Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8.pdf2.04 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/ 10367 4 March 1982 ~ ~ V~?est E u ro e R e o rt p p (FOUO 14/82)~ FBi~ FOREIGIV BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVIC~ FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540040013-8 NOTE .TPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and - other characteristics retained. ~ Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or follc~wing the last line of a brief, indicate how the originai information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are _ enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. - The contents of thi~ publication in no w~y represent the poli- " cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT UISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFT~CI.AL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ' JPRS L/10367 ~ 4 March 1982 . WEST EUROPE REPORT ~ ~ (~ouo i~/s2) CONTENTS ~ ENERGY EOONOMICS ~ ITALY ENEL Losses for Reducing Electricity Rates ~ ~ _ (Franco Vergnana; IL SOLE--24 OFcE, 23 Jan 82) 1 ECONOMIC FRANCE - Company Set Up for Marketing, Distribution of Satellite Data - (Pierre Langereux; AIR ET COSMJS, 7 Nov 81) 3 Financial Circles React to Compensations Under New Law (Philippe Durupt; VALEURS ACTUELLES, 25-31 Jan 82) 6 Three Banks Added to Nationalization List (Alain Margaron; VALEURS ACTUELLES, 25-31 Jan 32) 10 ITALY Parties' Economic Zhink-Tank Organizations (IL SOLE-24 ORE, various dates) 12 PSI's CESEC, by Riccardo Chiaberge PCI's CESPE, Silvano Andriani Interview DC's AREL, Franco Grassin~ Inte rview . ~ PRI's CEEP, by Riccardo Chiabe rge - a - [III - WE - 150 FOUO] _ FUR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504040013-8 POLITICAL - SPAIN Poll Shows Positive Atti.tude Toward Entry Into EC _ (Jose Manuel Arija; CAM6I0 16, 25 Jan 82) 24 . . MII.ITARY FRANCE Defense Budget Approved, ;th SNLE To Appear in 1994 (AIR ET CASMOS, 12 Dec 81) 29 GENERAL � INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS French, British Review Possible Future Space Cooperation (AIR ET COSMfJS, 24 Oct 81) 31 FB 91JCE i _ Gamma Raaiation Proje ct With Soviets To Begin in 1984 (Pierre Langereux; AIR ET OOSMOS, 14 Nov 81) . . . . . . . . . . 3~ - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440013-8 ENERGY ECONQMICS ITALY EPILEL LOSSES FaR REDUCING ELECTRICITY RATES - Milan IL SOLE-24 ~ORE in Italian 23 Jan 82 pp 1, 2 [Article by Franco Vergnano: "User 'Discounts' Put EI3EL into the Red"] [TextJ T~ao trillion lost in 1981 due to rate reductions; month}~� bills reduced for 90 percent of families. Milan ~_Without the numerous rate reductions for users under various headings, the ENEL [National Electric Power Agency] would practically have closed the year with a. balanced record. Although the final audit has not yet been completed, the electric ~ power agency in 1981 lost about 2 trillion, the shortfall due to the thousands of� "discounts" granted on monthly utility bills by the CIP [Interministerial Price - Committee] to various groups of users. On the basis of actual consumption and co~ paring the situation to full-rate schedules, we find that the ENEL last year lost a total of 1.96 trillion, including 1,12 trillion due to various reductions in rate levels and 840 billion because of discounts on the heat surcharge. The biggest increment (1,142 billjon) is due to the now famous reductions granted for domestic uses through the mechanism of the social slices--a phenomenon which involves aimost all Italian families; as a matter of fact, because of the reduction in monthly fixed rates, tne "discount" for the first 75 kilowatt-hours consumed, _ plus other reductions on th~ heat surcharge, the social group assisted by the ENEL came to add up to as much as 90 percent of the domestic users. The State Railways for various reasons got a discount of a'little less than~200 billion per y~ar while the aluminum industry was able to "save" 150 and the steel industry about 160. The Terni Company by itself managed to obCain a reduction of about SO billion. Next we have the vari.ous reductions for the South,~for craftsmen, for farmers, etc. ~ As we said earlier, these figures were obtained by warking out the differences between the prices actually charged to the privileged users (based on the laws and the CIP directives) and those of the t0normal" c~nsumers. All of these reductions together, adding up to 1.12 trillions for 1981, generally are granted witfiout any provision for a compensatory counterpart and caxi be con- ~ sidered one of the main causes af ~he fact that the ~NEL's accounts are not balanced. .This revenue shortfall, added on top of the 840 billion that can be charged to a reduction in the heat surcharge, in substance are responsibZe for the deficit in the entire ENEL balance sheet and this is not even in part compensated for by the rate- schedule yie.ld coming from users who did n~t get any reductions. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R000500040413-8 FOR OFFICIAI USE ONLY In a situation ~f this kind one can say that all of the categories are getting re- d~ictivns in the sense that, overall, through the monthly bills, we are payin~; less for electricity than what lt costs the ENEL to produce. If these deficits are somehow made up, we would only enormously increase the finan- - cial costs of the ENEL which is forced to g~ into debt way out of proportion. COPYRIGHT: 1481 Editrice I1 Sole-24 Ore s.r.l. 5053 CSO: 3104/115 ~ 2 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 ECONOMIC FR.ANCE CdMPANY SET UP FOR MARKETING, DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE DATA - Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 7 Nov 81 pp 52-53 " [Article by Pierre Langereux: "Establishment of 'Spot-Image' Company on 1 Janu- ary 1982"] [Text] The French Spot Image Company (see AIP. ET COSMOS, No 852), to be in charge of the dissemination and marketing of data from the French Spot observation satel- ' lites of the CNES [National Economic an3 Social Council], will be set up on 1 Janu- ary 1982. Its president will be Gerard Brachet, head of the applications division of the CNES, who delivered a report on the sub~ect on 12 October 198~1, at a Space Club dinner presided over by Michel Bignier of the ESA [expansion unknown]. Spot-Image will by a limited liability company and a subsidiary of the CNES, which will have the blocking minority (36 percent of all shares). The other shareholders will be the other four public establishments that are~members of the Group for Development of Aerospace Teledetection (GDTA): the National Geographic - Institute {IGN), the French Petroletmm Institute (IFP), the Bureau of Geological ~ and Mining Exploration (BRGM) and the Agricultural Production Development Bureau ' (BDPA). Each one will have i0 percent of the Spot-Image shares, as will the main manufacturers involved in the building and operation of the Spot system: Matra (satellites) and SEP [Eiiropean Propellant Company] (stations), companies in which the government is tha majority shareholder. Spot-Image will therefore be mainly under the control of the French Government. The only foreign shareho~der now accepted is the Swedish Space Corporation (Sweden), which will have 4 percent of the Spot-Image stock. Like~the Belgian industry, this Swedish campany will have minorit~r participation in the construction of the first Spot 1 satellite, which will be launched in mid 1984. Spot 1 will be the first civilian satellite~ to take both visible and infrared photographs with high resolution (20~and 10 meters) and in stereoscope. ~ Spot-Image will have a vast commercial network for the distribution of Spot . i.~ages on a world scale because 80 percent of the market for data from the French observation satellites is abroad. Depending on the case, Brachet says, Spor-Image ~aill set up either: disL~;'~ution subsidiaries, mainly in the United States, given the large share of the American market; or franchising agreements with certain foreign receiver stations that will 3 ~ FOR 4FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500440013-8 FOR OF'FiCIAL USE ONL.Y - not be able to have all the means needed to detine the products (images, tapes, and so on), manufacture them and market them; or distribution agreements with representatives of local agents, relyiag on the facilities of shareholders abroad. The Spot-Image Company will take over the system of earth stations that receive and process images from Spot satellites. The central French station will be set up at Aussaguel, near Toulouse, to receive data in real and deferred (recorded) time. The direct ~eception stations located in several countries will receive images from regions included in a circle with a radius of 2,500 kilometers, cen- tered on the station. This network will make it possible to xeceive a large part of the data obtained by the satellites: 25 percent at Toulouse and the rest at direct reception stations. The amount of data directly accessib]:e to French auth- orities can even go. as high as 50 percent if negotiations underway~are suecessful in integr~ting the Swedish station at Kiruna into the French system. AZready, several countries equipped with Landsat receiving stations have mani- fested their intention of also receiving Spot data; ~Sweden, Canada, Australia, Brazil, the Regional Center of Ouagadougou in West Africa, and recently, Ke�nya, where the CNES is making a feasibility study. By 1985-19$6, there should be some 20 Spot stations in serviee in_the world. ~ Spot-Image will begin promotion operations and the negotiation of data distribution agree~ents with foreign stations able to provide direct data reception, in 1982. It will enter into negotiations with,national or regional distributors as well. _ Both 1982 and 1983 will be,used to set up the commercial network so as to have an experienced, effective organization by mid 1984, when the first satellite will be in orbit. ~ ' The company will have a monopoly over the c'issemination and marketing of Spot data received by French stations or stations controlled by France, Brachet says. Stan- dard products will be manufactured by the CRIS image preprocessing center~in Tou- ' louse, based on the demands of Spot-Image, which will ensure thei.r reproduction and adapt them to the demands of customers, making "special" products (special processing) itself. Spot-Image will set up a file of original photograph~c pro- ducts and a file of products on tape, based an commercial needs. Spot-Image will pay the CNES directly for the supplying of data received at Toulouse and filed with CRIS, 3o as to gradually uiake it possible to finance the construction of the succe~sive operational satellites (stariing with the second satellite, Spot 2), as well as their launching and operation. For the CNES, the additional receipts will come from contracts si~ned with foreign stations. _ Estimating the portion of the world market that might belong to the Spot system was already par.t of a series of studies made at the request of the CNES in 1979 and 1980: a market study of cartographic applications by Eurosat (Switzerland), studies of appl~ca~i~ns on the American market by Eartnsat (United 3tates), overall evaluation of the world market in over ].00 countries for each field of application, - wirh the aid of the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Commerce. The stu- dies were also comparec~ with those done in the United States by the Federal,Govern- ment or by Ameri.can professional organizations such as Geosat, whose are the major American oi1 and mining companies. ~ 4 ~ FOR OFFIC[At USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040013-8 Kesults are in agreement in che main and especially encouraging, Brachet thinks, because they give an estimate of the overall market potential for the Spot system of 60,000 to 100,000 scenes a year. The distribution by sector of appli~ation is spread out over oil anc1. mining exploration (35 percent), cartography (20 percent), agriculture and forests (18 percent), development of the territory and hydrology (12 percent) and research (15 percent). This market actLally appears to be dominated by the very important weight of the American market (nearly 50 percent), either directly or indirectly (local subsi- diaries of the big American com~anies). Use in develop~,ng countries potentially very great essentially depends on bilateral or multilateral aid and is there- fore under the indirect controX of the ruling countries.� The sensitivity of the market to the data sales price appears to be very low, how- ever, with the exception of customers in researeh sectors and universities. Ac- cording to Brachet, this appears to be due to the still minimal s'zare represented by the cost of the images compared with processing and interpretation efforts. In this connection, American and French intentions of practicing a price policy rQ- ' flecting the real cost of the data wou~d therefore not tend to substantially reduce prospects of developing uses of space celedetection images, the future president of Spot-Image conciudes. In addition, market estimates must take into account the ma.rkeC created for French - industry by ttie sale of equipment and services relating to the Spot system. A _ survey done in 1980 by the ministEr of industry shows that the figure for turnover corresponding to materials ~or using observation satellite images would quadruple in 10 years, from 1980 te 1990. An induced effect of about the same dimension is also foreseeable for the service industry (photo,processing, interpretation aids, and so on). The establishment of the Spot-In~age Company is destined to ensure French penetra- *_ion of a market that is diffuse, both sectorially and geographically, G. Brachet believes. . However, the success of the operation also depends on two other~factors: opera- tional pursuit of the Spot program beyond the first satellite in order to assure users of continuous service for at le~s Martinazzoli ta~-.o is an officer of the party and t:herefore can perform the graft much better. As~fo�r_ the rest, the DC today has an ec7nomic affairs officer such as Riccardo Misasi who represents a considerable quality improvement compared to ~ his predecessor Ferrari Aggradi; our group has a very close cooperative relation- ship with him. Just recently, to~ether with Pandolfi, who is a memb~r of the AREL, the~ have been launching a big iaitiative?" . [Question] And what is that? ; [Answer] A big economic conference which should come before or coincide with the party congress. In 1972, 10 years ago, a similar conference was held in Perugia which marked a turn in DC economic policy. We thought of this anni- versary in a worthy fashion with a kind of "Perugia lI." ~ [Question] This is an official party initiative. But what is the AREL doing as such and what does iL have on its program? [Answer] We are not just standing around with our hands in our pockets. Research on "the state and industry in Europe" will soon be enhanced with new chapters. I1 Mulino Publishers have just finished printing a study we did; it was coordinated by Professor Cesarini of Catholic [University] on the recapitalization of the banks, - an extremely timely topic. Senator Romei and others submitted a bill of ours on investmQnts funds for workers. As you can see, we are still in existence. We no longer have that continuing presence we had once upon a time but we are conducting vast studies and we take action when necessary. [Question] But you have not produced any echo in narliament. The group as such broke up after you and the ~thers abandoned active politics. [Answer] By way of compensation we gained a minister of the treasury. And I assure you that Andreatta can do more from his current job than we can do together. [Question] You say that the DC has developed in the sense you want it. But where do you see that development? The new levfes are integralist, the establishment remains tied to the welfare concept and to the logic of the pressure groups. There is very little "liberal" here. . [Answer] The DC has many spirits and it would be unrealistic to think that a single one could be made to prevail over all the others. As for the rest, just look around. Are the "liberal" parties of the West, from the American Democrats to the German J.9 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540040013-8 SPD, so different? They too have coexisti,ng hut conflicting tendencies and inter- ~~sts. They are also up to their necks ~n the welfare state and they have made it their standard. ~ � [Question] Apart.from the treasury ministry, what else has AREL accomplished in these past years? What battles have yau won? [Answer] I would say that our biggest victory was the way in whi~h thP ~GAM [Agency zor the Management of Mineral and Metallurgical Concerns] case ended. Francesco Merloni, in the Chamber, and I, in tfie Senate, managed to get a resolution passed which heavily penalized banks that had exposed themselves too much in dealing with the dissolved government agency. From then on, the EGAM effect changed tiie at- tidues of the credit institutes and has made them much more cautious. Then we had [resolution] b75, the law on industrial conversion. [QuestionJ This is a tough law, the result of a compromise between you and the . co~nunists. [Answer] That is true but the balance of power that phase did not permit a better -result. But we at the AREL nevertheless did manage to get something out of all this; for example, the introduction of standards which make the grant of public financing dependent upon a situation where tfie differences as compared to tfie ini- tial budget would not be excessive. This has put an end to the bad habit of sub- mitting bogus projects and bills to get government funds. The criterion--which has now been introduced for participations to the effect that they must now make re- ference to the gross operating margin rather than to the profit-loss ration to get an increase in fimd allocations--was not invented by Minister De Michelis but rather by us at tfie AREL. PRT's CEEP Milan IL SOLE-24 OTcE in Italian 5 Feb 82 p 3 (Article by Riccardo Chiaberge: "The Engineers of the Ivy"] [Text] La Malfa: "'1'Y1e Western demQCracies cannot afford a t~uo- digit unemployment rate." Rome_.~eep down, the Republicans feel that they are engineers, to some extent. Although not all of them ar.e graduaCes of t:ie Polytechnical School and although not all of them run around with the slide rule in their gockets and althougfi their leader and c.urrent board president is a historian, all of the men of the Ivy more or less _ are engineering-minded; they look down upon abstract theorizing, they pursue prag- matism, the cult of efficiency, and careful as well as sometimes everi pedantic atten- tion to technical problems. It is therefore quite natural that thz study centers, directly or indirectly linked _ to the PRI [Italian Republican Party) should adopt this mentality. Let us take the CEEP, the Econamic Policy Studies Center created by Giorgio La Malfa; during 8 years of operatior. (its birthday goes back to December 1973), it fias not come out with any high theology, no major program for social transformation. No "New Deal," 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407142/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL ~JSE ONLY no review or reorganization, na third way. On the other hand however it has turned out stacks of documents and research projects on petroleum, on nonferrous metals, on the chemical industry, on t:~e GEPI [Industrial Participations and Management Company], ~~n.inflation, and on urban development. Today, the CEEP seciatary is an ENEL [National Electric Power Agency] engineer by the namz of Pasquale Pappacoda, a man whose eyes shine happily when he talks about nuclear energy. Engineer Pappacoda is also Minister La Malfa's private secretary and has almost become his shaciow, especially now that Spadolini has thrown him the hot potato of the Piedmont case and he therefore must continually shuttle back and forth between Rome and Turin. ~ ' This superposition of roles arouses the suspicion that the CEEP has become a kind _ of branch of the Tiinistry of the Budget which has lost all scientific and cultural autonomy. But La Pialf a assures us that ~his is not so. "~ver since I took over there," he - says, "the autonomy of the CE~P has grown; it did not I have sort of stepped into the background because as president I had become a little bit burdensome. ~ But the center has not failed to Function properly. In.1981 alone, it organized at least three conferences on planning with reporters such as Francesco Forte, Onorato Castellino, and Bruno Trentin." If there is one thing which La Malfa is particularly concerned with it is the in- dependence of "hi.s" center from the party. "This is not just another one of the agencies of the PRI," he says. The CEEP sprang up and grew as a point of reference for a very broad political-cultural area. This is proved by the fact that the technical-scientific commi.ttee includes personalities such as Marcello de Cecco and Felice Ippolito who certainly are not Republicans. If it has been and still is a transmission belt with the party, it has if anything revolved in the o.pposite direction; it is not the PRI which orders the research projects from the CEEP, in keeping with its ~wn objectives, but instead the CEEP develops certain topics in depth, elaborates certain ideas which the party can take j into account in its pol.itical actian, if it can." As a mattPr oF fact, the issues which for many years tiave been the main concerns o� young La Tialfa (the EGAM case, the GEPI, the energy plan, public Finance) were forged in tl~e furnace of the CEEP. The main idea behind the medium-range plan (control of public deficit, soft recovery from inflat~on) came out of the brain trust which ~ ~ every year, until 1979, worked on the CEEP report dealing with the Italian economy: Paolo Savona, now planning secretary, rfarcello de Cecco, Bruno Trezza, Giuseppe 13asevi, and that riichele rratianni who then flew across the Atlantic to enter the Gotha of Reagan's consultants. But to understand what the CEEP meant during the political and economic debate of these years, we must go back to the beginnings, to 1974-1975, when the center took its first steps. _ - This was the moment of the great change: austPriCy, no driving on Sundays had abrupt- ly brought the energy program to the fore again; inflation had crossed the magic 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440013-8 two-ciigit. line; the center-left no longer looked like a formula for putting together nn adruinistration capahle of handling the emergency. The red boards and Berlinguer's historical compramise ~ame up on tlie political horizon.� In that climate, the quiet little room at 17 San Francesco da Poalo Street in Turin, where the CEEP h~Id its debates, soon became a~mandatory meeting point for all lay and demociatic culture. During those evenings, the eggheads of the new com- munist ~ourse--Napoleone Colajann~, Luciano Barca, Claudio Napoleoni, and Eugenio Peggio--came to confront Republican, Socialist, and Christian Democratic politicians and economists (from Forte to Armani, from Pxodi to Ruffolo), with public managers and private business operators; they discussed, they just about came to blows but they gradually found a common language, a more realistic and less factious approach to the country's specific problems. Then, along with the advazcement of its founder, the CEEP gradually broadened its - ]ZOrizons and its ambitions. Big conferences on foreign trade, on thQ South, on industrial policy, on the labor market, on inflation, with ever more famous names, - both Italian and foreign, sometimes out of too much snobbism, and finally the topic oE the dehate in English ("Papers on the Italian Economy," "Workshop of Oil Pros- pects Today"). The office in Turin was joined by another one in Rome, on Tritone Street, and recent- - ly another office in Verona. The biweekly CEEP-NOTIZIE, always full of facts on the Italian and international economy, has become a valuable instrument for the staff members. In a pertinent series, editor Angeli published 25 volumes containing the results of as many resParch projects conducted by the CEEP (on topics from the GF,PI and the state participations to problems of energy and monetary policy). And now? What are the engineers of La Malfa working on for 1982? The first gather- ing will be a big confereace on planning and on the government budget; this will ~ be followed by another two on more specific topics such as air transportation (it will probably be held in Turin where the minister has his voter &ase and where the bitter debate is still raging on the new Caselle runway) as well as health spending in Italy. But the main point involT~es a research project on new professional figures connected with technological ctevelopment and this is being worked on by Luisa Calogero La ~ Malfa, Giorgio's sister, and Professor Bruno Contini, of the University of Turin. The choice of the topic is not an accident because the problem of employment some time ago became the main thread of the speeches by the minister of the budget: "The process of deindustrialization is radically anc3 very rap3dly changing the panoratna of the Western economies;'says La Malfa. "This is a phenomenon which has extremely _ serious repercussions on employment. We must absolutely find a way to cope with this. While 40 or SO years ago, the social systems were able to tolerate conditions of col.lective malaise without causing any insurrectional stirrings, this is no longer true today; the margins of tolerance are considerably narrower. Under the conditions 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y of the Western democracies, a two-digit unem~loyment rate of 10 percent is something ~ae cannot allow. In Italy we therefore are dangerously close to..." COPYRIGHT: 1981 Editrice I1 Sole-24 Ore s.r.l. 5058 ~ CSO: 3104/115 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504040013-8 POLITICAL SPAIN POLL SHOWS POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD ENTRY Ti~TO EC Aiadrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish 25 Jan 82 pp 32-33 [Article by Jose Manuel Arija] - [Text] Inhabitants of the Old Continent are looking at the future seriously, but undramatically. Europeans are slightly more optimistic than last year about pros- pects for 1982, In spite of the events in Poland, they believe that the danger of another world war has decreased considerably. In 1980, 34 percent of the Europeans polled considered war likely; at the end of 1981 the percentage of pessimists had decreased to 24 percent. Every year the European Economic Community (EEC), a barometer of questions ~d percentages, measures public opinion in its respective countries concerning the most pressing problems. Now, for th e f irst time, it has included the two new - candidates for entry into the Co~on Market: Spain and,Portugal. The interested in sounding out the attitude of the Spanish and Por- tuguese people toward their upcoming'entry. And the first conclusion to be draw-n from the results of the survey proved that the Spanish view entry into the Coa~mon Market more favorably than the Portuguese and, particularly, zhat we are much more interested in the European Economic Community than our neighbors. Only 24 percent of the Spanish people responded "don't know, no answer," while 62 percent o� the Portuguese people did not respond. Sixty-one percent of the Spaniards expressed interest in questions of the European Community, and 52 percent believe that our joining it is "a good thing," while 6 percent feel it is '"a bad thing." And why do they think it is right to join the community? The pollsters showed the interviewees a card with 10 questions written on it, so that they might express - their~opinions about the pasitive or negative effects of joining. It was thought thus to measure the advantages and disadvantages as seen by the citizens of this country. ; The most positive replies were for exports (51 percent), agriculture'(50 percent) and products which are available in the stores (48 percent). But the Spanish people also emphasized another point: entry into the European Community will have positive effects on the functioning of our democracy. Forty-six percent believed this, while only 6 percent, the lowest figure of all the replies, did not. 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL USk: ONI.Y The least unanimity was registered concerning the question of our entry as a posi- tive advantage for reducing the risk of war. Only 27 percent believe it is, while 19 percent see negative effects. On this point the interviewees must have �elt that this business of everybody being in the same European boat also has its disadvantages. They are the same fears which are always caused by our coming out of isolation. Similar Concerns Perhaps for that reason, Spain is one of the countries which reveals.more fear of the possibility of another woY:1d war. Thirty percent believe such a conflagra- � tion is possible within the next 10 years. Only the Belgians and Germans (both with 32 percent) surpass us in pessi.mism. And it is just as well that this per- centage be pessimistic rather than unprudent. In general, Spanish concerns are very much in tone with those of other European countries. Only the Greeks display an optimism bordering on euphoria. The new socialist government must have given the~n a big dose of confidence. At the other extreme, the Belgians see the blackest picture for the next few months, wliich agrees with another recent survey spublished by this magazine. (See CANIBIO 16, number 527). Among the larger European countries--Italy, Germany, France and the United Kingdom-- - France is the most opti.mistic with regard to our domestic problems. Our neighbor to the north sees fewer indications of i.ncreased unemployment and of social con- fl�icts. On the other hand, the Italians are fearful about the future. The survey reveals that increased Lnemployment is the chief fear of all the countries: 64 percent of the European Community interviewees are sure that unem- ployment will increase even more. - After studying in detail the favorable response of the Span:ish people to the community, European experts made the following commentary: "The conanunity appears to the Spanish people as a means of safeguarding democracy, of developing the _ country economically and of ensuring Spain's greater participation in world ~ affairs." However, in the rest of the European countries, attitudes toward the community advantages are very different. In the United Kingdom those opposed to the Common Market are in the majority; the Germans emphasized that thanks to the Common Market, the European consumer has more products to choose from. The rrench, who never forget their "grandeur," see the community as an organization which enlarges the role their country can play in the world. The Greeks, re~pond much like the Spanish, mixing economic benef its, agriculture and democracy. Nearly 10,000 persons were interviewed at their homes to obtain reliable results in the survey, which was carried out by national institutes associated with the "European Omnibus Survey." 25 F'OR OFFIClAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440013-8 ~ TABLES - 1. Interest in Problems of the European Community Spain Poztugal All Co~mon Market Countries (percent) Much 31 13 22 . A little ~ 30 19 53 None 20 14 22 No answer 19 54 3 2. In favor of or Against Unif ication of Western ~ Europe ~ Spain Portugal All Co~on Market Countries (percent) Very much in 36 20 31 ~ favor Somewhat in 23 9 43 favor . Very much 4 ~ 2 4 a.gainst Somewhat 5 2 g , against . No Answer 32 67 13 ' 3. . Spain's Entry into European Community Spain Portugal � (.percent ) ~ Good 52 ~ 19 Neigher good 18 13 nor bad 26 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R400504040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Bad 6 6 No answer 24 62 ~ 4. European's Concerns for 1982 (.percent) ~ ~ a, a m o a~ ~ ~r ~ ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ri a~i W ~ ~ ~-1 cd N k r-I a4 N r-I R1 a~ v ~ o s+ o o a ca c~ w a x ~ c~ ~ d c~ . ~ ~n 1982 will not be 62 49 28 32 .53 51 41 44 6 38 39 as good Number of unem- 79 70 69 46 64 62 86 69 15 64 70 ployed will in- ~ crease There will be more 61 53 43 37 52 29 SS 42 10 44 46 strikes and social conflicts 1982 will be a 68 66 49 52 64 59 65 58 18 56 58 year of economic ~ dif f iculties A year marked by 61 48 54 50 46 61 57 SO 24 50 47 many international ~ wars World war probable 32 18 32 25 28 27 20 21 8 24 30 within next 10 years Note: Does not include Denmark, a European Community country where no survey was taken. 27 , _ FOR OFF[C(AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500440013-8 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Spain's Entry into the European Coimni,nity Positive Negative No Effects Effects Answer (percent) To diminish the threat of war 27 19 54 To have a choice of products 48 7 45 in shops and stores For Spain's future role in 43 8 49 the world To be better able to confront 43 6 51 the world economic crisis For a better energy supply 40 9 51 For the better functioning 46 6 48 of democracy in our country For our exports 51 11 ~ 38 - For better prices of pro- 41 11 48 ducts in shops and stores For our agr~culture 50 13 37 For the labor market and em- 45 10 45 ployment Average 43 10 k7 COPYRIGHT: 1982, Informacion y Revistas, S.A. 8735 CSO: 3110/73 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MII,ITARY FRANCE DEFENSE BUDGET APPROVED, 7~ sivLE To ~P~t I1J ~994 Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 12 Dec 81 p 12 ~ext' At the close of its second session of 4 December 1981, the Senate unani~nously approved the proposed 1982 defense budget. We summarize below the es~ential portions of the defense minister~s preliminary state~ent: Program authorizations planned for the FOST ~trategic Oceanic Nuclear Force7 - come to Fr 3.6 billion, a 30 percent increase over 1981. The increase re- flects ongoing construction of the 6th SNLE juclear missile launching sub- marin~ L'INFLEXIBLE, which will become operational in 1985 equipped with the new multiple warhead M4 missile. FOST is also to prepare for refitting of SNLE~s~to receive new M4 ma.ssiles starting in 1987; The SNLE to be commissioned in 1994, the 7th in the series, will be a new generation vessel equipped with an aptimized weapons system. Fr 10C ~riillion in program authorizations are planned for this purpose in the 1982 budget; For the initial phase of the new strategic weapons system program consist- ing of mobile ~round to ground ballistic missiles of the SX type~ rr 170 � million is included in the budget. This system will succeed the Mirage IV equipped with medium range air to ground missiles; Fr 50 million in program authorizations will be devoted in 1982 to the first ~tudies to be carried out on Hades, the successor to Pluto. Thanks to its i.ncr�eased ran~e, this missile will offer greater flexibility in employment ciecisions; Ttie communications net linkin~ the various components oF the FNS ~trategic Nuclear F'orc~ will be hardened to cope with what specialists call electro- magnetic impulsion arising from explosions of nuclear weapons; The Air Force will order 25 Mirage 2000 in 1982, and in 1983 at least 30 orders for that aircraft will be budgeted; Tactical nuclear weapons programs have reached maturity. The five regiments equipped with Pluto are operational. "I would be lying, however," the min- 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500440013-8 i::tcz� pointed cut, '~if I denied that a number of problems present themselves, in connection with the tactical weapons program, which are linked to politi- cal choices. We must study very closeiy the theory of the forward battle-- f~~rward of the Rhine, that is, on the soil c~f t}ie Federal i?ep~iblic of Ger- many--before committing ourselves politically." The two aircraft carriers are now equipped to receive the ANT ~xpansion unknown~; Purchase of the~Mirage 40Q0 is not now contemplated by the Air Force. If foreign markets opened for this aircraft, "I do not exclude the possibility that the government might study, with possible buyers, ways in which a Mi- rage 4000 prograrr! might be successfully carried out, providing everyone pays his share and France alone does not bear all expenses." In the discussion, M Yvon Bourges emphasized that "the 7th SNLE would be the successor arid replacement for the REUOUTABLE, but tha.t the impression should r~ot be given that FOST will have a seventh submarine." He obtained no ans- wer to his question as to adherence to or rejection of the policy decision made in September 1930 to provide a successor to each of the two aircraft carriers FOCH and CLEMENCEAU. M Albert Voilquin insisted on the principle that the neutron bomb "must be - perfected and built." COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1980 6145 cso: 3~oc/233 . 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 GENERAL INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS FRENCH, BRITISH REVIEW POSSIBLE FUTURE SPACE COOPERATION Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 24 Oct 81 p 41 [Pierre Langereux: "New Prospects of French-British Space Cooperation"] [Text] The strengthening of French-British space cooperation was on the agenda of an important meeting of high officials from the two countries held this ~ Paris. . ' In particular, France wants Great Britain to participate in the development of the new Ariane 4 launcher, whose construction the government of Francois Mitterrand has just launched. Great Britain is in fact already involved in the program to develop the current Ariane 1 launcher, thrAUgh a b~lateral agreement with France. But above all, France hopes to interest its British partner in participation in preliminarq development of the new technologies needed for the future heavy European launcher, Ariane 5 (or the equivalent). ~ For its part, Great Britain is interested in improving the Telecom 1 telecommunica- tions satellite platform in order to make it more competitive on the international market, as well as access to.information from the French tele~etection satellite known as Spot. France is also willing to negotiate British industry's participation in the building of future French teledetection satellites based on the Spot 3.~ Another meeting of high French and British officials is to take place soon on prospects of cooperating on Telecom 1 and Spot. The French and British positions disagree, however, on the European experimental ~atellite telecommunications project and on the L-SAT direct television, This satellite would in fact use a heavy platform competing with the one now being developed through French-German cooperation by the Eurosatellite group for ths future French (TDF 1) and German (TV-SAT) direct television satellites. France, _ which is not involved in the L-SAT project (nor is Gennan~), hopes to be able to reconcile French and British interests, while avoiding a futile and costly dupli- _ cation of developments with respect to the European heavy platform. For example, France proposes to review the L-SAT pro~ect with a view to planning for the plat- form for the future Ariane 4 launcher. _ French-British negotiations will continue in the hope of reaching an agreement by the end of the year, an agreement ratified by a meeting of ministers from both countries. - COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 31 11,464 ~ CSO: 3100/301 FpR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8 GENERAI~ FRANCE GAMHtA RADIATION PROJECT WITH SOVIETS TO BEGIN IN 1984 Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 14 Nov 81 p 47 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "French-Soviet 'Gamma 1' Experiment"] [Text] The French-Soviet "Gamma 1" experiment, designed to study gamma rays, will be launched at the beginning of 1984, 4 years behind schedule (see AIR ET COSMOS, No 894). The Gamma 1 machine, ~ahich weighs about 1.5 tons, will be the main experi- ment of the future big Soviet gamma astronomy satellite that will follow a circular orbit at an altitude of 350 kilometers, with an expected life span of 1 year. This experiment was conducted with the participation of six French and Soviet laborator- ies: the Moscow Space Research Institute, the Moscow Physicists Training Institute, the PN Lebedev Physics Institute in Moscow, the AF Ioffe Physical-Technical Insti- tute in Leningrad, the AEC Physical Electronics Department at Saclay and the Space Radiation Study Center in Toulouse. The Gamma 1 experiment� will serve to observe high-energy gamma photons at s~veral dozen MeV, of galactic and extragalactic origin, explatins J.-P. Leray, of the Saclay ~hysical Electronics Department, in the latest CNRS [National Center for Scientific Research] information bulletin. The gamma photons detected are visualized in broad-gap spark chambera, making better measurement of the direction of arrival of the gam~na photon possible. The paths, observed in spark chambers, are recorded by two Vidicon cameras. The images ob- - tained are digitalized, then transmitted to the ground by the satellite's telemetry. An analysis of these images and of data from the satellites themselves (altitude, datir.g, and so on) will make it possible to learn the direction of arrival of the photon with a precision of 2� and its time of arrival with a precision of 1 ms. Thanks to the addition of a passive lens over t:ie spark chambers, it will be possible to locate the sources detected with a precision of .1�. Gamma 1 will mark important progress in gamr:_ astron~y, particularly for the iden- tification of detected sources. ~To date, some 30 sources have been observed;-(nearly all by the COS-B satellite), but only three or four have been clearly identified, the others not yet possible because af the low precision of localization (about 1�). And yet, all knowledge of the evolution of the stars, and therefore of the universe, can only be based on a study of all observations in all wave length domains. It is therefore fundamental for observed sources to be identified that is, associated ' with objects studied and known elsewhere (R-ray, radio, optics). We may then better 'determine the ways in which stars emit radiation and consequently, the birth and ~volution of these still mysterious ob~ects that form the universe. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 E~ . 32 11,464 CSO: 3100/301 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040013-8