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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500030013-9 FOR OFFICIAI. USH: ONLY JPRS L/ 10304 4 February 1982 USSR Re ort p - HU?MAN RESOURCES (FOUO 2/82) F~IS FORElGN BROADCAST IRFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500430013-9 - NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news ag~...~y ' transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from fcreign-language sources are translated; th~se from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retait:ed. _ Aeadlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mat~on was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and eaclosed in parentheses were not clear in t~he original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Otlier unattribu~:ed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate k�ith the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. , COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF - MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE 'rHAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFPICIAL USE O~~ILY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 , JPRS L/10304 4 February 1982 USSR REPORT NUMAN RESOURCES ' (FOUO 2/s 2 ) CONTENTS LABOR Uzbek Labor Prableme end Proapecta - (G. A. Shiater; ISTORIYA SSSR, Nov-Dec 81) 1 DEMOGRAPHY Development of Cities in Oil, Gas Regions in West Siberian Plain (GOROD V SIBIRI, 1980) 21 - a - [III - USSR - 38c FOUO] F'OR UF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 LABOR UZBEK LAI;OK PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS Moscow ISTORIYA SSSR in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 pp 26-40 [Article by G. A. Shister: "Sources for the Replentsh~nent of Uzbekistan's Working Class During the Stage of Developed Socialism") . [Text] Among the basic direct~ons in the development uf sucial sciences during the present stage, the 26th CPSU Congress placed researc.h oii the processes, which are taking place in the social structure of Soviet soci~_ty, in one of the first places. - The scientific analysis of replenishment sources for the working class occupies an important place in the study of this problem. ~ A number of works, devoted to labor resource prnhl.ems and the reproducticn of man- power in which this su~~ect is touched upon~ ~aere published in Uzbekistan during the Sixties and Seventies. However~ questions an ways to more rationally use the sources for replet~ishing the workiiig clast~ in the republic have still not received the necessary treatment. The goal of analyzing the activity of the republic's party, soviet and economic orgai~s in solving this problem has been assigned in the article. This will permit more attention to be attracted to it and cocitribute the dissemj.nation of the experience wY~ich has heen accumulated in regiona having an analogous demographi.c situation. * * * ~ The ratio of working class replenish,-nent sources is determined primarily by the social structure of Soviet society and by those changes which are taking place in it. During Che stage of mature socialism, the tendency toward t.he rapid coming together of classes acid social groups and progressive eradication uf the differences between tl~em is ttie leading one. L. I. Brezlinev declared in the report of the CPSU Ceritral Committee to the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: "Uur gual is t}~e creation of a society ln which there will not be a division of people irito classes. And it is possible to s~y definitely: We are gradually but confi- dently muving toward this great goal." The movenient of the Soviet people Lowards social uniformity, which is deEermined by the cousistent policy of the party and state concerning the internationalization of 1 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 ~he cotinLry~s econumic, social and political life, is shown also in t.he growing rappruchement of the nations and nationalities in their social structure. This is reflected primarily in the increase in ttie propor~tior of republic working class detaclunents. In 1959, workers were 39.2 percent of the employed population in Uzbekistan;, in 1970 45.7 percent; and in 1979 (based on Central Statistical DirectoraLe data) 52.9 percent. Workinb class repleni5hment sources are identical for all the country, but their ratio and use are conditioned a great deal by a republic`s specialization within the all-union division of labor. This specialization is planned by the union - goverument dependiiig oi~ natural conditiuns and material and labor resources. They are determined by the setllement conditions which took shape historical3.y, by the naturt of migration proct.sses~ by national traditions, etc. The fact tl~at the development of industry took place and is taking place where there is a significant ~redumina~ice in the population of rural area inhabitants who are oriented on workirig in the agrarian sector of the econom~ and i;~ the branches associated with it, is a peculiarity of the Central Asian region, including Uzbekistan. Large natural increases and an extremely low outflow of representatives o.f the indigenous _ nationalities beyond the limits of their republic, which is conditioned by ethnic features and national traditions, are typical of this region. The working class itself is the main source for rep].en3shing it. K. Marx wroLe that "the most progressive workers are fully aware that the future of their class and consequ~ntly of mankind entirely depends un the upbringing of the rising gereration" . The Communist Party is displaying tireless concern for the replenish- ment of the leading class in socialist society with its sons and daughters. _ As the works of Soviet sociologists show~ the children of worker families provided a large part of the working class rep].acements during the Sixties and Seventies. Thus, in the Len~ngrad machine Uuildir~g industry, the~r reached 56 percent of a]~1 those questioi~ed ; in the Mosco~, .egion 77 percent ; in Baohkiriya 58.1 ; and in Uzbekistan , 51.3 percent (1971) in the Chirchikskiy Electrochemical Combine, ~the Tashkent El.ectronic Equipment Plant, and in the "Tashtekstil'mash" Plant. ~ The mentioned conformity to law has an objective nature. However, a subjective - factor plays a large role in it. A great deal of work is being done in Uzbekistan under the leadersl~ip of the party organization to increase the portion of hereditary workers in the overall number of industrial personnel. Party, trade union and Komsomol organizations are indoctrinating the rising generation in revolutiona.ry and work traditioiis. Museums and roome of fame, in which rich material on worker houses is presented, are being established in enterprises. Documents on workers~ whose fatliers took part in carrying otit the socialist revolution in Uzbekistan, are on exhibit in the Museum of Military and Work Glory in the Plant imeni Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya. ~ Among the famous worker houses of the republic, one cannot fail to mention ehe Os'kin (Tashkentskoye Aviation Production Aesociation) whuse ancestors~- M,ikhai.l IJikolayevich, and his wife, Kla~diya Vasil'yevna gave 60 years to their native plant ~~nd l~rought five cliildren to it ; the Nuritdinov family of inettalurgists who are _ 2 FOR OF~'ICtAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 working in the rolling workshop of the Uzbek MettallurgicalPlant i.meni V. I. Lenin for tt~e third decade, the senior member of the family Said, a Hero of Soc.ialist Lahor for more than 30 years; the Val'kov family who have worked in one of th~ machine buildfng plants of Uzbekistan's capital in toto for more tl~an 100 years ; and the Ikramovs from the Namanganskiy [avrov] Cloth Combine imeni 25th CPSU Congress, tt~e "oldest" worker dynas~~ in the republic the total length of itG work activity is more than 250 years. Investigations which tiave be~n conducted by us in a number of Uzbekistan's e~iterprises, testify that many of their workers are second and even third gen- erations of worker dynasties. In the Chirchiks'.ciy Electrochemical Combine, the - parents or close relatives of 18 percent of those questioned in 1961 and of 23 Pcrcent ir. 1971 had worked there. In the "Tashtekstil'mash" Plan~, t}~e parents of 23 percent of the workers had worked in the plant according to a 1971 investigation (some had worked there from the day of its founding or had been evacuaCed wit~ the plant during tt~e Great Patriotic War). It is necessary to point out that statistics do not give exhaustive inform3tion on working class replenishment sources; however, information from specifi:: sociological research in ttie republic's industrial enterprises confirms th~ concl.usion that rhe role of tre working class as a source for forming i.ts own repl.acements is growing in Uzbekistan ~ust as throughout the entire country, and, cor~sequentl~i the absolute number and proportion af Y;ereditary wc:rkers are increasing. The kolkhoz peasantry r.ontinued to be one of the major sources for replenishing the working class during the Sixties and Seventies. However, as is pointed out in the l~tl-erature, its share gradually decreased on the whole throughout the ~ countr.y. By the Seventies, the oppor~unities for drawing kolkhoz workers - into the ranks of the working class had practically been exhausted in many areas of the counr.ry in connection with the rapid urbanization rates. Whereas the USSR rural population decreased by 3.1 million individuals the period - between the 1S59 3nd 1970 Ail-Uni.on Population Census, it decreased by 6.9 ~ mi.lliot~ individuals between 1970 a.nd 1979. In nine years, the overall numt~er of. rural. people decreased by 6.5 po~t~ts at a time when the urban population share increased from 56 to 62 percent. The m~ntioned tendency does not operate with equal force in all regions of the = country. Based on the degree of dPCrease criterion, the most urbanized r.epub].ics - of: the Soviet Union now are: The Estonian SSR (70 percent), the RSFSR (69 percent), ti~e I.atvian SSR (68 percent) , the Armenian SSR (66 percent) , Tt~e Ukiai.nian SSR (Cl percent), tile Lithuanian SSR (61 percent), the Belorussian SSR (55 percen~} - and tt~e Kazakh SSR (54 percent). k~~wever, in tl~e republics of the Central Asian region where with the e~~eption ~~f Tajikistan the proportion of the rural populaticn also had a tAndency to decrease, the absolute number of the rurual population grew in Kirghizia by '8 percent, in irr.bekistan by L1 percent, an~141n Turkmenia by 28 percent during the period between the 1970 and 1979 census. The highesl gro~r~h in rut~a]_ population was observed in Tajikistan (36 percent) during this period. 3 FOR OFFICIAL i1SE ONL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 '1'hus, in coiitrast to a number of the country's central rayons, the rural population, including the kolkhoz peasantry, has large potential opportunities available in Uzbekistan, just as in the other Central Asian republics, not only for its own rep rod ~tion but also for replenishirig the working class. When evaluating tiie labor resources of Uzbekistan and the opportunities for re- distributing a portion of the able-bo3ied population from agricultural production to industry, planning organs proceed from the fact that the population is distribut- ed extremely unevenlj~ over the republic's territory. In this connection, some rayons aiid oblasts have experience~ a shortage in manpower; others a surplus in it. On 1 January 1980, the population density in Uzbekistan reached 35.2 individuals per one square kilometer. However, whereas it was equal only to 5.6 individuals in the Karakalpakskaya ASSR, 9.0 in Bukharskaya OUlast, 25.7 in Dzhizakskaya ~blast, and 4U.7 in Kashkadar'inskaya Oblast; it was 328.5 individuals in Andizt~anskaya Oblast, 244.1 in ~~rganskaya Oblast, 233.6 in Khorezmskaya Oblast, and 143.0 in Namanganskaya Oblast. The populatfon density continues to grow in a number of overpopulated oblasts. From 1970 to 1980 alone, it increased by 76.4 individuals in Andizhanskaya Oblast, by 56.5 in Ferganskaya Oblast, and by 35.8 in Namanganskaya Oblast. . In these oblasts, the size of sown areas for each worker employed in agricul[ure is decreasing more and more sharply. This is having a negative effect on the op~:ortunities for using existing labor resources on the kolkhozes, and consequent- ly~ on increasing labor productivity. Eatimates of the UzSSR State Committee for Labor show that scientific and tecY~nical progress and the growth of labor productivity~ which has been achieved based on it, are leading especially in agriculture [o the Ereeing of workers and making the redistribution of a portion of the labor reso~~ces in branch and territorial sections possible and at the same time necessary. In 1970, 29 percent of the total number of Uzbekistan's able-bodied kolkhoz workers could have been freed. _ During subsequent years, the percent of workers kept above the required number became even higher on the republic's cotton growing kolkhozes. The study of the nature of migration processes and the distribution and use of labor resources in 1lzbekistan Ieads many reaearchers to conclu~F that the needs of industry for working cadres cannot be satisfie3 by the move of ~he republic's siirplus rural population to the cities. In carrying ~ut the CPSU's policy te equalize the economic levels of the republics and in considering the specifics of migration, ti~e low mobility of the rural especially the indi~enous population _ and the Yiigh prosperity of a number of rural regions in labor resources, the Cc~mmunist I'arty of Uzbekistan is carrying out a broad system of ineasures to indust- rialize the republic's small and medium cities and rural rayons. In doing this, the parcy procee~3s from the fact that the aiting of industrial installations in agrarian type rayons and the drawing of the rural population into the ranks of. the working class will contribute to changing the people's way of life and their sociai and psychological constitution. The creation uf industrial installations in sma~l and medium cities and in rural - areas does not always mean the construction ther.e of new independent enterprises; 4 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 as a rule, they ~re branct~es of plants, factories and large industrial associations or their shops which pruduce parts. The economic effectiveness of the creation of ' these installations does not evoke any doubts. Their opening does nat require large capital investments. Tlie plants themselves, when they have transferred the output of individual units and components to the branches, receive an opport- = unity to concentrate their efforts on the more important tasks. In addition, the creation of thesQ small enterprises is not coiinected with the muve of workers, large scale constructiun, etc. F. Engels wrote: in order that people, who t~ave been ou~;ted from agriculture, not be left without work ur forced to cruwd In~~ cities, it is necessary to employ them in industXial work ~n the village itself." The policy of improving the planning oi siting productive fc~rces and the construct- ion of industrial installations in small cities and urban settlements was reflected in thc decision~ of the 16th (1961), 17th (1966) and 18th (t971) Congresses of tht~ Uzbek Ccmmunist Party. ~ Speaking at the 19th Congress of the Communist Part~ of Uzbekistan (1976), Sh. R. Rashidov pointed out that, within the system of ineasures which have been carried out by the Uzbek Communist Party for the development of productive forces, the equalizin~ of the ec~nomic development level of the oblasts and the industrializa- tion of rural rayons and small cities have had large social significance. It is necessary to follow this line in the future. The erection of enterprises in the village will permit a working class to be formed t~~re and prod~ctive forces to be developed in a more planned and rational manner. , It is necessary to point out that the work performed in Uzbekistan to industrialize agrarian rayons and small cities contributes to the policy of limiting the growth of large cities and to the development of the economic structure uf prospective small and medium cities. Akharl~aran is or~e of the new industrial centers which arose during the years of the 8th and ?th Five-Year Plans in Uzbekistan. A cement combine, a ferro-�c~ncrete item platit, the "Santekhlit" Plant~ and the "Stroyplastmass" Combine were buil_t here. The urban settlement grew with new housing and social and personal servi.ces Akhangaran became a ray~~ center in 1971, and was converted to a city of oblast subordination i.n 197G. The development palh of =;nother city in Tastikentskaya Oblast, Narimanov tl~e - f.ormf-r Bektr~mir., i.s si~nilar. Its industrial appearance r,ook shape the ~ years of the 9th 1~1ve-Ycar Plan. A total of 50 industri~l enterprises 3nd con- structl.~n, mc>tor transpor.t and other organi.zations and establishments were operating hecc~ in 197G. The num}~~~r ~+f enterprises douhled in comparison with 1970; and ~he volume of pr~~cl~~cts E~~ ~ciuccd, which number more than 20 Cypes of different i_ndusti-ial items (rnetr3l_ ,~rructurc~, reinfurced concrete, eLc.), Housing ~issets (].e55 indivi.dua~. hc,~~~,~ s) ~~~xceeded 100, 000 square meters; and sc~}~iocrls, pre- sc:}~o~~l. estaLllslur.en~s, hos~~.tals, etc. are being bui].t. Tn a~cordr3nce with "'~'hc ~~~r;ic Uir.eckions for thc Developmen[ of the USSR National Lcon~~my for. ]976-19~3Q" w~~ic}i was adopted by the 25[i~ CPSU Congress, even more 5 ~r'T?~? (1~~l~IClnd, 115~: ~?i~I~,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504030013-9 yuhsrantic~l cf~an~es for the better in the siting of productive forces in Utbekistan cook place during the lOth Five-Year Plan. As was pointed out during the 20th Cungress of tne Coimuunist Party of Uzbekistan (1981), the Central Commi~tee of ~he Canununist Party and the government o,f the republic did not disregard a single valuable initiative aimed at giving a new and vital impulse to small cities, _ settlements and rayon centers. During the lOth Five-Year Plan, 290 branches and 22 workshops, in which almost 30,000 people were employed, were created in Uz~ekistan. Significant successes have been achieved i.n Andizhanskaya Oblast. During the years o~ the lOth Five-Year Pla~., 60 enterprises, branches and workshops were put into operation in various rayons of the oblast. The comn?issioning of the first section of the Andizhaiiskiy Cotton Combine a year ahead of schedule was a great victory for the oblast's working class' party organization. Five of its branches, two of which were put into operat~~on by the opening day of the 26th CPSU Congress, are l;cirig erected in the oblast. Tht~re were, all told, three industrial enterprises on the territory of unploughed D~hirakskaya Oblast in the early 1960's. They became more than 60 d~iring the lOth Five- Year Plan, Alkaline battery plants; a carpet combine; a lead-cement mine; a factory for ~bcaining wollastonite concentrate; and food industry, cotton processing, construct ion industry, transp~~t~ and communicaticns enterprises were built at the new tecnnological level. Similar examples can be cited for other oblasts. _ Fo~itive cha?iges for the better in the distribution of industrial production personnel. occurred as a result of the carrying out of the party's policy on improv- ing the siting of productive forces in the republic. FeLore the bebinning of the Seventies, the main mass of iridustrial wor.kers was concentrated in the larger indu~trial centers. Thus, in 1970, 54% of all its znd~istrial production personnel were concentrated in Tast~~kentskaya Oblast (including Tashkent), where 21 percent of Che UzSSR population lived. At the time, industrial production personnel were only 7.5 percent of the total number in Syrdar'inskaya, Kashkadar'inskaya~ Surkhandar'inskaya, and ghorezmskaya Oblasts which t~ad a 22.6 percent share uf Uzbekistan's population.25 Un 1 Jant,ary 1978, 23.5 percent of the republic's entire population [sic] 2.5 points in comparison with 1970) lived in Tashkentaskaya Oblast (inclr~ding the city of Tashke.nt); however, the praportion of industri~~ production personnel tlad decreased by 6.2 points and stoo~i at 47.8 percent. During this same time, in the f.our compared oblasts (althougti the number of people here decreased from 22.6 to 20.4 per~ent), ~he proportigc~ of industrial pruduction personnel grew by 2.1 points and reached 9.6 percent. Durliig tlie Sixties and Seventies, the proportion of workers and empZoyees in inciustry located ia rural areas almost doubled thanks to the successful work of Uzbekistan's party organization in industrializing agrarian rayons and in d-rawing rur~i] intiabitants into itidustry; 6 FOR OFNICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544434413-9 Table 1. Dyn~imics of the Proportion of Uzbekistan's Workers and Employees During the Period 1960 - 1970 1960 1970 1975 1977 ~ In urban settlements 92.6 87.8 87.5 86.7 In rural areas 7.~ 12.2 12.5 13.3 Despite the fact that the number of icidustrial workers is growing from year to year due to the flow of rural inhabitants, this manpower reserve is not only not decreasing but, on tha contrary, is increasing in connection with r_he high natuial increase. Based on forecasts for 1990. the number of people in the republic will reach 22 millipn in~ividuals. Tris will require even greater efforts to2~ncrease the number of work sites and expand the training of qualified personnel. A resolution of the 20th Congcess of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan points out the special ~~portance of creating branches of enterprises in small cities and rural areas. It is planned to open 450-500 c~~ them, iTicluding on kolkhozes and sovkhozes, during the llth Five-Year Pian. However~ it would be a mistake to think that the etziving for a more rational siting of industrial enterpriaes is not running into serious problems. One cannot fail to note that the textile combir~es wr~ich have been constructed in Andiztian and Namang~n have not worked at full capacity for a long time because of a shortage of manpower at a time when there are considerable reserves of able-bodied people in these cities. The opening of even small installations and workshop bz~anches requires the creation of an infrastructure servicing production the construct- ion of schools, children's institutions and medical facilities, the of transport and cotnmunications, etc. The solution of these ta~l~s does not alwa~s keep step with the erection of the industrial installations. The training of qualified personnel ie also an important and complicated problem. In contrast to many of the country's central rayons where kolkhozes are experienc- ing a critical shortage of manpower in connection with the flow of rural youth to the cities, the redistribution of kolkhoz youth to industry and other branches of the national economy has taken place at slow tempoa in Uzbekistan. For example, in ]968, 36 percent of the total number of able-bodied youth and juveniles ~Layed - ta work on the kolkhozes and in 1970 43 percent. This exceeded the number of young people who went to factories and plants 1.9-fold. It is necessary to point out that 68 percent of the juveniles up to 18 years of ~ge who arrived on the kolk'nozes had a secondary educationf~omplete or in~omplete). The situation chacige.d during subsequent years. In 1974-1975, of those who finished the eighth and tenth grades in general educational schools, 60.2 percent of those sent to the national economy were employed in agriculture. Graduates ~f rural school eighth and tenth grades formed the main mass (97 percent). 'fhe replenishment of the republic's kolkhozes and sovkhozes with youth having a secondary education undoubtedly incr2ases the cultural and technical level of _ ~ FOR OFF7CfAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 agricultural workers; however, agricultural production is not in a condition at the present time to provide all this mass of young men and girls with work wh~ch corresponds to [he level of their training. This is not always taken~ into consideration by public organizations. Cases are not infrequent wh~ere in places with a large surplus in the rural population and a low migratory mobility, they call upon the pupils to advance with an initiative of the type "as an entire class to the native kolkhoz", 3~lthough there is not enough work for the existing workers on that kolkhoz. These tendencies are also found in Uzbekistan. Thus, a~ a positive example of the pupils' purposeful professional orientation~ the press told about the initiative of the Komsomol graduates in one of the schuols of Paatdargomskiy Rayon of Sam~x~kandskaya Oblast who stayed as an entire class to work on their nat~ve kolkhoz~ although i25,000 people (93 pe~~cent) lived in rural areas and only 9~000 (7 percent) in cities in this rayon. In 1977, more than 12,000 young men and women of Samarkandskaya Oblast in answer to an initiative of their peers graduates of ~~hoools in Kostromskaya Oblast � stayed to work in agricultural production. Meanwtiile, in Kostromskaya Oblast with a population dEnsity of 13.3 people, the prnportion of the rural population was only 37 percent on 1 January 1977 at a time when the population density in Samarkandskaya Oblast was five-fold gre~~er (67.5 people) and 70 percent of the entire population l~ved in rural areag. The present conditions of the country's social. and economic development require that the indoctrinationa~ work among youth,who live in the thickly populated rural rayons of Uzbekistan, stir up the migratory m~bility of the young men and women and contribute tu their professional and cultural growth and to an increase in the proportion of industrial workers. 'The new policy for developing professional and technical education in the village~ - which contributes to strengthening migratory processes and social shifts, must play an important role in the solution of this task. The Comm~unist Party of Uzbekistan is orienting party organizations toward the creation of professional training establishments in rural areas for the training not only of agricultural personnel but also of construction and industrial cadres. The fol~owing fact testifies tA the effectiveness of this way of solving the problem. In 1972, a - branch of the Namanganskiy [avrov] Cloth Combine imeni th~e 25th CPSli Congress with a capacity of more than 400,000 linear meters of [khantalas] and [bekasab] a year was put into ~peration in Uchkurgan. Long before the opening o� the enter- prise~ the party organization and board of directors were concerned about personnel. Experienced workers were sent to the branch for their tr.aining; at the same time, the graduation of a special professional technical institute levy was ar.-3nged on ~ branch basis. A total of 18C young men and girl~~from the Uchkurganskiy Rayon underwent training and received work certificates. These measu~s2nsured the normal and uninterrupted work of the shop from th~ very beginning. A complete network of professionaltechnicalinstitut~s servicing the rural area has already been created in the repubJ_i~. The "Navoiazot" Production AssocLation has opened a GPTU [city profeseional technical institute~ on the Kolkhoz imeni F, Engels in Gizhduvanskiy Raycn of Bukharskaya Oblast; and the oil workers in the settlement of Kakaydy in Dzhark~~~ganskiy Rayon of Surkhandar'inskaya Oblast. - Personnel are being trainecl in Leninakiy Rayon of Andizhanskaya Oblast for a branch of the tractor plant. These professionaltechnical institutes are contributing to 8 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 the s~lution of an import~nt social task tY?e training of youth iii urLnn pro,ressions and the shift of surplus manpower from rural areas to~~he cities where t~ie need ~or qualified specialists is continuously growing. However, these measures are insu~ficient to solve tne problem completely. Accord- ing to estimates of the Uzbek SS R Gesplan and the UzSSR Academy of Scier~ces, only 61.6 percent of all the workers trair~Ed in the republic (as opposed to 26.5 per- cent in 1975) will have a professional technical education. In this connection, The USSR Gosplan has pointed out that "along with the priority development of a network of professional technical institutes in the republics of Central Asia and the Transcaucasus~ it is also necessary to send the youth of these republics for training in ot~~er regions of the country with the agreement of the interested departments". One must send a larger number of youth (especially rural) to the counr_ry's all-union leading construction pro~ects where they can acquire a work profession and improve their qualifications. Of course, the reorientation of a portion of the rural population, especially youth= , to industrial types cf work must be built on a scientific foundation is based on the optimum age structure of those employed in agriculture. It is necess- ar y to correlate *_he solution of this important social problem with the opening up of new lands which is taking place in the republic and with the planned transfei - of a portion of the f1Qw of Siberian rivers to the Aral Sea basin. The training of industrial workers in the village has an important political aspect it is actively contributing to a growth in the preparation of workers of l.ocal nationality in the republic's working class. Statistics testify that in TJz'~ekistan, ~ust as t'r.roughout all of Central Asia, the indigenous population forzns the larger part of the inhabitar:ts in the rural areas where significant reserves of manpower are concentrated. According to data frozri the 1970 All-Union Population Census, Uzbeks were 95.5 percent in Samarkandskaya; 85.1 percent in Kashkadar'inskaya~~ 81.4 percent in Namanganskaya; and 80.2 percent in Andizhanskaya Oblasts. t The constr~ction of industrial ini.tallationsin oblasts with surplus labor resources cotitributes not only to an equalization of the level of industrial development but also to a more intensive drswing of persons of local nationality frum predominantly singl.e nationality rural collectives into indt~stry and international woxker. collect- ives. This process requires a great deal of attention from party, state and public ~ organizations. Questions. connected with it, have been repeatedly disctissed during congresses of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan and plenwas of the republic's Communist Yarty Central Committee. Appropriate decisiona have been strictly i.mplemented by obl.ast, city and rayon party organizations and by the collecti.ves of industrial enter~rises. All this has contributed to raj.sing the number. and~ ~ proportion of workers of local nationality. ' 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030013-9 Ii;~SC~d uii