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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 - FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10322 1~ February 1982 USSR Re ort p ~OLlTICAL AND SO~IOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOl.iO 4/82) Fg~$ FOR~ IC~~~ BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR Or'FICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540030031-9 NOTE JFRS publicati.ons contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and boo~:s, but also from news agency ~ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; tho s e from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteri~tics retained. Headlines, editorial report s, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPR~. P r ocessing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt) in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indica te how the original information was processed. Where no proces s ing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or ex t racted. Unfamiliar names rendered ph onetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. ~]o rds or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in p a rentheses were not clear in the original but have been supp 1 ied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenth e tical notes within the body of an item originate with the sou r ce. Times within items are a~ given by source. The contents of this public a tion in no way represent the poli- ciPS, views or attitudes of the U.S. Governmer.t. G~PYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULA.TIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODliCED H ERElN REQUIRE 'fHAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10322 12 FPbruary 1982 _ USSR REPORT POLITYCAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS (~ouo 4/ s 21 CONTENTS ~ INTERNATIONAL Book Attacks U.S. Anti-Soviet Course (N. V, Zagladin; ~NTISOVETISM V GLOBAL'~NOY STRATEGII IMPERIALIZMA SShA, 1981) 1 Book Examines Revolutionary Reforms in Latin America (M, F. Cornov, V. G. Tkachenko; LATINSRAYA AMERICA: OPYT NARODNYRH KOALITSII I RLASSOVAYA BOR'BA, 1981) 3 N~TIONAL New Typology for Atheista, Believere Outlined - (A. K. Rende; ATEISTICHESKOMU VOSPITANIYU--DIFFERENTSIROVANNY PODKHOD, 1981) 5 REGIONAL ' Uzbek Labor Problema, Proapects Deacribed (G. A. Shieter; ISTORIYA SSSR, Nov-Dec 81) 8 _ a - [I''T - USSR - 35 FOUO] FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540030031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USH ONLY INTERNAT IONAL BOOb; ATTACKS U.S. ANTI-SOVIET COURSE Moscow ANTISOVETISM V GLOBAL'NOY STRATEGII Ir~'ERIALIZMA SShA in Russian 1981 ~signed to press 3 Jul 81)pp 1-2, 284-286 [Tab:Le of contents and brief description of book by N. V. Zagladicl] [Excerpts' Title Page: Title: ANTISOV,:TISM V GLOBAL'hJY STRATEGII IMPERZALIZMA SShA (Anti-Sovietism in the Global Stiategy of U.S. Imperialism) Publisher: Mysl' Flace and year of publication: Moscow, 1981 Signed to Press Date: 3 July 1981 Number of Copies Published: 50,000 Number of Pages: 286 Brief Description: On the basis of factual material, this book shows the influence of anti-Sov ietism in forming U.S. foreign policy; it sheds light on its use by American rulin g circles in attempts to stop the world revolutionary process and in the struggle for U.S. "world leadership." The monograph discloses the basic forms of using ~ anti-Sovietism in the ideological struggle of American imperialism against the USSR, countries of the social~st community and brotherly communist parties. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Cl~apter 1. The Tr.ansformation of Anti-Savietism Into the Leading Element of the Ideology and Policy of U.S. Imperialism and Its Institutionalization 11 Chapter 2. The "T}~eoretical Basis" of Anti-Sovietism: Falsification of the Principles of Socialist Foreign Policy and Their Realization. 45 1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE: 01~1LY ~ Chapter 3. The Evolution of the Myth of a"Sov3et Military Threat".......... 71 Chapter 4. The Relaxation of International Tension and Soviet-American Relations Through the Prism of Bourgeois Conceptions 111 - Chapter 5. Anti-Sovietism as an Instrument of Policy: From the Policy of - "Liberation" to the Strategy of "Peacefully Attracting" Countries of the Socialist Community Into the Sphere of Influence of - Imperialism 149 Chapt~~r 6. Bourgeois Falsifications of the Essence of Relations of the USSR With Countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America 174 Chapter 7. Anti-Sovietism as a Tool of Ideological Diversions Against the _ International Communist Movement 201 Chapter 8. The "China Card" in the Ideology and Policy of Anti-Sovietism.... 222 Chapter 9. The Crisis of the Ideology and Policy of Anti-Sovietism.......... 240 Conclusion 260 Footnotes and Source References 262 COPYRIGH'i: Izdatel'stvo "Mysl, 1981 CSO: 1807/33 2 FOR OFF[CIaL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500430031-9 INTERNATIONAL BOOK EXAMINES REVOLUTIONARY REFORMS IN LATIN AMERICA Moscow LATINSKAYA AMERIKA: OPYT NARODNYKH KOALITSII I KLASSOVAYA BGR'BA in Russian 1981(signed to press 2C ~eU S1)pp 1-2, 255-256 , [Table of contents and brief description of book by M. F. Gornov and V. G. Tkachenko] _ [Excerpts] Title Page: Title: LATINSKAYA AMERIKA: OPYT NARODNYKH KOALITSIY I KLASSOVAYA BOR'BA (Latin America: The Experience of National Coalitions and the Class 5truggle) Publisher: Politizdat Place and year of publication: Moscow, 1981 Signed to Press Date: 20 February 1981 Number of C~pies Published: 30,000 Number of Pages: 256 Brief Description: This book by M. F. Cornov, d~ctor of historical sciences, and V. G. Tkachenko, a journalist specializing in intern~3tional affairs, is about the most important events on rhe Latin American continent in the 1970's to the beginning of the 1980's. ~he authors analyze the revolutionary processes in countries of this region and expose the policies of American imperia:.ism and local reaction, the nature of Latin American iascism. They show the process of unifying pro~ressive, democratic forces. The book devotes significart attention to the victory of the Nicaraguan people and the struggle against fascist dictatorships in Salvador, Bolivia and Chile. The book is intended for the general public. - Table of Contents Preface 3 Chapter 1. Latin America in the '70s 9 1. Exacerbation of contradictions 9 2. The planting of fascist, authoritarian regimes and the imperialist pulicy of destabilization 12 r 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 '3. Local mc~no~~o_lte:;--allies of U.S. imperiallsm 19 ~ 4. 'Ttie stru~;~;le for democracy, social progress and revolutionary reforms in the beginning of the '70s 25 5. Some special features of the revolutionary process in the region.. 48 Chapter 2. The Experience, Significance and Lessons of Chile's Revolution. 54 1. National Unity: the experience of social- economic revolutionary reforms 54 2. The leadership of National Unity in the s*_ruggle for winning a majority of the people 68 3. The c~nspiracy of international and internal reaction 80 4. General rules and specific traits of _ the revolutionary process in Chile 86 5. Unity of anti-i~r~perialist and dem~cratic forces--the chief c.ondi- tion for a successful struggle against fascism in Chile.......... 109 Chapter 3. Victory of the Nicaraguan People Over Internal Reaction and Imperialism 113 1. The path of the strugglz 115 2. The victorious revoluti.on 130 Chapter 4. The Struggle of Salvador's People for Freedom and Real Independence 149 1. The overthrow of General Romero's dictatorship i49 2. Creation of a democratic front 156 Chapter 5. For the Unity and Solidarity of All Anti-Imperialist Forces.... 162 - 1. Uruguay 164 2. Argentina 170 3. Venezuela 175 4. Bolivia 180 5. Colombia 1~8 6. Mexico 195 - 7. Brazil 1.97 8. Panama 200 9. Peru 206 10. Ecuador 212 11. Processes for unifying democratic forces in Central America and the Caribbean 212 Chapter 6. Intensification of the Ideological Struggle 218 l. The ideological expansion of imperialism 218 2. Maoists--allies and accompljces of imperialism and local reaction in Latin America 229 3. Social democracy and Latin America 245 Conclusion 251 COPYRIGHT: POLITI'LDAT, 1981 CSO: 1807/39 4 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE: ONLY , NATIONAL NEW TYPOLOGY FOR ATHEISTS, BELIEVERS OUTLYNED Alma-Ata ATEISTICHESKOMU VOSPITANIYU--DIFFERENTSIRdVANNY PODKHOD in Russian 1981 (signed to press 28 Feb 81), title page, pp 3-6 ~ [Title page and excerpt from book "A Differentiated Approach to Atheistic Education", by A.K. Rende, Znaniye Society of the Kazakh SSR, 28 pages] [Text] A number of researchers have pointed out that the differentiated app:oach to atheistic education includes three main aspects: social (residence, nationality, class); demographic (age, sex); and ideological (attitude toward religion and atheism, education, and cansideration of religious denomination, modernistic trends in modern religions and so forth).* The need for a differentiated application of ineans and types and forms and methods - in atheistic education is associated with the fact that the general social features making up the Soviet people still do not signify that they are completely equal. Significant differences still exist in people's social positions, ed:ir.ation, qualifications, professional activities, degree of intenFity in initiative in the public sphere and so forth. The differentiated approach to atheistic work presupposes a selective approach not only toward believers and waverers, but also toward atheists. The most important thing is that it providas an opportunity of overcoming abstraction in atheistic education and of carrying on a conversation not with individuals in general but with a specific individual, makes it possible to take into account his specific features, changes in consciousness, psychology and living conditions, and _ opens up a way for improving the forms and ti:~ethods of atheistic education. The differentiated approach to atheistic education is impossible without a knowledge of the degree of atheistic or religious conviction in a group of workers. In both theory and practice it it usual to talk of two large groups of people, namely believers and nonbelievers, or religious and irreligious. But on the question of * M.Ya. Lensu, "Osnovy ateisticheskogo vospitaniya" [Bases of Atheistic Education] hti.nsk, Vysshaya shkola, 1976, p 203; M.Ya. Lensu, V.A. Chernyak and A.I. Artem'yev, "A Differentiated Approach to Atheistic Education," in "Voprosy nauchnogo ateizma" [Questions of Scientific Atheism] 9th edition, Moscow, Mysl', 1970 p 135; and A.S. Onishchenko, "Sotsial'nyy progress, religiya, ateizm" [Social Progress, Re.ligion and Atheism], Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1977, pp 176-203. i 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 FOR UbN1C'IAL U~E UNLY the typ~~1.~~~;y ~~f ~~itrli ~,I tl~ryr ~;r~,u~~:; tiic+r~~ ir+ itu unlCl4~1 upiulun. A nwnb~:t ul researchers distinguish up to cight different types amung the irreligious: atheists, convinced non'~elievers, irreligious conformists, people who are indifferent, nonbelievers with a reglious-positive world outlook, and so forth.* In our view the most successful on the theoretical plane, and most suitable on the practical., is the division suggested by other researchers three signs for , the groups that are relatively generalized in terms of a whole series of specifics: these are confirmed atheists, nonbelievers, and those indi�ferent or passive with respect to religion and atheism.** Each of the three groups of the irreligious population possesses a different degree of atheistic conviction and activity. Convinced atheists not only have a firm atheistic world outlook but are also quite active in their everyday lives in speaking out against religion. The most active of them occupy positions of militant atheism and as a rule they propagandize scientific atheism and organize the atheistic education of the workers. The irreligious or elemental atheists in the main also act as a socially active , sector of the population. They have sufficiently firm atheistic convictions. But the degree of their atheistic activity is substantially less than in the first group. They do not see a need to struggle against religion. Some of them have a conciliatory attitude toward religion. Those indifferent or passive to religion and atheism are characterized by a lack of belief in a god or other supernatural forces. In terms of their social activity they differ little from the first two groups, but at the same time one of their typical features is atheistic passivity.*** * M.K. Teplyakov, "The Victory of Atheism in Different Social Strata of Soviet Society" in "Voprosy nauchnogo ateizma [Questions of Scientific AtheismJ, 4th edition, Moscow, 1967; V.A. Chernyak, "Formirovaniye nauchno- materialisticheskogo ateisticheskogo mirovozzreniya (sotsiologicheskiye problemy)" [Formation of a Scientific-Materialistic Atheistic World Outlook (Sociological Problems)], Alma-Ata, 1969; and D.M. Aptekman, "Formirovaniye ateisticheskoy ubezhdennosti rabochego klassa v razvitom sotsialisticheskom obshchestve" [Formation of Atheistic Conviction in the Working Class in a Developed Socialist Society], Leningrad State University, 1979; and others. P.D. Selivanov, Partiyn~ye rukovodstvo ateisticheskim vospitaniyem" [Party Handbc~ok on Atheistic Educati~n], Moscow, 1973; M.Ya Lensu, V.A. Chernyak and ~ A.I. Artem yev. A Differential Approach to Atheistic Education" op. cit.; and R.P. Platonuv. "V poiskakh vysokoy deystvennosti" [The Search for High EFfectiveness], Moscow, 1976. Fur more detail see P.D. Selivanov Op. cit. pp 99-102. 6 FOR nFFiCiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE: ONLY Let us now consider the typological groups of believers, Here, some researchers - distinguish two groups others three or more. In our view, all believers should be divided into three typological groups: convinced or orthodox believers, elemental or nonorthodox believers, and doubting believers, Each of the three groups has its own specif ic features and characteristics signs that must be taken into account when organizing atheistic work. Convinced believers are those for whom the main bliblical myths and religious dogmas determining the very essence of religion have become a personal conviction. They are characterized by active participation in 211 religious services and open defense of their religious views and actions. Many of the convinced believers engage in missionary activities. Some in this group occu~y positions of religious fanaticism and Qxtremism, and individual representatives have slid into the swamp of anti- Sovietism. The elemental believers mainly do not have firm rNligious convictions and have a poor knowledge of dogmatics and mythology but nevertheless engage in quite active but irregular participation in religious services. As a rule they do not try to impose tlieir religious views on anyone and do not openly flaunt them, although they do not hide them. The doubting believers are not distinguished by the wholehea~-tedness and firmness of their religiaus consciousness, know practically nothing about dogma and myths, very rarely participate in religious services, frequently express profound doubts about the truth of their convictions, and are unable to offer convincing proofs for their religiosity. Many of them do not even believe in the existence o~ god, life beyond the grave and other religious postulates. If these groups are arranged according to the degree of weakening in atheism and increased religiosity, the groups of convinced atheists and th~~ convinced believers , form the two extremes. Each of these groups can be arbitrarily divided into subgroups: in the former case militant atheism and in the latter, religious _ fanaticism. In the center stand the indifferent atheists and doubting believers. That is, the closer to the center, the lower both the atheistic and the religious conviction. COPYRIGHT: Obshchestvo "Znatiiye" Kazakhskuy SSR, 1981 9642 CSO: 1800/163 1 - 7 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 � REGIONAL UZBEK LAEOR PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS DESCRIBF.D Moscow ISTOR~YA SSSR in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 pp 26-40 [Article by G. A. Shister: "Sources for the Replenishment of Uzbekistan's Working Class During the Stage of Developed Socialism"] [Text] Among the basic directions in the development of sucial sciences during the present stage, the 26th CPSU Congress placed research oti the processes, which are taking place in the social structure of Soviet society, in one of the first places. The scientific analysis of replenishment sources for the working class occupies an important place in the study of this problem. A number of works, devoted to labor resource problems and the reproduction ~f man- power in which this su~ject is touched upon, were published in Uzbekistan during the Sixties and Seventies. However, questions on ways to more rationally use the sources for replenishing the workiiig class in the republic have still not received the necessary treatment. The goal of analyzing the activity of the republic's party, soviet and economic organs in solving this problem has been assigned 3n the article. This will permit more attention to be attracted to it and cocitribute to the dissemination of the experience which has been accumulated in regions having an analogous demographic situation. _ * * * The ratio of working class replenishment sources is determined primarily by tre ~ social structure of Soviet society and by those changes which are taking place in it. lluring the stage of mature socialism, the tendency toward the rapid coming together of classes and social groups and progressive eradication of the differences between them is ttie leading one. L. I. Brezlinev declared in the report of the CPSU Central Committee to the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: "Uur goal is the creatior. of a society in which there will not be a division of people into classes. And it is possible to s~y definitely: We are gradualJ_y but confi- dently moving toward this great goal." The movenient of the Soviet people ~owards social uniformity, which is determined by the cotisistent policy of the party and state concerni~lg the internationalization of 8 - FOR OFFIC[AL i15E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504030031-9 ~ IAI, l?SE ONLY [hc countiy's economic, social and political life, is shown also ir, the growing rapprochement of the nations and nationalities in their social structure. This is reflected primarily in the increase in the propor~tiun ~f republic working class detachment~. In 1959, workers were 39.2 percent of the employed population irt Uzbekistan;, in 197~ 45.7 percent; and in 1979 (based on Central Statistical Directorate ddta) 52.9 percent. Working class replenishment sources are identical for alI the country, but their ratio and use are conditioned a great deal by a republic's specialization within the all-union division of labor. This specialization is planned by the union government depending on natural conditions and material and labor resources. They are determined by the settlement conditions which took shape historically, by the nature of migration processes, by national traditions, etc. Tlie fact thaC the development of industry took place and is taking place where there is a significant predominance in the population of rural area inhabitants who are oriented on working in the agrarian sector of the economy and in the branches associated with it, is a peculiarity of the Central Asian region, including Uzbekistan. Large natural increases and an extremely low outflow of representatives of the indigen~us nationalities beyond the limLts of their republic, which is conditioned by ethnic features and national traditions, are typical of this region. The working class itself is the main source for replen~shing it. K. Marx wrote that "the most progressive wurkers are fully aware that the future of their class and consequ~ntly of mankind entirely depends un the upbringing of the rising generation" . The Communist Party is displaying tireless concern for the replenish- ment of ttie 1?ading class in socialist society with its sons and daughters. As the works of Soviet sociologists show, the children of worker families provided a large part of the working class replacements during the Sixties and Seventies. Thus, in the Len~ngrad machine Uuilding industry, the~r reached 56 percent of al~l those questiuned ; ir? the Mr,scow region 77 percent ; in Bashkiriya 58.1 ; and in Uzbelcistan , 51.3 percent (1971) in the Chirc:hikskiy Electrochemical Combine, - -the Tashkent Electronic Equipment Plant, and in the "Tashtekstil'mash" Plant. The mentioned conformity to law has an objective nature. However, a subjective _ factor ;+lays a large role in it. A great deal of work is being done in Uzbekistan under the leadersliip of the party organizatioti to increase the portion of hereditary workers in the overall numbPr of personnel. Party, trade union and Komsomol orgatiizations are indoctrinating the rising generation in revolutionary and work traditioiis. Museums and rooms of fame, in which rich material on worker houses is presented, are being established in enterprises. Documents on workers, whose fatliers took part in carrying out the socialist revolution in Uzbekistan, - are on exhibit in the Museum of Military and Work Glory in the Plant imeni Oktyabr'skaya revolyu[siya. tlie famous worker houses of the republic, one cannot fail to mention the Os'kin family (Tashkentskoye Aviation Production Association) whr,se ancestors,- Mikhail Nikolayevich, and his wife, Kla~diya Vasil'yevna gave 60 years to their native plant and brought. five children to it ; the Nuritdinov tamily of inettalurgists who are 9 FOR OFFICIAL ~JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500430031-9 workLng in tl~e roll Ing worktihop af the Uzbek Mettallurgic~il. Plant im~~ni V. 1. Lenli~ for the third decade, the senior member of the family Said, a Hero of Soc.ialist Labor for more tt~an 30 years; the Val'kov family who have worked in one of th~ machine building plants of Uzbekistan's capital in toto for more ttian 100 years ; and the Ikr~amovs from the Narnanganskiy [avrov) Cloth Combine _ imeni 25th CPSU Congress, ttie "oldest" worker dynasty in the republic the total - length of its work aceivity is more than 250 years,lU Investigations which t~ave been conducted by us in a number of Uz'oekistan's enterprises, testify that many of their workers are second and ev~en third gF�n- erations of worker dynasties. In the Chirchikskiy Electrochemical Combine, tre - parents or close relatives o,f 1$ percent of those questioned j,n 1961 and of 23 percent in 1971 had worked there. In the "Tashtekstil'mash" Plant, the parents of 23 percent of the workers had worked in the plant according co a 1971 investigation (some had worked there from the day of its founding or had l,een evacuated with - the plant during the Great Patriotic War) . It is necessary to poiiit out that statistics do not give e:xhaustive information on working class replenishment sources; however, informaCion from specific sociologica]_ research in t}ie republic's industrial enterprises confirms the conclusion that the role oE the working class as a source for forming its own replacements is growing in Uzbekistan ~ust as throughout the enCire country, and, consequentl~i khe absolutE number and proportion of hereditary workers are increasing. The kolkhoz peasantry continued to be one of the major sources for replenishing the working class during the Sixties and Seventies. However, as is pointed out in the l~~er ature, its share gradually decreased on the whole throughout the country. By the Seventies, the opportunities for drawing kolkhoz workers - into the ranks of the working class had practically been exhausted in many areas of the coun t ry in connection with the rapid urbanization rates. Whereas the USSR rural p opulation decreased by 3.1 million individuals during the period between the 1959 arid 1970 All-Union Yopulation Census, it decreased by f,.9 milliotz individuals betweeit 1970 and 1979. In nine years, the overall number of rural people decreased by f,.5 po~~ts at a time when the urban population share increased f rom 56 to 62 perce~tt . The mention ed tendency does not operate with equal force in all regions of the country. B a sed on the degree of decrease ctiterion, the most urbanized republics of the Sovie t Union now are: The Estonian SSR (70 percent), the RSFSR (69 percent), tt~e Latvian SSR (68 percent), the Armenian SSR (66 percent) , Ttie Ukrainian SSR (61 percent), the Lithuanian SSR (61 percent), the Belorussian SSft (SS percentj and the Kazakh SSR (54 percent) . However, in the republics of the Central Asian region where with the exception of Tajikis tan the proportion of the rural population also had a tendency to decrease, the absolute n~imber of the rurual population grew in Kirghizia Uy 18 percent, in Uzbekistan by 21 percent, anc~4ln Turkmenia by 28 percent during the period betwe en the 1970 and 1979 census. The highest gro~~h in rural population was observed in Taj ikistan (36 percent) during this period. 10 FOR OFFICIAL i15E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544434431-9 FnR OF'f~l('IAI, II~F: ONI.Y Thus, in coiitrast to a number ot the country's central rayons, the rural population, including the kolkhoz peasantry, has large potential opportunities available in Uzbekistan, just as in the other Central Asian republics, not only for its own - rep rod~tion but also for replenishirig the working class. When evaluating tl~e labor resources of Uzbekistan and the opportunities for re- distributing a portion of the able-bodied population from agricultural production to industry, planning organs proceed from the fact that the population is distribLt- ed extremely unevenly over the republic's territory. In this connection, some rayons and oblasts have experienced a shortage in manpower; others a surplus in it. On 1 January 1980, the population density tn Uzbekistan reached 35.2 _ individuals per one square kilometer. However, whereas it was equal only to 5.6 _ individuals in the Karakalpakskaya ASSR, 9.0 in Bukharskaya Oblast, 25.7 in Dzhizakskaya Oblast, and 4U.7 in Kashkadar'inskaya Oblast; it was 328.5 individuals in Andizhanskr~ya Oblast,.~44.1 in F~~rganskaya Oblast, 233.6 in Khorezmskaya Oblast, and 143.0 in Namanganskaya Oblast. The population density continues to grow in a number nf overpopulated oblasts. From 1970 to 1980 alone, it increased by 76.4 - individuals iti Andizhanskaya Oblast, by 56.5 in Ferganskaya Oblast, and by 35.8 in Namanganskaya Oblast. In these oblasts, tne size of sown areas foz each worker employed in agriculture is decreasing more and more sharply. This is having a negative effect on the opportunities for using existing labor resources on the kolkhozes, and consequeiit- ly, on increasing labor productivity. Estimates of the UzSSR State Committee for Labor stiow that scientific anci tecl~~nical progress and the growth of labor productivtty, which Yias been achieved baseci on it, are leading especially in agriculture to the freeing of workers and = the redistribution of a portion of the labor reso~~ces in branch and territorial sections possible and at the same time necessary. In 1970, 29 percent of the tutal number of lizbekistan's able-bodied kolkhoz workers could have been freed. During subsequent years, the percent of workers keptabove the required number became even higher on the republic's cotton growing kolkhozes. The study of the nature of migration processes and the distribution and use of _ labor resources in Uzbekistan teads many researchers to conclude that t}~e needs of industry for working cadres cannot be satisfied by the move of ~he rc:publ.ic'~ surplus rural popuiation to the cities. In carrying out the CPSU's policy to equalize the econo..~ic levels of the republics and in considerinK the specifics of _ migration, the low mobility of the rural especially the indigenous populati.on and the hi~h pros~erity of a number of rural regions in labor resources, the Communist Party of Uzbektstan is carrying out a broad system of ineasures to i.ndi~:.~- Lialize the republic's small and medium cities and rural rayons. In doing tt~is, the party procee~ls Crom ctie fact that the siting of industrial installations in agrarian type rayons and the drawing of the rural population into the ranks of the working class ~.~ill contribute to changing the people's way of ].ife and tl~eir social and psycholo,ical constitution. The creation uf installations in small and medium cities and in rural areas does not always mean r_he construction there o� new independent enterprises; 11 FOR ~F~ICIAI. Z1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030031-9 as a rule, ttiey are branches of pl.ants, factories and large industrial associations or their shops whic!z pruduce parts. The economic effectiveness of the creation of these installations does not evoke any doubts. Their opening does not require large capital investments. The plants themselves, when they have transferred the output of individual units and components to the branches, receive an opportW unity to concentrate their efforts on the more important tasks. In addition, the creation of these small enterprises is not counected with the move of workers, large scale housing constructiun, etc. F. Engels wrote: in order that people, who have been ousted from agriculture, not be left without work or forced to cruwd in~~ cities, it is necessary to employ them in industrial work in the village - itself." The policy of improving the planning ot siting productive forces and the construct- ion of industrial installations in small cities and urba.l settlements was reflected in the decisions of the 16th (1961), 17th (1966) and 18th (1971) Congresses of the UzUek Communist Party. ' Speaking at the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan (1976), Sh. R. Rast~idov pointed out that, within the system of ineasures which have been carxied out by the Uzbek Communist Party for the development of productive forces, the equalizing of the economic development level of the oblasts and the industrializa- tion of rural rayons and small cities have had large social significance. It is necessary to follow this line in the future. The erection of enterprises in the village will permit a working class to be formed t~~re and productive forces to be developed in a more planned and rational manner. It is necessary to point out that the work performed in Uzbekistan to industrialize agrarian rayons and small cities contributes to the policy of limiting the growth of large cities and to the development of the economic structure of prospective small and medium cities. Akhacigaran is or~e of the new industrial centers which arose during the years of the 8th and 9th Five-Year Plans in Uzbeki.atan. A cement combine, a ferro-concrete iCem plattt, the "Santekhlit" Plant~ and the "Stroyplastmass" Combine were built here. The urhan settlement grew with new housing and social and personal services etiterprises. Akhangaran became a rayg~ center in 1971, and was converted to a city of oblast subordination in 1976. The development paCh of anuther city in Tashkentskaya Oblast, Narimanov the former Bektemir, is similar. Its industrial appearance took shape during tl~e years of tYie 9th Five-Year Plan. A total of 50 industrial enterprises and con- _ struction, motor transport and other organizations and establishments were operating here in 1976. The ctumber of enterprises doubled in co.:.parison with 1970; and - tt~e volume of products produced, which number more than 20 types of different industrial items (metal 5tructure, reinfurced concrete, etc.) tripl~d. Housing assets (less individual houses) exc:eeded 100,000 square me~ers; arid s~~iools, pre- school establishments, hospitals, dispensaries, etc. are being built. Tn accordance with "The Basic Directions for the Developmer~t of the USSk National Economy for 1976-1980" which was adopted by the 25th CPSU Congress, even more 12 FOR OFFICIAL Z1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500430031-9 I~()Ft ()F'F'I('IA1. IItiN: ()NI.Y ~ubstantial changes for ttie better in the siting of productive forces in U7~bekistan ~ took place during the lOth Five-Year Plan. As was pointed out during the 20th Congr~~ss of the Comcuunist Party of ~zbekistan (1981), the Central Commi~tee of the Comir~unist Party and ttie guvernment of tlie republic did not disregard a single valuable initiative aimed at giving a new and vital i.mpulse to small cities, settlements and rayon centers. During the lOth Five-Year Plan, 290 branches aud 22 wurkshops, in which almost 30,000 people were employed, were created in Uzbekistan. - Significant successes have been achieved in Andizhanskaya Oblast. During the years of the l~th Five-Year Plan, 60 enterprises, branches and workshops were put into operation in various rayons of the oblast. The commissioning of the first section of the Andizhaiiskiy Cotton Combine a ye;~.r ahead of schedule was a great victory for the oblast's working class' party organization. Five of its branches, two of which were put into operat~~on by the opening day of the 26th CPSU Congress, are being erected in the oblast. ~ There were, all told, three industrial enterprises on the territory of unplough~d DZhizakskaya Oblast in the early 1960's. They became more than 60 during the lOth Five- Year Plan. Alkaline battery plants; a carpet combine; a lead-cement mine; a factory for obtaining wollastonite concentrate; and food industry, cotton proce~sing, construct ion industry, transp~~t, and communications enterprises were built at the new technological level. Similar examples can be cited for other oblasts. Positive chaciges for thc better ln the distributiun of industrial production personnel occurredas a result of the carrying out of the party's policy on improv- ing the siting of productive forces in the republic. Before the beginning of the Seventies, the main mass of industrial workers was concentrated in the larger industrial centers. Thus, in 1970, 54% of all its industrial production personnel were concentrated in Tashkentskaya Oblast (including Tashkent), where 21 percent of Che UzSSR population lived. At the time, industrial production personnel were only 7.5 percent of the total number in 5yrdar'inskaya, Kashkadar'inskaya, Surkhandar'inskaya, and horezmskaya Oblasts which t~ad a 22.6 percent share uf Uzbekistan's population.2~ Un 1 January 1978, 23.5 percent of the republic's entire population [sicJ 2.5 points in comparison with 1970) lived in Tashkentaskaya Oblast (including the city of Tashkent); however, t}~e proportion of industri~~ production personnel. had decreased by 6.2 points and stood at 47.8 percent. During this same time, in the fuur compared oblasts (althougti the number of people here decreased from 22.6 to 20.4 percent), the proportig~ of industrial pruductiun personnel grew by 2.1 poitits and reacl~ed 9.6 percent. - During the Sixties and Seventies, the proportion of workers and employees in industry located in rurai areas almost doubled thanks to the successful work of Uzbekistan's party organization in industrializing agrarian rayons and tn drawing rural inhabitants inLo itidustry: 13 FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030031-9 Table 1. Dynamics of the Proportion of Uzbekistan's Workers and Employ ees During the Period 1960 - 1970 1960 1970 1975 1977 In urban settlements 92.6 87.8 87.5 86.7 In rural areas "/.4 12.2 12.5 13.3 Despite the fact that the number of industrial workers is growing from year to year due to the flow of rural inhabit ants, this manpower reserve is not only not decreasing Uut, on the contrary, is increasing in connection with the high natural increase. Based on forecasts for 199 0, the number of people in the republtc will reach 22 million iridividuals. This will require even greater efforts to2~.ncrease the number of work sites and expand t he training of qualified personnel. A resolution of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan points out _ the special ~~portance of creating b r anches of enterprises in small cities and _ rural ~ireas. It is planned to open 450-500 c~~ them, including on kolkhozes and sovkhozes, during the llth Five-Y ear Plan. However, it would be a mistake to th ink that the striving for a more rational siting of industr.ial enterprises is not running into serious problems. One cannot fail to note that the textile combin e s which have been constructed in Andizhan and Namangan have not worked at full capa city for a long time because of a shortage of manpo~aer at a time whea there are considerable reserves of able-bodied people in these cities. The opening of even small installations and workshop branches requires the creation of an infrastru cture servicing production the construct- ion of schools, children's institutions and medical facilities, the organization of transport and communications, etc. The solution of these ta~~s does not always keep step with the erection of the industrial installations. The training of qualified personnel is also an important and complicated problem. In contrast t~o many of tY:e country's central rayons where kolkhozes are experienc- - ing a critical shortage of manpower in connection with the flow of rural youth to the cities, the redistribution of ko 1 khoz youth to industry and other branches of the national economy has taken place at slaw tempoa in Uzbekistan. For example, in 1968, 36 percent of the tot:il numb er of able-bodied youth and ~uveniles stayed to work on the kolkhozes and i~l 1970 43 percent, This exceeded the number of - young people who went to factories and plants 1.9-fold. It is necessary to point out that 68 percent of the juveniles up to 18 years of age who arrived on the kolkhozes had a secondary educa*_ion omplete or incomplete). The situation changed during s~ibsequ ent years. In 1974-1975, of those who finished the eighth and tenth grades in genera 1 educational sch~>ols, 60.2 percent of those sent to the national economy were emp loyed in agriculture. Graduates of rural school ei~;hth and tenth grades formed the main mass (97 percent) . The replenishment of the republic's kolkhozes and sovkhozes with youth having a secondary education undoubtedly inc reases the cultural and technical level of 14 FOR OFFICIAL iJ~~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 FOR OFFICIAI. USF: ONLY :~~ricultural w~,rk~~r.; I~~~~.~r~~~�r, :~grirultt~rc~l ~~t�~~lui~t l~~n IH uut u~~ ~~on~lltluu dt _ tt~e present time to provlde all this ,.~ass of young men and girls with work which cor?-esponds to the level of their training. This is not always taken into consideration by public organizations. Cases are not infrequent where in places with a large surplus in the rural population and a low migratory mobility, they call upon the pupils to advance with an initiative of the type "as an entire class to the native kolkhoz", ~~lthough there is not enough work �or the - existing workers on that kolkhoz. These tendencies are also found in Uzbekistan. Thus, as a positive example of the pupils' purposeful professional orientation, the press told about the initiative of the Komsomol graduates in one of the schools of Pastdargomskiy Rayon of Sam~r~kandskaya Oblast who stayed as an entire class to work on their native kolkhoz, although 125,000 people (93 pe~~cent) lived in rural areas and only 9,000 (7 percent) in cities in this rayon. In 1977, more than 12,000 young men and women of Samarkandskaya Oblast in answer to an initiative of their peers graduates of ~~hoools in Kostromskaya Oblast stayed to work in agricultural production. Meanwhile, in Kostromskaya Oblast with a population density of 13.3 people, the proportion of the rural population was only 37 percent on 1 January 1977 at a time when the population density in Samarkandskaya Oblast was five-fold gre~~er (67.5 people) and 70 percent of the entire population lived in rural areas. The present conditions of the country's social and economic development require that the indoctrinational work among youth,who live in the thickly populated rural rayons of Uzbekistan, stir up the migratory m~bility of the young men and women and contribute to their professional and cultural growth and to an increase in the proportion of industrial workers. The new policy for developing professional and technical education in the village, which contributes to strengthening migratory processes and social shifts, must play an important role in the solution of this task. The Communist Party of " Uzbekistan is orienting party organizations toward the creation of professional training establishments in rural areas for the training not only of agricultural personnel but also of construction and industrial cadres. The following fact testifies to the effectiveness of this way of solving the problem. In 1972, a branch of the Namanganskiy [avrov] Cloth Combine imeni the 25th CPSU Congress with a capacity of more than 400,000 linear meters of [khantalas) and [bekasab] a year was put into operation in Uchkurgan. Long bE-fore the opening of the enter- prise, the party organization and board of directors were concerned about personnel. Experienced workers were sent to the branch for their training; at the same time, the graduation of a special professional technical institute levy was arranked on - a branch basis. A total of 180 young men and girl~~from the Uchkurganskiy Rayon underwent training and received work certificates. These measu resensured the normal and uninterrupted work of the shop from the very beginning. A complete networkoC profes5ionaltechnicalinstitutes servicing the rural area has already been created in the republic. The "Navoiazot" Production Association has opened a GPTU [city pro.fessional technical institute] on the Kolkhoz imeni F. Engels in Gizhduvanskiy Rayon of Bukharskaya Oblast; and the oil workers in the settlement of Kakaydy in Dzharkurganskiy Rayon of Surkhandar'inskaya Oblast. Personnel arP being trained in Leninskiy Rayon of Andizhanskaya Oblast for a branch of the tractor plant. These prc>fessionaltechnical institutes are contributing to 15 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 the solution of :ill LI1I~OCCt111[ sucial task the CT3~I11i1~ of rural youth tu uruan prozessions and tlie shift of surplus manpower from rural areas to3~he c~ties where the need ,for quali�ied specialists is cont~nuously growing. However, these measures are insufficient to solve the problem completely. Accord- ing to estimates of the Uzbek SSR Gosplan and the UzSSR Academy of Sciences, only 61.6 percent of all the workers trained in the republic (as opposed t~ 26.5 per- cent in 1975) will have a professional technical education. In t'~is connection, The USSR Gosplan has pointed out that "along with the pri~rity de.velopment of a network of professional technical institutes in the repuhlics of Central Asia and the Transcaucasus, it is also necessary to send the youth of these republics for training in~~ot~~er regions of the country with the agreement of the interested departments . One must send a larger number of youth (especially rural) to the country's all-union l~~ading construction projects where they can acquire a - work profession and improve their qualifications. Uf course, the reorien~ation of a portion of the rural population, especially youth, to industrial types of work must be built on a scientific foundation which is based on the optimum age structure of those employed in agriculture., It is necess- ar y to correlate the solution of this important social problem with the opening up of new lands which is taking place in the republic and with the planned transfer of a portion of the flow of Siberian rivers to the Aral Sea basin. The training of industrial workers in the village has an important political aspect it is actively contributing to a growth in the preparation of workers of local nationality in the republic's working class. Statistics testify that in UzSekistan, ju~t as throughout all of Central Asia, the indigenous population forms the larger part of the inhabitants in the rural areas where significant reserves of manpower are concentrated. According to data from the 1970 All-Union Population Census, Uzbeks were 95.5 percent in Samarkandskaya; 85.1 percent in K~shkadar'inskaya~~ 81.4 percent in Namanganskaya; and 80.2 percent in Andizhanskaya Oblasts. : The construction of industrial installationsin oblasts with ~urplus labor resources contributes noT. only to an equalization of the level of industrial development but also to a more intensive drawing of persons of local nationality frum predominantly single nationality rural collectives intu industry and international woxker collect- ives. This process requires a great deal of attention from party, state and public orga.nizations. Questions, connected with it, have been repeatedly discussed during congresses of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan and plenums of the republic's _ Communist Party Central Committee. Appropriate decisions have been strictly implemented by oblast, city and rayon party organizations and by the collectives of industrial enterprises. Al1 this has contributed to raising the number and proportion of workers of local nationality. ' 16 N'OR OFFIC(AL l1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY li~ised on dat.i fro~n tli~~ 1959 iind ].970 ull-ulion censuses and from one-time registrf~- tions, in Uzbekistan people of the main nationality (ilzbeks)* were 26.7 percent in industry in 1959, 31.2 percent in 1967 and 35.5 percent in 1973. It is import- ant to emphasize that a growth in the number of Uzheks was also observed during these years in other detachments of industrial w~rkers. The proportion of Uzbeke in construction grew from 30.1 percent to 34.8 percent �rom 1967 to 1973; in transport from 35.8 p~~cent to 41.2 percent, and in communications from 35.9 percent to 40.7 percent. - During 1967 - 1973, the proportion o~ representatives of the main nationality grew at more rapid rates in li.ght industry from 44.5 percent to 53.9 percent, in the food industry from 34.2 percent4t~o 45 percent, and in the oil industry from 34.1 percent to 42.8 percent. This is explained to a considerable degree by the fact that many of the enterprisea in these branches are located in rayons where the Uzbek nationality predominates. However, in a number of branches of heavy industry which are conne~ted with more modern equipment and production technology, the proportion of the indigenous population was significantly lower than the general republic level. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan is directing the activ- ity of the State Committee for Labor, ministries, departments, and party organ- izations to the formation of national cadres for industry considering an import- ant demographic factor the high rates ~f natural increase among the local nationalities. The 1979 population census showed that the ~r~oportion of Uzbe~~s in the overall republic population increased from 62.1 percent to 68.7 percent during the period ~959 - 1979. The problem of attracting the representatives of local nationalities to industry was s subject of review at the 6th (1972) Plenum of the Uzbek Communist Party Central Committee which discussed the question "On Further ~~proving Worlc With Cadres in Light of the Decisions of the 24th CPSU G.;ntress" . The training of national cadres in the republic received a new and broader scope after the 25th CPSU Congress which pointed out that "the improvement of the train- ~ ing of local qualified cadres4~ontinues to be one of the urgent problems of primary party organizations. Improving the work to implementthe decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress and Che Y9th Congress of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan could not fail to affect the further _ growth of the proportion of persons of local nationalities in the industrial detachments of the workers. Whereas the proportion of Uzbeks was 35.Spercert in 1nd- ustry in t973, it was 38.2 percent in 1~77; in constructio~ --34.8 and 35.6 percent respectively; and in transport 41.2 and 44.4 percent. As in previous years, the highest proportion of persons of the main nationality (Uzbeks) was * Kazakhs, Tajiks, Karakalpaks, Kirghiz and Turkmens are also regarded as local nationalities. Countin~; them, the percent of industrial workers of local nationality is significantly }?igher. However, the Central Statistical Directorate singles out from all the workers only peraons of the main nationality (Uzbeks) in the one-time registrations. 17 FOR OFFICIAL l.lSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 in ttie textile (57.5 percent), li~tit (56.U percent), food (45.4 percent), and oil (43.0 percent) industries. In machine building, it reached 18.3 percent 2-3 points) in comparison with 1973, and in the chemical industry 20 percent (+1.7 points). As can be seen, the tendency, noted in the Sixties, also developed steadily during the 9th and lOth Five-Year Plans. The growth in the number of national cadres by attracting rural inhabitants to production was also a direct result of the new work forms which the collectives of a number of.industrial enterprises are using. In the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine, the proportion of local cadres as part of the workers had not reached 20 percent by the beginning of the Sixties. The situation became worse after the 1966 earthquake and due to the opening of textile combines in the republic's oblast centers. It managed to improve after special bus service between the enterprises and near-by rural rayons with surplus labor resources the l:ommunisticlieskiy, Kalininskiy, Ordzhonikidzevskiy, Srednechirchik- skiy, and Tashkentskiy rural rayons-- was organized on the party committee's initiative. This permitted Uzbek girls to be enlisted in the work. Each day, about 500 young girls representatives of the 7.oca1 nationalities and yesterday's kolkhoz workers took their work positions at ~~eaving, spinning, carding and other textile machines. It is possible to judge the growth of national cadres in the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine from the data in Table 2 which testifies that their proportion in the number of workers in the com~ine grew more than twofold and the number of Uzbek women almost fourfold. - � Table 2. Proportion of Persons of Local Nationality in the Number of Workers at the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine* - 1966 1970 1973 1975 1975 1979 Total of persons of [sic] local nationality 17.1 20.4 29.9 31.9 36.4 40.3 including Uzbeks 14.1 13.4 23.2 24.7 37.2 31.6 Males of local natiunality 10.1 i1.5 12.5 13.0 14.9 14.4 including Uzbeks 9.4 10.6 11.0 11.5 11.9 12.7 Females of local nationality 7.0 8.4 17.4 18.9 21.5 25.9 - including Uzbeks 4.7 6.8 12.2 13.1 15.2 17.9 * The table was compiled based on data from the work and wages section of the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine for 1 January of each year. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 ~ AL USE ONLY 'i'rur, l I~e ~~~~r:;c~nnr 1~~roh 1~~m ;it t li~~ cc~mh in~~ h:is sC i 1 1 not hcc~n cc~m~~l~~tc t y gol vrci; a til~ortu~;e remziinti. Noi ~il.l wurkers huve high ind.tcators in labor productivity and good discipline at first. The percent of flucuation in the enterprises is great. However, the positive prospects for a pendulum migration to draw female kolkhoz workers into the ranks of the working class are undoubted. It is import- ant to point out that the parents of the Uzbek girls regard these social changes positively. An analysis of the republic's social and economic life shows that the migration of labor resources from the village to the city is in the formation stage. Never- theless, with ea~h year it exerts a transforming effect on an ever greater number of people. Many rural inhabitants, when they are included in industrial production, rapidly adapt to the new conditions and achieve high indicators in work. The name of Dil'bar Kul'matova is known today not only in Uzbekistan. She arrived in Tashkent from Akkurgan i.n 1970 after finishing a secondary school. A year of studies in a professional technical institute and Dil'bar became a worker in the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine. The young weaver very soon became one of the combine's best production w~rkers and the initiator of and participant in work initiatives. She began to service 48 weaving machines when the typical norm was 24. Today, Dil'bar is a deputy to the USSR Supreme Soviet, a Leninist Komsomol prize winner, and a Vinogradov sister; she has been awarded the order "Aadge of Honor." She combines her work with studies in the Tashkentskiy Institute for the Light and Textile Industries without giving up work. Her three sisters are also working in the combine. The Mavliyev family of airplane ~~ilders, whose parents were agronomists, enjoys widespread fame in the republic. Rural inhabitants the three Yuldashev brothers have also founded a dynasty of miner a The oldest one Babanazar has been awarde~9the orders of Lenin and the Labor Red Banner for his many years of heroic wc~rk. The need to expand the training of qualified worker personnel from the local population, especially from the rural youth in the republicss8f Central Asia, was emphasized again in the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress. Along with the steady growth trend in national cadrea within the composition of Uzbekistan's workers, the speeding up of scientific and technical progres,g and the indusCrialization and urbanization of the country are accompanied by the internationalization of al.l public life. The composition of the working class' republic detachments is hecoming more and more multinational. For example, workers of 45 nationalities are working in the Almalykskiy Mining ~~nd Metallurgical Combine; of 41 in the Tashkentskiy Textile Combine; of 32-- in the Chirchikskiy Electrochemical Combine; of 30 in the Bekabadskiy C~~ent Plant; and of 27 in the Tashkentskiy Plant imeni the October Revolution. Qualified ~pecialists who have arrived from the RSFSR, the Ukraine and Belorussia, are actively contributing to the accelerated development of productive forces and to the formation and improvement of the training of worker cadres. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500034431-9 Some autlwrs ~justif.iably think that it is illegal to call the republic's worker detachments national detachments because this socialist class was ~ormed in the republics from the beginning on an international basis, being an integral comp- onent of the USSR working class the leading social force of the indestructible unity of the Soviet people. It seems that it is more correct to classify them as rep~t~blic detachments o� the working class (RSFSR workers, Ukrainian SSR workers, etc.) It is necessary to emphasize that it is the working class which embodies the international unity of the Soviet Union's worker detachments and which is exerting a growing influence on improving the social uniformity of the nations and nationalities which form a single Soviet people. The able-bodied population, not employed in public production, is an important source and reserve for replenishing the USSR working class, including that of the UzSSR. However, this reserve had basically been exhausted in the country as a - whol.e by the end of the Sixties. Whereas, more than half of the increase in workers in public production (53 percent) had been obtained from 1961 to 1965 by including in it persons engaged in housekeeping or in the private auxiliary 53 economy, there were twice as many fewer in the next f ive year period (1966-1970). - Of the 130.5 million working age individuals, those employed in the national economy and students were 120.6 million individuals or 92.4 percent in 1970 as opposed to 82 percent in 1959. The number of persons engaged in housekeeping and the priva~~ economy decreased from 17.9 million in 1959 to 5.9 million individ- uals in 1970. When defining the prospects for drawing the able-bodied population into production, the 25th CPSU congress pointed out that the problem of using labor resources during the Eighti~~s would become even more acute because of the decrease in their - natural increase. This proposition was again emphasized during the 26th CPSU Congress. It is sufficient to say that, during the period 1981-1990, the total growth of the working age population will decline to 3.8 percent as opposed to 18 percent in 1971-1980. However, the unfavorable demographic situation, which is taking shape, does not affect a number of republics with high natural increases and the presence of a significant portion of able-bodied people not employed in the national economy. Speaking on 22 September 1978 in Baku on the occasion of the presentation of the Order of Lenin to the city, L. I. Brezhnev pointed out that in Azerbai~an and the ot}~er republics af the Caucasus, as well as in Central AS(a, .i consiclerable p~~~lon of the able-bodied population had still not bcen drawn into public production.~ Basically, this consisted of women who had never worked in the national economy or who had left an enterprise after marriage and who were engaged in raising children and housekeeping or in the private economy. In the UzSSR, the inadequate drawing of the unemployed able-bodied population into public production is typical not only of rural areas but also of cities. At the end of the Sixties, the proportion of this category of the population was 30 percent in the urban population centers of Tashkentskaya, Andizhans~ya and - Bukharskaya Oblasts and more than 40 percent in Syrdar'inskaya Oblast. At the same time, 92 percent of the non-working people o.f working age in Tashkent were women; of them, 80 percent had children. A similar situation was also observed in other cities. This is one of the reasons why Uzbekistan, just as other Central Asian republics, cc~nsiderably lags behind several union republi.cs based on the 20 FOR nF'FICIAI, i~SF; ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030031-9 FOR OF'NI('IA1. USE ONI.Y proportion of women in the total numher of workers and employees. Thus, whereas for the USSR on the whole and for the Latvian SSR, the Estonian SSR, and the Belorussian SSR this indicator in 1970 was equal Lo 51-53 percent; for5~he Uzbek SSR, the Turkmen SSR and the Tajik SSR it ranged from 38 to 41 percent. The questioT~ of drawing women into pioduction is a complicated social problem. It requires tl,.e development of scientifically based recommendations for the country's different cayons with a consideratior~ of their specif ic natures. This problem is especialiy acute for the Central Asi~~n region where the percent of families with ' many children is hi~h. This is mainly typical of the indigenous nationalities. In the Seventies, guided by the decisions of party and soviet organs, the work collectives of individual enterprises began to use new ways and methods to draw w~~men to production. The Kokandskiy Stocking Knitting Combine has experienced a shortage of personnel for a long time. In accordance with a decision of the party and trade union organizations, the shop chiefs and other section and service leaders were sent to the Makhallinskiye committees to attract the housewives to work. Considering that the ma,jority of those not working were mothers with many children, the enterprise made arrangements for their children in pre-school establishments and organized the women's training in work professions. As a result, it turned out that there were rather a lot who desired to work in the combine. Additional city bus routes, especially to remote rayons, were set up with help of the party's gorkom and the gorispolkom, and.eating was arranged in _ the enterp~~ise's dining hall. All this permitted the combine to end the personnel shortage. When performing the great deal of work to draw women into public production, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan strengthened control over the performance of political and indoctrinational work among them on the spot. In May 1970, the tasks of Uzbekistan's party organization in further improving the activity of women in the constructioii of communism were6~iscussed during the 18th Plenum of the Communist Party's Central Committee. Considering that a signif icant part of them were not being drawn into public production because of the shortage of pre-school establishments, the Central Committee of the Uzbek Communist Party and the UzSSR Councii of Minasters adopted on 2 October 1970 the resolution "On the Condition and Furthei Levelopmeiit of Public Pre-School Education in the Republic" which planned for '.i~e number of places in kind~~gartens and day nurseries to be brought to 407,800 :.n 1970 and 735,U~0 in 1975. The 18th congress~2a~~ the 6th Plenum ut the Central Committee of ttie republic's Communist Party, ' the 25th CPSU Congress, and the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan played an important role in solving the problem. As a result of the large organizational work, definite positive changes for the better in attracting women to production activity in the various branches of the republic's national economy occurred during the Seventies. Whereas the proportion of women in the total number of workers and employees in Uzbekistan was equal to 40 percent in 1965, it was equal to 43 percent in 1976; when compared to the all-union indicators, the deviation decreased from ten to eight points. 21 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 - liuwev~r, this indica[or runtinu~~ct to remain relatively low for indibenous natiun- alties even in branches wl~ere female labor is widely used. The providing of industrial enterprises and construction organizations with worker personnel is linked to a definite degree with the drawing of women into the service area. In Uzbekistan the proportion of female workers in such branches of the service area as state trade and public catering was much lower than in the majority of the other republics and the Soviet Union as a whole. In 1970, female workers in the coun~ry's trade and public catering system reacheg491 percent of the total number employed, but in Uzbekistan 57 percent. This ind�cator was especially insignificant in such oblasts as Namanganskaya (25.4 percent), Kashkadar'inskay~5 (33.4 percent), Andizhanskaya (38.9 percent) and Samarkandskaya (40.9 percent). It is quite evident that the drawing of women into the trade and public catering organization would permit the freeing of a significant number of inen who could ~ fill up the ranks of industrial workers. New tasks in this area have been assigned to the republic by the 26th CPSU Congress and the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan. As was pointed out in the report of t:he CPSU Central Committee to th2 26th Congress of the Communist Party oi the Soviet Union, "a number of ineasures to improve working conditions for working women, family relaxation and personal and cultural servgces were adopted in the 10~~ Five-Year Plan however, a noticeable chan e has still not occurred. In connection with this, the congress outlined ways to improve this work further during the llth Five-Year Plan, pointing out the need to consider carefully the distinctive features of the situation in the different republics and rayons. The decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Counci~~of Ministers, "On Measures To Improve State Aid to Families Who Have Children" will play an important role in the further attraction of women to public production. An analysis of the basic directions of the activity of party Soviet and economic organs in Uzbekistan permits the conclusion to be drawn that definite positive experience in the rational use of labor resources was acquired in the republic during the Sixties and Seventies. Industrial enterprises were established in the thickly populated rayons of the zepublic and in rural rayons, the prospects for using a pendulum migration to repleniah the ranks of industrial workers with rural area inhabitants were outlined, and efforts were made to attract unemployed able-bodied people, especially women, to industry. A11 this contributed to intensifying the integration processes, improving the republic's social structure, and increasing the wark activity of all classes and social groups. At the same time, the available experience requires further development and improvement since Uzbekistan, ~ust as the other Central Asian republics and a number of rayons in the Caucasus, is one of the regions where a considerable prop~rtion of the country's labor resources is concentrated at the present time. The drawing of these reserves into public production, including all-union industry, is one of the most important social and economic tasks assigned by the 26th party congress. 22 FOR OFFIC[AL ~JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030031-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030031-9 FOOTNUT~S 1. "Regional'nyye Problemy Vosproizvodstva Rabochey Sily v Uzbekistane" [Regional Manpower Replacement Problems in Uzbekistan], Tashkent, 1965; G. A. Shister, _ "Promyshlennyye Rabochiye Uzbekistana (Izmeneniya v Chislennosti i Sostav)- 1959 - 1970" [Uzbekistan's Industrial Wor'~cers (Changers in Number and Composi- tion), 1959 - 1970], Tashkent, 1975; K. Bedrintsev, N. Nishanov, and A. Trubnikov, "Small Cities in ttie Replenishment of Uzbekistan's Productive Forces", KOMI~NNIST UZBEKISTANA, no 8, 1977; V. Mikheyeva, "Trudovyye - Resursy Malykh i Srednikh Gorodov Uzbekistana i Perspektivny Ikh Ispol'zovaniya" [The Labor Resources of Uzbekistan's Small and Medium Cities and the Prospects for Their Use], author's essay dissertation for candidate of economic sciences, Tashkent, 1975; 0. B. Ata-Mirzayev, "Regional'noye Prognozirovaniya Rasseleniya i Upravleniya Prot~ssom Urbanizatsii" [Regional Forecasting for Settlement and Contrul of the Urbanization Process], Tashkent, 1979; "Sotsial'nyye Problemy Razvitiya Proizvoditel'nykh Sil Uzbekistana" [Social Problems in the Development of Llzbekistan's Productive Forces], Tashkent, 1980. 2. "Materialy XXVI S'"yezcia Kommunisticheskaya Partii Sovetskogo Soyuza [Materials on the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionJ, Moscow, 1981, p 52. 3. "Itogi Vsesoyuznoy Perepisi Naseleniya 1970 Goda" [Results of the 1970 All~Union Population Census], Vol S, Moscow, 1973, p 29. " 4. K. Marks and F. Engels, "Sochineniya" [WorksJ, Vol 16, p 198. 5. "Sotsial'noye Razvitiye Rabochego Klassa SSSR" [Social Development of the - USSR Working ClassJ, Moscow, 1977, p 27. 6. M. N. Rutkevich, "Tendentsii Razvitiya Sotsial'noy Struktury Sovetskogo Obshchestva" [The Tendencies in the Development of the Social Structure of Soviet Society], Moscow, 1975, p 38. 7. A. Sh. Tashbulatov, "Social Problems of Unqualified Workers" in the collection "Filosofiya, Istoriy