Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3.pdf4.43 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10337 19 February 1982 - USSR Re ort p METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY No. 12, Jecember 1981 Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspap~rs, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and - other characteristics retained. Heaalines, editorial reports, and material enclose3 in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [TextJ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar na_mes rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. C~PYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUT~,TIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540030046-3 FOR OFFIC'IaL USE ONLY JPRS L/10337 - 19 February 1982 ~ USSR REPORT METEOROLOGY AND ~YDROLOGY No. 12, December 1981 . Translations or abstracts ~f all articles of the Russian-language ~ m~nthly journal METEOROLOGTYA I GIDROLOGIYA published in Moscow by _ Gidrometeoizdat. - CONTENTS *Air Surface Temperature Forecasting for 48 and 60 Hours in 9dvance 1 *Correlation Between Te~cporal and Spatial Intervals in Numerical Weather - Prediction 2 *Global Temperature Trend in Cenozoic 3 *Friction and Air Heat Exchange With Surface During Transport of Sand, Salt and Ice Part`~cles 5 *Prevailing Wind at Altitudes 80-1110 km at Different Longitudes During Winter and Spring 1976-1977 6 Effect of Radiation on Turbulent Cloud Medium 7 *Features of Mass Exchange During Collision of Water Droplets of Noncomparable Size 18 - *Computation of Vertical Turbulent Fluxes in Near-Water Atmospheric Layer Over Ocean in Tropical Latitudes 19 Objective Analysis of Ocean Surface Temperature in NorChern Hemisphere......... 20 *Tsunanii of 23 November 1969 on Kamchatka and Features of Its Development....... 29 ~River Flow as Dissipative System 30 *Spatial Correlation Functi~ns of Maximum Water Discharges in Mountain Rivers... 31 *Denotes items which have been abstracted. - a- [III - USSR - 33 S&T FOUO] FOR O~'FICIAL USE ONLY' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY *Influence of Climatic Conditions on Variability of Yields of Green Mass of Perennial Gr~sses in RSFSR 32 *Interannual Changes in Atmospheric Zonal Circuiation in Northern Hemisphere During Five-Year Period 33 *Long-Range Forecasting of Maxi~um Water Levels During Ice Jams�on����. - Kamenka 34 *Autumn Growing Season of Grassy Plants in Moderately High Elevations of Central Asia ................................v................................. 35 Measurement of Parameters of Wave-Covered Surface From Shipboard 36 - Remote Registry Unit for Float Automattc Level Recorcler 44 Conferences, Meetings and Seminars ........................,s.................... 49 *Notes From Abroad 56 *Anniversary of Birth of Yu. M. Shokal'skiy (1856-1940)...e 58 Index of Articles Published in 'METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA' in 1981........... 59 I ~ Denotes items which have been abstracted. - b - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 FAR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UAC 551.509.323 AIR SURFACE TII~ERA'I'URE FQRECASTING FO�. 48 AND 60 HOURS IN ADVANCE Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 22 May 81) pp 5-13 [Article by A. I. Snitkovskiy, candidate of geographical sciences, USSR Hydro- meteorological Scientific Research Center] [Abstract] A method is proposed for predicting minimum temperature for 48 hours in - advance and maximum temperature for 60 hoc~rs in advance. In formulating prognostic expressions it appeared natural to use the concept of model output statistics, whose use made it possible to obtain positive results in predicting temperature. for the first day. The MOS concept was used in developing an archives of data for predicting temperature for 48 and 60 hours. The initial data selected were for 1976-1980 226 cases of minimum and maximum temperatures separately.for each of the four seasons. The breakdown of the archives into four parts made it pos- sible to take into account the characteristics of seasons of the year. Th~ author arrived at a list of the potential predictors for solving this problem. It was found that the easiest season for prediction was autumn and winter the most dif- ficult. Beginning in March 1980 the deriv~u ~~gression equations were used daily in preparing temperature for~casts for 48 and 60 hours. Checking of the tempera- ture forecasts up to December 1980 indicated that the prediction of minimum tem- perature by these equations is better than a synoptic forecast but the prediction of maximum temperatures using the derived regression equa.tions was somewhat poorer than a synoptic forecast. Accordingly, the procedure was corrected in order to rectify this situation. Now the prediction of minimum Lamperature for 48 hours is approximately 20% better than a synoptic forecast and the prediction of maximum temperature for 60 hours is better than a synoptic forecast on the average is 5-- 10%. .An example of the forecast i~ given. Tables 5; references: 2 Russian. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 N~UI~ UI'Mll;lAL Ua~ VIVLr UDC 551.509.313 - CORRELATION BETWEEN TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL IPITERVALS IN NUMERICAL WEATHER '~:DICTION Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 3 Apr 81) pp 14-24 [Article by V. M. Kadyshnikov, candidate .~f physical and mathematical sciences, and V. M. Ryazantseva, USSR Hydrom~teorological Scientific Research CQnter] [Abstract] The basis of numerical methods for short-range weather prediction is the approximate integration of the equations of a hydrostatic atmosphere. When using explicit finite-difference integration schemes the ratio of the temporal and spatial interv~ls must be related to the velocity of propagation of the front of wave disturbances by the Courant criterion, otherwise linear instability arises. In order to find this velocity it is necessary to examine a corresponding linear- ized system of equa.tions, deterzn~?ne the energy interval for it and for. wave solu- tions obtain tne ratio of t,'.Ze energy flux to ita de~nsity, that is, find the velo- city of propagation of wave energy. The maximum of this parameter for all wave numbers will also be the sought-for wave front velocity. The authors illustrate this first in the example of the equations for a barotropic atmosphere. Then the horizontal velocity of propagation of the wave front in a baroclinic atmosphere _ is determined and finally, it is sh~wn that the wave front is not propagated ver- tically in a hydrostatic atmosphere. Accordingly, the temporal interval in finite- difference models of a baroclinic atmosphere is dependent in explicit schemes only on the horizontal resolution. The velocity of wave front propagation in these mod- els only slightly exceeds the corresponding value for a barotropic atmcsphere, so .that the interval can be the same as in barotropic models. The temporal interval is not dependent on the vertical resolution. This circumstance is well known in numerical forecasting, but its validation has evidently never before appeared in the literature. Figures 1; references: 9 Russian~ . 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY UDC 551.52!~.34 GL~BAL TEMPERATURE TP.END IN CENOZ~IC Moscow METEQRULOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 1~, Dec 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 25-35 [Arti~le by I~ I. Borzenkovay candidate of geographical sciences, State Hydrolog- ical Institute] [Abstract] This is a generalization of the results of detertaination of paleotem- peratures by the oxygen isotopic method for the analysis of arganogenic residues of marine plankton and benthos microfauna and also data from a paleobotanic anal- ysis of fossil flora over the course of the Cenozoic (last 60-65 million years). The presented materials on the nature of change in parameters of. mean ~aater tem- perature and air temperature over the continents in d~ifferent latitude zones lead to the following conclusions. 1. During the course of the last 60 million years at all latitudes in both hemispheres there has been a gradual decrease in temper- ature of the air and ocean (surfa~:.e and deep layers), against whose background there were considerable variations in the direction of warming~and cooling. 2. Af- ter the temperature maximum in the Early Eocene a gradual temperature decrease be- gan, particularly strongly zxpressed in the high and middle latitudes. 3. Over the course of the Oligocene (38-22 million years ago) at all latitudes there was a predominance af a relatively cold climate with temperatures in the equatorial - and tropical latitudes lower than at the present time. 4. The temperature increase beginning at all latitudes at the end of the Oligocene ended with the temperature maximum in the Early Miocene when the air and water temperatures in the equatorial latitudes attained values close to those of today. This period was the only period in the course of the entire Cenozoic when there was a considerable positive tem- perature trend. 5. The Early Miocene temperature maximum ended with a new temper- ature decrease in the high and middle latitudes which developed to the end of the Miocene and continued in the Pliocene. 6. The temperature regime of the equatorial and tropical latitudes in the course of the Miocene and Pliocene remained virtual- ly unchanged; the temperatures in the Late Miocene attained values characteristic of the Late Eocene. 7. The temperature difference between the pole and equator changed during the course of the Cenozoic by a factor of almo'st 3 from values less than 10�C in the Early Eocene to 30�C in the Late Pliocene. Due to insignificant temperature variations ~n the low latitudes during the second half of the Cenozoic (Miocene-Pliocene) a change in the gradient occurred only due to a temperature de- crease in the high and middle latitudes. 8. A sharp decrease in water and air tem- perature in the Middle and Late Miocene led to the formation of permanent glacier covers in the polar regions, first in the southern hemisphere and then zn the 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 - hOR UM'M'1l:lAl, u~l: UIVLY Middle Pliocene also in the northern hemisphere. In this connection, over the course of more than 10 million years there was a clearly expressed asymmetry of the earth's climate when in the absence of glacier covers in the northern hemisphere the gla- ciation in the southern hemisphere already attained its present-day extent about 11 million years ago, that is, whereas the permanent glacier cover in the northern hemisphere appeared no sooner than 3 million years ago. 9. The northern hemisphere remained ice-free up to the beginning of the Pliocene, although individual traces of local mountain glar_iations, such as in Alaska, date to 9-10 million years ago. The permanent glacier cover in Greenland began to form about 3.1-3.5 million years ago. The most ancient precipitation containing information on the presence of sea- sonal ice in the Arctic dates back some 4.5-5.0 million years ago. A permanent ice cover in the Arctic basin appeared only about 0.9-0.8 million years ago as a re- sult of a marked decrease in global temperature. Figures 2; references 30: 6 Rus- - sian, 24 Western. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.5I1.6 FRICTION AND AIR HEAT EXCHANGE WITH SURFACE BURING TRANSPORT OF SAND, SALT AND ICE PARTICLES Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIY9 in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manusczipt received 31 Mar 81) pp 36-40 [Article by 0. K. Zakharova, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, State Hydrological Institute] [Abstract] On the basis of solution of the equation for th2 dynamics of the sur- facezair layer it is possible to compute the characteristics of sand particles in deserts. The saltation of particles with the diameter d occurs with satisfaction of the relationship 10'2` v* Ppar~Pairgd ~ 1~ where v* is the dynamic velocity of the flow, /~air is the density of air, p a and d are the density and diameter of the particles, g is the acceleration o~ ~free falling. The presence of saltating particles in the air changes the dynamic charac- teristics of the flow. The metYiod is applicable for computing the transport of par- ticles of an identical diameter and a stipulated ~.ensity. This article gives the results of solution of the problem of air heat exchange with surfaces consisting of unconsolidated material. Ths examination is applied to deserts, the shores of dessicated lakes covered with salt and ice surfaces. ~'he results were obtained on the basis of numerical solution of a system of equations for thermal conductivity and dynamics taking the presence of heat sources in the air into account. For sal- tating particles of sand, salt and ice with a diameter of 3-6�10-4 m the author has obtained expressions for the coefficients of heat exchange and resistance for the level 2 m above the surface. These coefficients increase with wind velocity and are approximately twice as great in the case of moderate winds and three times greater during winds of hurricane force than in the case of absence of transport of particles by an air flow. Figures 2; references 5: 4 Russian, 1 Western. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 MOR UM'MII.IAL U~l: VIVLY UDC 551.557.3(470.318)(571.62) PREVAILING WIND AT ALTITUDES 80-100 KM AT DIFFERENT LONGITUDES DURING WINTER AND ' SPRING 1976-1977 - Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 41-45 ~ [Article by N. A. 2~Iakarov, Institute of Experimental Meteorology] [Abstract] A continuous cycle of observations was made from December 1976 through June 1977 at Khabarovsk (49�N, 135�E) in the Far East for the purpose of study- ing the wind regime at altitudes 80-100 km. A comparative analysis was made of the wind regime over Far Eastern and European regions using the results of long- term measurements at Obninsk (55�N, 38�E). The experimental data revealed that long-term series of the mean hourly wind velocity values in the meteor zone con- tain a broad spectrum of variations with periods from several hours to a year. For the purpose of discriminating changes in wind velocities ~aith periods more than a day the time series of inean hourly values of the meridional and zonal components of wind velocity during the entire period of observations were sub~ected to har- monic analysis. The data indicated that zonal flows predominated over Khabarovsk at altitudes 80-100 km during most of the investigated period. In the behavior of the seasonal variation of the zonal component'of the wind there are~the same reg- ularities which are revealed on the basis of long-term measursments at European middle-latitude stations, that is, westerly winds with velocities up to 20 m/sec during the winter season, restructuring to easterly at the beginning of spring, easterly winds in spring and at the end of spring to early summer, the 3etting-in of a summer regime of circulation with westerly winds. Accordingly, the results of measurements at Khabarovsk and Obninsk indicate that in general the seasonal varia- tion of the pxevailing wind at altitudes 80-100 km is similar over the Far Eastern and European regions. Figures 2, tables 1; references 9: 7 Russian, 2 Western. 6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON1.Y UDC 551.509.616:621.375.826 . EFFECT OF RADIATION ON TURBUL~NT CLOUD MEDIUM Moscow METEORCLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 46-55 [Article by R. Rh. Almayev, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, and L. P. Semenov, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Institute of Experi- - mental PTeteorology ] [Text] Abstract: The authors investigated fluctuations ~ in the intensity of transmitted laser radiation arising during the clearing of a turbulent cloud medium. In the approximation of geometrical optics and using the smooth perturbations method expres- sions are derived for the dispersion of fluctua- tions of the radiation intensity level. It is shown that the presence of fltictuations of the real and fictitious components of the dielectric constant of the cleared medium leads to the ef- fect of a partial compensation of intensity fluc- tuations. The changes in the profiles of inean characteristics of the cleared cloud medium, as- - sociated with fluctuations of the radiation act- ing on the medium, are computed. The problem of artificial modification of clouds and fogs by laser radiation for � the purpose of creating extended zones of clearing, without the presence of drop- lets (for example, see [4] and the references therein)~ has been attracting great attention. Interest in this problem is dictated primarily by the fundamental pos- sibility of the use of cleared zones for~practical purposes. In [4], for example, - there is a discussion of the possibility of using the clear~ng effect for improv- ing visibility over airport landing str.ips and for increasing the effe~,.*.iveness uf operation of an optic~l signaling system in the presence of clouds and fogs. As is well known, the principle for the clearing of cloud media by laser radiation is based on the evaporation of cloud droplets due to the absorption af the energy of radiation of definite wavelengths. In addition to the principal effect, an in- crease in medium trarisparency during interaction between radiation and the cloud, accompanying effects arise which are associated with the nonuniform heating of the air by evaporating droplets. In particular, during.clearing of the turbulent cloud~ medium random nonuniformities of temperature, liquid water content and the diel- ectric constant are induced in addition to that existing prior to modification 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 cvl~ vres~..nar v.aa. v~.a.. [1, 3, 5]. Depending on the modification canditions, the parameters of the medium and the radiation beam, the intensity of the induced fluctuations can vary in a wide range and considerably exceed the values observed in the undisturbed medium [l, 3, 5]. One of the most important mechanisms of the development of fluctuations of medium parameters is the mechanism of mixing of spatial inhomogeneities by the ran- dom wind field [1,5]. Specifi.cs of formation of inhomogeneities of the dielectric constant F. in the cloud medium during the propagation of radiation is determined, first of all, by the fact that heating of the medium occurs by means of heat trans- fer from the heated droplets, and second, because of the peculiarities of evolution of the disperse fraction under the influence of radiati~n. The random field ~ in the cloud medium to be cleared in turn is a source of scatterin~ and attenuation of the transmitted radiation. The fluctuations of intensity of radiation arising in this case and their influence on the mean characteristj_cs of the medium to be clear- ed are examined in this article. Assume that the transmitted beam of laser radiation of the initial radius a0 with the initial divergence ~ is propagated along the z-axis in an aerodisperse medium occupying the region z> 0 and carried by a wind with a fluctuating velocity and forms a cleared region in it which is characterized by a random field of the induc- ed comglex dielectric constant We will assume that the influence of the drop- , lets is limited to a nonuniform attenuation of the transmitted coherent part of the wave, whereas the radiation scattered by the droplets is completely carried beyond the limits of the beam. Such an assumption is correct for the optically narrow beams 2 a ~ OGp~l considered here on paths with ~p~'Clim ~~0~ 2~ are the attenua- tion coefficient and the optical thickness of the undisturbed cloud medium). Ac- cording to [7], in the atmosphere 'C1im-25 for the densest clouds and 2a0 < 1 m. In this case the disperse medium can be considered quasicontinuous and it can be as- sumed that the induced fluctuations of E in the modification zone are caused primar- ily by turbulent mixing. Sin~e the dimensions of the inhomogeneities arising in the medium are ~,~a, the propagation of radiation in the medium can be described by an equation f4r the complex phase of an electromagnetic wave ~ in a parabolic approx- i~aation _ - - - ~~v ~'F ~I'= 2k'Cl+ `--f- (1) 2 i k~Z ( C ~ 2 2 Here ln E, E= AelS; A, S are the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic wave; k is the wave number; E, are the mean and fluctuation changes of the di- electric constant of the medium to be cleared, equal respectively to a ( ) - ~ (~~`)(T--T~)+i h, E'=(d~�Ir 7~~ k~ 2 r where T, T',oc, o~' are the mean and fluctuation components of temperature and the attenuation coefficient of the medium, Tp is the temperature of the undisturbed medium. The spatial distribution of is described by the expression ~ _ z~ _ e-a) j k ~-v, ~ (3) 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY where ~ 3r ~ x ~ - (1 - .9,1 lV� 1 ( dT ~ , ~ Q ,~Twu 1 d.r'1 ~X~~ y. Z) E~ ~ '*~n ~ n~ (4 - n _ is a function of the thermal effect of the radiation; ~P, ~ T are coefficients, averaged for the droplet spectrum, determining the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by a droplet from the beam and the fraction from the absorbed radiation energy expended on the evaporation of the droplet [4, 9]; ~dp is the liquid water content of the undisturbed medium; L is the specific heat of evaporation of water; cp is the heat capacity of a unit volume of air; I is the intensity of radiation; V~ is mean wind velocity, coinciding in direction with the x-axis. It can be seen from (3) that 8 rapidly tends to saturation with an increase in the thermal effect function. The latter occurs with movement of the observation point in the direction of an increase in the optical transparency of the medium to be cleared. Here we will mention another peculiarity of the considered problem: the presence of fluctuations of the fictitious part of E, which, as will be demonstrated here- after, lead to the appedrance of ne~a effects. Making use ot the smallness of fluc- tuations of the dielectric constant E'~ 1, we will seek the solurion of (1) in the approximation of the smooth perturbations method. We will write the first two equations for this method: - - ~ 2 ik dd "-I- ~1 ~y'o ~Qi~Fo)Z 2 k~ (1 ) _ ~5) _ 2 ik az' -F f 2 c~~`'~o vl'~~ + kz = 0� (6) Fquation (5) is nonlinear, and not only due to presence of the term ( 0~~p)2, but also as a result of the dependence of � on A2 caused by the effect of inedium clearing. A solution of (5) was found in [8] in the approximation of geometrical optics. Such a solution is correct for paths with the extent z~ ka~ = zd (for ex- ample, for ap. = 20 cm, ~1 = 10. 6� m, zd = 25 km) . Assuming the solution of (5) to be known, henceforth we will concentrate our emphasis on solution of equation (6). We will assume that ~ k=)Gk + iSk, k= 0, 1, where x is the amplitude level of the radiation, x~ = ln A~, ln A/Ap. Since, as a rule, a0~~0 ~~-0 is the minimum scale of the fluctuations of in (6) it is possible to omit the term pl ~i pl }C having the order of ~ p L11.~1 a~ and write an equation for ~~1 in the form 2 ik d s' -I- ~1 ~I~~ 2 i~ ~ So~.~ k' e~ = 0. ~7) _ The value is found in [1]: c' _ e, iaZ) F~ V~~ ..~1 = Y), ' where 9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ _ X 0 ~ - l'�' ~3 ~ k V�' Fl - 9~ e-a~ Q~ - J dX' p~ _(x`, y). V' is the pulsation component of ~~ind velocity. We will neglect the nonlinear divergence of the beam of modifying radiation in com- parison with the initial value: v1Sp~ k~~ [8]*. Assuming that the origin of coor- dinates is situated on the axis af the radiation beam, we select in the form i H0- { FXIt -rfx)' (ly+fy)}' (9) where F. is the radius of curvature of the wave front along the ~-axis at the entry into the mediun; f~ =~z/F~. Taking (8) and (9) into account, from equation (7) we ~ obtain the following expression for ~(P z): , _ _.-_1 ~ - _ - ~P~ s) = 4 z~- i a,l ~zd~- Px~Z (Z~, z) Py~ ~z~~ Z) X (10) where X f d P~ F~ ~P~, z~) V/ ~P~~ z') exp tk ~~s - sJ Pi ~Z~~ Y)~, ~ F=(xPx_(z', z~~.._ 1~~,, (z'~ Pi ~z'~ x) = 1+>~ ,(l = x~ Y)� Here and in the text which follows the recurrent indices on the parameters F, V, p indicates summation. The clearing of cloud media in regular regimes of evapor- ati~n of droplets along adequately extended paths can be achieved only by use of broad beams of modifyinb radiation j10]. Accordingly, without substantial limita- tions it can be assumed that z~ka~. Due to the rapidly oscillating exponent the _ principal contri~ution to the integral for in expression (10) is from the re- gion a~ >~I/~' IN max ( z/k, Qp). Since the characteristic spatial scale of change of the function F~ is of the order of ap, F can be considered a smooth func- tion at the scales P'^~ z k, .QD ~ a~ and on this ~asis it can be removed from the integral for ~O'. Expressing the V' (z,~) value through its Fourier transform g~(z, and integrating (10) for wifh allowance for what has been stated above, we obtain ~ _ - ~i tP~ Z) = 2(- e, i eZ) dz' F~ (E, z') j dz ;c X - . . _ _ _ , _ ( ~ i,; (z-z~) Pr Z'D l (11) Xe,: e g~~;~~z)exp1- 2k f. ~t=z, Y?� (11) and assuming a local homogeneity and isotropicity of wind velocity fluc- tuations and their ~.-correlation in the direction of the z-axis, we obtain an ex- pression for the dispersion of fluctuations of the level of intensity of the modify- . _ ing beam ~ _ ' a; ~z~ P) r h" ~i RC f d~~ pl ~E~ z~~ ~k (E~ z~) J d2 v o (12) X ~~R (z'~ ;c) l - exp { - ! xn - Pn } -F- ;c k' ez )C [ l . ~ The condition for the indicated neglecting, obtained in a"stipulated field" ap- . proximation, has the form 1~~~~ ~b~ g~ ) 2 ci Q~~~ . 10 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY X Re S! dz' F~ (E, z') F~ (E~ z') J d'.x (z', til X l ( 1 zn ( z�-- s' ) Pn s) ~ l X~ 1-}- exp i- k J 1~.~ 2,-, k' ~l e, I' dx: r~ (E, a,) X (12 ) ~ ~ a ~ ~ f. r~ ~ x'n ~z-s') Pn s) 1 X Fk z).f d,~fi~k (z , x) sin k J, ~ where ~~k(z', ~C ) is the jpectral tensor of wind velocity fluctuations; Re[B], Im[B] denotes separation of the real and fictitious parts of B, - - - X?=2 xi~ j, k. n=x, y. _ In the approximation of geometrical optics (k-~ expression (12) coincides with the expression obtained in [2]. In (12) the first term, proportional to ~ i, determines the fluctuations af the level of intensity of radiation caused by scattering on temperature inhomogeneities ~'(Re E'); the second term, proportional to ~ 2, determines fluctuations of radia- tion caused by fluctuations of optical thickness (Im The third term describes fluctuations of radiation associated with cross-correlation of Re E' and Im The presence of the second and third terms in (12) reflects the specific features of clearing of a cloud medium. Fluctuations of the level of intensity of radiation in a medium to be cleared are nonh~mogeneous and nonisotropic. This is indicated by the presence of the products F.( z')Fk(~, z') in (12). Thus, laser modification of a cloud medium, character- i~ed initially by homogeneous and isotropic fluctuations of the parameters, leads to a qualitative change in its stochastic properties. ~de will note another pecul- iarity in behavior of fluctuations of the intensity level in the medium to be cleared. Formula (12) shows that the sign on the last term is dependent on the sign on E(d�/a TP. Eor most gases (aE/a T)P 3 there is a clearly expressed maximum of the intensity fluctuations which is displaced to the windward side of the beam with an increase in qp(0). In tl:e clearing zone the intensity fluctua- tions decrease sharply with an increase in q~(0). We note that the nature of the behavior of O'X in dependence on q~(0) is similar and agrees entirely with the behavior of E fluctuations [1]. ~6~ 0,5 - . Qo(0)=f , . a,~s q,(oJ�.~ ~.~Q~'~ q'f0i-s -~r -D,S 0 D,S ' Fig. 1. Typical distribution of induced fluctuations of intensity level of modify- ~ ing radiation along axis f, = x/a in section y= 0, = 3 for different values of parameter q~(0) = 1, 3, 5, 7 and apF)-1 = 0.05. We will discuss the problem of change in the mean characteristics of the medium to be cleared (temperature, liqu{_d-water content, transparency) caused by pulsations of the modifying radiation. In [3J, where a study was made of the problem of clear- ing of the cloud medium by radiation with an intensity fluctuating at the entry - into the cloud, it was demonstrated that the presence of intensity fluctuations of the modifying radiation should lead to a smoothing of the profiles of the mean characteristics of the medium in comparison with a case when the modification is accomplished by radiation with regular parameters. The intensity of the indicated - effect is determined by the dispersion 0~2 of fluctuations of the thermal effect function q. For the case considered here_~t .Can_be assumed that . . - . E Pro oq;^, 2(o) a P f d`c' y, z) ~z Y, x), 90 ( ~ _ [KOP = correlation] " 20 ~ where ~ ~ll~l . %(r) _ /~l~)' I(rj is the mean radiatian intensity in the medium to be cleared; I~~ r is t;ze cor- relation radius of the x fluctuations;cf~ was stipulated by formula ~18). Numerical computations of change in the mean characteristics of the medium to be cleared due to the induced q fluctuations, stipulated by expression (20), carried out for a large set of cloud and radiation beam parameters, indicated that in the considered situation these changes are insignificant. As indicated by an analysis, the latter is attributable to the fact that the fluctuations of radiation 15 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , intensity, determining 0'2, are small both in regions with a high degree of clear- ing, due to the smallness4of the E pulsations induced in the medium, and in re- gions with a low degree of clearing due to a considerable attenua.tion of radia- ' tion by nonevaporating cloud droplets. . We note in conclusion that the investigation of the induced ~ fluctuations caas carried out without allowance for the influence of gas absorption of radiation on the formation of ~ fluctuations. Such an examination is correct for dense clouds and fogs when 4~~~~ g(OCg is the coefficient of attenuation of radiation by the gas component of the atmosphere). As indicated by the analysis, gas absorption can change the distribution of � fluctuations in the region [ f = g = gas ] q>~n r w, (t -~T) l 2 �r BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Almayev, R. Kh., Nerushev, A. F. and Semenov, L. P. "Fluctuations of Tempera- ture and Liquid-Water Content in the Zone of Clearing of a Cloud P4edium," IZV. AN SSSR: FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA (News of the USSR Academy of Sci- ences: Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean), Vol 14, No 3, 1978. 2. Almayev, R. Kh. and Semenov, L. P., "Fluctuations of Parameters of Radiation Modifying a Cloud Medium Caused by the Mixing Mechanism," TEZISY DOKLADOV 12-y VSESOYUZNOY KONFERENTSII PO RASPROSTRANENIYU RADIOVOLN (Summaries of Re- ports at the 12th All-Union Conference on Radio Wave Propagation), Tomsk, Part 2, 1978. 3. Almayev, R. Kh. and Svirkunov, P. N., Role of Laser Radiati~n Fluctuations in Clearing of Disperse Media," PIS'MA V ZhTF (Letters to the Journal of Technical Physics), Vol 4, No 12, 1978. 4. Volkovitskiy, 0. A., "Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Radiation of C02 Lasers on a Droplet Cloud Medium," METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA (Meteor- ology and Hydrology), No 9, 1977. - 5. Volkovitskiy, 0. A., Didenko, N. K. and Pinchuk, S. D., "Appearance of Optical Inhomogeneities in the Clearing of a Turbulent Cloud Medium," TRUDY IEM (Trans- actions of the Institute of Experimental Pieteorology), No 18(71), 1978. - 6. Gurvich, A. S., Kon, A. I., Mirnov, V. L. and Khmelevtsev, S. S., LAZ~RNOYE IZ- LUCIIENIYE V TURBULENTNOY ATMOSFERE (Laser Radiation in a Turbulent Atmosphere), Moscow, Nauka, 1976. - 7. Zuyev, V. Ye. and Kabanov, M. V., PERENOS OPTICHESKIKH SIGNALOV V ZEMNOY AZTiO- SFERE (V USLOVIYAI~i POMEI:H) (Transfer of Optical Signals in Earth's Atmosphere (Under Noise Conditions)), Moscow, Sovetskoye Radio, 1977. 8. Nerushev, A. F. and Semenov, L. P., "Propagation of a Light Beam in an Evapor- ating Liquid-Drop Medium in the Presence of 'iJind' Refraction," KVANTOVAYA ~L~KTRONIKA (Quantum Elec~ronics), Vol 3, No 6, 1976. 16 . . FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ~JNLY 9. Semenov, L. P., "Evaporation of a Water Droplet in the Radiation Field," TRUDY IEM (Transactions of the Institute of Experimental Meteorology), No 18(71), 1978. 10. Sedunov, Yu. S. and Semenov, L. P., "Geometry of a Clearing Zone in a Cloud With an Arbitrary Wind Field," DOKLADY AN SSSR (Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences), Vol 236, 1977. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR UM~htI:IAL u~~ u1v1.Y UDC 551.576.1 - FEATURES OF MASS EXCHANGE DURING COLLISION OF WATER DROPLETS OF NONCOMPARABLE SIZE - Moscow ME;TEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 56-60 [Article by A. V. Kolpakov and S. M. Kontush, candidate of ph,ysical and mathematical sciences, Odessa State University] [Abstract] The article describes an experimental method and presents the results of experiments for investigating the phenomenon of partial coalescence of droplets at the time of collision of droplets of noncomparable sizes. The experiments were carried out with droplets with a radius 50 ~ rl F 150 � m which collided with target droplets with a radius 500~ R< 1500�.m with a change of velocity in the range 20 ~ vl~ 200 cm/sec. The e~perimental apparatus is described. The authors derived func- tiona.l expressions relating the parameters of the droplets before and afCer col- lisions and the partial coalescence mechanism is explained. Expressions are also derived which determine the limits of existence of partial coalescence for a stip~ ulated range of change of the collision parameters. All this not only makes it pos- - sible to take into account the existence of the partial coalescence phenomenon when designing different kinds of ~erosol apparatus, but also to control actively the various processes changing the value of the input parameters. The resul~s once again indicate the need for a separate examination of experimental studies on the value of the rl/R parameter because when this parameter has substantially different values it is necessary to expect a prevalence of different processes. Figures 3; references 12: 8 Russian, 4 Western. 18 FOR O~F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 - FOR OFRiCIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.551.8 COMPUTATION OF VERTICAL TURBULENT FLUXES ~N NEAR-WATER ATMOSPHERIC LAYEIR OVER OCEAN IN TROPICAL LATITUD~S Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA i~ Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 31 Mar 81) pp 61-68 [Article by T. F. Masagutov, Institute of Experimental t4eteorology] [Abstract] It is generally recognized that the turbulent exchange of heat, momentum and moisture through the ocean-atmosphere interface plays a highly important role in the formation of weather over the earth. But at the present time there is no - technical possibility for organizing measurements of these characteristics by a direct method on the necessary scale. Moreover, it is virtually impossible to or- ganize measurements of fluxes of these substances, for example, in a zone occupied by a tropical cyclone. This accounts for the fact that during recent years an ef- fort has been made to develop indirect methods for computing the fluxes of heat, momentum and moisture on the basis of data from standard meteorological observa- tions. However, on the basis of direct experimental data it has recently been dem- onstrated that the presently widely used indirect methods for computing the fluxes of heat and momentum on the basis of data from mass hydrometeorological observa- ~ tions do not provide the accuracy required for practical purposes. This article out- lines an improved method with application of the great volume of recently acquired - experimental data, for example, data on the structure of turbulence in the near- water layer of the atmosphere obtained in "ATEX-69," "BOMEX-69," "ATEP-74" and on a number of other expeditions. The author has obtained an explicit form of the de- � pendence of the energy exchange coefficients on the characteristics of the flux and sea surface roughness. These results are used in formulating a refined scheme for computing the fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum on the basis of data from stan- dard meteorological observations. Figures 4; references 23: 12 Russian, 11 Western. 19 FOR OFF`[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 !'UK UMCII,IAL U1t~, VI~ILti UDC 551.463.6(215-17) .OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OCEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURI: IN N~RTHERN HEMISPIiER~ Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, 1981 (manuscript received 14 Apr 81) pp 69-76 [Article by A. N. Bagrov, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, and N. N. Kozhevnikova, USSR Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Center] [Text] Abstract: The article describes a scheme for the objective analysis of the tempera- ture field of the ocean surface in the north- ern hemisghere by the optimum interpolation ~ method. The analysis is made using data from shipboard observations accumulated during a five-day period. The data were subjected to climatic and horizontal checking. The scheme was applied using a BESM-6 electronic comput- er in FORTRAN.algorithmic language. The re- ~ sults of the ana.lysis are fed out for the points of intersection of a grid 2.5 x 2.5� covering the entire northern hemisphere (ex- cept for the territory of the land and polar regions). Reco~endations are given for fur- ther improvement of the results. Anomalies of the thermal state of the ocean surface exert a substantial influence on meteorological processes in the atmosphere. Objective analysis of ocean sur- face temperature is also intended for taking into account nonadiabatic factors in different prognostic models of the atmosphere. In addition, in the future it is desirable that the results of this analysis replace the manual analysis of ocean ~ surface temperature now employed at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center, involving manual plotting of a great volume of data on the map. In a study by V. A. Avdeyev [2] a scheme was proposed for objective analysis of water temperature for the North Atlantic. But it was oriented on an antiquated technology and never entered into operational practice. Our analytical scheme, as well as that described in [2], is based on the optimum interpolation method and in many respects conforms to the operational scheme given in [3] for analysis of surface meteorological fields (including the air temperature fields). The same as scheme [3], it is app~ied using FORTRAN language with a BESM-6 electronic computer. 20 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX Initial data. As the initial data in the analysis use is made of synoptic tele- ;rams (in the KN-09 code) from commercial and scientific research ships in which, in addition to other information, data on temperature of the ocean surface are - given. The number of such suffinaries from the northern hemisphere arriving at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center at any main observation time (0000 or 1200 GMT) averages 650. The commercial ships from which the overwhelming number of shipboard telegrams arrives for the most part sail along standard routes. Thus, information for the northern hemisphere is distributed extremely nonuniformly: in addition to regions of vigorous marine shipping, from which even some excess of observational data is obtained, there are some extensive regions which are extremely poorly cov- ered by data. As a rule these are the tropical regions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Since the temperature of the ocean surface is an extremely inert character- - istic, and also due to the inadequate volume of data received for one observation time, iii oceanological practice at the present time it is customary to "mix" thes~ data for a five-day period, that is, plot all the information arriving during a five-day period. In actuality, in regions of vigorous shipping only some pa~�t of all the arrivin~ summaries is plotted, whereas in poorly covered regions aJ..l the water temperature summaries are plotted. Although data on water temperature of the ocean surface are transmitted w:_th an accuracy to 0.1�C, the actual accuracy of these measurements is probably consider- ably lower and does not exceed tl�C, but according to the considerations of some authors, +1.5�C [Sj. This occurs as a result of the primitive technique for the measurements themselves, mixing of the water surface layer due to ~hip movement, etc. In addition, the observations are not made by professional observers and therefore a rather high percentage of error is obtained. The plotting of this in- formation on one map helps in averaging it somewhat and facilitates checking. In our work on the objective analysis of temperature of the ocean surface sae also "mixed" data on water temnerature for a five-day period, as this is now done in oceanological practice. We made use of the already e~isting techniques of the operational data processing system organized for the purposes of numerical short-range forecasting on a BESM- 6 electronic computer employed at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center. All the hy- drometeorological data from the communication channels are fed ta the *.nagnetic tapes of a"Minsk-32" electronic computer. Then at the necessary moments in time ("cut-off times") through a special inter-machine commun3.cation channel it is transmitted to a BESM-6 electronic computer. The "cutoff time" for a regional operational f.ore- cast is 2.5 hours, but for a hemispherical forecast 5.5 hours from the moment of observation. During ttiese times it is possible to receive zbout 75 and 95% of all the shipboard synoptic telegrams respectively relating to a particular observation time (it should be noted that the shipboard synoptic summaries lag considerably be- hind similar telegrams from land stations tn the northern hemisphere). In the BESM- 6 elecr_ronic computer the arriving information, including shipboard synoptic tele- ~rams, is subjected to primary processing [5]. As a result, "hard" formats of ship- board telegrams are obtained, that is, such forr.iats in which each meteorological element corresponds to a definite place. In this process repeated summaries are eliminated, there is some syntactical control of communications, etc. After com- puting the regional a~.d hemispherical forecast the processed initial data for each observation time are accumulated through a data bank system (authors V. A. Ants- ypovich, V. R. A1'tshuler) in a special five-day cyclic archives (author of pro- gram A. Yu. Birkgun). We use information from this archives for computing an analysis of ocean surface temperature. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 rt1K ulr~~~n~ u~~. t~~~.r In this analytical scheme an important role for checkin~ and interpolation pur- poses is played by the climatic characteristics t and O' (norm and standard devia- tion) of the water temperature field. As the t fields we used the mean monthly characteristics at the points of intersection nf a 5 x 5� fram the American DST-6 archives, registered on magnetic tapes in the internd~ional format and available at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center. It was important that these f ields are smoothly continued onto the territory of the land. A comparison of these fields with the climatic fields t available to us revealed their good cor- ' respondence. The monthly fields of the mean square variability were taken from magnetic tapes prepared at the Swedish Hydrometeorological Institute for the pro- cessing of data in FGGE level-II form [7]. These fields, in our opinion, corres- pond well to the geographical distribution of 0', although they are somewhat un- derstated in absolute value. Special mathematical support for the readout of cli- matic data was created by A. M. Gofen and A. D. Naumov. Preliminary checking. First all the data on ocean surface temperaturz are subject- - ed to some preliminary checking. For this purpose the ship coordinates and water temperatures are selected from the ~formats of the shipboard synoptic telegrams. Ships in the southern hemisphere are excluded, as well as data for ships with in- - correct coordinates, that is, ships whose coordinates erroneuusly fell on the land, not at sea. There is also a rough "climatic checking" of communications on water temperature on the basis of the degree of their deviations from the cli- - matic values. Using the ship's coordinates from the 5� grid in which the climatic _ values are stipulated there is a bilinear interpolation of t and O'values for � this ship. All the shipboard communications on water temperature t falling beyond the framework tf4(~ are considered erroneous. This type of checking henceforth can be made more effective if instead of climate one uses the results of an anal- sis o` water temperature for the preceding five-day period. A subsequent more pre- _ cise type of checking is already carried out within the framework of the optimum interpolation method. - Interpolation; horizontal checking. As the interpolation method we used the we'l1- .L�nown optimum interpolation method based on use of the statistical characteristics ~ of the fields to be analyzed. This method has caon wide recognition and is finding increasingly wider use in the analysis and assimilation of different meteorolog- ical fields. It is assumed that the fields of deviation of a meteorological field from the norm are homogeneous and isotropic. For the water temperature field this assumption is more or less satisfied. Then computations of the -~~alue of a meteorological element at a point of intersec- tion of a regular grid (or at a ship being checked) are accomplislied us.inv tlie formula 4 t~ = to -F- ~Pi t;� (7-) i_r Here t~ is the climatic water temperature value at a grid point of intersection (at the ship to be checked); t'i = ti - ti are the deviations of water temperature from climate at the influencing ships (we took only four influencing ships); pi are the weights of the influencing ships, which are determined by solution of a system of linear equa':ions 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY a _ . _ ~ pt f~,~ Pt "9 = f~o = 1~`~, 3, 41, (2) I=~ ' where � are the corresponding values of the normalized autocorrelation function; YL= 0.02 is a term specially introduced into the matrix diagonal for b etter con~ ditionality of the system of equations. - The problem of the autocorrelation function for ocean surface temperature has not yet been investigated adequately. Difficulties in determining the wat er tempera- ture spatial correlation functions are related to the absence of a constant net- work of stations in the ocean which would ensure simultaneous observa tions of water temperature in different regions of the ocean, such as, for example, synoptic stations on the land. We know of results of an investigation of autoco rrelation functions [1, 6] which are contradictory. The autocorrelation functions ~.~-(r) ob- tained in [1], in our opinion, are improbable because the correlation coefficient remains extremely high for distances of even more than 2,000 km, which is prob- ably attributable to failure to take the measurement errors into account. As . w(r) we took the power-law expression _ - - - _ - u (r) _ (1 ~ 1 exP ~ (3) ~ ~ where r is the distance in thousands of kilometers, L= 0.35. An autocorrelation function of the typE (3) is used in an analysis of the surface meteorological fields [3] and is close to the air temperature.autocor relation function. Source [6] presented statistical investigations of the water temperature fields on the basis of expeditionary data and one of the autocorrelation functions obtained there is close to that which we adopted. The checking of the communicated initial data on water temperature is accomplished by the horizontal checking method [4] by an interpolation of values from the four ~ ships closest to the particulax ship. As in any interpolation method it is import- ant here that all the influencing ships insofar as possible uniformly surrounded the particular grid point of intersection (ship to be checked). Accor dingly, in the scheme the search for influencing ships is carried out in such a way that not only the nearest influencing ships were selected, but also that insofar as possible they be situated in all four quadrants surrounding the parti cular point of intersection (ship to be checked). The discrepancy between the temp erature com- - municated by the ship and the interpolated value Q,t is compared with the theoret- icnl interpolated error, increased by several times. The need for such an increase is attributable to the fact that in a number of cases there is an impairment in Lhe condition which we adopted concerning the homogeneity and isotrop icity of the . fields of deviations from the norms. The possible interpolation erro r is computed using the formula - _ j~~l = !ti~ ~ 1l= , ~4~ 4 where 1- ~ pi � pi is the theoretical measure of the interpolat ion error; t=1 ~is the standaxd deviation of water temperature; N= 10 is an empiri cally select- ed factor. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 huK urr~~,rA~ u~c ~iv4r The E parameter is essentially dependent on the c:ensity of the network of ships and ttieir relative locations and also on the autocorrelation function used. The N factor was selected in such a way that insofar as possible shipboard communica- tions with incorrect data were rejected and correct communications were retained. If in the horizontal checking it appears that t~< the data for the ship to be checked are considered correct. However, if IQ t~>~, there is an error in the initial data for the ship to be checked, or for some one of the influencing ships. For solving this problem use is also made of iZformation from a fifth near- lying ship and interpolation is carried out for the ship to be checked with alter- nate exclusion of data for each of the four initially selected ships. If in all four cases I Q tl~ ~ remains, it is obvious that the data for the ship to be checked are incorrect and they are rej ected; otherwise it is assumed that the data for one of the surrounding ships are erroneous (which will be checked in turn). Detailed information on all types of checking is printed out. Horizontal checking is ineffective in those rare cases when ships in a row com- municate incorrect information with an error in one and the same direction. In these cases either a more preliminary checking (on the basis of deviation of the analysis for the preceding five-day period from the �ield), or, sometimes, the re- peated carrying out of the horizontal checking procedure can be of assistance., Search for influencing ships. In a rap id search for the influencing ships use is made of the so-called "machine map" method. For this purpose a square is construct- ed on a map of the northern hemisphere in a stereograghic projection at a scale of 1:30 000 000. This square is described around the circumference of the equator, which is in turn broken down into 160 x 160 small squares with 5-mm sides on a blank map (150 km at latitude 60�). We require that in each such small square there wi11 be no more than two influencing ships; preference is given to data for later times from the five-day period. The remaining information is considered excess and is discarded. This limitation is related to the electronic computer memory; it en- ables us to have a network of more uniformly spaced ships. The octal numbers of one or two ships are entered in each such square; if not one ship falls in a square, it remains emp ty. Using this number it is easy and quick to find the Cartesian coordinates of the ship, data on temperature for the ship in the form of deviations from climate, conditional index, etc. present in the individual data masses. In the search for influencing data the f irst step is to determine the - sma11 square corresponding to the interpolation point (ship to be checked); then the search for the nearest nonempty squares begins. The search is carried out in a spiral with a gradual increase in radius to a maximum of 1500 km. In addition, the already mentioned symmetrizat3on of search in four quadrants is introduced. If the ship is situated closer than 50 km from the interpolation p~int, the interpol- ation is not carried out and the point is assigned the water temperature value at - this ship. If there is not a single ship within the radius of maximum search, the _ point is assigned the climatic value. - Results. Interpolation is carried out at the points of intersection of a grid meas- _ uring 2.5� x 2.5� for the region of the entire northern hemisphere with the excep- tion of the ].and and polar regions (to the north of 70�I1) . As an example of the computations we give the results of an analysis of water temperature during the 24 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY f ive-day period 11-15 June 1980. F~r technical reasons during this period we used information only for the two principal observation times 0000 and 1200 GMT; for 0000 hours the "cutoff time" was 2.5 hours, and for 1200 hours 5.5 hours. The vo lume of arriving data and the volume of data discarded as a result of different kinds of checking and the adopted search system are as follows: Total shipboard telegrams received 6095 of which the numher from the southern hemisphere is. 492 ships with land coordinates lI5 no data on ~vater temperature 624 ~ no climatic checking 234 ~ did not enter into "machine map" 1632 . enter into "machine map" 2998 did not undergo horizontal checking 105 useful communications 2893 9u 7 SO 1 JO 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8Y 2B 100 >J ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 J>6 , 12 f7 9 0 0 0 0 1 6 1J J 7 19f 71 0?0 0 0 0 0 1 6 7 29 >2 0 1 f 60 0 0 1 f> 9 29 >S 19 Jf f00 27 9 0 so 0 0 1 1 7?0 9 1B 19 JS !4 3 0 0 S 97 S> B9 .T6 ;i8 SS >f,~ 27 2 B 16 0 4 31 41 S1 ,TS 4B 4f 4? >6 2 S>.~ ~0 ~0 2 Sf SO 99 46 J9 74 6S SS SO 49 SO ? � , _ 2 42 49 45 !~4 3B 24 S7 .T4 2B J7 2 ~t9 SB S6 3B 2a ?7 B Id 0 0 0 0 >B 43 SJ S4 J7 76 21 B 33 0 0 0 0 14 f0 f fJ fA >1 2 1D B3 0 0 0 0 6~ >0 !2 ,~B 14 11 1 20 4.~ 0 0 0 0 4 74 4 0 4 6 2 >2 J4 S ? 0 0 0 ?J 4 0 4 6 1 12 14 S 2 0 0 0 ~~0 70 SO 70 10 t0 30 ~ Fig. 1. Intorma~=ion for the Nortli Atlantic on the availability of information in "machine map." 2.1-15 June 1980. In particular, we see that there are great losses of information due to the system for the search of influencing ships which we used. We no~e that for interpolation pi?rposes it is best to have a dense and uniform observation grid. In actuality, a dense network of water temperature observations is available only along standard sea routes. In these regions there are even significant losses of information due to our search system. . 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 M~OR OM'N'1l:lAL Ua~ ulv4r � r ~ I ~ ~i ~ r .Q j ~ , , ~ � ~ ~ ..r ~ / ` r ~r ' ~ ; ~ ' , i r~ t z+ 7 t ~ :r r ' _ f j 1 ~ N I � � ~ p I � ~ 11. I f f Fig. 2. Maps of manual operational (a) and objective (b) analyses of ocean surface temperature on basis of data for 11-15 June 1980. Figure 1 schematically represents a region of the North Atlantic subdivided into 10� squares. The upper figure is the number of shipboard communications for a - five-day period undergoing preliminary checking and falling into the particular square and the lower figure is the number of communications entering into the "machine map," that is, actually participating in the interpolation. In the~trop- ical latitudes these two figures are usually close, but here, for example, tor the square 70-80�N, 20-30�E (the region near the Scandinavian peninsula) the data loss- es are very great. This is attributable to the fact that an extremely busy shipping lane passes anly along the northern shore of the Scandinavian peninsula, whereas the remaining part of the 10� square remains empty. A similar picture is also observed in some other regions. First of a1.1_ we require the macroscale temperature f ields of the ocean surface. For these purposes the employed search system is entirely satisfactory. But in the northern hemisphere there are a number of places with good coverage and which are of special interest from the point of view of oceanology, such as the Gulf Stream. For these regions it is desirable to carry out "telescoping" of the proposed method, that is, decrease, shall we say, the side of a small square by half in the "machine map" and carry out interpolation in a denser reguZar grid of points, such as 1 x 1�. The method f ully allows all this. Figure 2, as a comparison, give maps of manual (operational) and objective analyses of water temperature for the North Atlantic for 11-15 June 1980. These maps agree entirelq satisfactorily. We note some inevitable smoothing of the results of ob- jective analysis and from our point of view, an inadequate smoothness of the manual _ analysis fields (taking into account the low measurement accuracy). I. I. Gromova has kindly carried out a comparison of these two analyses, for which she plotted on a map actually all the water temperature data received during a five-day period and carried out a manual analysis. Then a comparison was made of the results for 250 grid points of intersection covering virtually the entire ter- ritory cf the North Atlantic. The mean absolute discrepancy was 0.69�C; the 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY maximum differences at individual points of intersection attained 3�C (primarily due to an inadequately rigorous checking system). The USSR Hydrometeorological Center is now receiving a considerable quantity of Am- - erican data from satellite sounding of the atmosphere in the SATEM cade. In addi- ' tion to other meteorological information the SATEM summaries also contain tempera- tures of the underlying surface (land or sea). It wonld be desirable to use these data for supplementing the information for poorly covered regions, primarily for the tropics. However, it was found that the water temperature values present in these satellite summaries very poorly agree with data from shipboard observations; some of tfiem contaiz blunders. The computation time when using the scheme is about 10 minutes on a BESM-6 elec- tronic computer. The scheme is now undergoing operational testing. - Other possible ways to improve the quality of objective analysis can be the follow- ing: - 1. Participation in the analysis of all the information for all available observa-~ ~ tion times, because this can somewhat improve the results in poorly studied re- gions. 2. Use of the results of analysis of the preceding five-day period instead of cli- matic data. 3. Carrying out of investigations of water temperature autocorrelation functions in different regions of the northern hemisphere. 4. Inclusion in the analysis of data from satellite sounding on temperature of the underlying surface (in the case of improvement of their quality). 5. Telescoping of the scheme for individual most interesting regions. 6. Inclusion in the analysis (as reference points) of data from more precise water temperature measurements summaries from scientific research ships, buoy observ- _ ations, and also data from the upper level of abyssal measurements (BATHY, TESAK). BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Avdeyev, V. A., "Investigation of the Statistical tiacrostructure of Water Tem- perature at the Ocean Surface," TRUDY VSESOYUZNOY KJNFERENTSII MOLODYKIi UCHEN- YKH GIDROMETSLUZHBY SSSR. OKEANOLOGICHESKIYE RASCHETY I PROGNOZY (Transactions of the All-Union Conference of Young Scientists of the USSR Hydrometeorological Service. Oceanological Computations and Predictions), Leningrad, 1972. ~ 2. Avdeyev, V. A., "Plotting of Water and Air Temperature in the North Atlantic," TRUDY GIDROMETTSENTRA SSSR (Transactions of the USSR liydrometeorological Cen- _ ter), No 127, 1973. ~ 3. Bagrov, A. N. and Loktionova, Ye. A., "Objective Analysis of Surface Meteorolog- ical Fields for the Northern Hemisphere on a BESM-6 Electronic Computer," TRUDY GIDROMETTSENTRA SSSR (Transactions of the USSR Hydrometeorological Cen- ter), No 196, 1978. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 cvn vr.� v...: w.... 4. Belousov, S. L., et al., OBRABOTKA OPERATIVNOY METEOROLOGICHESKOY INFORMATSII S POMOSHCH'YU ELEKTRONNYKH VYCHISLITEL'NYKH MASHIN (Processing of Operational - Meteorological Information Electronic Computers), Leningrad, Gidrometeo- izdat, 1968, 5. Kastin, 0. M. and Semendyayev, K. A., SISTEMA PERVICHNOY OBRABOTKI METEOROLOG- ICHESKOY INFORMATSII (System for Primary Processing of Meteorological Data), _ Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1973. 6. Sukhovey, V. F. and Suvorova, M. I., "Investigation of the Spatial Statistical Structure of Macroscale Hydrological Fields," MORSKIYE GIDROFIZICHESKIYE IS- SLEDOVANIYA (Marine Hydrophysical Investigations), No 6, Izdaniye MGI AN UkSSR, Sevastopol', 1971. 7. Clutcher, H. L. and Davis, 0. M., US NAVY MARINE CLIMATIC ATLAS OF THE WORLD, _ Vol 8, NAVAIR 50-1C-54, 1969. 8. Gemmill, W. and Larson, L., "Real-Time Ocean Thermal Structure Analysis," PAPERS SUBMITTEp TO THE JOINT IOC/WMO SEMINAR ON OCEANOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND THE IGOSS DATA PROCESSING AND SERVICES SYSTEM, Moscow, 2-6 April 1979. 28 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 = FOR OFFiCGAL USE ONLY UDC 551.466.62:550.34(571.66~ TSUNAMI OF 23 NOVEMBER 1969 ON KAMCHATKA AND FEATURES OF ITS DEVELOPNIENT Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 24 Mar 81) pp 77-83 [Article by Yu. A. Zayakin, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatska.ya Hydrometeorological Observa- tory] . , [Abstract] An earthquake with an intensity t~ = 7.7 and a hypocenter depth 30 km occurred on 23 November 1969 at a distance of 35 km to the east of Cape Ozernoy under the floor of the Bering Sea continental slope. Such an earthquake is a rath- er rare phenomenon and was the strongest earthquake of this century in the western part of the Bering Sea. A tsunami is also a rare phenomenon in the western part of the Bering Sea. The earthquake and tsunami of 1969 have refuted the idea that this region is free of strong earthquakes and tsunamis and this necessitates amendments to tsunami-earthquake regionalization. Figure 1 is a map representing the focus of the tsunami of 23 November 1969; Figure 2 is a map showing the travel time of tsu- nami propagation. The tsunami had a complex focal mechanism. The tsunami was form- ed as a result of changes in bottom relief and due to an underwater slide. The in- fluence of the latter was more important. This is indicated by the southern part of the tsunami focus, lying beyond the limits of the focal region of the earth- quake, as well as the good comparability of tsunami wave energy, computed under the condition of formation of the tsunami by a suspension flow,with the energy actually - observed.. Despite the fact that the strong earthquake of 23 November in the Bering Sea, causing the reported tsunami, was uni.que in this century, on a preliminary basis a tsunamigenic region must be defined in this zone. It is a continuation of the Kurile-Kamchatkan tsunamigenic zone to the north, along the continental slope, ' to parallel 58�. The most dangerous se.ctor of the coast, really sub~ect to a threat of a tsunami, is situated opposite the defined zone from the Kamchatkan Peninsula to Ozernyy Peninsula. Figures 2, tables 2; references: 9 Russian. ~ 29 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FOR OFFIC1Al, l1SE ONLY _ . UDC 556.52:556.53 RIVER FLOW AS DISSIPATIVE SYSTEM . Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 9 Feb 81) pp 84-88 [Article by V. I. Nikora, Odessa Hydrometeorological Institute] [Abstract] In 1947 M. A. Velikanov outlined three fundamental principles which must be applied in an approach to the study of the channel process. These principles are: interaction between flow and channel, limitedness of natural complexes and minimum of energy dissipation, representing application of the ideas of Rayleigh and Helm- holtz to the "flow-channel" system. Although the first two principles have been accepted without special objections, the third has been sub~ected to acute critic- ism. Accordingly, the author has reexamined this problem from the point of view of the theory of dissipative structures. With respect to structure, the following as- sumptions are made in this study: 1. The system is thernwdynamically open, that is, there can be an exchange of ma.tter and (or) energy with tha mEdium. 2. The dynamic equations of the pertinent system are nonlinear. 3. Deviations from equilibrium exceed critical values. 4. Microscopic processes occur "cooperatively" (consistent- ly). The "flow=channel" physical system fully corresponds to these assumptions. It is clear that it is thermodynamically open, its dynamic equP:tions are nonlinear, microscopic processes occur cooperatively, it is far from thermodynamic equilibrium _ and therefore the development of structures in it is possible. Investigation of a - river from the point of view of the theory of dissipative structures can be carried out at three scale levels: 1) microscale a short river reach in which its hy- - draulics is interrelated to bottom microforms; 2) mesoscale a river reach of con- siderable extent, whose hydraulics form mesoforms; 3) macroscale the river as a whoTe. Depending on the level at which the "flow-channel" system is investigated, the input external factors must be stipulated (for example, when examining the riv- er as a whole the external factors are climate, geology, geomorphology of the re- ~ gion). At the output is the action of the system some channel process. One of the principal concepts describing the behavior of tl~.e system in the theory of dissipa- tive structures is entropy, which is a measure of the unordered charaGter of the system. Proceeding on this basis, the author demonstrates that the principle of a minimum of energy dissipation proposed by M. A. Velikanov corresponds to the Prigogine-Glensdorf fundamental principle of a minimum of entropy production ap- plied to fluvial hydraulics. Figures 1; references: 8 Russian. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ UDC 556.535.3 SPATIAL CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MAXIMUM WATER DISCHARGES IN IIOUNTAIN RIVERS Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 20 Apr 81) pp 89-93 ~ [Article by M. A. Mamedov, candidate of technical sciences, Azerbai~an State Uni- vers ity ] ~ [Abstract] A study was made of the spatial structure of variations of maximum water ~ discharges in mountain rivers of Transcaucasia and Dagestanskaya ASSR. The paired correlation coefficients method was used employing a"Minsk-32" electronic computer in accordance with a program prepared at the State Hydrological Institute. It was ~ found that the mean elevation of the drainage basins in mountain regions exerts a substantial influence on the formation of maximum runoff. The spatial correlation , function was represented in the form of the dependence of the paired correlation coefficients on the difference in the mean.elevations of the drainage basins. The investigation involved computing the spatial correlation functions for the maximum high-water discharges of rivers on the southern and northeastern slopes of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus and the maximum discharges of flood waters of rivers on the southern slo e of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus and elsewhere. The correl- ation line r= f(I~H~) was constructed with allowance for the computed mean weight- ed values of the paired correlation coefficients for each el.evation gradation, assum- ed equal to I~HI = 200 m. The spatial correlation functions of maximum high-water discharges were computed on the basis of 881 paired correlation coefficient values ~ and for flood waters using 215 such values. It was established that in mountainous areas the values of the paired correlation coefficients are dependent not only on the distance between the centers of dra~nage basins, but also on the difference in the mean elevations of the drainage basins. For mountain rivers the spatial correla- tion function for maximum discharges can be represented in the form r= f(~). Figures 3; references: 5 Russian. 31 FOIt OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OM'r'IC:IAL U~~; U1vLY UDC 551.583:632.21.3(470) INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON VARIABILITY OF YIELDS OF GREEN MASS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES IN RSFSR Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 6 Apr 81) pp 94-101 ' [Article by V. M. Mokiyevskiy, candidate of agricultural sciences, and N. K. Shal- yavina, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology] [Abstract] The paper gives an analysis of variability of the yields of green mass of perennial grasses in the '_tSFSR in~relation to climatic conditions. Mean oblast data and data averaged for individual economic regions were used for the period from 1961 through 1979, that is, for a period of 19 years. The analysis indicated ~ that the yields of gra~ses vary considerably from year to year. Table 1 gives stat- istical data on the yields of green_mass of perennial grasses by economic regions and oblasts with information on yield increments over the course of the 19-year period. In all economic regions there was a substantial increase in the yields of grasses during the considered period. The greatest increases were in the European RSFSR in the Volga~, Central Chernozem and Northern Caucasus economic regions. In the Asiatic RSFSR the ~ield increment was considerably lower, especially in the Far Eastern region. High yield increments were observed in the Volgo-~Fyatskiy, Central Chernozem, Volga and Northern Caucasus economic regions, attributable not only to an increase in the quantities of mineral fertilizers applied, but also due to an increase in the areas of cultivation of gr~sses in irrigated lands. Table 2 gives the frequency of recurrence of deviations of yields of green mass of perennial - grasses from the trend line as a result of ineteorological conditions. Relatively low yield variations occur in the Northwestern and Central regions. Over most of the territory of the RSFSR climatic conditions make it possible to obtain stable yields. Figure 2 is a map of climatic variability of the yields of green mass of perennial grasses in the RSFSR. There is a tendency to an increase in the yield variation co- efficient as a result of ineteorological conditions from northwest to southeast. This agrees with the general tendency to a decrease in precipitation and an in- crease in evaporability in this direction. These findings make it possible to pre~- dict yields for a long time in advance, assuming an unchanged level of agricultural technology. Figures 2, tables 2; references: 7 Russian. 32 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.513(515-17) INTERANNUAL CHANGES IN ATMOSPHERIC ZONAL CIRCULATION IN NORTIiERN H~MISPIiF.RE DURING FYVE-YEAP. PERIOD Moscow I~IETEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript receiv~d 21 May 81) pp 102-104 [Article by G. Ye. Vayndiner, T. L. Mukhina, V. P. Gladilina and L. L. Kazakova, USSR Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Center) [Abstract] Some results of an analysis of year-to-year changes in zonal circulation in the northern hemisphere over the five-year period beginning 1 January 1976 are given. The intensity of zonal circulation is characterized by the index of zonal circulation ~/W (oLis the angular velocity of the air relative the earth, ~ is the angular velocity of the earth's rotation. (At the present time the zonal in- dex oC/W is widely used in practical work and in developing physicostatistical weather forecasting methods for different times in advance.) In characterizing the - year-to-year changes in zonal circulation the authors computed the mean anuual and mean monthly values of the indices of zonal circulation at the levels of the iso- baric surfaces 700 and 500 mb. Use was made of the daily values of the indices, computed in the prc~cess of preparation of experimental hydrodynamic long-range forecasts of deviations of the mean monthly air surface temperatures and absolute topography of the 500-mb surface from the norm for the northern hemisphere, com- puted on a routine basis on a BESM-6 electronic computer by the section on planet- ary dynamics of the atmosphere and hydrodynamic long-range weather forecasting at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center. The results are summarized in two tables and two figures. These show that the intensity of zonal circulation in the course of the considered period was subjected to great year-to-year changes. Considerabie negative anomalies of the circulation indices appeared early in 1977, 1978, 1980 and 1981. Great positive anomalies of the indices were discovered in early 1976, in the spring and autumn of 1977, and late in 1978 and 1979. Zonal circulation was considerably weakened during 1980. Figures 2, tables 2; refErences 8: 7 Russian, 1 Western. 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFiC1AL U~E UNLY UDC 556.535.2+556.535.5+556.06(282.251.2) - LONG-RANGE FORECASTING OF MAXIMUM WATER LEVELS DURING ICE JAMS ON ANGARA AT KAMENKA Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received $ Dec 80) pp 105-107 [Article by V. N. Karnovich, candidate of ~echnical sciences, and T. V. Kuleshova, ~ Scientific Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering] ~ [Abstract] Almost every year the breaking-up of the Angara in its lower reach is accompanied by the formation of ice jams. The greatest jams during the last 20 years were observed on 18-26 May 1973 when the water and ice rose more than 12 m above low-water level on the Angara, inflicting great material losses. In order to develop a method for long-range prediction of the maximum water levels during ice ~ams (H�am) on the Angara the authors analyzed the following long-term series of data from hydrometeorological observations: ~it sum of negative mean daily air temperatures for the period of ice cover;~ a parameter indirectly charac- terizing the thickness of the ice co'ver; ~ice form "~Ximum water level in initial - period of ice cover; T-- duration of setting-in of ice cover. The analysis (using the correlation of H~am with the indicated factors) indicated that not one of the considered factors, taken by itself, with an adequate accuracy determines the maxi- mum water].evel during ice jams. However, it appears that the decisive factor deCer- mining ice ~am formation on the Angara is the conditions for setting-in of the ice cover in autumn. A f igure shows the dependence H~a~ = f(Hice form~ for the Angara at Kamenka. obtained by the authors using data from long-term series of hydrometeor- ological data (27 cases of floods); the correlation coefficient for this dependence is r= 0.81. The equation for long-range forecasting of maximum water levels during ice jams on the Angara can be represented in the general form: . Hjam - f~Hice form~ T~ ~ ~1) ' By means of multiple correlation of H~am with the factors indicated in equation (1) it was possible to derive a numerical prognostic equation for the Angara at Kamenka H~am = 1.53 Hice form + 13.77 T- 143, ~2) A forecast of maximum water levels during ice jams on the Angara at Kamenka can be made not less than 5-5.5 months in advance. The method can be applied for other rivers. Figures 1, tables 1; references: 4 Russian. 34 - FOR OFFICIAY. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 ~'OR OFFI~~IAL USE ONLY UDC 551.50:581.543(575) AUTiTl~IN GROWING SEASON OF GRASSY PLAPdTS IN MODERATELY HIGH ELEVATIONS OF CENTRAL ASIA Mc;scow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 18 Feb 81) pp 107-108 [Article by Yu. S. Lynov, candidate of biological ~ciences, Chatkal'skiy Mountain-Forest State Preserve] jAbstract] A study was made of the influence exerted by the conditions of the hy- drothermal regime on the coLrse of the autwmn growing season at moderately high elevations (1000-2000 m) in Central Asia and the productivity of green mass. An- alysis of data for such areas made it possible to derive a regression equation - describing the influence of temperature and precipitation sums during the autumn period on productivity, The limits of applicability of the equation are: 50-160 ~ mm of precipitation, temperature sum 300-500�C. A considerable influence on the course of seasonal development of plants is exerted by endogenous factors caused by the biology of the plants themselves, especially during the late summer period and in the reproductive phases of development. During the autumn growing season, during the advent of winter, the development of plants is also held back by endo- genous factors. A comparison of indicators of seasonal development during periods identical with respect to hydrothermoregime conditions: autumn (October-November) and spring (mid-February to late March) indicates that spring is more important: in spring the development is ~uore clearly expressed, there are more vegetating species and the productivity of the above-ground part is greater. Although in spring and autumn th~ length of day differs by 1-1.5 hours, this factor cannot be regarded as important because the length of day exerts a greater influence on the rate of the reproductive phases (flowering, maturing of fruits), whereas in aut- ~ umn there is a predominance of the growth phases. It is clear that the differences - in the indicators of autumn and spring development are attributable for the most - part to the influence of endogenous factors during the autumn.period. This influ- ence must be taken into account in computati~ns of the autu:an productivity of green _ mass. References: 5 Russian. 35 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ UDC 551.46.086 MEASUREMENT OF PARAMETERS OF WAVE-COVERED SURFACE FROM SHIPBOARD Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 (manuscript received 28 Oct 8Q) pp 109-113 [Article by I. P. Trubkin, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, State Oceanographic Institute] [Text] Abstract: The article describes a uriit for - measuring the slopes and rises of the.wave-. covered sea surface used by the author in ~ work on the scientific research ship "Akad- emik Korolev" during the period of the Soviet- ' American microwave experiment. The author gives the results of an analysis of possible distor- , tions of the spectral components of slopes during drift and rolling of the ship. Experimental data on wind waves obtained in the open sea are of great scientific and practical interest. Measurement apparatus has been developed for the collec- tion of these data [2, 7, 15]. However, known apparatus is still far from perfect and does not always meet the formulated requirements. In such a case the need arises for developing new measurement apparatus best taking into account the special fea- tures of the experiment. - During the period of the Soviet-American microwave experiment (SAMEX-76) special- ists aboard the scientif ic research ship "Akademik Korolev" carried out mea:;ure- ments of the slopes and rises of the wave-covered sea surface. These measurements were made for the purpose of interpreting data on radio emission of the sea surface obtained using microwave apparatus installed aboard the ship. The developed methods and apparatus made it possible to register the rises and slopes of the wave-covered surface in two mutually perpendicular directions relative to the ship. The slopes . were measured using wire sensors cut into a finite-difference circuit. The signal characterizing the surface slope in the selected direction was discriminated using a differential measurement circuit. The rises were determined using two sensors (wire and accelerometric) whose signals were sub~ected to mathematical processing on shipboard using an electronic computer. The apparatus consists of wire sensors, accelerometer, measurement unit and record- er. The design of the sensors is represented schematically in Fig. 1. It includes four transducers 1, each of which is a high-resistance nonoxidizing wire (Nichrome ~ 0.36). The wire is drawn between two rings 2. Attachments in the form of rings 36. FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY were used for the purpose of ensuring the minimum influence of waves on rotation of the sensors in the horizontal plane. The sensors were placed in the ship's prow. A weight 3 with a mass of about 20 kg was suspended to the lower ring. The upper ring by means of flexible couplings 4 was fixed in the horizontal plane. The wire sensors were submerged in the water to half their length. The distance between the wires was selected in accordance with [11], taking into account tha frequency range of the measured process and the level of instrumental errors. The accelero- meter 5 of the tensometric type (measurement range fl g) was attached on the ship above the wire sensors. S. ~ 4 2 f , , . I I ' I ~ . ~ ~ , i . _ _ - 2 - Fig. l. Diagram of design of wire sensors and their positioning in prow part of ship. The block diagram of the apparatus (Fig. 2) shows the wire sensors 1 in the form of changeable resistances R1-R4, situated along the axes of Cartesian coordinates XOY. The current source for these sensors is an amplitude-s tabilized a-c generator of an acoustic frequency 2. The difference circuits 3-5 serving for the discrimination of the relative change in the level of the input signals constitute differential a-c amplifiers. Circuits 3 and 5 serve for discriminating the differences of the signals of the wire sensors, whereas circuit 4 discriminates the-~f~erence etcae~~ the signals of the sensor R1 and the reference signal Up serving for compensation of the constant component of the output voltage of the transducer. The amplitude- phase demodulators 7-9 are for discriminating the envelopes of the output signals of the difference circuits and the d-c amplifiers 10-13 are for amplifying signals from the amplitude-phase demodulators and from the tensometric accelerometer 6. The signals are registered using a multichannel loop oscillograph 14. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504030046-3 rVK urc~a..~n~ uSC, v�a.� y ~ x ~ ' 7 10 ' . . ~ ~ � ' / \ / ~ ~ . . ~ 2 ~ R2 Rf ~ 4 B 71 . . ~ \ ~ ~ o ~ I . . . - ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ , ~ ~ , ~ - - s 9 ~i - ~ ~ ~'J R 4 _ ' ~ 1~ . Fig. 2..Block diagram of apparatus for measuring slopes and rises of wave-covered surface f rom on shipboard. Principal characteristics of described measurement apparatus: ~ Range of ineasured slopes f?1/6 rad Range of maasurement of relative displacements of sea surface a;~~l ship f5 m Distance between wire sensors 0.5 m Length of sensor wires 12 m . Limiting error in measuring each~of registered signals not more than 5% a The operating principle of the apparatus is as follows. T.he wire sensors, fed an amplitude-stabilized a-c current, transform the sea level fluctuations into changes in resistivities, linearly determining the amplitudes of the output volt- ages of the sensors. Tne difference circuits 3 and 5 discriminate an.d amplify the voltages of a-c current whose envelopes are proportional to the slopes of the wave- � covered surface in the directions of the 0:~ and OY axes. The circuit 4 d3scriminates a voltage whose envelope is proportional to the relative vertical displacements of tYie wave-covered surface and ship. The envelopes of the signals of the difference circuits are discriminated by means of amplitude-phase demodulators. The accelero- - meter transforms the vertical acceleration of ship movement iiito an electric signal which after amplification, the same as the signals for slopes and relative displace- - ments, is registered on the tape of a multichannel loop oscillo~;rapli. With the use of the described apparatus it is important to take into account the possible distortions of the measured characteristics caused by drift or rolling of the ship. In general form prob.lems of this type were formulated in [4, 13] and solutions were obtained. However, a quantitative evaluation of the possible errors in determining the spectrum of slopes was not made. We will evaluate the mentioned error, ass~:ming that the sensors measuring the slopes move at a constant rate in an arbitrary direction. We will denote the components of the velocity of movement of the sensors, projected onto the axes of the Cartesian coor.dinate system, by u and v. 38 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We will seek a solution of the formulated problem within the framework of a linear - spectral model of wind waves. Then the slopes of the wave-covered sea surface in the direction of the X-axis, coinciding with the main_direction of wave propaga- tion, can be describ�ed by the expression ~ _ ,~z (t) = f `k cos 9 dE (k, exp X ' ~ R ~ ~1~ x [i(kcos9ut +ksin9vt-wt)], where E(k, W) is a random stationary process with independent increments relat~d to the energy spectrum of waves S(k, by the expression [11] ~ ~tF ~k w) dE�(k o,) S(k dk d~ ut, vt are the compon~nts of the horizontal spatial vector characterizing the move- ment of the sensors; k=(k, e) is thE wave vector stipulated in polar coordinates; W is angular frequency; t is time. Using the dispersion expression W 2= gk adopted in the linear theory of wind waves, we transform expression (1) : - - i - - ~X (t ) ~ k cos A dE (k, 9) exp ( t �+w k . (2) where - _ ~ _ . _ _ ( ~ ~~I (u cos A + v sin 9) 1. ~ It follows from (2) that with movement of the sensors the slopes of the waves, meas- ' ured in the direction of the X-axis, will have a time scale transformed by a factor of 1~ . This change in scale finds reflection in the frequency region. The spectrum - of the transformation process in this case can be represented by the expression ~3~ ~ v ' S~~) y2 S ` / _ If, using the dispersion expression, we express the two-dimensional spectrum of slopes as a function of only two arguments [8] SX(k, e) = S(k, e)k2cos2e and take into account the changes in the wave number modulus with ~i change in the tiine.scale k( YJ = y2 k~ w) ~ then it is possible to obtain an expression for the spectrum of slopes of the trans- formed process _ Sx (k, A) _ S( .k, ~ Hl k~ cos~ 9. (g~ ~ 1 The two-dimensional wave spectrum is written in the form [6] _ _ - ` - 2 .g:; "S . f? s f ~~y~. . ; i:f:..`?~ . 2; i' } < x~ . ~ i~:;:, 3 .G, ~ ' ~ ~ ~~t ~Z ~S . y 2ks+ . . lhmZ%�~,n ~~.yi ~~~~k ( ~ ~ ~a if . ; . . '.c:8~ m { Fig. 1. Remote registry unit for float automatic water level recorder. At left recorder, at right transducer (for SUM complex). - The operating principle for the remote registry unit [4] is based on a d-c bridge circuit with a balancing system involving use of a reversible electric motor. The arms of the measuring bridge are two precision PPAII. multiturn potentiometers: one detects the rotation of the float wheel of the SUV complex and is placed in the transducer; the second is for balancing the bridge circuit and is situated in the recorder. The remote registry unit has the following technical specifications: range of registered water level values from 30 to 1200 cm H20 (depending on the uzsign of the unit); input signal of remote registry unit number of revolutions of transducer axis f.rom 2 to 20; 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY output signal movement of arm with pen and mark of recorder 300 mm; limit of principal error with respect to input signal f0.5% of ineasurement range, with respect to output signal f1.5 mm; diatance of transmission up to 5 km, electric current from sources of d-c current, voltage 12 V; computed probability of faultless operation in course of 10 000 hours not less than 0.9. Three modifications of the unit were developed. These were intended for use in an outfit with float automatic recorders of the StR4, SW-M ("Valday") and GR-38 types, which differ from one another in the designs of the transducers. The table gives the indices of design of the remote registry unit in~dependence on the range of water level measurement and the type of automatic water level recorder for which they are intended. . Table 1 Design of unit Type of automatic level Range of water level recorder measurement, cm DU-300-I SUl4 300 DU-600-I . 600 DU-1200-I 1200 DU-30-II SUV~M 30 DU-60-II "Valday" 60 DU-150- 150 DU-300-II 300 DU-300-III GR-38 300 DU-600-III 600 - The transducers for all modifications of the units consist of a reducer with a defin- ' ite reduction factor, the final link in which is a multiturn precision PPML potentio- meter. The input axis of the transducer carries either a pinion or a toothed wlieel which is connected to one of the wheels of the transmission mechanism of the cor- responding automatic level recorder. In addition, they differ from one another with respect to the point of attachment to the level ga~es. The reduction factors of the transducers were selected in such a way that regardless of the number of revolutions of their 3,nput axis in the working range the potentiometer axis makes 20 revolutions. All three modifications of the tr~ers with their installation in the correspond- ing automatic level recorders do not require any additional mechanical changes in their parts and can be placed in already used automatic level recorders without stopping the latter. With respect to design, the recorder is a cylinder with a diameter of 220 mm and a height of 350 mm. Its main components are a clock mechanism with drum, reducer driv- en into rotation by a DPM-20 electric motor, electronics unit, zero-setter with con- trol contacts, a vertical guide screw kinematically connected to the reducer and 4G FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY serving for movement of a carriage, a supporting arm with pen, mark and perman- ent ma~net along a drum and a vertical scale for visual readout of level values. Th~ electrical connection of units of the remote registry unit, that is, the trans- ducer and recorder, with one another is accomplished using a three-strand line with a resistance of each strand not greater than 50 ohm. _ The circuit diagram of the remote registry unit in an equilibrium state is a bal- anced bridge consisting of the potentiometers for the transducer and recorder and a zero-setting unit, whose input voltage in this case is equal to 0 when the con- tacts are open. With a change in water level the automatic water level recorder comes into motion, which results in movement of the potentiometer slide and as a consequence, an unbalancing of the bridge and the appearance of a voltage across the input of the zero-setting unit. At this time the different control contacts close, which determines the direction. of water level change. Accordingly, the re- versible electric motor is cut in and the direction of rotation of its axis is de- pendent on the polarity of the.imbalance voltage of the circuit. An electric motor, connected through a reducer with the slide of a potentiometer installed in the re- corder, moves it up to the moment of circuit balancing. At the same time, the el- ectric motor, also through a reducer, moves along the guide screw a carriage with the pen and mark by a value proportional to the water level. change. A second relay in the circuit is used for the output of a signal when th~ water level attains critical heiRhts the maximum and minimum water levels. It is triggered with closing of one of the magnetically controlled contacts mounted on the recorder sup- port and corresponding to the extremal level values. A calibration device was developed for carrying out laboratory tests and checking - the remote registry unit. Developed in three variants, it simulates the angles of rotation of the float wheel of a specific type of automatic wave level recorder [3J. With respect to design it constitutes a mechanical counter of revolutions with two scales. The error in reading the angle of rotation of the transducer axis in the remote unit mounted on the device does not exceed 45 minutes. The calibra- tion device has undergone metrological certification at the ~4oscow Standardiza- tion and Metrology Center. The remote registry unit for float automatic level recorder has succes~fully under- ~;one testinfi and has been included in the State Register of Measurenent Instruments which have under~one state test~ and ~ahich have b~en certified by the USSR Gos- standart Eor standard production and use in the USSR. G. N. Mar, S. A. Folimonov and A. L. Kuskov, specialists at the Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Making, took an active part in developing, adjusting and - testing the remote regi . - - BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Popandopulo, G. K., Zubova, L. A., Shenderovich, I. M. and Volkova, 0. A., "Attachment to Automatic Water Level Recorder," USSR AUTHOR'S CERTIFICATE, 173430. 47 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON~.Y � 2. Dimaksyan, A. M., GIDROLOGICHBSKIYE PRIBORY (Hydrological Instruments), Lenin- grad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1972. 3. Kleban, L. S., Mar, G. N., Eydinov, A. and Shenderovich, I. M., "Metrological Support of Checking and Testing of Remote Apparatus for Float Automatic Level Recorders," TRUDY NIIP (Transactions of the Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Makin~), No 41, 1981. 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ CONFERENCES, 2~ETINGS AND SEP4INARS M~oscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 116-119 [A~ticle by L. V. Rukliovets, L. F. Yermakova, Yu. G. Slatinskiy and N. N. Podgay- skiy ] [Text] An All-Union Conference on Present Status and Problems in Dynamic Meteorol- ogy" was iield at the riain Geophysical Observatory during the period 22-24 April 1981. The confexence was dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology. In the early 1920's A. A. Fridman organized a Mathematics Bur- eau in the Main Physical Observatory and thereby laid the beginning of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology. The objective of tfiis conference was not only an evaluation of the successes attain- ed b.y the Soviet schooI. of dynamic meteorology during a 60-year period, but also the outlining of the prospects for its further development.. � The conference sessions were attended by about 150 persons representing 39 organ- izations of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental.Monitoring, ~ the USSR Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education, Academies of Sciences of the union republics and other departments. The participants included specialists from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Tbilisi, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, Odessa, ~ Kazan', Perm and other cities. The subject matter of the conference sessions was represented by four sections: 1. History of creation of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology. 2. Methods for the hydrodynamic prediction of weather. 3. Numerical modeling of general circulation of the atmosphere and climate. 4. Investigations of atmospheric processes by the methods of dynamic meteorology. In accordance with these sections of the program in the course of the first two days there were conference sessions at which requested reports were presented. In a report by Academician A. M. Obukhov entitled "A. A. Fridman and N. Ye. Kochin Founders of Geophysical Hydrodynamics" there was a timely evaluation of the work of A. A. Fridman and N. Ye. Kochin with the influence of this work on subsequent investigations in the field of dynamic meteorology being considered. 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 - N'UK VNMII.IAL IJaC. V1rLl A report by Academician P. Ya. Polubarinova-Kochina, entitled "Activity of the Mathematics Bureau of the Main Physical Observatory," was devoted to the history of formation of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology. The report gave inter- - esting details relating to the history ~f creation of some classical studies of A. A. Fridman, N. Ye. Kochin, L. V. Kel:Ler and I. A. Kibel'. The recollections of P. Ya. Polubarinova-Kochina concernirig these outstanding scientists, the pecul- iarities of their human characters and diversions were heard with interest by the conferees. V. M. Pasetskj.y developed his report "On the History of the Dynamic Meteorology Section of the Main Geophysical Observatory on the basis of an analysis of little- known archival materials. The report described the scientific-historical conditions under which the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology was formed. A number of docu- ments were c.ited showing how A. A. Fridman validated the idea of creating the Math- ematics Bureau. A report by M. I. Yudin, entitled "Principal Stages in the Development of Dynamic ~ meteorology in the USSR," dealt with problems relating to the history of creation and development of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology and the present-day problems in this science and also the prospects of its development. The speaker told about the principal achievements of the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology in the 1920's and 1930's and examined the matter of the sequence of investigations. The author pointed out the successive nature of formulation of a number of highly important problems and approaches to their solution. M. I. Yudin noted that the successive nature of the investigations in many respects distinguished the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology and that this is also characteristic of today, al- though the scope of the problems to be solved has increased by many times and the problems themselves have become much more complex. The s~ibject matter of the conference, devoted to hydrodynamic ~aeather forecasting, was represented by two reports. M. A. Petrosyants and V. P. Sadokov, in a report entitled "Hydrodynamic Methods for Short-Range Weather Forecasting," characterized in detail the principal direc- tions in research carried out at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center in the field of short-range weather forecasting. The authors traced the close relationship be- tween the f undamental studies of I. A. Kibel' in this field and further investiga- - tions. Emphasis was on investigations in the field of inesometeorology directed to the development of local (mesometeorological) weather forecasts. These investiga- tions, to which I. A. Kibel' also made a major contribution, have now been brought to the stage of formulation of a model having prognostic importance. - - _ A report by S. A. Mashkovich, entitled "Use of the Methods of Dynamic eteoro-zsg~- in Middle-Range Forecasting, was devoted to an exposition of hydrodynamic methods for the forecasting of ineteorological elements for intermediate-length periods; these are based on use of the spectral approach. Investigations in this direction, initiated by a study of Ye. N. Blinova in 1943, are now being developed intensive- ly at the USSR ~ydrometeorological Center, at the Main Geophysical Observatory and at other institutes. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY lhree reports were devoted to the problem of numerical modeling of general cir- culation of the atmosphere and climate. A report by Academician G. I. Marchuk and V. P. Dymnikov, entitled "Modeling of Climate and Its Changes, gave a formulation of the general principles lying at the basis of solution of the problem of hydradynamic modeling of climate and its - changes, caused by different factors. The application of these principles was , illustrated in the examples of models of climate developed at the Computation Cen- ter of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The report of G. P. Kurbatkin, corresponding member, USSR Academy of Sciences, en- titled "Influence of the Ocean on the Dynamics of Climate," contained a new ap- ~ proach to solution of problems in the theory of climate, making it possible to evaluate the influence of nonadiabatic factors of different spatial scale on the mechanisms of climatic change. In particu?ar, this approach will make it possible ~ to evaluate the contribution of processes transpiring in the ocean on the dynamics of climate. Ye. P. Borisenkov and V. P. Meleshko, in a report entitled "Investigation of Gener- al Circulation of the Atmosphere," presented the results of work on study of the patterns of general circulation of the atmosphere using a number of models of dif- ferent complexity developed at the Main Geophysical Observatory. Using these models ' it was possible nat only to study the patterns of the existing regime of general circulation of the atmosphere, but also to evaluate its possible changes as a re- sult of anomalous sources of anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic origin. Using one of the developed models, a study was also made of some features of the circulation - regime of Mars. A. M. Yaglom, in a report entitled "Fridman-K~ller Equations for the Moments of Turbulent Pulsations and ttie Problem of Their Closure," gave a detai~ed analysis of investigations devoted to one of the most important problems in the theory of turbulence the so-called "closure problem." A report by L. T. Matveyev discussed the principal problems of cloud dynamics. In order to clarify the peculiarities of formation and structure of macroscale cloud cover fields a numerical solution was obtained for a system of equations in hydro- thermodynamics for a turbulent atmosphere. Some characteristics of the global cloud cover field are considered, in particular, the dependence of the the dis- tribution for the quantity of clouds on the averaging area. The last day of the conference sessions was devoted to "stand" reports in which a number of problems in dynamic meteorology were considered. The following studies were presented: 1. V. A. Shnaydman (Odessa Hydrometeorological Institute). "Theoretical and Prac- tical Aspects of Bo undary Layer Physics." 2. J. M. Kadyshnikov (USSR Hydrometeorological Center). Role of Turbulence in the Setting-In of a Geostrophic Balance of Macroscale Atmospheric Movements." 51 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR UM'NII;IAL U~~ ~1VLY 3. L. V. Berkovich (USSR Hydrometeorological Center). Nonadiabatic Hemispherical Model of the Atmosphere for Prediction for Several Days in Advance." 4. Yu. P. Perevedentsev, P4. A. Vereshchagin, V. V. Gur'yanov and K. M. Shantalinsk- iy (Kazan' University). "Some Results of Investigation of Meridional Transports of Matter and Energy in the Free Atmosphere." S. V. V. Khvedelidze (Tbilisi University). "Wave Propagation in Atmosptiere With Allowance for the Simultaneous Influence of Orography an~ the Beta Effect." 6. V. I. Martem'yanov (Central Asian Scientific Research Institute) "Choice of Reckoning Levels Vertically in Forecasting Schemes in Dependence on Horizontal - Resolution." 7. V. V. Shpotov (Central Asian Scientific Research Institute). "Formulation and Analysis of Computation Properties of Semi-Implicit Schemes for Integration With the Second and First Orders of Accuracy." A resolution adopted by the conference notes the considerable successes attained by the Soviet school of dynamic meteorology, in many respects standing at the fore- front of modern meteorological science. The conference recommended the development of research in the following fundamental directions: ~ improvement in numerical methods for short-, intermediate- and long-range weath- - er forecasting; ~ development of a hydrodynamic theory of climate and general circulation of the atmosphere; formu.lation of a theory of atmospheric turbulence; study of inesometeorological phenomena and local processes; . improvement in methods for parameterization of the most important physical pro- cesses in the atmosphere; - investigation of interactian between the ocean and atr.?osphere. It was decided to hold an All-Union Conference on Dynamic Meteorology and Its Prin- cipal Practical Applications during the current five-year plan and also to hold special working conferences regularly on the use of the methods of dynamic meteor- _ ology in numerical models of climate and weather ferecasting, especially with re- spect to the parameterization of hydrological processes and the atmospheric boun- dary layer, cloud formation processes, etc. ~ The conference also noted the immediate need for preparing a new textbook on dynamic meteorology for colleges in which there would be a systematic exposition of the _ modern aspects of this science and in which nroper attention would be given to the historical development of the ideas and methods used in dynamic meteorology. It was decided that a collection of papers from the conference be prepared for pub- lication. 52 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' An extensive exhibit of literature from the library of the Main Geophysical Observ- atory was opened during the cours.e of the conference and there was a stand display- ing documents on the history of creation of the Matliematics Bureau and photographs of its first specialists. L. V. Rukhovets A conference-seminar on methods for determining contaminating substances in sea bot- tom deposits was held during the period 23-28 March at the Sevastopol' Division of the State Ocean~~graphic Institute. 'I'he conference-seminar was attended by represen- tatives of the State Oceanographia lnstitute, Azerbaijan, Am3erma, Georgian, Kazakh, Murmansk, Northern and Ukrainian Administrations of Iiydrometeorology and Environmen- tal ?~ionitoring. The conferees examined the neculiarities involved in determining petroleum products, chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bottom deposits. As a convenience in caork the seminar participants were divided into four groups, each of which was successively familiarized with all the analyses. During the years of the Tenth Five-Year Plan the subdivisions~of~the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring have done much work for creating a unified national service for observing and monitoring the state of the environ- ment. A network of hydrochemical laboratories has been established in the marine administrations of hydrometeorology and environmental monitoring. Under the method- ological direction of the State Oceanographic Institute they annually carry out a great volume of observations. In the Black Sea basin subdivisions of the Ukrainian, Northern Caucasus and Georgian Administrations of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring during 1976-1980 made more than 350,000 hydrochemical ob- servations, including about 100,000 in the mouth regions of the Danube, Dnepr, Don, I:uban and Rioni. At the same time, investigations of bottom deposits for the time being have not been fully developed in the marine network. The participants in the conference-seminar noted that in connection with the in- creased attention to the problem of preservation of the sea medium from contamina- ~ tion the study of the surface layer of bottom deposits both within the continental shelf and in the abyssal zone of the seas is now becoming ene of the timely problems at network hydrochemical laboratories. Accumulating a considerable part of the con- taminating substances entering the sea, the bottom deposits are an integral indi- - cator of the degree of their contamination. Qn the basis of the results of an an- _ alysis of the bottom deposits, which in contrast to a water mass are a more static and conservative zone, it is possible to evaluate the degree of the anthropogenic influence on the hydrometeorological regime in different regions of the sea. It is also noted that contaminated bottom deposits, especially in the shallow-water regions of the shelf, in the case of heavy waves can favor a secondary contamina- tion of sea waters. The level of accumulation of chemical substances in the bottom deposits is determined by the total effect of a great man~ factors, but all other conditions being equal, the intensity of accumulation is highly dependent on the mineral~gical and granulometric composition of the bottom material, that is, in- creases with transition from sandy to clayey ground and from coarsely disperse to finely disperse (pelitic) fractions. 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 h~OR uh r r~in~ u~~ ~rv~ ~r In characterizing the introduced unified methods for determining contaminating sub- stances in bottom deposits it was noted, in particular, that in the process of ac- - cumulation of heavy metals in the bottom material an active role is played by nat- - ural sorbents complex formers, as a result of which the nature of distribution of many metals in the bottom material is closely associated with the content of natural organic substances in them. Such a consistency was established for most of the elements, a determination of which is provided for by the used methods. The mechanism of this consistency is related to the peculiarities of the molecular structure of some organic compounds, which in this case play the role of complex formers and sorbents in the water-bottom material system. For example, the migra- tion of inercury (especially in organic form) occurs with the active participation of the biomass in the surface layer of bottom deposits. For chemical compounds of other metals (copper, lead, cadmium, etc.) there was found to be a dependence of migration on natural sorbents of mineral origin. In discussing the material-technical support of work for introduction of unified metheds for determining contaminating suhs.*_ances in sea bottom deposits the par- ticipants in the conference-seminar emphasized that in this problem there is need for more active assistance on the part of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental 24onitoring and local administrations of the Hydrometeorological Service. In particular, it was noted that it is necessary to accelerate the output - of new modifications of samplers (corers, dredges, etc.) and in the hydrochemical laboratories of the key hydrometeorological observatories in all basins organize a system for the internal and external monitoring of adherence to methods for carry- ing out the most complex and responsible work. Lt was noted that each year it is desirable to carry out training of specialists in the sea networic in the field of gas-fluid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the adopted resolution the participants in the conference-seminar formulated a number of priority tasks for the further development of hydrochemical investiga- tions and monitoring of the state of bottom deposits in basins. L. F. Yermakova and Yu. G. Slatinskiy A coordination conference on improvement in the hydrological study of the territory of Sverdlovskaya Oblast was held in Sverdlovsk on 17 February. It was organized on the initiative of the Ural Administration of Hydrometeorology and Environmental - t4onitoring. It was attended by representatives of a number of scientific research and planning institutes, production-technical enterprises, the oblast sanitary-epi- demiological station and other organizations. The conferees heard reports on the prospects for rationalization and further devel- _ opment of the network of hydrological stations over the territory of the oblast, on ~ measures for improving reciprocal h,ydrological information, on coordination of in- terdepartmental efforts in improving hydrological study of the territory of the oblast and organization of hydrological reserves in the Urals. An adequately high level of hydrological study of the Ural region was noted. On all the major and intermediate rivers hydrological engineering investigations were made. The exploitation of water resources is also expanding. In the oblast there are no longer any rivers which are not used by national economic organizations. 54 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500030046-3 FOR OFRICIAL USE ONLY Numerous hydraulic structures regulating runoff, the discharge of industr~al efflu- - ent, and the great number of water supply boreholes suhstantially changed the nat- ural regime of the water features. The hydrological characteri~tics and parameters obtained earlier no longer reflect the present-day water regime. An acute need has arisen for study of the impaired regime of rivers and lakes and also for solution of the problem of creating hydrological reserves. The conferees emphasized that the success of the expanded and deepened hydrological study of the territory under conditions of a disrupted regime for solution of the national tasks of inventorying of waters and conducting the USSR Water 5urvey to a considerable degree will be dependent on the coordination of efforts of the ad- ministrations of the Hydrometeorological Service and all interested organizations and departments. The conference assigned to the S~erdlovsk Hydrometeorological Observatory the task of preparing a plan of ineasures for coordination of interdepartmental efforts for improving the hydrological study of the territory of Sverdlovskaya Oblast in 1981- 1985. It was deemed necessary to strengthen checking of the volLUnes of water intake and dischargQ of industrial runoff and improve the determination of water discharge from dams and other structures. The conference recommended that major water users organize year-round runoff posts with the methodological assistance of the Ural Administration of Iiydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. ' It was proposed that interested organizations annually send to the Sverdlovsk Hy- drometeorological Observatory their proposals on development of the hydrolog- ical network. It was pointed out to departmental organizations that it is inadmissible to send requests and programs to the Hydrometeorological Archives at a late date for ob- taining permission for the carrying out of hydrological work or delaying the sending of data on the work done by them. A resolution was adopted calling for the petitioning of the Sverdlovsk Oblast Ex- ecutive Committee for the creation of hydrological reserves at the headwaters of number. of r.egions in tlie oblast. The opinion was expressed that it is desirable to hold coordination conferences on hydrological study of the territory not less than once every other year. N. N. Podgayskiy 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 ruK ~rr~a.i~r. u~~ v~.~~ NOTES FROM ABROAD , Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 119-120 - jArticle by B. I. Silkin] [Abstract] During the last thousand years some of the phases of activation of vol- canic activity on the earth have coincided in time with tnacroscale climatic changes. ~iowever, an analysis of cause-and-effect relationships in the presence of two fluctuating systems is usually difficult. Such an attempt, limited to the time interval between 1870 and 1970, has now been made by Doctor S. Porter at the University of Washington. The periods of advance of glaciers in the northern hemi- sphere were 1880-1895, 1910-1925 and the time from the mid-1950's through the pres- ent time. In the southern hemisphere they do not coincide with the northern hemi- sphere: there the advance of glaciers occurred in the mid-1870's and during the period from 1906 through 1910, the first half of the 1930's and the late 1940's. Studying ice cores obtained by drilling in both hemispheres, S. Porter, in addi- tion to absence of synchronism in the glaciation cycles, discovered that in each case the period of advance of glaciers coincides with a time interval during which the deposition of acid-bearing substances 'ejected in the course of volcanic erup- tions increases. This is easily traced in the glaciers of both Greenland and Ant~- arctica. Thus, at least during the last century it is possible to speak of the presence of a cause-and-effect relationship between volcanic activity and glacia- tions operative independently in the two hemispheres. An environmental contamination bank has been established at Aachen,~in Weat Ger- many. Until now measures for contending with contamination in West Germany have frequently been impeded by the.lack of a clear picture of the preceding state of the medium. In West Germany there are ten groups, established since 1979, for col- lecting ~ata in this field. The new data bank was organiaed at the Institute of Atomic Energy Research. It will coordinate all work along these lines. In the first stage the bank wi12 concentrate its attention in the field of data relating to man himself, his food cha3.n and habitat. This includes the collection of samples of liuman blood, liver, fatty tissue and certain food products such as fish, mollusks, ~aheat and milk. Other samples include algae, soils, grass, ear~hworms and variot�~s insects. Their content of hydrocarbons, pesticides and toxic metals will be an- alyzed. Each sample will be analyzed immediately upon receipt and then at equal time intervals. The storage of aamples is in dust-impermeable rooms at tempera- - tures in some cases attaining -190�C. These rooms have an emergency cooling system. 56 F(?'R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In April 1981 American scientists began carrying out the four-year program CODE (Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment), the ob~ective being study of the dynamics of ' coastal waters in the Pacific Ocean washing the northwestern shores of Californis. In the course of these studies they are collecting diversified inforroation on the processes exerting an influence on the development of currents, on wind fields, physics of the upper layers of the ocean and its coastal part, sea level, pressure at the bottom in the shelf zone, seasonal circulation and other parameters. Over a distance of 97 km along the coast anchored velocity meters are being set out, to- gether with instrumentation for measuring current direction. Participating in the experiment are scientific research ships of the University of Oregon and the Scripps Oceanographic Institute, as well as the national laboratory at Boulder. Other participants will include the Geological Survey, NASA and NOAA. 57 FOR UFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 FOR OFh'ILIAL U~~ VNLY ANNIVERSARY OF BIRTH OF YU. M. SHOKAL'SKIY (1856-1940) Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 120-121 _ [Article by V. M. Chuvashov] [Abstract] This year marks the 125th anniversary of the birth of Yuliy Mikhaylo- vich Shokal'skiy, outstanding Russian and Soviet oceanographer, meteorologist and cartographer. After studying at the Marine Institute, he spent two years in the - Navy, after which he became a student at the Mar.ine Academy in ~i~e hydrography division. During 1880-1882 he headed the marine meteorology section of Che Main Physical Observatory. Between 18$2 and 1907 he taught at the Marine Instj.cute and then through 1930 at the Marine Academy. From 1925 to his death he was also a pro- fessor at Leningrad University. Meanwhile, during 1907-1912 he headed the meteor- ology section of the Hydrographic Administration and from 1925 through 1931 he was directcr of the State Cartographic Institute. On his initiative and with his direct participation various uieasures were undertaken for investigating the re- gime of water basins. He was responsible for numerous aerological and ice observa- tions. He organized oceanographic expeditions~for studying the Black Sea. He made large-scale observ~ations of currents in the Baltic, Black, Caspian and Far Eastern seas. He organized publication of the first Y~ARBOOKS OF TIDES and established the Sevastopol' Marine Observatc-iry. Yu. M. Shokal'skiy was one of the supporters and founders of study and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route. As early as 1883 he was an advocate of study of the Arctic and Antarctica. A ma3or result of his in- vestigations was the generalizing work OKEANOGRAFIYA (Oceanography)(1917). In this monograph the scientist for the first time pointed out the interrelationship of processes and phenomena transpiring in ocean and sea waters and also in the world ocean and atmosphere. The scientist published about 1,500 scientific works mono- graphs, articles, atlases and reference books with an astonishing breadth in vir- tually all fields of geography. Shokal'skiy was an outstanding cartographer and headed work on compilation of maps of the relief of Russia. He calculated the area of the Asiatic part of Russia and the lengths of major rivers. He played a ma~or role in the preparation of innumerable atlases. He participated in preparations for the Second International Polar Year and represented the USSR at many inter- national geophysical congresses. Yuliy Mikhaylovich devoted 58 years of his sci- , entific activity to work in the Geographical Society. Between 1917 and 1931 he was chairman and thereafter was honorary chairman. He was a doctor of geographical sciences, a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and an honorary member of countless societies in the USSR and abroad. His contributions to the development of Russian~and Soviet geo* graphy were enormous. References: 5 Russian. 58 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INDEX OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN 'METEOROLOGIYA I GTDROLOGIYA' IN 1981 Moscow METEOROLOGIYA I GIDROLOGIYA in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 122-128 [Unsigned index] [Text] Avdyushin, S. I. "Heliogeophysical Service, Its Tasks and Prospects for Develop- ment," No 6, pp 63-76 Izrael, Yu. A. "Principal Results and Prospects for the Development of Hydrometeor- ology and Environmental Monitoring," No ~6, pp 5-18. "Ttaenty-Fifth Anniversary of Soviet Research in Antarctica," No l, pp 5-12. Meteorology . Avaste, 0. A., Kyarner, 0. Yu. and Keevallik, S. Kh. "Quantity of Clouds in Zone 45�N-45�S Over the Earth," No 7, pp 54-60. Adamenko, V. N., Bogdanov, A. L. and Novorotskiy, P. V. "Eval~sation of the Spatial- Temporal Variability of Components of the Heat and Water Balance in the Eastern Part of the Baykal--Amur Railroad Route," No 11, pp 58-70. ~ Alekseyeva-Obukhova, I. A. and Petrichenko, I. A. "Use of Observational Data on Clouds in Numerical Forecasting of Air Surface Temperature," No 9, pp 35-40. Almayev, R. Kh. and Semenov, L. P. "Effect of Radiation on a Turbulent Cloud Medi- um," No 12, pp 46-55. Aloyan, A. Ye., Y~rdanov, D. L. and P.enenko, V. V. "Numerical Model of Transport of Impurities in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer," No 8, pp 32-43. Aloyan, A. Ye., Yordanov, D. L. and Penenko, V. V. "Parameterization of Surface Layer With Variable Height," No 1, pp 37-46. Andrash, U. and Shenk, R. "Computation of Transport of Substances Contaminating - Air," No 3, pp 54-58. - Arabadzhi, V~ I. "Possibility of Predicting Lightning Discharges," No 3, pp 107-108. 59 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 huR urr~~tw~. u'~, vtva.Y Bakirbayev, B. and Kostyukov, V. V. "Determination of Parameters of Correlation Functions in Process of Objective Analysis of Hydrometeorological Fields," No 10, pp 108-110. Biryulina, M. S. "Modeling of an A Priori Set of Solutions of Inverse Problem and Stability of Optimum Plans of Ozone Satellite Experiment," No 4, pp 45-51. Borzenkova, I. I. "G1obal.Temperature Trend in the Cenozoic," No 12, pp 25-35. - Borisenkov, Ye. P. "Stud~~ of Climate and Its Practical Aspects," No 6, pp 32-48. Borisenkov, Ye. P., Meleshko, V. P. and Sokolov, A. P. Influence of Upper-Level Cloud Cover on Thermal Regime and Atmospheric Circulation," Plo 11, pp 5-17. Bryukhan', F. F. and Guterman, I. G. [deceased] "Climatic Characteristics of Ver- tical Wind Shears in Atmospheric Surface Layer Over USSR," No 5, pp 17-23. Bryukhan', F. F. "Indirect Computation of Characteristics of Prevailing Wind," No 8, pp 15-18. Budyko, M. I., Byutner, E. K., Vinnikov, K. Ya., Golitsyn, G. S., Drozdov, 0. A. and Karol', I. L. "Anthropogenic Changes in Global Climate," No 8, pp 5-14. Budyko, M. I. and Yefimova, N. A. "Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Climate," No 2, pp 5-17. Budyko, M. I. "Change in Atmospheric Thermal Regime in Phanerozoic," No 10, pp 5-10. Budyko, M. I. "Present Status of Investigations of Climate," No 6, pp 49-62. Buykov, M. V., Bodnarchuk, Yu. V. and Simeonov, P. "Evaluation of Effectiveness of Antihail Protection in Bulgaria," No 2, pp 49-54. Buykov, M. V. and Khvorost'yanov, V. I. "Numerical Modeling of Diurnal Evolution of Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Clouds and Fogs," No 4, pp 35-44. Byutner, E. K., Zakharova, 0. K., Turchinovich, I. Ye. and Lapenis, A. G. "Anthro- pogenic Changes in Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Atmosphere in the Next Fifty Years," No 3, pp 18-31. Vayndiner, G. Ye., Mukhina, T. L., Gladilina, V. P. and Kazakov, L. L. "Interan- nual Changes in Zonal Circulation in the Noithern Hemisphere in the Course of a Five-Year Period," No 12, pp 102-104. Vinnikov, K. Ya. and Groysman, P. Ya. "Empirical Analysis of the Influence of C02 on Modern Changes in Mean Annual Air Surface Temperature of the Northern Hemi- sphere," No 11, pp 30-43. Vinogradova, L. I. and Sliakina, N. P. "Vertical Circulation in the High-Altitude Frontal Zone Over Western Siberia and Krasnoyarskiy Kray," No 8, pp 26-31. 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Gavrilov, A. S. and Petrov, Yu. S. "Evaluation of the Accuracy in Determining Tur- bulent Flows by Standard Hydrometeorological Measurements Over the Sea," No 4, pp 52-59. Gavrilov, V. P. and I:ostrikov, A. A. "Scattering and Transport of a Cloud of Impur- ity in the Troposphere," I1o 10, pp 19-25. Gavrilov, V. P. "Determination of the Coefficient of Turbulent Diffusion," No 3, pp 46-53. Girdyuk, G. V. and Malevskiy-Malevich, S. P. "Method for Computing Effective Radi- ation of the Ocean Surface With Allowance for Different Cloud Levels," No 10, pp 44-52. Gordin, V. A. "Method for Computing Heat Flow Into the Soil From Temperature," No 1, pp 54-60. Gruza, G. V. and Apasova, Ye. G. "Climatic Variability of Monthly Precipitation Sums in the Northern Hemisphere," No 5, pp 5-16. Gruza, G. V., Kleshchenko, L. K. and Ran'kova, E. Ya. "Prediction of Mean P4onthly Air Temperature Over the Northern Hemisphere Using an Automated Scheme of Group - Analogs," No 2, pp 28-39. _ Gruza, G. V. and Ran'kova, E. Ya. "Use of Analogs in Evaluating the Predictability and Long-Range Prediction of the Fields of Mean Monthly Air Temperature," No 1, pp 13-22. Devan, A. K. "Variations in the Intensity of the Summer Indian tTonsoon Using Satel- lite Cloud Data," No 2, pp 55-61. Didenko, N. K., Ivanov, V. N., Korovin, V. Ya. and Smirnov, V. V. "Modeling of Ther- mals," No 5, pp 24-32. Dinevich, L. A. "Some Features of Structure and Evolution of Hail Cumulonimbus Clouds," No 9, pp 41-49. Dobryshman, Ye. M. "Analysis of Simplest Zonal Models of Circulation of the Equa- torial Atmosphere," No 9, pp 12-22. Disycheva, N. Ye. and Krigel', A. M. "Param,eters of Thermal Stratification of the Planetary Boundary Layer," No 1, pp 102-105. Drozdov, 0. A. "Formation of MoistenLng of the Land With Variations in Climate," - No 4, pp 17-23. Dushkin, P. K. "Prediction of Radiation and Ra.diation-Effective Fogs," No 9, pp 50-57. Zakharova, 0. K. "Friction and Heat Exchange of Air With the Surface in the Pres- ence of Trans.port of Sand, Salt and Ice Particles," No 12, pp 36-40. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 l'UK UMb1~.1AL UDr. V1~Lt Zimin, B. I. "Correlation.Between Electrification of Thunderstorm Clouds and Pre- - cipitation," No 8, pp 44-51. Zolotarev, V. N. and Uspenskiy, B. D. "Prediction of Surface Air Humidity," No 1, PP 23-28. Ivanov, V. P., i~iaslennikov, P. A., Sidorenko, V. I. and Filippov, V. L. "Features of Variations of Microstructure of Aerosols," No 5, pp 33-38. Imyanitov, I. M. "Structure and Conditions of Development of Thunderstorm Clouds," No 3, pp 5-17. Nigel', L. Kh. and Lepikash, Ye. R. "Motion of Particles on a.Rotating Sphere," No 1, pp 47-53. Kabanov, A. S. and Klykov, A. Ye. "Axisymmetric Problem of Free Convection46n53. ~ Numerical Experiments With Dynamic Effect on a Cumulus Cloud," No 7, pp Kagan, R. L. and Khlebnikova, Ye. I. "Influence of Density of Network 39-47ations on Characteristics of Variability of Interpolated Values, No 5, pp Kadyshnikov, V. M. and Ryazantseva, V. M. "Correlation Between Temporal and Spatial Intervals in Numerical Weather Forecasting," No 12, pp 14-24. Kadyshnikov, V. M. "Telescoped Scheme for Hydrodynamic Short-Range Weather Fore- casting," No 2, pp 18-27. Kashtanov, A. F. and Novikov, B. M. "Role of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) in Formation of Mesospheric Clouds," No 7, pp 105-107. Kenzhibayev, A. T. and Petrichenko, I. A. "Improvement of Method for Predicting In- tensity and Quantity of Precipitation During Warm Period," No 3, pp 103-106. Kokin, G. A., Ryazanova, L. A. and Tulinov, G. F. "Influence of Solar Activity on the Temperature Regime of the Atmosphere in the Polar Region," No 6, pp 105-112. Kolpakov, A. V. and Kontush, S. M. "Features of Mass Exchange During the Collision of Water Droplets of Noncomparable Sizes," No 12, pp 56-60. Koprova, L. I., Utkin, Ye. F. and Bakhmatov, A. Ye. "Results of Checking of Methods for Determining Temperature of the Water Surface From the 'Meteor' Artificial Earth Satellite," No 7, pp 61-69. Krivolutskiy, A. A. "Discrimination of Traveling Waves From Experimental Data," No 10, pp 102-104. Kric:~ak, S. 0. "Plonadiabatic Model of Atmosphere Using Full Equations for Predicting Meteorological Elements Over Europe," No 7, pp 18-26. Kuznetsov, V. V. and Pavlova, L. N. "Optical Properties of Clouds," No 10, pp 40-43. 62 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FOR OFFtC1AL USE ONLY Kutsenko, B. Ya. "Numerical Investigation of Frontogenesis With Allowance for - Phase Transitions," No 9, pp 23-34. Lomilina, L. Ye. "Influence of Highlands in the Asiatic USSR on Glaze-Hoarfrost Deposits," No 8, pp 52-57. Lopatenko, S. V. and Kontush, S. M. "Charge Separation During Partial Coalescence _ of Droplets," No 11, pp 54-57. Makarov, N. A. "Prevailing Wind at Altitudes 80-100 km at Different Longitudes During Winter and Spring 1976-1977," No 12, pp 41-45. Martem'yanov, V. I. "Evaluation of Statistical Interrelationship of Horizontal and Vertical Resolutions in Geopotential Field," No 11, pp 49-53. Martsinkevich, L. M. "Two-Channel SHF Radiometric Method for Determining Wind Velocity From a Satellite," No 3, pp 59-67. ~ Piasagutov, T. F. "Computation of Vertical Turbulent Flows in Near-Water Layer of Atmosphere Over the Ocean in Tropical Latitudes," No 12, pp 61-68. Masterskikh, M. A. "Computation of Wind Velocity During Gusts in Narraw Zones of - Cold Fronts," No 11, pp 93-94. Matveyev, Yu. L. and Soldatenko, S. A. "Model of Cloud Cover on Stationary Front," No 2, pp 40-48. Makhon'ko, K. P. and Ra.botnova, F. A. "Concentration of Mineral Dust in the Atmo- sphere Over the Territory of the USSR," No 1, pp 61-65. Milyutin, Ye. R. and Yaremenko, Yu. I. "Experimental Investigation of Correlation of Meteorological Range of Visibility and Altitude of the Lower Cloud Boundary," No 3, pp 32-38. Minina, L. S., Petrosyants, M. A. and Portnyagin, Yu. I. "Seasonal Restructuring of Circulation in the Meteor Zone (80-100 km) and Their R.~lationship to Processes in the Stratosphere," No 9, pp 5-11. Mokhov, I. I. "Influence of C02 on the Thermal Regime of the Earth's Climatic Sys- tem," No 4, pp 24-34. ~ Musayelyan, Sh. A., Tavadyan, A. D. and Shteynbok, D. 13., "Dynamic-Statistical Para- meterization of the Process of Thermal Effect of the Ocean on the Atmosphere," No 10, pp 11-18. Muchnik, V. M. "Distribution of Precipitation Over the Territory of the Experimental Meteorological Polygon," No 10, pp 34-39. Nikitin, A. Ye. "Investigation of the Energy Cycle in a Model of General Circulation of the Atmosphere Developed at the USSR Hydrometeorological Center," No 8, pp 19- 25. _ 63 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500034046-3 _ rvA vrrar,anY. v.yc. v1vLa Nuriakhmetova, N. P. "Comparative Analysis of Methods for Computing Turbulent Flows of Heat and Moisture From the Ocean Into the Atmdsphere," No 7, pp 70-76. ' Orlova, I. G. and Fetisov, L. P. Chlorated Hydrocarbons in the Near-Water Layer of the Atmosphere Over the North Atlantic," No 4, pp 60-64. Pavlova, L. N. "~~isibility of Light Signals in a Crystalline Fog," No 2, pp 108-109. Pataleyev, V. A. "Allowance for Heat Receipts From Solar Radiation on Sloping Sur- faces," No 9, pp 75-78� Petrosyants, M. A. "Weather Forecasting: Status and Immediate Tasks," No 6, pp 19- 31. Pinus, N. Z. and Kapitanova, T. P. "Some Features of the Energetics of Cyclonic For- mations in the Temperate Latitudes," No 4, pp 5-16. Pokrovskiy, 0. M: and Kaygorodtsev, A. Ye. "Information Content of Global Systems for Observing Total Ozone Content," No 7, pp 36-45. Polkhov, A. P. Prediction of the.IQovaya Zemlya Bora Using the Canonical Correla- tion Method," No 5, pp 59-64. Polkhov, A. P. and Terziyev, F. S. "Prediction of Evaporation Fogs by the Quadratic Discriminant Analysis Method," No 9, pp 58-66. Romanova, N. A., Kool', L. V. and Romanov, Yu. A. "Structure of Atmospheri02P105. sure and Wind Near the Equator in the Central Pacific Ocean," No 7, pp Rossov, V. V. "Formation of a Stratiforce Cloud Cover and Fogs on Hydrological Fronts," No 10, pp 110-112. Rubinshteyn, K. G. and Shilyayev, V. B. "Method of Variational Assim26a33~n of Ver- tical Climatic Fields of Temperature and Geopotential," No 10, pp Snitkovskiy, A. I. "Short-Range Forecasting of Precipitation," No 7, pp 5-17. Snitkovskiy, A. I. "Prediction of Air Temperature at Surface for 48 and 60 Hours," No 12, pp 5-13. Tooming, Kh. G. "Correlation Betwee.n Mean Annual Albedo and Short-Wave Radiation Balance Values With These Same Indices in Early Spring," No 5, pp 48-52. - Fedulova, M. N., Borodina, A. V. and Shuvalo~�, A. V. "Use of Composite Analog in Physicostatistical Piethod for Forecasting LJeather for 5-10 Days," No 1, pp 29-36. Khain, A. P. "Numerical N'Iodeling of Passage of Tropical C}clone Onto Land," No 9, pp 67-74. Khrgian, A. Kh. "Methods of Dendroclimatology in Studying History of Climate," No 11, pp 18-29. 64 FOR OFFi~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapurskiy, L. I. "Brightness Variations of Cloud Fields in Ohservations From Differ- - ent Altitudes," No 5_ pp 53-58. Cholakh, I. V. "Investigation of Convergence of Scheme of Dry Convective Adaptation in Models of Macroscale Atmospheric Processes," No 10, pp 105-107. = Sharifullin, N. K. and Romanov, L. N. "Moving Checking and Evaluation of Alterna- tive Mo dels," No 3, pp 39-45. Shmerlin, B. Ya. "Investigation of Patterns of Movement of Macroscale Eddies Rela- tive to a Purely Zonal Flow," No 7, pp 27-35. Yurov, A. G. "Distribution of Temperat~res and Turbulent Near-Wall Currents With Allowance for Stratification of Air Flow," No 11, pp 44-48. = Hydrology Alekseyev, G. A. "Joint Determination of Statistical Parameters, Lengthening and Modeling of Time Series and Redu~tion to Long-Term Period," No 5, pp 70-$1. _ Anisimova, Ye. P., Ivlev, I. I. and Speranskaya, A. A. "Computation of Turbidity Profile in Flow With Transported Sediments," No 8, pp g2-96. Antonov, r~. Ye. "Complex Prediction of Interannual Variability of Inflow of Nort:-. Sea [Jaters Into Baltic According to Data From On-Shore Observations," No.3, PP 76-79. Bagrov, A. N. and Kozhevnikova, N. N. "Objective Analysis of Ocean Surface Temper- ature in Northern Hemisphere," No 12, pp 69-76. Bagrov, N. A. "i4ean Slope of Drainage Basins," No 9, pp 111-114. Baryshnikov, N. B. and Subbotina, Ye. S. "Dependence of Slopes of Free Surface on Morphometric Characteristics of Channel and Floodplain," No 1, pp 82-88. Blatov, A. S. "Hydrological Structure and Energy Reserve of Eddies in the Main Black Sea Current," No 7, pp 86-93. Bogachev, A. G., Volkova, G. B., Kvon, V. I. and Filatova, T. N. "Numerir_al Model- ing of Wind-Induced Ci~rrents in Lakes," No 7, pp 94-101. Boyarinov, P. M. "Case of Upwelling in Southern Part of Lake Onega," No 1, pp 72-75. Buzuyev, A. Ya. and Fedyakov, V. Ye. "Variability of Ice Conditions on Ship Navi- gation Routes," No 2, pp 69-76. Byshev, V. I. and Snop~ �v, V. G. "Influence of Cold Synoptic Ocean Eddies on Trajec- tary and Evolution of Tropical Cyclones," No 10, pp 53-57. Vladimirov, 0. A. "Lagging Effects in Ocean-Atmosphere System and Their Modeling," No 4, pp 77-84. 65 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 rvtc vr r a~,ana. voc vi~.. a Gavrilyuk, R. V. "Possibility of Seasonal Prediction of Water Temperature in North Atlantic," No 4, pp 71-76. ' Ginzburg, A. I. "Methodological Problems in Meas~sring Temperature and Salinity in the Ocean Boundary L'ayer," No 4, pp 65-70. Grinval'd, D: I., Nikora, V. I. and Boyko, T. V. "Statistical Characteristics of the Ridged Relief of the River Bottom," No 8, pp 87-91. Grishin, N. I. "Mechanism of Detachment of Iiard Particles From Bottom by a Tur- bulent Flow of Fluid," No 5, pp 82-91. Grishin, N. N. "Influence of Har.d Particles on the Kinematics of the Fluid Flow Transporting Them," No 2, pp 86-91. Dmitriyev, F. A. and Pivovarov, Se V. "D'istribution of Hydrocarbons in Freshly Fa11- en Snow and in Ice at 'Severnyy Polyus-22' Station (According to Observations of 1977-1978)," No 5, pp 65-69. Yelshin, Yu. A. "Thermal Runoff of Rivers in the European Territory of the USSR," No 9, pp 85-93. Zholudev, V. D. "Mechanisms of Formation ~f the Upper Quasihomogeneous Layer of the - Ocean," No 11, pp 77-82. Zayakin, Yu. A. "Tsunami of 23 November 1969 on Kamchatka and Features o� Its De- velopment," No 12, pp 77-83. ~ Zotov, Yu. G., Masterov, Yu. F, and Saks, S. Ye. "Spatial Variability of Current Fields in Shallow-Water Zone of Shelf," No 9, pp 79-84. Inishev, N. G. "Use of a Stochastic Model of Travel Time for Co:nputing High-Water Hydrograph (In Example of Chulym River)," No 9, pp 94-100. Karaushev, A. V. and Meyerovich, L. N. "Madel of Formation of Stationary Zone of Contamination in Water Bodies," No 1, pp 105-107. _ Karnovich, V. N, and Kuleshova, T. V. "Long-Range Prediction of Maximum Water Lev- ' els During Ice Jams on the Angara River at Kamenka," No 12, pp 105-107. Kogan, B. A. and Orlov, N. F. "New Ice Forecasting Methods for the Northwestern Atlantic," No 11, pp 71-76. Komlev, A. M. "Joint Evaluation of the Intraannual and Long-Term Probability of Exceeding Mean Daily Water Discharges," No 11, pp 97-100. Kopylov, A. P. "Mean Level of Drainage Basin Slopes," No 9, pp 109-111. Kostsov, G. V. "Experimental Validation of Computations of Rate of Water Runoff Along the Plowed Surface of Slopes," ~To 3, pp 93-96. 66 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Liser, I. Ya. "Expressions for Predicting t4aximum Ice Jam (Ice Run) ~dater Levels During the Opening-Up of Sitaerian Rivers," No 11, pp 83-87. Piakin, V. K. "Interaction of Swell Ldaves With a Head Wind," No 11, pp 95-97. Mamedov, M. A. "Spatial Correlation Functions of Maximum Water Discharges of Moun- tain Rivers," No 12, pp 89-93. Moskvin, Yu. P. "Evaluation of Applicability of Different Methods for Determining Evaporation From a[dater Surface in the Zone of Hummocked Swamps," No 3, pp 112- 115. Nezhikhovskiy, B. R. "Influence of Errors in Statistical Characteristics on the Ac- curacy of Optimum In~erpolation," No 2, pp 77-85. ~ Nesterov, Ye. S. "One Mechanism for Formation of Macroscale Water Temperature Anom- " alies in the Ocean," No 1, pp 66-71. Nikora, V. I. "River Flow as a Dissipative System," No 12, pp 84-88. ~ Noskov, V. G. "Laboratory Investigations of the Influence of Structures for the Pro- tection of Leningrad Against Inundations on Water Level Rise in the Gulf of Fin- land," No 1, pp 76-81. Ponomarev, V. I. and Gazova, L. A. "Diagnostic Model of Circulation of Water and Ice in the Arctic Basin," No 3, pp 68-75. Raspopin, G. A. and Kovalev, Ye. A. "Computation of Dynamics of River Flows Under Nonstationary Conditions," No I0, pp 79-87. Rumyantsev, V. A. and Kondrat'yev, S. A. "Use of Radar Data in Hydrodynamic P~Iodel of Rainwater Runoff With Distribur.ed Parameters," No 3, pp 86-92. Ryabinin, V. E. "Model of Circulation of a Baroclinic Ocean Under the Influence of Wind and the Heat Flow From the Atmosphere," No 8, pp 58-70. Sklyarenko, V. L. "Some Methodological Problems in Application of the Main Compon- - ents Method in Investigations of River Runoff Fields," No 8, pp 71-77. Sokolov, A. A. "Principal Results and Prospects,for Development of Research in the Field of Hydrology in Relation to the Problems of Shifting of Part of the Runoff of Northern Rivers to the South," No 6, pp 87-98. Terziyev, F. S and Goptarev, N. P. "Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf and the Caspian Sea Prob- lem," No 2, pp 62-68. Treshnikov, A. F. and Terziyev, F. S. "Modern Problems of Research in the Field of Oceanography," No 6, pp 77-86. Trubkin, I. P. "On the Angular Spectrum of Wind Waves," No 10, pp 67-71. 67 FOIt OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500030046-3 rVK UMr1t.~wL, a~a~. WvLti a Fedorov, K. N. "Physical Structure of the Ocean Surface Layer," tdo 10, pp 58-66. Filippov, Ye. M. "Status of Problem of Study of Element-Salt Composition of Sea Wa~ers by the Nuclear Physics Method," No 3, pp 80-85. . Fridrikh, G., Kochergin, V. P., Klimok, V. I., Protasov, A. V. and Sukhorukov, V. A. "Numerical Experiments Using a Model of Upper Layer of the Ocean," No 7, pp 77- 85. Khristoforov, A. V. "Evaluation of Parameters of Distribution of Probabilities of River Runoff Values," No 8, pp 78-86. Shishkayev, S. M. and Yego.rov, A. N. "Method for Computing the Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Bottom Deposits of Large Shallow-Water Lakes (In Example of Lake - Kubenskoye)," No 4, pp 8 5-92. Shmakov, V. M. "Supply of Solar Energy to Reservoirs in the Dnepr Cascade," No 10, PP 72-78. Shtykov, V. I. "Determina t ion of the Filtration Coefficients of Cohesive Bottom Materials in a Frozen S t ate Through Thelr Kinetic Specific Surface," No 3, pp 109-112. Agrometeorology Anisimov, 0. A. and Menzhulin, G. V. "Modeling the Radiation Regime in the Plant Cover," No 10, pp 88-93. Garmashov, V. N. and Selivanov, A. N. "Influence of Meteorological Factors on the Yield of Spring Barley," No 7, pp 107-110. Gringof, I. G. and Kel'chevskaya, Le S. "Direction of Investigations for Supplying the National Economy With Agroclimatic Information," No 4, pp 93-102. Gringof, I. G. and Khvalenskiy, Yu. A. "Principal Results of Agrometeorological Investigations in the Tenth Five-Year Plan and Prospects for Their Further De- velopment," No 6, pp 99- 104. _ Ksendz, A. T., Savchuk, L. P, and Pokrishchenko, V. N. "Regulation of Phytoclimate as a Means for Validating the Components of Matched Crops," No 8, pp 97-101. Lynov, Yu. S. "Autumn Growing Season of Grassy Plants at Intermediate Elevations in Central Asia," No 12, pp 107-108. Makhmudov, K. "Determinat ion of Losses to Cotton From Hailfalls at Different Stages in Its Development," No 3, pp 97-102. Mokiyevskiy, V. P4. and Shalyavina, N. K. "Influence of Climatic Conditions on Vari- ability of Yields of Gr e en Mass of Perennial Grasses in the RSFSR," No 12, pp 94-101. 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 FOR OFFDCIAL USE ONLY t4uromtsev, N. A. "Influence of Temperature on Potential of Soil Moisture and Its Accessibility for Plants," No 5,.pp 92-98. _ Polevoy, A. N. "Dynamic-Statistical Methods for Predicting Yield of Agricultural Crops," No 2, pp 92-102. Pigareva, L. G. "Agrometeorological Conditions, Crop Yield and Quality of Spring Wheat Grain," No 10, pp 94-101. Svisyuk, I. V. "Rate of Growth and Development of Winter Wheat During [Jinter Thaws," No 11, pp 88-97,. ~ . Eyyubov, A. D. and Ragimov, Kh. Sh. "Influence of Meteorological Conditions on the Quality of Pomegranate Fruits;" No 1, pp 98-1Q1. Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Belousov, S. L. and Gofen, A. M. "Use of an Electronic Computer in Organizing an Archives of Data on Analyses of Meteorological Fields Obtained Under the FGGE Program," No 2, pp 103-107. Burkov, V. A., Zubin, A. B., Titov, V. B. and Kharlamov, A. I. "Spatial-Temporal Variability of Current Discharges in FGGE Atlantic Equatorial Polygon," No 9, pp 101-108. Volkov, Yu. A., Yelagina, L. G. and Koprov, B. M. "Investigation of Heat Flows in the Near-Water Layer of the Atmosphere Under the Atlantic Tropical Experiment Program," No 8, pp 102-109. � Dobryshman, Ye. M. and Si.tnikov, I. G. "Analysis of Wave Disturbances of a Synoptic Scale in TROPEX-72 and GATE," No 5, pp 99-108. Kondrat'yev, K. Ya. "Remote Sounding of the Atmosphere From Satellites in the FGGE Period," No 4, pp 103-111. Kondrat'yev, K. Ya. "Preliminary Results of Implementation of the FGGE," No 6, pp 113-121. Peskov, B. Ye., Zhelnin, A. A. and Shunyatskiy, A. B. "Thermodynamic Conditions in Convective Cloud Cover and Precipitation at the Equator (According to MONEX n~lt1~ No 4, pp 111-~16. Debatable Questions Yurchak, i. S. "Optimum Measurement of Radar Parameters of Meteorological Features," No 4, pp 117-121. Instruments, Observations, Pr_ocessing 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540030046-3 MUK UNMII.IAL u,r. VP1L1 Bagautdinov, A. A., Krysov, V. P., Pakhomova, T. M. and Pushistov, P. Yu. "Some Applications of the 'Weatherman-Electronic Computer' Dialogue System in Op- erational Processing of Data and Numerical Weather Forecasting," No 8, pp 110- 114. Bovsheverov, V. M., Kallistratova, M. A., Knyazev, L. V., Gorelik, A. G. and Yegorov, t4. Yu. "Radio Apparatus of a System for 'I'hermal Sounding of the At- mosphere by the Backscattering Method," No 3, pp 120-123. Gavrilov, A. A. "Information Yield of Meteor Radar Stations Used in Measuring the Wind in the Upper Atmosphere," No 5, pp 109-114. Yelanskiy, N. F., Truttse, Yu. L. and Matveyeva, O..A. "Experimental Investigations of UV Radiation in the Lower Atmosphere," ~io 7, pp 111-116. Kofman, R. I. and Monakhov, A. V. "Application of Computer Graphics for Visual Rep- resentation of Archives of P4eteorological Data," No 5, pp 117-119. Koshel'kov, Yu. P. "Matching of Temperature Values in Mesosphere Measured by Dif- ferent Rocket Sounding Systems," No 3, pp 116-120. ~ Masagutov, T. F. "Computation of Air Humidity Over Sea From Air and Water Tempera- ture," No 5, pp 114-117. Rudenko, S. L. ar_d Solomakhov, A. Yu. "Automatic Generation af Programs for the De- coding of Meteorological Summaries," No 1, pp 113-116. Toktomyshev, S. Zh. and Tolbayev, L. K. "Measurement of Ozone Concentration in the Troposphere," No 2, pp 110-112. Trubkin, I. P. "Measurement of Parameters of Wave-Covered Surface From Shipboard," No 12, pp 109-113. Usol'tsev, V. A. "Model Means for Measuring Air Humidity at Negative Temperatures," No 1, pp 108-113. Shenderovich, I. M. and Kleban, L. S. "Remote Recording Unit for Float ~dater Level Recorder," No 12, pp 113-115. Reviews and Consultations Berestovskiy, I. F. and Viktorov, S. V. "Role of Promising Space Systems in Imple- menting Oceanographic Section of the World Climate Research Program," No 10, pp 113-119. Drofa, A. S. and Katsev, I. L. "Some Problems in Visibility Through Clouds and Fogs," No 11, pp 101-109. Kolokolov, V. P. "Activity of the World Data Center on Atmospheric Electricity," No 2, pp 119-120. 70 - FOR OFFICIAL USE O1~iLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500030046-3 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY - Musayelyan, Sh. A. "Work of an Unofficial Conference of WMO Experts on Long-Range LJeather Forecasting," No 9, pp 115-118. ~xchange of Work Experience Voyevodin, V. A. and Murzin, A. Y. "Experience in Scientific-Operational Hydro- meteorological and Ice Support of Winter Voyages in the Arctic," I1o 8, pp 115-117. Skripnik, N. P. "Experience in Using a Complex System for Quality Control of Work at Aerometeorological Stations of the Ukrainian Administration of Hydrometeor- ology and Environmental Monitoring," No 1, pp 117-119. Snitkovskiy, A. I. and Chistyakov~, A. D. "Pieteorological Support of the USSR Hydro- meteorological Center for the XXII Olympic Games in Moscow," No 2, pp 113-118. From the History of Science Brodskiy, A. V. "Fiftieth Anniversary of the Main Aerometeorological Center," No 2, pp 121-124. Krichak, S. 0. and Pinus, N. Z. "Experimental and Synoptic Investigations of the - Atmosphere in the Work of 0. G. Krichak (Seventieth Anniversary of His Birth)," No 11, pp 110-113. ~ Rakhmanov, V. V. "Meteorological Activity of I. N. U1'yanov (One Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary of His Birth)," No 7, pp 117-118. Tolstobrov, B. "Fiftieth Anniversary of the Leningrad Hydrometeorological Insti- tute," No 3, pp 126-127. Criticism and Bibliography Alekseyev, G. A. RASCHETY STOKA REI: I VREMENNYICH VODOTOI~OV (Computations of Run~ff of Rivers and Interim Watercourses), Izd-vo Voronezhskogo Universiteta, 1979, 200 pages, No 1, pp 120-121. Baryshnikov, N. B. RECHNAYA GIDROMETRIYA I UCHET VODNYKH RESURSOV (Fluvial Hydro- metry and Determination of Water Resources), by I. F. Karasev, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, No 6, p 122. Boykova, 0. V. LED. FIZICHESKIYE SVOYSTVA. SOVREMENNYYE METODY GLYATSIOLOGII (Ice. Physical Properties. Modern Methods in Glaciology), by V. V. Bogorodskiy, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, 384 pages, No 5, p 120. Vendrov, S. L. KOMPLEKSNYYE ISSLEDOVANIYA VODOKHRANILISHCH, VYP III. 'MOZHAYSKOYE VODOKHRANILISHCHE (Multisided Investigations of Reservoirs, No III. 'Mozhaysk- oye Reservoir), edited by V. D. Bykov and K. K. Edel'shteyn, Moscow, Izd-vo MGU, 1979, 399 pages, No l, pp 121-122. 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500030046-3 rVK uCr~a.u+~. V~c vl~a.a Dibobes, I. K. and Plazarov, I. M. EKOLOGIYA I KONTROL' SOSTOYANIYA PRIRODNOY SREDY (Ecology and Monitoring State of the Environment), by Yu. A. Izrael`, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1979, No 4, pp 122-123. Kardl~, I. L. and Frol'kis, V. A. FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I PROBLEMA KLIMATA (Physics o~ the Atmosphere and the Climate Problem), collection of articles edited by G. S. Golitsyn, corresponding member USSR Academy of Sciences, and A. M. Yaglom, professor, Moscow, Nauka, 1980, No 7, pp 119-120. Nikolayev, A. G. ATMOSFER.A ZEMLI S'SALYUTA-6' (Earth's Atmosphere From the 'Sa1- yut-6'), by A. I. Lazarev, V. V. Kovalenok, A. S. Ivanchenkov and S. V. Avakyan, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1981, No 11, pp 114-115. Sirotenko, 0. D. AGROFIZICHESKIYE, AGROMETEOROLOGICHESKIYE I AGROTEKHNICHESKIYE OSNOVY PROGRAMMIROVANIYA UROZHAYA (Agrophysical, Agrometeorological and Agro- engineering Principles of Yield Programming), by I. S. Shatalov and A. F. Chud- novskiy, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, No 10, pp 120-121. Tolstikhin, N. I. and Tolstikhin, 0. N. KATALOG NALEDEY ZONY BAM. VYPUSK I. NALEDI VERKHNEY CHASTI BASSEYNA R. CHARY (Catalogue of Ice Encrustations in the~Zone _ of the Baykal-Amur Railroad Line. Issue I. Ice Encrustations of Upper Part of Chara River Basin), Lening~ad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, No 8, pp 118-119. Furman, M. Sh. POLEVYYE ISSLEDOVANIYA NALEDEY (Field Investigations of Ice En-. crustations), by V. R. Alekseyev and B. L. Sokolov, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, No 3, pp 124-125. Kharchenko, S. I. and Tsytsenko, K. V. ANTROPOGENNYYE IZMENENIYA VODNOSTI REK (Anthropogenic Changes in Liquid Water Content of Rivers), by.I. A. Shiklomanov, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1979, 300 pages, No 2, pp 125-126. Letters to Editors Gidrometeoizdat. "Letter to Editor," No 9, p 128. ' " Personalities "G. A. Alekseyev 470th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 4, p 124. "V. A. Belinskiy (75th Anniversary of I~is Birth), No 1, p 124. "N. L. Byzova (60th Anniversary of Her Birth)," No 6, p 123. "S. S. Gaygerov (70th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 10, pp 123-124. "I. A. Gol'tsberg (75th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 7, p 121. "G. V. Gruza (50th Anniversary of Her Birth)," r:o 8,, p 120. "I. G. Guterman (70th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 2, pp 127-128; "I. G. Guter- man (1911-1951)," No 5, pp 127-128. 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500430046-3 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY "F. F. Davitaya (1911-1979)," No 11, pp 127-128. ~ "P. K. Yevseyev (1911-1964)," No 9, pp 127-128. ' "Ye. S. Korotkevich: Award of Title of Hero of Socialist Labor," No 5, p 121. "M. S. Kulik (1907-1980)," No 3, p 128. "N. G. Leonov (60th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 10, pp 124-125. "P. S. Lineykin (1910-1981)," No 8, pp 126-127. "A. S. Monin (60th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 10, pp 122-123. "T. V. Pokrovskaya (1900-1981)," No 10, p 128. "B. G. Rozhdestvenskiy (70th Anniversary. of His Birth)," No 11, p 116. "Ye. S. Rubinshteyn (90th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 1, p 123; "Ye. S. Rubin- shteyn (1891-1981)," No 11, pp 126-127. "G. G. Svanidze (60th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 9, pp 119-120. "Ye. S. Selezneva (75th Anniversary of His Birth),".No 5, p 121. "List of Workers of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Mon- itoring Granted Awards for Active I'articipation in the Organization and Imple- mentation of Soviet Antarctic Expeditions and Major Scientific Contributions to Study of Antarctica," No 7, pp 121-124. - "List of Workers of the State Committee on Hydrometeorology Granted Awards for Im- plementing the Tasks of the Tenth Five-Year Plan and Successes Attained in the Hydrometeorological Support of the National Economy," No 9, pp 121-126. ~ "A. Ye. Cllerenlcov (60th Anniversary of His Birth)," No 9, pp�120-121. "G. I. Shamov (1891-1956)," No 8, pp 127-128. "N. S. Shishkin (1912-1981)," No 7, p 128. "Yu. M. Sh~kal'skiy (1856-1940)~," No 12, pp 120-121. ~ COPYRIGHT: "Meteorologiya i gidrologiya", 1981 5303 - CSO: 1864/6 ~ END - 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500030046-3