 CALCULATION OF THE PROCESSES INSURING THE OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY OF FUEL BUNKERAGE [Abstract of article by Mosnyanskiy, A.F., and Mul’ko, V.1.] [Text] The authors present tric network models, of the operation of fuel bunkerage. a technique for the mathematical modeling, using elecprocesses in a coil preheating system that support the Figures 4; references 6. ;1] j’iV I -i*1 -] I L’I I n.— II&YiT. VA -] .1 .F iTI JTiTITr(ITTiTL I;0] UDC 621.125.52 CAVITATION AS A MEANS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF COMBUSTION OF HEAVY FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES [Abstract of article by Seliverstov, M.V.] [Text] The author discusses the process of the appearance of cavitation and the basic factors affecting its intensity during the movement of fuel through the nozzle apparatus of diesel engine injectors. He substantiates the possibility of creating nozzle units capable of providing highly efficient fuel atomization through the organization and control of cavitation processes in the fuel jet. Figure 1; references 3. COPYRIGHT: Tsentral’nyy ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni nauchno-issledovatel’skiy institut morskogo f iota (TsNIIMF), 1980 11746 CSO: 1861/46 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A IIfl I- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 II l FOR OFFICIAL US ONLY ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN COLLECTION ‘STRENGTH AND SEAWORTHINESS OF SEAGOING SHIPS’ Leningrad TRUDY TSENTRAL’ NOGO NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATEL’ SKOGO INSTITUTA MORSKOGO FLOTA: PROCHNOST’ I MOREKHODNYYE KACHESTVA MORSKIKH SUDOV in Russian No 258, 1980 pp 91-92 UDC 629.12:539.4 REGULAR CHANGES IN THE BENDING MOMENT fl’! CALM WATER AND ITS EFFECT ON OVERALL STRENGTH [1bstract of article by Maksimadzhi, A.I.] [Text] The authors discusses the shortening of the fatigue life of structures because of a regular change in the average load level in combination with the simultaneous effect of a random amplitudinal component. He suggests a technique for allowing for this type of loading when setting strength norms. Figures 2, references 3. UDC 629.12.002.3 ;1] .. 1.1 -YaN —I — -. — - I .i.i-i- I!ITIT. VAJTi1 .II iTiI11 JITITII ihI’TL II;0] INVESTIGATION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF 09G2 STEEL FOR THE PURPOSE OF SET]ING STRENGTH NORMS WITH PN ALLOWANCE FOR FATIGUE [Abstract of article by Maksimadzhi, A.I., and Kuteminskiy, V.P.] [Text] The authors analyze the results of fatigue tests of samples of 09G2 steel under complex loading. They present data on fatigue crack growth rates as a function of the average stresses, as well as for regular changes in the latter. Figures 8; references 9. UDC 629.12.004.5 PREDICTING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF ThE HULLS OF OPERATING SHIPS [Abstract of article by Markozov, G.V.J [Text] Th author presents a method of predicting the technical state of ship hulls on the basis of a statistical analysis of materials from the prerepair survey of defects in ship hulls. Figures 11; references 2. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY — j, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP32-00350R000500030010-2 DDDflIfl flD DI Iiiri 1* )flflO. ‘IA DflDQ FOR OFFICIAL US ONLY UDC 629.123:56.004.4 STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS FOR THE SAFETY OF TANKERS WITH SEALED BALLAST TANKS [I½bstract of article by Mel’nikov, A.M.] [Text The author analyzes the possible consequences of disrupting the hermetic state of the cargo holds in tankers having sealed ballast tanks. He also formulates the requirements for the erformxice of hull-welding operations during the assembly of the hull structures of such ships. References 3. UDC 629.12.011 GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS OF MAGNETIC, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES AND STATES OF SHIP STRUCTURES [Abstract of article by Guzeyev, V.T.] [Text] The author discusses the general relationships among the magnetic, mechanical and thermal properties and states of steel ship structures on the basis of the theory of hysteresis processes. Figure 1; references 4. UDC 629.12.004.6(083) SPECIAL ALLOWABLE WEAR NORMS [Abstract of article by Maksimadzhi, A.I., and Briker, A.S.] [Text] The authors present the basic methodological prepositions that must be used during the development of special wear norms for a given series of ships. They substantiate the advantages of the individual approach and point out the sources that make it possible to reduce the volume of repair work when these norms are used. Figures 6; references 6. UDC 629.12:624.04 DETERMINING THE KINEMATIC AND POWER PARAMETERS OF RESTRICTED TORSION IN CONNECTION WITH A ‘DOtJI3LE-PEAKED’ DISTRIBUTION OF THE TORSIOI4AL MO?NT ALONG THE LENGTH OF A SHIP [Abstract of article by rJl’yanova, L.I.] [Text] The author presents a solution of the diferentia1 equation for restricted torsion when there is “double-peaked” distribution of the external torsional moments. Shealso discusses the question of the effect of a ship’s dimensions on its stressed state under torsion. Figures 2; references 2. UDC 629.125.8: MAIN PART OF ThE DISTURBING FORCES OF A SKEG SVP DURING ROLLING IN RESPONSE TO LATERAL WAVE ACTION [Abstract of article by Bocjdanov, A.I.] 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Text] The author explains a method for determining the righting hydrostatic and main part of disturbing hydrodynamic forces and their moments during rolling of a skeg hovercraft lying broadside to regular, progressive wave action. He also presents calculating formu1a derived w.Lth due consideration for nonlinearity with respect to the righting moment. Figures 4; referex..ces 4. UDC 656.61.052.484 WEATHER CRITERION FOR SEAGOING SHIPS WITH DYNAMIC MAINTENArCE PRINCIPLES [Abstract of article by Bogdanov, Al., arid Strelyayev, L.N.] [Text] The authors explain a method for determining the weather criterion for ships with dynamic maintenanc principles that are sailing in ballast. They also present an example of the calculations for a hovercraft of the skeg type. Figures 2; references 2. DETERMINING FRICTIONAL DRAG DURING ROLLING OF A SHIP [Abstract of article by Kamenskaya, Ye.N.] UDC 629. [Text] The author discusses the oscillations of an elliptical body of revolution w3 th a constant frequency around its longitudinal axis of symmetry in a uniform inuid nt flow. In connection with this, she also obtains approximate solutions for the problem of the oscillations of a circular cylinder. Figures 2; references 7. STABILITY OF A SHIP WITH A SHIFTING CARGO UNDER STORM CONDITIONS [Abstract of article by Kondrikov, D.V.J UDC 629.12:532.321 [Text] The author proposes to account for cargo movability for a ship encountering irregular wave action. He finds a zone of safe ship stability that has “upper” and “lower” boundaries. Figures 2; references 2. UDC 629.123.561.07 AN ALGORITHM AND PROGRAM FOR DETERMINING THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS CARRIERS [Abstract of article by Artsykova, A.A.] [Text] The author presents an algorithm for calculating the basic technical characteristics and economic indicators of gas—carrying ships of different architectural- structural types. She discusses the special features of the program drawn up on the basis of the proposed algorithm, which program is written in the FORTRAN-IV alyorithmic language for use with a YeS1O2O computer. Figures 3. COPYRIGHT: 11746 CSO: 1861/47 Tsentral’nyy ordena Icudovogo Krasnogo Znarneni nauchno-issledovatel’skiy institut morskogo f iota (TSNIIMF), 1980 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i iursday, June . DDDriIfl CD DI Thi.rrI, Iiir 1* ‘)flAO. (9A DflDQ’) AflQADflAflflAflflAlfl’) 10K LJFII(IAL USI OTLY ABSTRACTS FROM COLLECTION ‘WORKS OF THE CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TIlE NAVY: AUTOMATION OF OCEAN-GOING SHIPS’ Leningrad TRUDY TSENTRAL ‘NOGO NAUCHNO—ISSLEDOVATEL’ SKOGO INSTITUTA MORSKOGO FLOTA: AVTOMATIZATSIYA MORSKIKH SUDOV in Russian No 259, 1980 (signed to press 24 Oct 80) pp 108—111 [Abstracts from collection “Works of the Central Scientific Research Institute of the Navy: Automation of Ocean—Going Ships’, edited by Yu. I. Panin, Leningradskoye otdeleniye izdatel’stva “Transport”, 1410 copies, 111 pages] UDC 629.12—8—52 CALCULATING OPERATING FACTORS WHEN EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF AUTOMATION EQUiPMENT FOR POWER INSTALLATIONS [Abstract of article by Savin, B. V.] [Text] A methodology is examined for calculating the operatLng and engineering factors in problems associated with evaluation of the effictency of automation equipment for power installations, taking into consideration peculiarities in forming economic savings for automation equipment and establishing connections between the technical and operating characteristics of the means of production and the economic indicators and operating evaluation of the ship’s work. Mathematical expressions are given for determining components of economic savings. Peculiarities in making statistical estimates of technical effectiveness indicators of automated subjects and of the economic activity of a ship are analyzed. Figure 1, table 1, references 3. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 DDD1MIfl (‘D DI I.., IQ ‘)flflG. (9A DflDQ’) flflQADAflflflflflflfl1A ‘) 10k 0111(141. 1 1SF ONI .Y TJDC 629.12.073.286:532.5 AUTOMATING CONTROL OF SEA-GOING PROPERTIES OF SHIPS UNDER STORM CONDITIONS [Abstract of article by Kondrikov, D. V.] [Text] Possible schemes are proposed for control of ship safety with regard to slamming, swampability and loss of stability. Safety criteria are calculated as a function of statistical motion parameters which are determinable either by sensors or by calculation. Figures 2, references 3. UDC 656.61.052:65.011.56 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SHIP COURSE [Abstract of article by Antonenko, V. A.] [Text] The formulation and results of an experiment studying control of the course of a ship by a digital computer which is a part of an automated naviga— tion complex are examined. Recommendations are given for selection of coeff i— cients for strengthening the principle of control of a ship. Figures 2. UDC 629.12.053 PROSPECTS FOR USING LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE MOVEMENT OF LARGE-CAPACITY SHIPS DURING MOORING [Abstract of article by Ignatovich, E. I. and Rakitin, V. D.] [Text] A brief substantiation of the necessity of using systems for automatic control of the movement of large—capacity ships during mooring. Comparative characteristics for all available systems are presented, and their principal shortcomings are pointed out. Laser systems are singled out in particular as the most promising, as systems which will provide the navigator with all necessary information about ship movement and position relative to the wharf. Figures 2, table 1, references 10. UDC 629.12:532.321 TESTING ThE STABILITY OF A ROCKER USING ANGULAR RAMP [Abstract of article by Belozerov, C. I.] [Text] The urgency of controlling ship stability with the aim of insuring its operating safety is shown. A method is proposed for determining the metacentric height by using a lowered angular ramp, using ship heeling as a test. Simple calculations based on heel angle measurements make it possible to test the initial stability of the ship rapidly, almost without ceasing loading operations. 9 FOR OFHCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 DDflII flD DI Tk..rrIi. I..r 10 flflfl. tIA DIDO’ flflQflDflflflflflflflA4fl J FOK (WH(’II. ISK ONLY UDC 656.61.052.14:527.62 EVALUATING ACCURACY IN DETERMINING SHIP POSITION COORDINATES BASED ON DATA FROM AUTOMATED DORAN TRANSPONDERS [Abstract of article by Komarov, S. R.] [Text] The possibility of improving the accuracy of detcrmination of ship position using automated single—channel doran transponders by calculating the effect of tropospheric arid ionospheric refraction is examined. Figure 1, references 2. UDC 656.61.052:65.011.56 AUTOMATED NAVIGATIONAL INFORMATION RECORDING SYSTEMS [Abstract of article by Kokolov, N. P.] [Text] Topics in the study of the characteristics of input streams of navigational information for recording and documentation are examined. A description of the operating process for an automated navigational information recording and documentation system is given, on the basis of which functional d.pendences of the magnitudes characterizing the influence of input stream pararnters, servicing and methods of system organization on its work quality are determined. Figures 3, table 1, references 6. UDC 629.12.011.1 AUTOMATED DESIGN OF EXTERNAL 111111 SHAPE [Abstract of article by Kovalev, V. A. and Myachin, V. F.] [Text] Two—parameter curves are presented which permit two—dimensional sections of complex surfaces, e.g. the hull of a ship, to be described mathematically. Methods for controlling the shape of the curves by changing their parameters are demonstrated. Figures 6, references 4. UDC 656.61.052:65.O11.56+f621.431.74:621.436—52] :53.08 USING Lk—TRANSFORNS IN SHIP AUTOMATIJN PROBLEMS [Abstract of article by Sobolev, L. G.] [Text] The concepts of the L—derivative and the L—integral are Introduced and their geometric interpretation is given. Using them, practical problems are solved in the processing of experimental data for automation systems for shipbuilding processes and technical diagnostics for marine diesel engines. Examples of the practical use of an L—transform to solve a series of problems in the theory control automation are presented. Figures 9, tables 3, references 5. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL LJS ONlY UDC 629.12—52 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF L—APERIODIC LINK [Abstract of article by Kiselev, A. M. and Burdanov, V. I.] [Text] The results of an experimental Investigation of a new class of automatic control systems with variable coefficients are examined. The transient characteristics of the L—aperiodic link are presented, demonstrating a number of advantages as compared with ordinary aperiodic links. Figures 4, references 2. UDC 629.12—52—192 METHOD OF EVALUATING RELIABILITY INDICATORS OF SHIP AUTOMATION DEVICES [Abstract of article by Sobolev, L. C. and Smirnov, V. S.] [Text] A methodology is proposed for developing factual data on the reliability of ship automation devices, with the aim of determining indicators of a stable value for device failure rate and their break—in period. The example is given of the practical use of the proposed methodology for evaluating these values based on data on the reliability of non—Soviet centralized automated control systems which are in use on a group of sea—going ships. Figures 2, references 5. UDC 629.12.037.16 INVESTIGATING STRESS REGULATION PROCESSES IN THE DIESEL VARIABLE—PITCH SCREW PROPULSION UNIT UNDER SWELL CONDITIONS [Abstract of article by Zalitis, V. A.] [Text] The dynamics of a double loop system of stress regulation in a diesel variable—pitch screw propulsion unit under swell conditions is studied. A mathematical model of the system is presented which realizes nonlinear control algorithms and a nonlinear function of the change in hydrodynamic stress on the screw when the ship rolls. A computation methodology is also set out. Figures 3, tables 2, references 2. UDC 621.181:629.12 DYNAMICS OF AUXILLARY SHIP BOILER [Abstract of article by Galanin, A. A.] [Text] tndicators characterizing the operation of an auxiliary ship boiler in stationary mode with two—position regulation of steam pressure. Figures 3, references 2. 11 FOR OFHCIAL USE ONLY OVED FOR F ‘,June 18, 2 .t000500030010-2 1(1K (iitii •:U. 1ISI (?NI.’ SIMULATION MODELING OF TNDUCTION MOTOR [Abstract of article by Tsvetkov, V. V.] UDC 621.313.333:629.12.00L5+629.12.066 [Text] A method is presented for constructing a mathematical model f an induction motor, a model which has been improved to the point of implementation in a program which simulates the fundamental processes in the motor. Data from catalogues are the initial data for the model. Application of the model simplifies significantly calculations associated with appearance of rotor current displacement and permits the necessary set of charaterisics of basic types of squirrel cage induction motors to be obtained in the shortest time. Figures 5, references 6. UDC 29.12.O66:621.311.2—192 EVALUATING MAINTAINABILITY INDICATORS FOR AUTOMATED ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS [Abstract of article by Bykov, E. B., Myachin, V. F., Poznik, V. G.1 [Text] The task of insuring a prescribed probability that a ship’s automated electric power plant will be in working condition is examined on the basis of an analysis of a Markov model of conditions. An approximate solution linking the average time for restoring the power plant to functions of the model’s other parameters is given on the basis of a graphic—operational method. A numerical example is given. Figures 2. UDC 656.61.052.7—52 ;1] Ai .1.] .1a1,j • dWi — -j • I.,.. jj .nn y IIITIT& VA -] ;0] AUTOMATION AND MECHANIZATION OF MOORING OPERATIONS WHEN USING SYNTHETIC HAWSERS [Abstract of article by Bocharov, V. V. and Ivanov, L. P.] [Text] Questions in determining the necessary minimum number of turns of hawsers made prom synthetic materials wh the hawsers are put onto the drum (warping drum) of hawser windlasses. The experimental data which were obtained from testing 4 hawsers diverse materials disp1yed a good convergence with calculations used in the creation of automated hawser mechanisms. Figures 4, made from and are table 1. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 10k O[’H(’IAI 11SF ONlY UDC 629.12—52.004 SELECTING PLAN FOR MAINTENANCE WORK AND REPAIR OF SHIP AUTOMaTION DEVICES [Abstract of article by Kononenko, V. I. and Petrov, V. P.] [Text] Typical work components for maintenance work and repair of ship automation devices are presented. Plans for maintenance and repair are examined as a function of the complexity of the automation devices. Recoin— mendations are made on the advisability of their repair or replacement. Figures 3, tables 2. COPYRIGHT: Tsentral’nyy ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni nauchno—issledovatel’skiy institut morskogo flota (TsNIIMF), 1980 9194 CSO: 1861/45 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .,...LEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2... r’ii irrisi.. NUCLEAR ENERG’f NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL CHANNELS PIND FUEL ELEMENTS / UDC 621.039.548 Moscow TEKHNOLOGICHESKIYE KANALY I TEPLOVYDELYAYUSHCHIYE ELEMENTY YADERNYKH REAKTOROV in Russian 1981 (signed to press 9 Mar 81) pp 2, 113 [Annotation and table of contents from book “Nuclear Reactor Fuel Channe1, and Fuel Elements”, by Georgiy Nikolayevich Ushakov, Energolzdat, 1,630 copies, 113 pages] [Text) ANNOTATION The author explains features of the functioning of nuclear reactor fuel elements (TVEL) along with the technical requireit’ents for them and the basic directions for their further improvement. He discusses questions related to the purpose and layout of fuel assemblies, elements and fuel channels in nuclear reactors and describes their basic characteristics. He also discusses the designs of the TVEL’s used in existing reactors and those being developed for prospective projects. This book is intended for engineering and technical workers engaged in the development and operation of nuclear reactors in AES’s. TABLE OF CONTENTS ;1] Al.] . i • I .i-.-r...r E I-i-Ir. I!.IIiT&[ AiIi .1 .IiTi1 11 .IiTiTiTriTiTiTiTitIi;0] Chapter 1. TVEL Designs 1.1. Technical Requirements for TVEL’s 1.2. Structural Elements of a WEL 1.3. Geometric Shapes of TVEL’s 1.4. Testing TVEL’s 1.5. Damages to TVEL’s During Operation Chapter 2. Nuclear Reactor Fuel Assemblies and Fuel Channels 2.1. Classification and Operating Conditions of Assemblies and Channels. 2.2. Direct-Flow, Pipeless and Single—Pipe Reactor Fuel Channels . 2.3. Fuel Assemblies 2.4. Fuel Cassettes 2.5. Multipipe Fuel Channels List of Recommended Literature COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, 1981 11746 CSO: 1861/42—A 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page 3 3 5 • . 15 58 • . . 60 • . . . 67 • . 67 • . . . 73 • . . . 84 • . . . 88 • . . • 100 • . . . 112 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 P0k OIHcIAL USE ONLY EQUIPMENT AND TOOLING FOR REPAIR OF CI4ANNEL TYPE ATOMIC REACTORS A 0% 0% UDC 621.311.25:621.039.5 Moscow ATOMNYYE ELEKTRICHESKIYE STANTSII in Russian No 2, 1979 pp 136—138 [Article by A. Ya. Shvets and A. C. Kuznetsov] Operating experience with channel reactors has shown that working relia— depends in great measure on the availability of a well conceived and developed technique and reUably operating repair equipment and facilities. The repair facilities for channel reactors differ from those for vessel reactors in lower mass, but are much more complicated in their kinematic chains. Fittings and attachments are worked out for a specific technological process. Some standardization in equipment is achieved by using identical drives, grapplers and configurations. Reactors at the Beloyarsk and Bilibino nuclear electric plants are structurally quite different, and each plant has its own technological processes and repair facilities. The Energiya Scientific Production Association in cooperation with the Beloyarsk and Kursk nuclear power plants is doing research on developing new technology for repairing reactors and individual components. In conformity with the new technology, a great number of repair facilities and devices are now being developed and made. In extraction of the process channels at the BAES [expansion not given] nuclear electric plant, there was a possibility of wedging. A device was made for cutting off a partly extracted and wedged channel. Before the channel is extracted, the device is installed on its head and connected to a remote control system. As the channel is being extracted, the device is raised to a certain height and follows along with the channel as it moves. In case of necessity, the operator can use remotely controlled clamps to fasten the attachment to the channel and sever it with a cutting tool. In case the cutting tool breaks, a spare cutting head is provided on the attachment. When extracting process channels that are situated alongside the channels of the reactor control system, the available cutting tools cannot be used to cut off the head because the clearances are very small. To do this operation, devices have been made for cuttir.g off the head right down to where the steam chamber is opened. The cutting is done by a core drill with automatic feed. Working time of the attachment is 30 minutes. Extraction of shut—down channels required containers for transportation. These containers are made with double walls between which iron shot is poured. 15 ;1] i j J - i ia1 — Al FT .i-ir-- 1i1iT.’a ViJ I •JWàTLa1JàYàYiL4à7iT1iyii.. _____________________________;0] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Text] bility repair APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Since ext raction ol eincigeflcy t net eleLnOnts Involves crumbling ul the fuel, devices have been developed for cleaning the cells with the use of both mechanical devices and hydraulic heads. In mechanical cleaning of the cell the devices had reliable packing preventing emission of contaminated particles into the central building. Brushes were moved by a machine tool. To free the tubes of the fuel elements from the steam chamber of the process channel heads, a drilling head was developed enabling simultaneously drilling out three tubes. A distinguishing feature of this head is the close spacing of holes. The drill is rotated by a central distribution gear. The gear is driven by a series— produced pneumatic machine. The consideraLle experience accumulated by Leningrad Nuclear Electric Plant in repairs of RBMK—2 reactors enables determination of the most feasible solutions in designing repair equipment and facilities. At Energiya Scientific Production Association, research has been done on developing a set of attachemnts for repair of process channels. The following devices have been developed: for cutting off a whisker joint, for replacing an extracted part of a valve, for extracting a process channel, and for cutting off the head of the reactor control system. In the process of reactor operation, it has been found that the installed weld of the stack may be broken. For this case, technology has been developed for blocking the process channel and replacing the stack. To perform these operations, the following devices have been developed: 1) for electric—contact cutting of the steam—water lines; 2) for cutting the stack; 3) for dressing the seam of the stack; 4) for turning down 121; 5) grabs for transporting the stack; 6) separate centering devices and gages. For welding in the new stack, a specialized organization has developed a welding device in cooperation with the Energiya Scientific Production Association that welds in the new stack and provides the necessary reinforcement. Nuclear power plants should give serious consideration to preparation of attachments and devices for performing operations. To solve these problems at the Kursk Nuclear Electric Plant, two stands have been developed: a stand Lhat simulates the stack zone, and a full—scale trainer stand for adjustments of all, kinds of tools and instruments. Considerable headroom is needed for the latter stand. This stand is accommodated in the central building. The stand has four channels, which brings the facility very close to reality. Since the stand is quite high (more than 16 m), the metal structural components are made in sections. Erection 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .,...LEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2... DDwIfl CD DI I..ri IQ ‘)flfl. (9A DflDQ’) FOR OFFICIAL US ONLY of the structural components is started on the floor level of the central building, and the metal structure is lowered as production proceeds. The channel simu1tors are installed last, These are of tubular design with interchangeable elements. Replacement of elements is simple, and as a rule is done without disassembling the channels. This solution is due to the fact that mechanical treatment of the elements is done when adjusting tools. Some zones of the channel are cut out so that the operation of the cutting heads can be observed. Graphite brickwork is simulated in the stand. Special mechanisms are provided to create the effects of destruction of the brickwork. These mechanisms can create effects of breaking the rods of the brickwork, canting of individual elements and so on. The stand is equipped with a large number of observation areas. Vertical ladders are provided for access to these areas. All these areas have local lighting, compressed air tubes and intake ventilation to provide the necessary exchange of air. On the lower area of the stand is a rolling platform with a lifting table used to raise tools for doing operations on the lower level of the reactor. Along the stand is a shaft through which attachments are passed. The crane of the central building is used to raise and lower tools and attachments. The fo1lowin technological processes can be done on the trainer stand: replacement of a process channel, replacement of a casing, straightening graphite brickwork, cleaning brickwork. The following devices are aligned on the stand: for measuring the end displacement of a whisker weld, for cutting off the tubes of the steam— water line, for extracting a process channel, for extracting reactor control rods when the cable breaks, for extracting a thermocouple, for cutting off the upper casing, for cutting off a whisker weld, automatic whisker welder, for cutting off calatches, for cutting down a whisker weld, breaking and extracting a channel of the reactor control system, for cutting bellows and so on. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel’stvo “Energiya”, 1979 6610 CSO: 8144/0260 17 FOR OFFICJAL USE ONLY _j__ — APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REPAIR EQUIPMENT AND TOOLING FOR VESSEL TYPE ATOMIC REACTORS UDC [621.311.25:621.039](06) Moscow ATOMNYYE ELEKTRICHESKIYE STANTSII in Russian No 2, 1979 pp 132—136 [Article by A. Ya. Shvets and A. G. Kuznetsov] ;1] .1.1 .JiaiVJ4JWi i. i TilL4i1 1iTiYiL-(iYiY&L1iYiI,.___________________________;0] [Text] Years of operating experience with vessel type nuclear reactors have shown that successful use necessitates development of a complex of devices enabling inspection and repair of the reactor vessels and equipment inside the vessel. The All—Union Heat Engineering Institute imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy has developed a thick— walled container for vessel inspection. An operator inside the container inspects the inner walls of the vessel through inspection ports along a helical line around the walls of the container. But experience has shown that it is difficult to make repairs on vessels as the container has no vertical drive. Lack of a drive makes it necessary to move tools and attachments through passageways located at different heights, which is difficult to do in a restricted space. For the Kola Nuclear Electric Plant, engineering plans were developed for an autonomous container, and from these plans the Energiya Scientific Production Association made two versions of devices for inspection and repair of reactor vessels——the URK—1 and URK—2. The first one is now in use at the Kola Nuclear Electric Plant. The URK—1 facility for inspection and repair of a reactor vessel is a cab that carries two operators, who are protected from radiation exposure by double steel walls between which lead shot is poured. Shielded inspection ports made of special glass are provided in the walls and floor of the cab. The cab is equipped with the Krug—2 device that enables mechanical treatment of the inside walli of the reactor. In addition, there are passageways in the walls of the cab through which hose manipulators can be operated when necessary. In the bottom of the cab is a hatch that can be oper for access Lo the reactor floor. There is a block and tackle with lifting capaci;j of 0.5 metric ton for raising the hatch and for lowering heavy items from the cortamer to the floor. Inspection and repair in the vicinity of the upper branch pipes ara done through an extension tube with sliding door. There is an inspection port in the door. The cab is equipped with intake ventilation for adequate air exchange and slight pressurization. Since the operators in the cab must work in pressuirzed suits, the cab has an air supply for breathing. The zone of inspection is illuminated by spotlights controlled from inside the cab. The cab contains a local control panel and telephone equipment, and there is a recess for installing nondestructive inspection devices. The radiation environment is monitored inside the cab and on its outside walls by dosimeters that send readings to a central control panel. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R0005000300102 FOR OFFICIAL. (3S1 ONLY The operators enter the cab through a vertical hatch, descending by a ladder. The hatch is composite, made up of two sections; conduits and ducts pass inside the hatch (airways, electrical, monitoring and measurement instrumentation conduits). Commutation of electrical equipment is done by plugs. The hatch is square in shape and has double walls. Lead sheets are packed between the walls. The hatch is attached to the cab by pins, and the whole unit can be located in the vertical plane in any of eight positions 1200 nun apart. The outerwalls of the hatch are provided with lugs for fixing in these positions. Falling into these lugs are longitudinal shafts mounted in levers that pivot on pins set in two rockcrs. Sus— pended from these same rockers are four pneumatic cylinders with rods secured to stationary brackets. When compressed air is fed to the cylinders, the rods move out and rotate the levers, freeing the lugs of the hatch, but this can occur only Lf the lugs are somewhat elevated above the axles of the rocker arms. Disengagement is impossible unless this elevation has taken place. This prevents accidental freeing oE the hatch and cab from the restraining device. In case of necessity, the cab can be raised to the extreme upper position and fixed there even in the absence of compressed air. For this purpose, beneath the lugs on the walls are bevels over which the shafts will be brought out of engagement as the cab and hatch are raised. The cab restraint system is installed on a rotating frame tha bears on a base through a support bearing. The frame is rotated by a gear train driven by an electric motor. The rotating frame and base have radiation shielding. For installation of the facility, ears are provided in the upper section of the hatch into which pins fit that engage with a crossbeam carried by a hook on th crane of the central ractor building. Fr doing inspections and repairs on the vessel, the URK—1 is first assembled with he hatch and rotating platform on a special stand; by means of the crossbeam, the assembled container is grapsed by the crane of the central building, and placed in the reactor. In doing this, the cab may be placed in any of the eight positions. The positions are selected so that neighboring inspection zones overlap. During inspection and repair in a single position, the hook of the crane is disengaged from the crossbeam. In case of necessity, an operator can rotate the cab through 360°, and stop it at the point required for inspection and repair. Changing from one position to another is handled by the crane of the central build— in. The operators working in the cab must leave it during this change. The walls and floor of the cab and haLch have a covering that can be decontaminated. The total mass of the facility is 137 metric tons. The overall dimensions of the cab, hatch and platform permit railroad transportation. The lead shot is removed during transportation. The mass of the heaviest component in this case is 15 metric tons. Utilization of the URK—1 has enabled precise determination of the radiation environment inside the cab, as well, as evaluation of convenience of servicing and technical capabilities. These results have been the basis for a second model of the container ——the URK—2----with design and development incorporating the following changes: the cab is raised and lowered by an autonomous hoisting mechanism with a11 its actuating elements in the “clean” zone so that they can be serviced by repair personnel when the container has been lowered into the reactor; mounted in the cab is the Krug—1 device Lhat enables mechanical treatment of the walls and floor of the reactor with contro’ from the cab; shielding thickness has been increased; provisiovs have been made for doing inspection operations on the vessel with nondesiructive monitoring equipment. 19 ;1] Al •J •J I1VA I . • AL-1 Tvrr2T rT .. i.7’rit.iii v i i .rrz11 1ITITT4ITITI1ITIt ;0] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 Passageways walls of the designed for FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY for installation of additi. nal repair attachnents are provided in the cab. Construction of the URK—2 is comparatively simple, and it is repair under nuclear electric plant conditions. For doing jobs on inspection and repair of reactor vessels, the URK—2 is assembled on a scaffolding. The hook of the crane of the central building that is used to lift the crossbeam has a hoisting capacity of 250 metric tons. The hook raises the facility above the scaffold and transports it to the reactor. After the facility has been lined up over the reactor, it is lowered until it is stopped by the joining with the reactor. After the URK—2 container has been installed on the main joining, the crossbeam is disengaged from the hatch, and set aside in the central building. The container is connected to the life support systems, power supply, compressed air, to the central control panel and systems for communication, television, monitoring and measurement instrumentation and radiation monitoring systems. From this instant the facility is considered ready for operation. Elevation and rotation of the cab can be controlled from the central or local panel. Since the hoisting mechanism is a step—by—step type, raising and lowering are done in stages, all operations of staged raising and lowering being done automatically. In case of necessity, the cab can be raised by the crane of the central building. The hoisting mechanism is backed up by a second interlocking system that enables smmoth descent of the cab to a lower position. The operator controls the mechanisms from the local control panel, and can set the cab in any place to be inspected and repaired. To inspect and repair the bottom of the shaft, a container has been developed that is a square chamber with rollers installed on the bottom. A vertical tilter is placed on the rollers that is rotated from Iwo chains wound on a drum that is turned by a worm drive. The worm is turned manually. Welded inside the tilter are two horizontal strips: one for installing bottom plates of the V—210 reactor, and the other for VVER—440 reactors. For shielding servicing personnel, the chamber is filled with water, and the top of the reactor is covered with additional shielding plates. Inspection and repair of bottom plates is done from above. In doing this, one plate is removed that is situated opposite the row of shielding tubes to be repaired. in case of necessity, the tilter is turned through the required angle (up to 8O0), enabling inspection and repair of the top and bottom of the cover. To replace shielding tubes in the cutting the weld of the shielding insLalled in a cutting head. The a gear train. V—210 reactor, a device has been developed for tube and breaking it. The weld is cut by cutters cutting head is turned by a pneumatic motor through ;1] Al .1.1 IV1 ‘i . i • ir-1 TIT!7 tT1 •1 .i. I!IiTiT.i FA 1.1 .TiTir!1fi1 IiTiTiT{thTiLTiTit Ii’•;0] For extracting the reactor shaft, a special device has been developed that is a platform with vertical walls. The bottom and wails of the platform are thickened to reduce the radiation background. The platform carries four brackets in which there are two extensible shafts apiece. The brackets can change position within i range of 2—3°. Gates are made in the walls, through which the straps that hold the shaft against the vessel can be clamped and released. The platform is suspended on four bars fastened to a cruciform crossbeam. The ends of the crossbeam terminate in hydraulic jacks. On the crossbeam is an eyebolt to engage the hook of the crane 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 DDDfWIfl flD DI I..rrn 10 ‘)flflô. fIA DflDQ’) flflQADflflAflflflAA4fl ‘) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the central building. Between the crossbeam and platform is a ladder by which servicing personnel can descend to the platform. To temove the shaft, the device is lowered by the crane of the central building into the reactor until it is stopped by contact of the hydraulic jacks with the main joining. Then the shafts are extended. In case they do not line, up with the holes in the shaft, screw jacks are used to shift the brackets until the shafts line up with the hoJes. After all shafts have been fixed in position, the gates are opened and the straps are unfastened. The straps are stacked on the platform, and the repair personnel leave. The hydraulic jacks are then used to break the shaft loose, which may require a force of up to 50 metric rons. The crane of the central building is used to hoist and remove the shaft. At nuclear electric plants it is important to reduce rhe volume of soft radioactive waste that must be disposed of by burial. It is difficult to use existing presses for this purpose as they are cumbsersome and are not: adaptibie to decontamination. Because of this, the “Briket—I” press has been deveinped for cornpicting radioactive waste. This press reduces the volume of soft wastes by eightfold. The ram develops a force of 32 metric tons. All components of the press that come into contact with radioactive waste ate made of stainless steel. The pres is remotely controlled. The compacted waste is manually banded, and ejected by a liotizunLil hydraulic cylinder. The press masses three metric tons and takes up 12 sq m f space. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel’stvo “Energiya”, 1979 6610 CSO: 8144/0260 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 • spa ... a n.m.., J.sS ‘fl’II INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY UDC 621.039:519.1.001.2 SYSTEMS-MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN DES IGN INC ATOMIC EQUIPMENT Moscow KONSTRUKTORU 0 KONSTRUIROVANII ATOMNOY TEKHNIKI: SYSTEMNO-MORFOLOGICHESKIY PODKHOD V KONSTRUIROVANII in Russian 1981 (signed to press 27 Nov 80) pp 2, 189-190 [Annotation and table of contents from book “To the Designer, on the Designing of Atomic Equipment: Phe Systems-Morphological Approach in Designing”, by Viktor Mikhaylovich Kapustyan and Yuriy Aleksandrovich Makhoteriko, Atomizdat, 5,000 copies, 191 pages] [Text] ANNOTATION The authors suggest a coznbinatory concept of working with alternatives that differs from the well-known concepts in that great compression of factual and graphic data is achieved in it. They d’ve1op fundamentally new systems-morphological optimization methods and a general logic nethod for making decisions during the design process. On the whole, combinatory methods for making decisions are an independent trend in the theory and practice of control and design that is called the systems- morphological approach in this book. In particular, the authors explain the principles of the mathematical apparatus for the echelon-by-echelon calculations used to solve optimization problems in designing. This book is intended for designers of new equipment and is indispensable for specialists in various branches of machine and tool building, scientific workers specializing in the field of decision-making theory in designing, and graduate students and students in high-level courses in VuZ’s. It can also be used as a teaching aid when upgrading the qualifications of engineering and technical personnel. Figures 53; references 90. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Foreword 3 Introduction 5 Bibliography 14 Chapter 1. Systems Analysis of Creative Designing Processes 15 1.1. Life Cycle of a Model 15 1.2. The Simplest Cy1e of Creative Activity 18 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .ursday, June 18, 2009: Chapter 3. The Cornbinatory Memory. 3.1. The Memory’s Role 3.2. The Combinatory Memory’s Mechanism. 3.3. An Example of Recall 3.4. Some Conclusions Bibliography 19 20 30 38 42 43 52 52 53 54 57 76 82 84 118 118 • 124 • 129 • 143 • 153 • 154 • 154 • 156 • 160 • 169 • 171 — .- —. — a p. I— - — I_ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page Criterion 46 50 51 1.3. Material Levels of Designing 1.4. Preliminary Systemization 1.5. Principles of the Economy of Labor During Equipment Development 1.6. 1esu1t—Borrowing Processes 1.7. Processes That Are the Reverse of Borrowing 1.8. Channels for the Emergence of Losses During Development 1.9. The Generalized Recovery and Borrowing Process and the Simplest for the Significance of Ideas 1.10. Some Results Bibliography Chapter 2. Systems-Morphological Analysis of Creative Design Processes (the Basic Combinatory Concept) 2.1. The Block Tree 2.2. Combinatory Sets of Designs 2.3. Alternatives and Kombinanty [possibly Combinations] as Paired Concepts. 2.4. The Coinbinatory File 2.5. Strips of Alternatives as Hierarchical choice Levels in Design Problems 2.6. Simplification of the Geometric Form of the Cornbinatory File 2.7. Echelons and Clusters - 2.8. Zwicky’s Idea 2.9. Selection and Selection Criteria 2.10. The Convergent Optimization Process 2.11. Conjugate Optimization 2.12. Working With Limitations 2.13. The Necessity of Supplementing the Cornbinatory File. 2.14. Supplementing the File With Information on the Environment 2.15. Some Results Bibliography ;1] i 1.1 IaN — — — - — FA 1 1 .JIiTi1 r r i;0] and Technology. 85 86 89 89 91 92 93 95 98 98 .... 98 103 111 118 118 Chapter 4. The Role of Alternatives in Creative Processes 4.1. Working With Alternatives in Engineering Graphics 4.2. Working With Alternatives When Choosing a Goal and When Removing a Model FromProductjon 4.3. Working With Alternatives When Designing Processes 4.4. Working With Alternatives When Making Engineering Predictions Bibliography Chapter 5. Controlling the Configuration of a Model in the Design Process. 5.1. Configuration Control 5.2. Replenishing the Configuration Data File 5.3. Principles of Configuration Monitoring 5.4. General Pattern of Configuration Control Bibliography 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 13, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 — _l ne. Page Chapter 6. The Origin of TechnosystelflatiCS 171 6.1. Prerequisites for TechnosystematiCS 171 6.2. The Role of Concepts in Technosystelflati.CS 173 6.3. The Initial Stage of TechnOsyStematiC • 183 Bibliography • 185 Conclusion. What Does the Systems-Morphological Approach Offer the Designer? 186 Index 187 COPYRIGHT: Atomizdat, 1981 11746 CSO: 1861/42 ;1] 1.1 I’iTJ 1 ni.. -. — - I UI. I•F.Y. I,IiYiT.a VA -] 1 Ii;0] 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 FOR OFHCIAL IJSF ONLY UDC 621.14 SELECTED ABSTRACTS FROM COLLECTION ‘EXPERINTAL STiJDY AND DIAGNOSIS O’ ROBOTS’ Moscow EKSPERIMENTAL’NOYE ISSLEDOVANIYE I DIAGNOSTIROVANIYE ROBOTOV in Russian 1981 (signed to press 5 May 81) pp 181—184 [Abstracts from collection ‘Experimental Study and Diagnosis of Robots,’ edited by Ye. G. Nakhapetyan, USSR Academy of Sciences, Division of Mechanics and Control Processes, Institute of Mechanical Engineering imeni A. A. Blagonravov, Izdatel’stvo “Nauka”, 1950 copies, 184 pages] UDC 621.14 QUALLMETRY AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF ROBOTS [Abstract of article by Nakhapetyan, Ye. C] [Text] The article discusses questions involving selection of measurable and recordable parameters on the basis of conditions under whichrobots will be employed. It contains tables of the levels of quality analysis for robot linear and angular positioning mechanisms. The most important complex quality indicators are indicated for these mechanisms with experimental values presented for thcse indicators as determined with respect to a number of robots with varying types of drive. Tables — 6; bibliography - 5 titles. IJDC 620.1.08 THE PROBL1 OF SELECTING MEANS OF COLLECTING QUALIMETRIC INFORMATION IN STUDYING AUTOMATIC MACHINES AND INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS [Abstract of article by Merzlyakov, A. A.] [Text] This selection examines questions associated with the preparation of experimental studies of automatic production equipment and industrial robots with respect to selection of the necessary primary measuring transducers (sensors). It discusses a method of selecting sensors based upon use of the results of statistical analysis of a number of dynamic parameters of the processes under study. It sets forth an engineering approach to the selection of sensors with the required metrological and informational characteristics. Illustrations — 5; bibliography — 4 titles. 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY -. ..ursday,June1.,_....: CIA-RDP8_____.. I- ,-,-I I ‘iJK UllItIAL IJSF ONLY REQUIREMENTS FOR CERL’.LF1CAT1ON ThSTS OF INDUSTRiAL ROBOTS L’n(: 007 .57.00 I .6 [Abstract of article by Kolpashnikov, S. N., Konyukhov, A. C., Korytko, I. B. and Chelpanov, I. B.] [Text] This article establishes the need for a unified system of state certification for industrial robots. It discusses specific methods of establishing standards for basic indicators. It proposes a method of experimentally establishing accuracy indica— tors for positioning and orientation under both static and dynamic conditions. Illustrations — 3; bibliography — 8 titles. UDC 62—501.72 HALF-SCALE MODELING DEVICE FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A MANIPULATION ROBOT [Abstract of article by Dorotov, V. V., Moiseyenkov, V. A., Rakhmanov, Ye. V. and Shvedov, V. N.] [Text] This work deals with the application of a method of physical modeling in the process of designing manipulation systems. The use of physical models makes it possible to check not only the basic characteristics of the system under study, but to test its components and assemblies as well. As an example the work looks at variants of the principles governing construction of a node1ing device to study a manipulator having flexible components. It describes the design of one version of such a device as well as some results of a tudy of its dynamics for purposes of comparison with the dynamics of the manipulator, results characterizing the degre€ of similarity of the dynamic characteristics of the two. Illustrations — 5; bibliography — 4 titles. UDC 681.516.75 ;1] J1VA - .J ‘1 — I .iwuj.I n.— • •• .y. I!IiTITL VA !i 1I IIP;0] EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF INTERACTIVE ROBOT-CONTROL SYSTEMS [Abstract of article by Chernorutskiy, C. S. and Sibrin, A. P.] [Text] This article examines aspects of the experience accumulated in constructing Facilities comprising a dynamic test stand, a computer and peripheral equipment and designed for half—scale modeling of dynanic processes and of the functioning of the sensitizaLion of robots. Illustrations — 6; bibliography — 7 titles. UDC 621.519 M-6000-COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT OF A MOCKUP FOR STUDYING OPERATOR—MANIPULATOR SYSTEMS [Abstract of an article by Orlova, G. N. and Tyves, L. I.] [Text] This article describes a mockup for studying operator—manipulator systems and contains the program supporting the experiment as well as results of preliminary experiments. Illustrations — 3; bibliography — 2 titles. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP2-OO85OROOO5OOO3OO1O-2 10k OFFaCkL USE ONLY DYNAMIC TESTS OF A SECOND-GENERATION INDUSTRIAL ROBOT UDC 621.9.06 [Abstract of an article by Anan’yeva, Ye. G., Klebanova, 0. N. and Nakhapetyan] [Text] This article deals with dynamic methods of testing the positioning mechanisms of an industrial robot.. It describes a method of studying a robot and presents test results. It compare obtained robot characteristics with passport data. The work demonstrates the effe’t of the rigidity of the positioning mechanisms upon the precision with which is worked oui: the given exponential law of motion. It presents the results of a study of a robot iii the “receive command,”“search” and “position part” modes. Tables — 5; illustrations — 3; bibliography — 1 entry. UDC 007.52 1)tcaTAL-COI1PIJTR rIODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS WITh PNEUMATIC DRIVE jAbstract of an article by Karklin’sh, A. K. and Raynes, Ya. K.] [Text] The selection examines the role of computer modeling and experimental studies of the dynamics of industrial robots (IR) with pneumatic drive in the process of their design and operation. It describes the apparatus employed in experimental studies of IR. The work contains restilLs of experimental study of a specific robot and compares them with those obtained by computer modeling. Tables — 1; illustrations — 4; bibliography — 4 titles. UDC 007.52:62—85 ;1] iV —I i’ W1 — —] —i• —VAt-I I., n..r.. i n.. .r- iTrr.’ai VAJ!iI .II ;0] SELECTING DESIGN AND PARAMETERS OF BRAKING MECHANISMS FO. THE PNEUMATIC DRIVE OF AUTOMATIC MAN [PULATORS [Abstract of an article by Kreynin, G. V. and Solntseva, K. S.] [Texi] This work examines the results of comparative analyses of different methods of braking large mobile masses. The modulus of rotation of an automatic manipulator was employed in these studies. Rotation was achieved by means of a rack—and-pinion mechanism actuated by two pneumatic cylinders. The mass of the moving parts reduced to a common rod for the two cylinders was 7000 kg. Illustrations — 2; bibliography — 2 ti— ties. UDC 62.-62.387 SELECTING THE PARAMETERS OF HYDRAULIC SHOCK ABSORBERS FOR THE PNEUMATIC DRIVE OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS [Abstract o an article by Tsukhanov, Ye. A., Yashina, M. A. and Gets, V. B.] [Text] This article examines a method of selecting the parameters of a hydraulic shock absorber with continuously varying aperture areas with limited pressure, acceleration or braking stroke. It presents results of tests of a model hydraulic shock absorber braking a pneumatic drive, results confirming theoretical conclusions. Illustrations — 4; tables — 1; bibliography — 2 titles. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY al—I—n APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 IUK urr,I.L UI U1NL [UDC omitted in original] OPTIMIZING MOVEMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS IN SHEET-METAL STAMPING OPERATIONS [Abstract of an article by Semenov, Ye. I., Shchegoleva, A. P. and Suleymanov, B.] [text] This article presents results of experimental study of a group of mechanical parameters of the PR—1OI and UN—i industrial robots insuring optimal trajectories of the working devices with the equipment in the given sheet—metal—stamping configuration. The PR—1OI is opciuiized by integrating movements with respect to two coordinates (rotation—extension), the UM—1 by determining trajectories with respect to time minimum as a function of arm sweep and angular rotation with equal pressure differentials in the hydraulic cylinders at the moment of braking. Illustrations — 7; bibliography — 2 ti— UDC 621.9.06 STUDY AND QUALIMETRIC METHODS OF EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS WITH PNEUMETIC DRIVE [Abstract of an article by Anan’yeva, Ye. C., Velikov, R. V., Paviova, T. T., Rozin, B. Sh. and Shvetskov, V. N.J [Text] This article deals with experimental study and qualimetric methods of evaluating the efficiency of industrial robots with pneumatic drive. It describes a standard experimental procedure and presents the basic results of a study of the positioning mechanisms of two industrial robots. It gives a number of qualimetric coefficients characterizing the speed of a robot, the level of the dynamic loads acting upon the positioning mechanisms and the precision with which has been worked out the given law of motion. The work compares the two robots with respect to the results of the experimental study and to qualimetric coefficients. Tables — 3; illustrations — 4; bibliography — 2 titles. uDC 621.9.06 ;1] Al .1-i -YaN I i—i• —WA’1 —I.,.. .nn .Y- ITII&L VA -] .1 ;0] EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AN INDUSTRIAL ROBOT WITH AN ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM [Abstract of an article by Anan’yeva, Ye. G., Mironov, A. I., Nakhapetyan, Ye. G., Sol— datskiy, Ye. P. and Chelyshev, V. A.] [Text] This article deals with experimental studies of an industrial robot with an electrohydraulic control system. It describes a standard experimental procedure permitting determination of basic quality indicators during sequential functioning of robot mechanisms and indicates special features of the procedure associated with study of the effect of the variable gear ratio of the horizontal arm—movement mechanism. It gives results of a study of the mechanisms of the robot’s vertical and horizontal arm movements and of the mechanisms of column and gripper rotation. The work compares the characteristics of the model tested with those of a robot of analogous design. Tables — — 3; illustrations — 3; bibliography — 3 titles. 28 FOP OFFICIAL USE ONLY ties APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 kk OH(’IAI. (ISl oNI’ t’P(: 2 1 .. .Oe DETERMINiNG THE BASiC ChARACTERISTICS OF’ AN INDUSTRIAL GANTRY ROBOT [Abstract of an article by Anan’yeva, Ye. G. and L’vov D. Ye.] [Text] This article discusses a study of an industrial gantry robot. It describes the procedure employed in testing the robot and presents the results of the test. It indicates how this procedure differs from the standard procedure, these differences stemming from the special features of this particular robot design. The work discusses the results of a study of oscillations of the traverse along both the longitudinal and transverse axes occurring during robot operation. It gives values of quality coeff i— cients, permitting comparison of the design of the robot tested with other designs. Tables — 3; illustrations — 3; bibliography — 2 titles. STUDY OF A MANIPULATOR MECHANISM WITH HIGH—SPEED FILMING [Abstract of an article by Kravchenko, N. F.] UDC 621.9.06:007.52 [Text] This work describes a procedure for testing the kinematic, dynamic and precision parameters of a manipulator mechanism by high—speed filming of its movements. It presents the results of kinematic, dynamic and precision tests of the SMT—700 manipulator. Illustrations — 3; bibliography — 4 titles. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DYNAMIC FORCES ON ROBOT ARM MOVEMENT [Abstract of an article by Anan’yev, A. N.] UDC 621.9.06 ;1] 1 i W1 - -j—i• V&’i I.,.. rz n.— nu VA -j .1ILY lhTTIT T1tM7L ;0] [Text] Criteria permitting evaluation of the precision of robot arm movement are pre— sented. It is shown that the precision with which a given arm movement trajectory is reprodtred is a function “f r: parmeter and the i3tributi3n r,f mntior . wn drives. The work demonstrates the deviation of a robot arm from a desired trajectory as a result of the effect of dynamic forces. Table — 1; illustrations — 5; bibliography — 2 titles. UDC 681.532 STUDY OF METHODS OF ENHANCING THE PRECISION OF MANIPULATION ROBOT POSITIONING WITH THE USE OF ADDITIONAL POSITIONAL FEEDBACK TO THE COMPUTER [Abstract of an article by Kuzetenko, A. S., Lomaka, M. V. and Fedorov, V. P.] [Text] This article describes the use of an automated test for correcting control inputs for degree of manipulation robot (MR) mobility for the purpose of enhancing positioning precision. The work examines two categories of MR positioning error occurring during the movement of the MR working device, errors which are difficult to anticipate and describe analytically and errors resulting from insufficiently accurate information from sensors for the processes in question. On the basis of the example of potentiometric positional sensors, the work studies the causes and nature of measuring-potentiometer error and examines a variety of ways to take them into account and to enhance the precision of 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 11 Iflfl APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 DDDflIfl flD DI Thiirc,1,, Iiiri IQ ‘)flflQ. (‘IA DflDQ’) flflQflDflflflflflflflfllfl ‘) lUK (ft I Ii IiI U I)IIT he in format lou rect ived f row thsc st•iiors • Ii prnpcj LTIeIhOds of [ncreaiIng the precision of MR posilloning by means of conirol computers in the control loop. It presents practical test results. Tables — 1; illustrations — 3; bibliography — 3 titles. UDC 621.01 ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL DEVICES OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS MOVING ON TWO COORDINATES [Abstract of an article by Levitskiy, D. N.] [Text] This work analyzes a hydraulic control device with movement in two coordinates for the purpose of insuring planned gripper braking and of enhancing positioning precision within a short time cycle. Gripper movement is determined in cylindrical coordinates. The braking device is designed as a controllable throttle having independent drive. Geometrical parameters of the braking device are calculated on the basis of conditions associated with braking with constant negative acceleration. Illustrations — 2; bibliography 3 titles. UDC 007.52:681.5 ALGORITHM FOR IDENTIFYING OBJECTS ON A DISCRETE INFORMATIONAL SURFACE [Abstract of an article by Lashko, Ye. B. and Salamandra, B. L.] [Text] This article presents an algorithm for tracing the contour of an object lying on a discrete informational surface; it discusses evaluative characteristics of objects on the basis of which they are identified. Illustrations — 2; bibliography — 5 titles. UDC 007.52:681.5 ONE METHOD OF TACTILE SENSITIZATION OF ROBOTS [Abstract of an article by Yevstigneyev, V. N., Koliskor, A. Sh., Modestov, M. B. and Uiudov, V. A.] [Text] This selection examines the tactile sensitization of robots to obtain informa— tion about the form of objects with the use of autonomous sensitizers; it establishes the possibility of using several contact and noncontact sensors as robot sensitizers. It presents algorithms determining control inputs to robot component drives with the use of these sensors. Illustrations — 6; bibliography — ii titles. UDC 621.01:629.1.033.3 THE PROBLEM OF DYNAMICALLY STABLE, SY1ETR1CAL WALKING—MACHINE GAITS [AbstrLict of an article by Korenovskiy, V. V.] [Text] This article establishes dynamically stable gaits for 4— and 6—lcgged walking machines on the basis of state phase stability criteria. It is demonstrated that in the case of both quadrupeds and hexapods, the greatest number of dynamically stable gaits is to be obtained from phases of the nonstable state both in the direction of movement and counter to it. To achieve substantially larger regions of stable locomotion with phases of lateral instability requires considerable rates of walking—machine movement. TJlustrations — 2; bibliography — 1 title. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 MUDEL OF A WALKING DEVICE FOR OFFICIAL 1JS ONLY UDC 621.O1:629.1.Ô33.3 [Abstract of an article by Uinnov, N. V., Pogrebnyak, A. Ya., Ba1’zhanv, D. Ts. and Andrianov, N. A.] [Text] This article describes a systematic model of a 6—legged walking device equipped with orthogonal operating mechanisms. It discusses methods by which walking systems may be turned. The work also presents the results of experimental studies. Illustrations — 4; bibliography — 8 titles. FORMULATION OF THE LOGIC PROBLEM IN INDUSTRIAL-ROBOT DIAGNOSTICS [Abstract of an article by Surnin, B. N. and Shushko, D. A.] UDC 62.506.3 + 007.52 [Text] This work elaborates a number of diagnostic coneepts, states the basic task involved in industrial—robot diagnostics and presents working formulas for calculating the probabilities of various industrial—robot (IR) states. It treats the special features of IR diagnostics as an informational problem and proposes working formulas constructed in both Kalbek’s [transliterated] and Shannon’s terms for calculating one of the basic quality characteristics of information value——the diagnostic importance of a scheme of criteria. In presents in conclusion an exa.!lple of analysis of information value on the basis of results of analysis of test data. Tables -. 3; bibliography — 4 titles. ;1] Al .1.1 IaV1 —11 —ri ii• VAL1 — I ,-.-i-j..y C.TT r.Iy IIiTiT. VA -] .1 .T iTiT1i1 IiTiTifiTiT&LIiTitIi______________________________;0] COPYRIGHT: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka”, 1981 8963 CSO: 1861/56 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, June 18, 2009: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030010-2 UDC 621.375.8 Moscow MAKROSKOPTCHESKIYE 1 MOLEKULYARNYYE PROTSESS{ V GAZO’1YKI-{ IAZERAKII in Russian 1981 (signed to press 10 Mar 81) pp 2, 200 [Annolat ion and in Gas Lasers”, Atomizdat, 1700 [Text 1 table of contents from book “Macroscopic and Molecular Processes by Vladimir Nikolayevich Karnyushin and Rem Ivanovich Soloukhin, copies, 200 pages] Annotation ;1] Al -1.1 -YV i. -(TT—i . —t7vrry . ._. . . .;0] This book explains questions of the physics and technology of flow—through gas lasers wits rotational oscillatory transitions. Macroscopic and molecular processes are examined in detail in gas—discharge lasers with convective cooling of the working medium and gas dynamic lasers with near—resonant oscillatory exchange in the region of supersonic flux mixing. A considerable amount of attention is devoted to analyzing experimental findings an explaiaiag the influence of the various factors on the power characteristics of flow—through laser systems. The book is intended for a broad group of specialists interested in problems of developing and applying laser technology, and for teachers, graduate students and senior students in engineering and physics courses. ‘I’w() Libles, $9 illustrations, 413 bibliographic references. Table of Contents Forew’rd C1i:ip1r 1. General I’heoret ical Questions §1. Problems and methods of flow—through laser theory 52. Equations of classical electrodynamics §3. Pbysical principles of quantum mechanics §4. Energy levels of atoms and molecules §5. ELements of optical resonator theory §1. K I net i c theory of col lisi on processes 7. Iqu:it ions of gas clynaniics