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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044415-6 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 10369 4 March 19~2 l~SSR Re ort p EARTl~ SC`ENVES CFOUO 1 /82~ FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, per iodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other character istics retained. Headlines, ed itorial reports, and material enclosed in bracke ts are supplie d by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text) _ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the _ last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is giyen, the infor- mation was summ.arized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but h ave been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattribu ted parenthetical notes within ~he body of an item originate with the source. Times within i'tems are as given by source . The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGfiT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIAL S REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLI~ATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 JPRS L/10369 4 March 1982 USSR REPORT EARTH SCIENCES ~ (FOUO 1/82) CONTENTS METEOROZOGY Cloud Physics and Artificial Modification of Clouds 1 Collection of Articles on Heliogeophysical Factors in Weather and Climate ..................a............................... 3 OCEANOGRAPHY , Oceanographic Investigations in Northwestern Inciian Ocean During Spring-SwTaner 1980 9 Use of Dynamic-Stochastic Model in Processing Hydrophysical Measurements in Indian Ocean 20 Noncontact Methods for Measuring Oceanographic Param~ters....... 29 Spectral Analysis of Random Oceanological F`ields 33 Monograph on Interfsce for Programmable Instruments in ~yrstems for Automating Experiments 35 Monograph on Bottom Geology and Geophysics in Eastern Part of Indian Ocean 1~0 Sound Absorption in Turbulent Medium 43 Statistical Chaxacteristics of Natural Electromagnetic F`l.e ~d in Seas and Ocean s !~8 Sea Measurements of Constant Electric Fiel d Using I}ifference Appaxatus 55 Investigation of Contact-Ty~;r; Primary Devices for Measuring Elec tric Field in Sea 59 - a- [III - USSR - 21K S&T FOUO] - . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 F'OR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY TERRESTRIAL G~OPHYSICS Articles on Theory and Methods of Interpretation of Gravimagnetic ~elds 66 Articles on Regionalization~of Geophysical ~elds and Deep Structure in Far East 80 ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC RFSEARCH Recent Arctic Polax Basin Research 85 25 Years of Work of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition 90 - b - ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040015-6 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY METEOROI~OGY ~UDC 551.509.616/617+519.2 CLOUD PHYSICS AND ARTIFICIAL MODIFICATION ~F CLOUDS Moscow TRUDY ORDENA TRUDOVOGO KRASNOGO ZNAMENI INSTITUTA PRIKLADNOY GEOFIZIKI: FIZIKA OBLAKOV I AK~IVNYKH VOZDEYSTVIY in Russian No 46, 1981 (signed to press 26 Aug 81) pp 2, 121 [Annotation and table of contents from collection of articles "Cloud Physics and Artificial Modification of Clouds", edited by N. I. Vul~fson, doctor of physical and mathe~atical sciences, and 0. I. Shipilov, candidate of physica,l and mathemat- ical sciences, Moskovskoye otdeleniye Gidrometeoizdata, 390 copies, 121 pages] . , [Text] Annotation. This collection of articles is devoted to a number of problems related to preparations for and implementation of an experiment for artif:Lcial augmentation of precipitation in the basin of Lake Sevan. The articles 'in the col- lection deal with the problems inyolved in technical support of the experiment, meteorolo~ical conditions for carrying out experimente, the seeking of new methods for the mo3ification of clouds, etc. For the first time in the USSR the collection of articles contains a number of studies on the methods for statistical evalua- tion of the effect of modification. The collection is intended for, specialists in the f ield of cloud physics and artificial modif~cation and for specialists in the field of m~.!:hematical statistics and also for all those who are interested in the problem of artificial modification of weather. Contents Foreword by Editors 3 Vul'fson, N. I. "Formulation of an Experiment for Increasing Precipitation ' in the Lake Sevan Rasin" 4 Voronov, G. S., Galiulan, B. A.. Gorodinchev, V. N., Kopchenov, V. M. and Petrov, V. [deceased] "Remote Cor.trol Sy~tems for Surface Aerosol Gen- erators" ~ ~ 25 Spiridonova, Yu. V. "Characteristics of Aerosynoptic Conditions of the Lake Sevan Basin" 37 Vul'fson, N. I. and Levin., L: M. "Investigation of Propagation of a Meteotron Jet in a Cloud Medium Applicable to Artificial ModificaCion" 50 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Bulinskiy, A. V. and Kolmogo:ov, A. N. "Evaluation of Effectiveness of Cloud Modification" 69 Buli~tskiy, A. V. and Kolmogorov,~A. N. "Sample Evaluations ~f Sums of Random Values" 73 Vorob'yev, L. S. and Zhurbenko, I. G. "Evaluation of Effectiveness of the Asymp- totic Optimum C(ol.) Test for Experiments for Augmenting Precipitation" 78 Belyayev, Yu. K. "Ascertaining a Strategy for Using Modification With a Maxi- mum Increase in the Total Quantity of Precipitation" 91 Ostromogil'skaya, I. Ye., Fedorov, V. V, and Shipilov, 0. I. "Paired Random- ization in Experiments for Augmenting Precipitation" 96 Zhilinskaya, Ye. I. and Kuznetsova, I. A. "Writing and Analysis of Linear Re- gression Models With Use of Diurnal~Quantities of Precipitation as Predic- tors" 108 Bernshteyn, A. V. "Use of One Three-Parameter Distribution Family for Process- ing the Results of Randomized Experiments" 115 COPYRIGHT: Institut prikladnoy geofiziki, 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/87 2 FOIt OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � UDC 551.590 CQ'_i,ECTION OF ARTICLES ON HELIOGEOPHYSICAL FACTORS IN WEATHER AND CLIMATE Leningrad TRUDY ORDENA TRUDOVOGO KRASNOGO ZNAMENI GLAVNOY GEOFIZICHESKOY OBSERVA- ' TORII IM. A. I. VOYEYI:OVA: GELIOGEOFIZICHESKIYE FAKTORY POGODY I KLIMATA in Russian No 443, 1981 (signed to press 11 May 81) pp 129-135 [Abstracts of articles from "Transactions of the Order of the Red Banner of Labor Main Geophysical Observator~ imeni A. I. Voyeykov: Heliogeophysical Factors of tdeather azd Climate), edited by L. R. Rakipova, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, and N. I. Yakovleva, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Gidrometeoizdat, 680 copies, 135 pages] [Text] Abstracts UDC 551.590 REFINED P:iYSIC!?STATISTICAL SCHEME FOR SUPERLONG-RANGE FORECASTING OF MEAN MONTHLY AIR TEi~tP~RATURE ANOMALIES FOR THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE . [Abstract of article by Borisenkov, Ye. P. and Borisova, L. Ye.] [Text] A study was made of the possibility of superlong-range forecasting of the tem- perature background for the northern hemisphere by the physicostatistical method. The paper gives the results of an evaluation of forecasts of the temperature anom- aly for regions of the northern hemisphere prepared using a refined schetne. As a re- sult of the improvement in the method it was possible to increase the probable suc- cess of the forecasts. Figures 1, tables 1, referencQS 14. ~ UD(: 551. 590. 2 RELATIONSHIP OF HELIOP.HYSICAL AND CIRCULATION FACTORS IN DROUG1iT~FORt'f?iTION [Abstract of article by Pokrovskaya, T. V. and Yefremova, N. I.] [Text] Data are given on the probability of droughts in the European USSR, in north- ern Kazakhstan and in sautheastern Western Siberia in dependence on the phase of the 11-year cycle of the index of geomagnetic disturban~e K as an indicator of solar corpuscular radiation and in dependence on the sign of ~he de~iation of the G. Ya. Vangengeym indices of atmospheric, circulation from the norm, as well as the corres- ponding L. A. Vitel's indices. The conclusion is drawn that the probability of droughts is not less closely associated with solar activity than atmospheric . 3 FOR OFFICIAL U3E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLV circulation. A catalogue of the yields of spring wheat in northern Kazakhstan for 1880-1977 is given. Tables 3, references 17. UDC 551.590:630.551 INFLUENCE OF THE SPRING GEOMAGNETIC INDEX KP ON YIELD VARIATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS [Abstract of article by Rakipova, L. R., Yakovleva, N. I. and Andreyeva, L. K.) [Text] Correlations between the geomagnetic index ICP in spring and yield variations of spring wheat were obtained for the territory of the USSR. These correlations confirm the similar correlations derived earlier for the territory of Europe and Canada. Figures 1, tables 1, references 5. iJDC 551. S15 ~ CATALOGUES OF DROUGHTS FOR THE EUROPEAN USSR AND G~OMAGNETIC DISTURBANCE [Abstract of arti~le by Girskaya, E. I., Sazonov, B. I. and U1'yanova, T. N.] [Text] Seven catalogues of droughts for the European USSR are compared. These cata- logues are used in checking the hypothesis of T. V. Pokrovskaya concerning the pre- - dominance of droughts on the ascending branch of geomagnetic activity KP. Tables 2, references 15. UDC 551.509+551.524 CORRELATION OF SEVERE WINTERS AND SOLAR ACTIVITY [Abstract of article by Yefanova, A. V.] [Text] A study was made of severe winters on the continen~s of the northern hemi- sphere in the 1.1-year solar activity cycle. It is shown that they are most probable near the Wolf number maximum. The annual variation of geomagnetic disturbance prior to severe winters as a rule is greater than the mean long-term level of the KP in- dex. Figures 1, tables 5, references 9. UDC 551.536 ENERGETIC ATMOSPHERIC MANIFESTATIONS DURING 11-YEAR GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCE CYCLE [Abstract of article by Vorob'yev, Ye. V. and Priyemov, V. N.] [Text] Data for 1891-1972 were used in a spatial and temporal analysis of a comput- ational characteristic of the atmosphere te~perature at the mean energy level - Tmean as a function of the phase of geomagnetic disturhance ICP. This temperature characterizes the mean temperature of a column of the atmosphere and is one of the principal parameters determining the potential and kinetic energy of the atmosphere. 4 FOR OFFICIA~, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY The changes in Tmean from phase to phase of Kp attain and even exceed 1�C. The authors discuss the spatial and seasonal characteristics of the Tmean distribu- tion. The most significant changes occur in the northern latitudes with a localiz- ation of centers in the northern part of North America, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic: Ocean. The revealed patterns have practical use in a diagnosis of the thermal state of the atmosphere. Figures 2, tables 4, references 8. UDC 551.590 POSSIBILITY OF U5E OF L. A. VITEL'S CFi~RACTERISTICS FOR STOCHASTIC FORECASTS OF DROUGHTS IN WESTERN SIBERIA [Abstract.of article by Dmitriyeva, S. V.] [Text] A study was made of the possibility of using the L. A. Vitel's barocircula- tion characteristics for a stochastic forecast of droughts. A preliminary scheme for the forecasting of droughts is developed. Figures 2, tables 2, references 7. - UDC 551.515.7 MACROSYNOPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPMENT AND rIOVEMENT OF ANTICYCLONES DURING DROUGHT PERIODS OF 1963, 1972 AND 1975 [Abstract of article by Serdyuk, V. N. and Kotlyar,.I. V.] [Text] The general characteristics of macrosynoptic processes, development and move- ment of anticyclones characteristic for all the considered months with drought a~e revealed. It is shown that during drought periods there was a predominance of mov- ing anticy.clones forming in the high-altitude frontal xone over northern Europe. The regions of droughts were situated primarily under the influence of the peri- pheral parts of anticyclones. There is a conjugate character of the processes de- veloping in the space of the Atlantic-American and European sectors of the hemi- sphere. Figures 2, references 14. UDC 551.590 PREDICTION OF EXTREMAL WEATHER PHENOMENA [Abstract of article by Sazonov, B. I.] jText] In the example of droughts in the European USSR a study was made of inethods for inves.tigating extremal weather phenomena. The author notes the peculiarities of manifestation of extremal weather phenomena. The rhythm and periodicity of their manifestation are noted. Recommendations are given on methods for a superlong-range fcrecasting of weather phenomena, together with some considerations on possible physical factors favoring their appearance. Figures 1, tables 5, references 7. 5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.51+551.509 POSSIBILITY OF USING THE G. YA. VANGENGEYM CLASSIFICATION IN LONG-RANGE FORECASTING OF SUN4~R PRECIPITATION IN CHINESE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC [Abstract of article by Kim Mun Yuk] [TextJ The predictors of summer arid seasons for different forms of circulation of types W, E and C are determined with the use of discriminant analysis with an ad- vance time from several months to 10 years. Figures 2, tables 5, references 4. UDC 551.590 METHOD FOR PREDICTING MEAN MONTHLY QUANTITY OF PRECIPITATION OVER EUROPEAN USSR DURING WARi~i S~ASON [Abstract by Getmanova, G. F.] [Text] A method is presented for predicting the mean monthly quantity of precipita- tion over the European USSR during the warm season of the year for a period of three months in advance. As predictors use was made of: 1) forecasts of the anomaly of mean monthly air pressure and temperature in the northern hemisphere obtained us- ing the coefficients of expansion of ineteorological fields into double Fourier ser- ies; 2) water temperature gradients in the North Atlantic, computed using data from weather ships; 3) precipitation (mm), read at the points of intersection of a standard grid of points over the territory of the USSR. The evaluation of forecasts on the basis of both dependent and independent material was positive. This approach to solution of the problem of forecasting of the quantity of precipitation can be useful for solving other practical and scientific research problems. Tables 3, ref- erences 5. ~ ~ UDC 551.521:551.524 ROLE OF NITROGEN OXIDES IN FORMATION OF OZONOSPHERE [Abstract of article by Rakipova, L. R. and Trubnikov, B. N.] [Abstract] This is a review of modern concepts concerning the catalytic influence of nitrogen oxides on the processes of ozone formation under the influence of solar ultraviolet and corpuscular radiation. The article gives the principal chemical re- actions and systems of equations of hydrothermodynamics taking this factor into ac- count. References 10. 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.513 INVESTIGATING TRCPOSPHERE-STRATOSPHERE INTERACTION idITH ALLOWANCE FOR OZONE HEATING FUNCTION [Abstract of article by Rakipova, L. R., Trubnikov, B. N. and Shcherba, I. A.] [Text] The authors investigated the influence of variations of ozone heat influxes caused by a change in ozone content with different solar activity levels on the _ vertical propagation of znacroscale disturbances. Expressions are derived for the indices of refraction and absorption of macroscale waves, taking into account the ozone heating function. An evaluation of the influence of solar activity on the logarithmic decrement of attenu~,tion of macroscale waves in the atmosphere is presented. Figures 2, tables 1, references 9. UDC 551.521:551.524 EVALUATION OF DYNAtiIC AND THERZiAL EFFECTS OF ~OZONE-TEMPERATURE' FEEDBACK [Abstrac't of article by Rakipova, L. R.] [Text] The article gives quantitative evaluations of the influence of the negative feedback between temperature and the ozone content in the upper stratogphere on temperature and the wind velor_ity components. The importance of this correlation for the hydrothermodynamic regime of the ozonosphere is demonstrated. Such evalua- tions were obtained for the first time. Tables 1, references 6. UllC 551.513 INFLUENCE OF WINTER STRATOMESOSPHERIC WARMINGS ON TROPOSPHERIC PROCESSES IN THE MIDDLE LATITUDES [Abstract of article by ~arimov, K. A., Rakipova, L. R. and Gaynutdinova, R. D.] [TextJ In the specif:ic cases of inesospheric warmings in 1978 and 1979 thE authors give an analysis of the propagation of disturbances from the stratosphere to the troposphere. It is shown that stratomesospheric warmings exert an inf.luence on the temperature regime of the troposphere and favor the development of high-altitude tropospheric ridges. Figures 7, references 3. UDC 630:551.5 DEPENDENCES OF GRAIN CROP YIELD VARIATIONS ON TIMES OF SPRING RESTRUCTURINGS OF STRATOSPHERIC CIRCULATION [Abstract of article by Yakovleva, N. I. and Vorob~yeva, N. I.] [Te~t] The spatial distr~b~ition of the correlation coefficients between the dates of 5pring restructurings of stratospheric circulation and variations in the yield 7 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY of spring wheat in deviations from the theoretical curve for the territory of the USSR is analyzed. A positive correlation over the territory of the European USSR was found, whereas a negative correlation was observed over northern TCazakhstan. Figures 1, references 16. ~ UDC 551.590.2 CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIPS OF MEAN JANUARY METEOROLOGICAL FIELDS IN TROPOSPHERE AND STRATOSPHERE IN HIGH LATITUDES ~JITHIN 11-YEI~R SOLAR CYf:LE [Abstract of article b~ Rakipova, L. R., Kidiyarava, V. G. and Shcherba, I. A.] [Text) A study was made of the year-to-year changes in the correlation coefficients ~ between the mean January distributions of geopotential and temperature at the 500 and 30 mbar surfaces in the high latitudes during the period 1965-1977. It is shown that the correlation coefficients characterizing the interrelationship of the troposphere and stratosphere vary from year to year. Their variability is in phase with the mean January geopotential values at the 30 mbar surface and in anti- ' phase with the variability of the mean zonal wind components in the middle strato- sphere. In years of the solar activity maximum the stratospheric-tropospheric rela- tionships weaken, the mean zonal geopotential increases and the standard deviations of geopotential decrease. Figures 2, tables 1, references 8. - UDC 551.594.1:551.590.21 INELUENCE OF SOLAR FLARES ON ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH IN FREE ATMOSPHERE [Abstract of article by Tsvetkov, A. V.j [Text] The author examines the influence of solar flares on strength of the electric field in the fr~e atmosphere. Taking into account that solar �lares change atmospher- ic conductivity with time, on the basis of solution of the differential equation div(dE + ~p~t) = 0 it is possible to determine the dependence of .the vertical electric field E(z,t) on the nature of conductivity (z,t). References 5. COPYRIGHT: Glavnaya geofizicheskaya observatoriya im. A. I. Voyeykova (GGO), 1981 5303 CSO: 1865{58A _ 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY OCEANOGRAPHY - OCEANOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS IN NORTHWESTERN INDIAN OCEAN DURING SPRING-SU1~R 1980 Sevastopol' KOMPLEKSNYYE OKEANOLOGICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA INDIYSKOGO OKEANA _ in Russian 1981 (signed to press 10 Apr 81) pp 7-18 [Article by Yu. T. Shchetinin, V. K. Kosnyrev, Ye. A. Agafonov and V. A. Urdenko, from mono~raph "Multisided Oceanological Investigations of the Indian Ocean", B. A. Nelepo, academician Ukrainian Academy of, responsible editor, Mor- skoy gidrofizicheskiy institut AN USSR (MGI AN.USSR), 300 copies, 155 pages] jText] Abstra~t: The principal scientific results . obtained on the 22d voyage of the scientific research ~hip "Akademik Vernadskiy" under the CIFRIO program are discussed. The features of distribution of the fields of hydrological, hy- hydrochemical, hydrooptical and hydrobiological ~ characteristics are ana.lyzed. The.nature of the relationship between biological productivity of the upper layer of the ocean and synoptic eddy structures is discussed. ~ ~ During March-June 1980 the Marine Hydrophysical.Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences carried out oceanographic investigations in the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean. The pr~ncipal purpose of these investigations was a determina- tion of the relationships between the characteristics of biological productivity in the ocean and hydrophysical fields at the scales..of synoptic processes. The re- search method ir~volved the implementation of a series of multisided macroscale surveys of the polygon and micropolygons (Fig. 1). Figure 2a shows a map uf the macroscale ~urvey of tlie polygon carried out an the 22d voyage of the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy." At all drift stations there was a complex of hydrological, optical and biological studies, reg- istry of sound-scattering layers, microwave and electrical measurements. At sus- pended hydrological stations (denoted by a symbol) these studies were supplement- ed by the taking of samples for hydrochemical analyses and observations of the resistance of materials to corrosion. At a number of stations work was carried out for studying the characteristics of oceanic turbulence; measurements were made of current velocities; nuclear hydrophysics, hydrobionics and zoology were studied. The first macroscale survey was made from 15 March through 4 April 1980. During this time specialists on the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" occupied 117 drift stations, including 41 hydrological stations with suspended instruments. The 9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 . FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY specialists of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences during this same period carried out investigations of the vertical dis- tribution o.f the hydrological characteristics using tfie ISTOK complex on other ahips of the joint expedition. Measurement data from these ships were transmitted by radio to the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" and subjected to primary processing in the shipboard computation center. After departure from the port of Victoria three automatic buoy stations were set out for studying the dynamics and structure of an eddy formation in the region ot discovery of a synoptic eddy (Fig. 2b) and a survey was made of two micropoly- gons during the period from 14 April through 3 May 1980. The distance between the stations along the meridiaa was 30 miles and along the parallel 20 miles. Dur- ing this period 95 stations were occupied, of which 71 were with suspended instru- ments . ~ _ _ . - ~p� . 60� Bo' � , � . / .5o~c6e;t . . . '.Bombay � , . . ~ . . ` . ' ~ ~ ' Z1~:~~6yT~ . . . . . . ~ Djibnuti.~.',' ~ - t ~ . � - ~ Colombo KonoM6o . - . � ~ le Maio . . _ ,~y ou, - , . p� ' --40 - . .Q BIIKTOpliR ---ill ~ Victoria , 20 . ~ . Fig. 1. Map of track of 22d voyage of scientific research ship "Akademik Vernad- skiy" and location of regions of macroscale surveys: I, II "Akademik Vernad- kiy," III "Chatyr-Dag"; 1, 2-- micropolygons and a, b) meridional profiles. After departure from the port of Singapore there was a second macroscale survey (Fig. 2c) during the period 20 May through 5 June 1980. The distance between sta- tions along the meridian was 40 miles and along the parallel was 30 miles. A total of 50 stations were occupied, of which 14 were hydrological stations with suspend- ed instruments. Upon completion of a layover in the port of Bombay the ship proceeded to the point of setting-out of automatic buoy station 4(Fig. 2c). This stage in the work, af- ter removal of the automatic buoy station, was continued by the implementation of 10 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044015-6 FOR GFFICIAL USE ONLY SB~ QO� 61' 64� 66� 69� ~ ~ i i ~ ~ ~ i i '~363 i ~ - 1354 ~--o---~;--.~ - --e~.~ - T577 ~ 0 a~. . . - ~ -i`_' - ~ ~ _ ;6 Zf66 --{f-+--�-zL,`'-~.~--if - � C~-�-~- - 2601 ~ = -1... ---a = ~y � . 2617 _ r,~ . . _ iSy9 2G9~i~~--.-~-s-~_...___~_~___.~___.~~ _ /2� � � m . . ~ 1649 _ 7666 ~ - - r..--.-~ - 10 � [z a . 57� 5B � 59� 56� SI� 5B� ~~o ~"S:~ i--+-r'sr-~- 3~1686 . e Nt ~ v6f 2757 J ~ u 2750 g � I_~..~. ~ - ~ dN~ ~ , 8 2~oB yly I 1729 ~i ?79S _ ' ~ db ,56 � 60 � 64 � 6B� . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ zeso ~ zezl ~ _ ~ I ~ . 6~ - ~ z~� ~ - 2719 ~-~-�.~-~t7--+ : ~ /9 . 180~ ~ ZBJ1 7830 ~ - 9 Fig. 2. Dia~rams of surveys made by the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy." 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONLY two meridional profiles which urere situated in the region of the first macroscale survey. The profiles were run during the period from 15 June through 22 June 1980 ~~long 67�20' and 65�20`'E between 10 and 17�N. Along the central part of the Red . 5ea during the period from 25 June through 29 June 1980 hydrological and hydroop- tical studies were carried out which were completed with the setting-out of auto- :aatic buoy station 5 (Fig. 1) These investigations made it possible to determine the background characteristics of hydrological, hydrochemical, hydrooptical and hydrobiological fields in the ocean, evaluate the level of the eady energy and biological productivity, inten- sity and kinematics of eddy formations and obtain some statistical characteristics of the eddy field in the polygon. Before proceeding to an exposition of the sci- entific results we will give a brief suwmary of the principal features of the in- vestigated region of the ocean. The Indian Ocean differs from the other oceans in the monsoonal character of the winds bJ_~wing over it. From May through September the southwest monsoon prevails, whereas from November through March it is the northeast monsoon. The reversal of the monsoon usually occurs in April and October during the course of a relatively short period of time. The monsoonal character of atmospheric circulation is closely related to the regime of water circulation, whose restructuring also occurs rela- tively rapidly. It is precisely the six-month cycle of the wind regime which is one of the reasons for the variability of water masses in this region of the ocean. Another distinguishing characteristic is a well-expressed stratification of the waters vertically and also the presence of considerable horizontal gradi- ents of the fields of temperature, salinity and density in each of the individual layers. The enumerated features are manifested in the structure and'dynamics of the water m3sses in the investigated region of the ocean. We will describe the specific hydrometeorological situation prevailing during the period of invest~gations in the pol~gon. The onset of the work (mid-March) fell during the period of ending ~f the winter monsoon and was characterized by weak winds of 4-8 m/sec of northerly and northeasterly directions. The main part of the investigations (late March-April) fell tn the transitional period, primarily dur- ing calm weather. The final phase (late May-June) coincided with the onset of the summer monsoon; the wind velocity averaged 10-18 m/sec; the direction varied from SW to WSW. An analysis of the distribution of temperature and salinity carried out on the ba- sis of data from a macroscale survey and surveys of micropolygons demonstrated that the synoptic variability in the region of the investigations is characteriz- ed by cyclonic and anticyclonic eddy formations with a characteristic scale of GO-200 miles. In ~~he area of the polygon there were found to be seven cyclonic and five anticyclonic Formations (Fig. 3). The intensity of these formations was rela- tively small: the m3ximum rise of the I6� isotherm, selected for mapping the eddy field, was 70 m. Two successive surveys, carried out in one of the cyclonic eddies, made it pos- sible to determine its kinematic characteristics the direction and velocity of movement. During the period from 4 April through 1 May 1980 the center of the eddy 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY formation was displaced by 270 miles, ~rhich gives an average velocity of movement of about 9 miles/day. The direction of movement was jdSW. A d~,stinguishing charac- teristic of all the detected formatior.s is their close relationship to the strat- itication of the waters. To all intents and purposes not one of these formations - ,was manifested in the temperature field of the ocean surface by a spot of cold or warm water. This indicates a weak resultan*_ vertical transfer within the limits of the eddy, which is traced most frequently in the layer 100-400 m; deeper the pic- ture becomes "blurred" and it is difficult to identify any formations on the basis of their manifestations in the density and temperature field. In contrast to the temperature field, indtvidual eddy formations were rather clearly traced on the basis of salinity anomalies at the ocean surface. A comparison of the position of these anomalies with maps of dynamic topography indicates that in the process of eddy formation there was a capture of mass, after which the advective flows led to the transport of this anomaly into a region with other characteristics of water masses. A characteristic form of synoptic variabil~ty of the ocean in the region of invest- igation is also the presence of a hydrological front intersecting the polygon from the southwest to the northeast. On the basis of the nature of its position this front probably corresponds to the southern and southeastern peripheries of a macr~- scale cyclonic circulation occupying the northern part of the Arabian Sea. The meandering of *his front could be one of the reasons for weak eddy formation with- in the limits of the polygon. Now we will discuss another form of manifestation of synoptic variability of the ocean zones of upwell_~ng of deep waters. These zones can be seen in the north- western, no.rtheastern and soutlieastern corners of the macroscale polygon. It is as- sumed that here the upwelling of deep waters corresponds to the zones of tradi- tional intensive upwelling along the shores of the Arabian Peninsula and the west- ern coast of the Indian subcontinent. As a result of change in the wind or dynamic regime in these zones the generation of eddy formations can occur which thereafter are advectively transported to other regions. A preliminary T,S analysis, made on the basis of survey data, indicated that a cold cyclonic eddy, traced in the micro- polygon, had T,S characteristics corresponding to the zone of the Arabian upwell- ing. We note the exceedingly rapid variability of the form of eddy formations observe~ on the basis of survey resuZts. This indicates either a wave nature of the eddy formations (superpositic+ning of rapid baroclinic Rossby waves) or that tliey are unstable. A hydrological survey carried out during the period of development of the summer monsoon was considerably inferior in scale to the winter survey. Neverthel~ss, in the area of the polygon it was possible to detect a cold cycl.onic formation.with a characteristic horizontal scale of about 150 miles. The maximum risP of the 16� isotherm in this formation was 25-30 m. The same as before, the eddy was not mani- fested in the temperature field of .the ocean surface but was easily detected from the anomalous values of salinity, which at the center of the eddy was 36.55�/00; in the surrounding waters it was 36.2�/00. 13 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY 61 � 70� S. c~. E _ - - J ' ' T? ! _ - - ~ . - - !6� ~ . _ . ' ~ 200 cuc. ~ N . ~ , ~ > i _ ~ 200 60 i i ~ I ; ~ ~ ! ~ ~ I . . , ~ ~ ~ ~ - g o . ~ I I ~ � 0 ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; 200 ! I ~ ~ zaa 0; ~ ~ ~ ~ �'ti' . x ~ i ' ~ - - - r---- . ` ~~y i~ ~ 60~ ~ I ' ~ ~ , 160~ ; ~ ~ . , . . , , ~ . ~ i ~ z~ ~ Fig. 3. Map of depth of 16�C isotherm according to data in first macroscale survey. Dynamics or waters. The most complete information on the circulation of waters in the Arabian Sea was obtai~ed during the period of ending of the winter monsoon and in the transition period. A hydrological survey of the macroscale polygon and a survey of two micropolygons made it possible to compute and plot maps of dynamic topography relative to the reading surface 1500 db. On these maps it is possible to discriminate six eddy formations (3 cyclonic and 3 anticyclonic) on the basis . of their manifestations in ~he upp~r 200-m layer of the ocean (Fig. 4). In these formations the velocities of rotational motion are relatively small, usually 9-11 cm/sec, but not more than 20 cm/sec. The clustering of dynamic contour lines ob- served in the southern and eastern parts of the macroscale polygon is evidently the axis of a macroscale cyclonic circulat:ion forming during the winter in the northern part of the Arabian Sea. The current velocities on the axis are 3-21 cm/ sec. The pattern of circulation of waters, similar to that shown, is traced to a depth of 200 m; deeper the pattern of circulation is "blurred," although the posi- tion of the center of the circulation and the character of the circulation are maintained to a depth N 800 m. 1~. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040015-6 FOR OFF7CIAI. USE ONLY SB �S d. E ~ ~u� ---~r�y - ,~r---~\.-`'~;,~`~-~-~~i - ~r- - . ~ ,y~~ 1\ ; j Fu~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ,..7 ~ . o . . . f,~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ / . C. ~ . N e?D\ ~ E~yo � ~ ~ \~~y % _ ~ , r ~~~o /~:1~--~ , o r ~ , ~./;~~n~n r~:.~ ,4 . , ~ e~ ~ ~ , ,l ~ . ~I ' J . / ; ~ P70 1 ~ ~ ~ _ ; ~ , ~ - ~ t 1 ,~aa , ~ ~ ~ ~ -c6o 1 ~~,�a t . ~ ~ ~ ' ~ \ ' ~..'1� . ~ O ~ /soJ ~ ` ~ ` , ~ ~V I ; ~ , t:o . J~c~ ~ , , ~ / ' `,y~~--- ='f- ` - _ ' ~ ` _~r-~..~~--~:-.~ . ~.Z ~_,L __~i o Fig. 4. Dynamic topography at 0� horizon. The maps of dynamic topogr~phy, computed for the micropolygons, show that the geo- strophic currents in the eddy cyclonic formation, completely outlined in the sec- ond micropolygon, retain their sign to great depths. The current velocity in this eddy varies in the range 10-30 cm/sec. By comparing the successive posit~ions of the center of the cyclonic f.ormation on the three maps, it is possible to estimate the v~locity of movement at about 8-9 miles/day. The data from experimental measurements carried out with the three autouiatic buoy stations. agree entirely with data on currents obta.ined by the dynamic method. An analysis of graphs of the mean daily progressive vectors indicates that the change in direction and velocity modulus of the current is closely related to the passage .of a cyclonic eddy through the system of automatic buoy stations on the first 3-4 days and the passage of an anticyclonic eddy in the middle and~at the end of the observation period. At all three buoys the current velocity regularly decreased ~ with depth. The velocity maximum was usually situated at the horizons 50, 100 m and the minimum was at the horizons 800, 1500 m.~The minimu~i current velocity is noted at a depth of 800 m as ~aell when using data computed by the dynamic meth- od. Despite the fact that the horizontal gradients of the temperature and salin- ity fields at these depths are extremely significant, the current velocities are nevertheless small. This fact can be attribu~ed to the influence of intermediate Arabian Sea waters which form an almost ~o:.izontal pycnocline. The characteristics of the hydrological structure an~.d circulation of waters are closely related to the distribution of the hydrochemical and hydrooptical character- istics. The Arabian Sea is characterized by a three-layer structure of the distrib- , ution of chemical characteristics with depth: a) the surface homogeneous layer (to depths of 50-80 m); b) the layer of maximum vertical gradients (to depths of 15 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY 125 m); c) the subsurface or intermediate layer, extending to the lower limit of observations (500 m). ~An analysis of the influence of eddy disturbances on the variability of the fieldg of biogeno us elements indicated that tfie results in many respects are identical to the conclusions drawn when carrying out work under the "Polimode" program. A cy- clonic eddy was discovered during the microsurveys; it moved toward the southwes t~ with a velocity of about 9 miles/day. It was tra~ed most clearly from the upwell- ing of waters in the layer 100-200 m. At the center of the zone of upwelling of watPrs there was an increase in phosphorus concentrations (by approximately 20 � g/ liter) and silicon (by a faCtor of 2-3) in comparison with the concentration in the surro unding waters. At the horizon 500 m the influence of upwelling was almost absent. Now we will examine the hydrooptical characteristics in the zones of eddy forma- tions. The investigations carried out in the micropolygons revealed that the anomalies caused by eddy formations in the transparency field occupied a relative- - ly thin layer 50-200 m and the greatest vertical displacements of the transpar- ency isolines corresponding to the background conditions did not exceed 50-60 m. In the immediate neighborhood of the center of the circulation, determined from the hydrological data, there were two anomalous regions, one of which corresponds to an uplift of the ~ump layer; the other corresponds to its subsidence. Both re- ~ gions were situated on the line of movement (trajectory) of the eddy. By compar- ing the spectral changes in the attenuation index in the zones of rising and sink-~ ing of the jump layer it can be noted that the waters corresponding to the region ~ ~ of rising are related in spectral composition to deep waters, whereas the region of subsidence is filled with surface waters. One gets the impression that the eddy causes not only an upwelling of waters, but also their subsidence on the periphery. However, insignificant vertical velocities of such movements and their localiza- tion in the.thin layer near the surface did not favor an intensification of the processes of exchange of deep and surface waters under the conditions of the open ocean. Now we will examine the principal characteristics of the biological productivity of waters in the investigated region of the ocean at different trophic levels and we will give an evaluation of this productivity as a whole. ThE quantities of primary production during the period of the winter monsoon were characterized by relatively low values. The average production of tlie surface layer was 2.5 mg C�m 3�day-1; for the entire photosynthesis layer about 50 mg C� m z�day-1 with considerable variztions (0.1-10.5 mg C�m 3 and 10.8-447.2 mg C�m 2). The main mass of photosynthetically active phytoplankton was concentrated in the ~ upper 25-m layer with maxima, as a rule, at the surface or at a depth of 10 m; at greater depths the synthesis of phytoplankton was very weak. Investigations during the period of the summer monsoon indicated a very insignif- icant decrease in the level of primary production of organic matter by phyto- plankton. The maximum quantities of primary production in individual zones did not exceed S mg C�m 3 and 155 mg C�m'2 respectj.vely. In the course of both per- iods there was a"spottiness" in the distribution of more or less productive zones. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFE7CIAL USE ONLY ~ Within the limits of the investigated ocean area there were no sharp differences in che concentrarion of chlorophyll "a" during different seasons. For example, during the period of the winter monsoon the order of magnitude varied in the range 0.01-0.10 mg�m 3; for the entire layer 0-1Q0 m the concentration was 8.14 - mg�m Z. The maximum chlorophyll contents were observed in tiie layer 40-80 m, where its concentration in individual cases attained 0.2-0.3 mg�m 3. At the same time, the assimilation number, characterizing the rate of photosynthesis per unit of chlorophyll, was minimum at tl~.ese depths. In the micropolygons, where the cold cyclonic eddy was outlined, there was some increase in chlorophyll "a" both for the surface and for the layer 0-100 m(up to 0.04 mg�m 3 and 9.49 mg�m 2 respectively). In the second micropolygon, where . the cold eddy was completely outlined, the chlorophyll content in the photosyn- thesis layer on the avera~e attained maximum values 13.0 mg�m 2. The main mass of chlorophyll here was concentrated at a depth of about 50 m and in individual regions attained 0.46 mg�m'3. In the distribution of the quantities of primary production and chlorophyll "a" there was a general increase in their quantities in a direction from northeast to southwest. Thus, with respect to the level of production of primary organic matter by phyto- plankton and content of chlorophyll "a" the investigated ocean area can be class- ified as oligotrophic and is transitional to mesotrophic waters. Regions of in- creased productivity were observed in part in local zones associated with the clivergence of water maases in disturbances of the cyclonic type. On the basis of the richness of bacterioplankton this ocean area can be classif- ied as mesotrophic waters. The bacterial population of the surface layer in the ' macropolygon and two micropolygons on the averaoe varied in the range 500-700 thousand cells�ml-l. It was possible to define the ocean areas~richest in bac- terial lif e and those which were relatively impoverished. The highest quantities bacterioplankton (about 1 million cells�ml-1) were discovered in the north- western part of the macropolygon. In general, the n~rthern part of the polygon stood out due to an increas~d development of bacterial life. This productive zone extended in a southwesterly direction. , Zooplankton is the next link in the trophic chain of the biocoenosis. An analysis of the data obtained both with total exploitation of the layer 0-100 m with a net and with specific exploitation of the sound-scattering layer indicated the . following. Net seston in all stages of the investigations in different parts of the investig- ated region was represented.primarily by two groups copepoda and chaetognatha. According to visual evaluations there was a predominance of the first group, be- ing 50-90% or more of the biomass of Looplankton. A distinguishing characteristic of seston during the period of ending of the winter monsoon (March-April) was the greater content of detritus and slime residues of different jellylike forms (medusa, Portuguese man-of-war). In soc~e cases the quantity of detritus was 50% or more of the seston biomass. With the onset of the period of the southwest monsoon the fraction of detritus (primarily macrodetritus) decreased sharply; rem- nants of jellylike forms completely disappeared. In the zooplankton there was an 17 FOR OF'FICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY increase in tt!e volume of copepoda in the early stages of development; other mass components of zooplankton were the young of chaetognatha and the larvae of gastro- poda. During this period at virtually no station was there any abundant develop- ment of jellylike forms. All this is evidence that the onset of the summer season is characteriz~d by a rather significant change in the phases of succ2ssion of zooplankton and an intensification of development of the most massive forms of first- and second-order consumers (an indication of "rejuvenation" of the commun- ity). The intensity of development of zooplankton in the layer 0-100 m was also differ- ent at different moments in time. For exa~?ple, during March-April the greatest concentrations of net seston (150-250 mg-250 mg�m 3 or more) were observ.ed in the northw~stern and northern parts of the polygon, which is evidently associat- ~ ed with cyclonic circulation in the Arabian Sea. Qver the greater part of the polygon the concentration of seston was at the level 50-150 mg�m 3. On the aver- age for the entire region the seston concentration was 120 mg�m'3. Repeated in- vestigations, carried out in the southwestern part of the region in late May- early June, indicated that despite changes in the composition of net seston, its concentration nevertheless remained at the former level (the average biomass was 110 mg�m 3). At the end of the second-beginning of the third 10-day period in - June there was an appreciable increase in the biomass of seston, on the average to 148 mg�m 3. Specific catches in the sound-scattering layer indicated that the characteristic representatives of these layers (regardless of their type) were myctophida and their young, euphuesia, chaetognatha, copepoda, etc. At staCions situated in the northwestern part of the polygo~,there was a great quantity of roe, hypothetical- ly of squid. There were no significant differences in the composition of the sound-scattering layer in different seasons of the investigations. The concentra- tion of animals in the sound-scattering layer is 4-5 times less than that in the upper 100-m layer of the ocean. In general, with respect to the level of development of zooplankton the open waters of the Arabian Sea (according to the Bogorov-Rass classification) can be classified as moderately productive, but the relatively uniform distribution of plankton and the absence of its aggregations in individual sectors impede an accumulation of organisms of higher trophic levels, including those of interest for the fishing industry (squid, fish). In this connection the question arises of the reasons for the relatively low (bio- logical in general and commzrcial in particular) productivity of the investigated region. The prevailing opinion that the principal factor limiting bioproductivity in the tropical zone of the oceans is a low content of biogenous elements in the euphotic layer is scarcely correct for this region. Hydrochemical investigations indicate that the content of biogenous elements in the euphotic layer is rather great and exceeds by many times the requirements of the number of algae present. The latter is confirmed by data on the low concentrations of biogens, the low content of chlorophyll "a" in the water and the low levels of primary production. It seems most probable that the consumption of the biogenous elements by the al- gae present in the eutrophic layer in great quantities and the development of organisms of subsequent trophic levels on this basis is limited primarily by 18 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY the dynamic factor by the absence of conditions leading to the accumulation of developing plankton. Under conditions of an inadequacy of food for the plankters- filtrato~s there should be a considerable increase in the role of detritus as a buffer component in the food chain of the pelagi~ ecosystem, especially since its content in the water in individual periods is extremely significant. According to the computations which have been made, the food requirements of herbivoxous zoo- plankton in the investigated period are satisfied by approximately 40-50% by the production of phytoplankton. A detailed analysis of the collected data will make it possible to obtain more re- liable information concerning the characteristics of development of the biological community in this region of the ocean and establish a close relationship between its degree of development, hydrological and dynamic factors. COPYRIGHT: Morskoy gidrofizicheskiy institut AN USSR (MGI AN USSR), 1981 - 5303 CSO: 1865/82 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040015-6 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY . USE OF DYNAMIC-STOCI3ASTIC MODEL IN PRQCESSING HYDROPIiYSICAL MEASUREMENTS IN INDIAN OC~AN . Sevastopol' KOMPLEKSNYYE OKEANOLOGICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA INDIYSKOGO OKEANA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 10 Apr 81) pp 99-107 [Article by I. G. Protsenko, I. Ye. Timchenko and V. D. Yarin, from monograph "Multisided Oceanological Investigations of the Indian Ocean", B. A. Nelepo, academician Ukrainiar. Academy of Sciences, responsible editor, Morskoy gidrofiz- icheskiy institut AN USSR (MGI AN USSR), 300 copies, 155 pages] [Text] Abstract: A dynamic-stochastic model is used ~in constructing synchronous maps of hydrophys- ical fields on the basis of density surveys . ~carried out during the 22d voyage of the sci- entific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" . in the Indian Ocean. The auth.ors analyze the results of computations. T;ie conclusion is ~ drawn that a dynamic-stochastic approach to an analysis of observations is highly promis- ing for the processing of data under exped- itionary conditions at a real time scale. Dynamic-stocha.stic model. The broadening of expeditionary oceanographic research is bringing to the forefront the problems involved in the routine quantitative interpretation of the collected information. The use of dynamic-stochastic models for the processing of hydrophysical observations is highly pror~ising for these purposes [1-3]. The dynamic-stc;:nastic model presented in this study includes a three-dimensional thermohydrodynamic model for predicting the density and current fields in an open oceanic basin, a model for computing the parameterized covariation ma.trix of err- ~ ors and a proced-ire for the statistical assimilation of individual measurements. As in [1-3], the use of a dynamic-stochastic model is used in processing data for the density field. However, in contrast to tt!~ mentioned studies, the hgdrodynamic - part of the model is far simpler, which made it possible to apply it numerically using a shipboard electronic computer under expeditionary conditions. In a study of macroscale geostrophic movements we use a system of differential equations of a hydrodynamic model describing the superpositioning of low-frequency baroclinic Rossby waves and inertial oscillations 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY -,Y--- _ dt -e~=~S ~ dz+dz dz ' ~1~ p~ z . y ~t + eu= p S dA dZ+~ ~Z dz ~ c2~ Z . Z - . W- e S vdz-p~l \ a d ~3~ 0 ~'p dP ~dP ~ _ ~ ~ ~,p+~ d ~-t +u X~-v ~ y+w d7 a,Z z~ x Q' (4) The system of differential equations (1)~(4) describes the evolution of the vector of state of the ocean, whose components are the projections of the velocity vector of currents u, v, w onto the Cartesian coordinate axes x, y, z, and also the den- sity Here yZ is the coefficient of vertical turbulent exchange; dC z~ ~x ~re the coefficients of vertical and horizontal diffusion; is the Coriolis para- meter; p=~,~/a y; g is the acceleration of free falling; ZX, ty are the com- ponents of wind shearing stress. The covariation function of the deviation of the theoretical evaluation of density from the measurements will be represented in the form F`X. y, Z,, X, Z,,t)_ =~x (x-x,, ~Z-Z~~S~X,Y,Z,t~6lx!�.Y,Z~,t~, ~5) where 4"(x, y, z, t) is the standard deviation of the field of errors; the func- tions ~ X, ~Z are the standard normalized c4rrelation functions of uniform fields with a unique dispersion. . In accordance with [3], we will write the equation for the function of dispersion of errors - _ _ - _ . - - z d~ 1+ u d~Z+vdy Z~wd Z+ 2t6z = . . (6) ~d Xj 2+sYx d 61 - 2ii�Z ~d Z/? 2ei~x ~\d 6~`d 6/2J+a~7' where ~ G =dZ .f''Z ~ ~Pr .t. ~.X d ~x . , (2=2~ I X_xl . y-.r, In equation (6) CS 2 represents the dispersion of excitati.on and is a probabilistic model of small-scale phenomena not taken into account by the hydrodynamic model . (1)-(4). N � At the time of receipt of the measurement /~(xA, yA, zA, t) at the point A the densit~? and dispersion of error in the correlation radius is made more precise using t:he formulas ~ ~ P~X~''� Z, t)-Q (x,y, Z,t~+ ~z (x'yy ~9z(2-ZA) r C A~ �A� A~ ) 21 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY = cyx (X-x,~,y-.r�) [~lx,,,.r�,Z�,t)-P CX,~~yA�7,,~~)~� n 6 1 ~X,.r, Z � t~ = 62 ~JC,'Y, I, t ~ [~-~z ~Z -ZA ~ ~X ~X-XA, .v-;YA~], ~8~ We ~ill use the following boundary conditions ~ . du ~ d : - ~ .Po ~z d1 =-Zx , QoJj d1=-Zy ~--Q=Q~ , 62=6? when z= 0; ~9) du d _ d~ dZ . p- Q~ '~1=~y~ when z= Hl, (10) where H1 is the depth of the horizon below which the deiisity is considered homo- geneous. ~ In the liquid vertical boundaries of the considered region - - - p-YQ~' 6t_6~ (11) At the initial moment in time when t= 0 u - u :=.vo_ . ~ _ Po G~ ^ ~:~o `12> The numerical solution of equation (1)-(8) with the boundary (9)-(11) and initial (12) conditions was found in a computation grid which in the horizontal direction contains the uniformly spaced grid line intersections (xi, y~)xi = itf x, y~ _ j~ y; i= 1,...,L; j= 1,...,~~i and in the vertical direction the nonuniformly spaced horizons zk, k= 1,...,N. Equations (1), (2), (4), (6) were written with use of a natural filter scheme. With respect to the derivatives in the horizontal direc- tion the scheme was explicit with a second order of approximation. In equation (6) the last term on the right-hand side was taken in the computation layer. Along the vertical coordinate the equations we~P approximated by the balance method, after which the resulting system of algebraic equations was solved by matrix fitting along z. On the boundary for equation (6) there was stipulation of the condition . of an exponential increase from zero to unity for the normalized dispersion of the field of errors: . _ - ~6?~~+~ _(6?)'+t5~ 6t . J+~61`-- ? (13) where (Or2)n+l is the value of the function in the computation layer; ~ t is the time interval in the numerical scheme. Such a choice of behavior of the dispersion of error on the boundary is attribut- able to the.fact that the values of the density field at the boundary points re- mained constant in the absence of information and changed only after assimilation , of the measurement at the boundary points and at points adjacent to the boundary, whereas the real field changed at each moment in time. Accordingly, the disper- sion of error in determining the field at the boundary increased with time and 'attained a maximi..-~n value after an interval equal to the time correlation radius of the density field. 22 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On the basis of this model we processed data for hydrophysical polygons investi- gated under the program for complex investigations of the fishery resources of the Indian Ocean [4). Res ults of Computations The first polygon, in which numerical computations were made, was situated in the region GO�-68�40'E, 10-17�N (Fig. 1). Nine horizons were selected in the vertical direction: 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3500 m. The components of the wind shearing stress were determined using data on observations of the velocity of the near-water wind made on the ship. The values of the initial density field were taken from the ATLAS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. The stationary diagnostic solution of equations (1)-(3) was used for the va]_ues of the initial velocities. The di.s- persion at the initial moment was assumed equal to the dispersion of the density field. The values of the model ~arameters were: ~x.= 10~ cm, S y= 0.84�10~ cm, yZ = 10 cm2/sec, 2~Z = 10 cm2/sec~_~~=_10~ cm2/sec. _ y0� s4� 60� 70� --~Y!� esepa~: � - - ~ropic Canc~,ri 1 r - , . � - ' Bo~bay ~ou6e' � ~ ~~gSy~ 3 j ibou~~ ~ Male ' M ane 0� - Fig. 1. Location of hydrophysical polygons in Arabian Sea. ~ In accordance with equations (1)-(8) computations were made of the hydrodyna~ic characteristics for 20 days (the time from the beginning to the end of the macro- scale survey) with a time interval a't = 3 hours. At the times corresponding to the time of occupation of the hydrological stations (Fig. 2 in [7]) the procedure of _ statistical assimilation of observational data was carried out. An analysis of the level surface (Fig. 2,a), representing an integral character- - istic of the density �ield and graphically reflecting the dynamic processes trans- l~iring in the water layer~indicated that during the time of implementation of the r~~acroscale survey in the polygon there were four well-expressed eddy formations two cyclonic (in the northern and southwestern parts) and two anticyclonic (in the eastern and southern parts), and also a number of less intensive eddies. The level drop between the minimum in the cyclone and the maximum in the anticyclone was 32 cm per 200 miles. There is a general tendency to a rise in the ocean level from northwest to southeast with the sharpest gradients in the frontal zone pass- = ing through the polygon in the direction from the southwestern to the northeast- = ern corner. Figure 2,b shows a map of the level surface constructed by the objective analysis . method on the basis of data arbitrarily related to one time. A comparison of maps of the level surfaces in Fig. 2,a,b shows that in general they are similar, but - 23 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y as a result of use of the equations of dynamics and successive analysis of the data the cyclone in the northern part of the polygon moved to the north (evi- dently under the influence of a current directed from the southwest to the north- east). In the west the cyclone changed its form and the region of the zero sur- face was propagated to the southwest. ~ . ~ - ~ ~ ~ ? g ! . . - . . . . , - i;~~=~~ ~ i,: ~ � ~ - , / . ~ J ~ . ~ . : . . , . . i . ; ; . ~ , ~ ~ ' ~ -R ~ . ~ I ' ~ I ~ ~ . . , . . . ~ ~g : - ~ ~ ~i ~ I . . _ ~ _ _ ~ _ ~ l-� m ` ' : ^ I ` ~ ' ~/I 1 r~.._ ~ ' %j ~ ~ % ~ , . . I . . / 1 ~ . / ; 1 J .I . . O ` 1~ 1 . . / ' . � ~.C ~ ~ . ~ J ~ . . , . ; , ~ ~ , ~ - ~ ~ - ^ o- � ~ ~o~ ~ ~ . i ~ ~ D ~ ~ -~rJ.-~-------- __-s- ~ N r:.. - a � b ~ a . _ ~ = - . _ I ,!o , , ' . ! \ ~ , i / / . . . ' ~ / O 0 . . ~i . ~ . ~ _ / / / ~ . ~ . . , , ~ 0 ~ya , , , , ~ ; / i i~~ .l ~ . . ~ . ' -ti0 0 11� ~ ~ , O � \ l ~ ~ ~ -4 ~0 / i , . ' 0 N ~~c. . " . - _ !0 cn ~c cmf sec ~ c 2 . d Fig. 2. Level surface: a) obtained from dynamic-stochastic model; b) constructed by objective analysis method; c) map of horizontal currents at 200-m horizon; d) vertical velocity at 200-m horizon. Figure 2,c is a map of the current vectors at the 200-m horizon. In general, the fields of horizontal velocities are similar for all the computation horizons. The velocity modulus decreases with depth. For example, the maximum velocity modulus at a depth of 50 m, registered in the southwestern part of the polygon, is 45 cm/sec; at the 1000-m horizon its value decreased to 15 cm/sec. Along the line - of the maximum gradients of the level surface there is a relatively intensive flow directed from southwest t~ northeast. To the left of it there are two eddy formations with a cyclonic direction of velocity; to the right of it there are two major eddies of the anticyclonic type. Except for the ~outhwestern cyclone, all the eddies lie partially outside the polygon. The velocity modulus in 2L~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the southwesterly flow on the average is obviously greater than the orbital velo- cities in the eddy formations. Thus, the dynamics of the eddies occurs against the background of the energy exchange of the mean flow and eddy formations of a syrioptic scale. S4� SB~--- 6~Gd. 54� f8~ _ 6..$.d,E I~ . - 1!�' � . ~ ~ _ / , ` --,I ' . " % / _ _ / ~ i ~ ~ i _ ~ . ~ ~ / / , i , ' ` -1 9 ~ r i ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 . . . . ~ ~ e ~i,- % , ~ ~ 7 - ! ' r - . 1~~` 1~., ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N Scu~_--- I � ~ cm/sec . a b Fig. 3. Map of horizontal current vectors: a) obtained on 16 April 1980 and b) 20 April 1980. . An examination of the vertical component of current velocity (Fig. 2,d) makes it possible to conclude that the zones of upwelling of deep waters lie on the west- ern periphery of anticyclonic eddy formations and on the eastern periphery of cy- clonic eddies. For zones of subsidence the opposite picture is.observed. The velo- cities of upwelling and subsidence of waters increase with depth. Within the limits of the polygon the values of the vertical component of current velocity fall within the interval 10-2-10'3 cm/sec. The density field ta a depth of 600-700 m is charac- terized by a domelike rising or dropping of the isopycnic lines relative to the ~ mean level in zones of anticyclonic or cyclonic eddies respectively. At the low- er-lying horizons the indicated feature is expressed less clearly. Second polygon. In this region the scientific research ship "Akademik Vernadskiy" investigated two micropolygons (Figure 1, 2). This was situated in the region 54�-62�40'E, 5-12�N. The investigation of the micropolygons was preceded by a macroscale survey with participation of the scientific ship "Professor Vodyanitsk- iy." Due to the unsatisfactory quality of the measurements in this polygon the sounding data were. subjected to additional processing. The "surges" on the ver- tical profiles were smoothed and at the computation horizons the nean values of the density field and its dispersion were reduced in accordance with the data for the first polygon by means of subtracting the nonclosure between the mean values, multiplied by a coefficient equal to the ratio of the standard deviations, c~mput- ed for each group of data. The density field obtained in this way was used as the initial field. Hydrodynamic computations were made for the period 9-16 April 1980 (beginning of work for surveying of the first micropolygon and the setting-out of three multiday buoy stations). 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ss� se� sz~asY� 58� 6r~a. E r_ - - - o 11 � . . . . / / ~ ~ \ \ . . . . . . ~ - � : . \ 9� . , . p. . _ J ~ ~ ~ ` ~ 7� . . . . � / l ~ \ ~ i / 1 ~ , ~ ; ~ , N s~ . / ' Q~a B ~I.OC~~c cm/sec .Sy� S6� S8�6.a.3y� S6� c ~8$~ - ~ - ~ . , ~ . . . . . , ; ~i~ � . , . , 9� ~ \ ~ . . � , I . . . / ~ ` , ~ ~ ~ , ~z1/ / 1 � . : , . . / - - - - Z d . ~ b Fig. 4. Level surface: a) second polygon; b) third polygon; map of horizontal cur- rent vectors: c) second polygon; d) third polygon. Figure 3,a is a map of the horizontal velocities at a depth of 500 m; the figure shows the velocity vectors (the location of the buoy stations is denoted by circles), measured at the automatic buoy stations. Despite the relatively long time of ~the forecast, there is agreement with observatians. Figure 3,b shows the horizon~cal velocities for the 500-m horizon, obtained at the end of the survey of the micropolygon. They were computed using the dynamic-stochastic model, tak- ing account~ the new data on the density field and to a great degree approach the r~~easurements. The measured current vectors are greater in absolute value than t?~~e velocities obtained as a result of computation of the dynamic-stochastic model. Figure 4,a is a map of the level surface relating to the end of the survey of the fifth micropolygon (28 April 1980). Since in the numerical model the interval of the computation grid is twice as great as the distance between the stations in the micropolyg~ns, some data were not taken into account. Nevertheless, in the western part of the micropolygon there is a region of the upwelling of waters caused by the presence of an anticyclonic eddy whose eastern periphery passed through the micro- polygon. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The third polygon, for which the data of the first and second micropolygons were completely processed, had a spatial interval half as great and was situated in the region 54�-58�20'E, 7�-10�30'N. On the map of the level surfa~e obtained on 28 April 1980 there were certain peculiarities. The anticyclonic eddy formation was expressed by two centers of subsidence of the isopycnic lines (Fig. 4,b). The level gradients in this variant were greater than in co~mputations in a coarser grid. A comparison of ttie maps of the horizoiital current vec.tors at the 200-m hori- izon (Fig. 4,c,d) reveals that the principal features of the anticyclonic circula- tion coincide in both variants. Summary The region of investigations was characterized by a complex hydrological structure of the fields, which made it difficult to trace their evolution on the basis of asynchronous data of polygon measurements. Nevertheless, the use of a dynamic- stochastic model made it possible to carry out a generalization of the collected data and construct maps of fields consistent with the results of hydrological soundings. At the same time, the possibilities of employing the dynamic-stochastic approach with a low-capacity electronic computer under shipboard conditions have been demonstrated. The proposed model can be used as a basis for an automated sys- tem for the processing of hydrophysical information operating at a real time scale. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Nelepo, B. A., Knysh, V. V. and Timchenko, I. Ye., "Evolution of Synoptic Eddies According to Dens~ty Surveys Made by the Marine Hydrophysical Institite of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in the 'Polimode' Polygon," Preprint No 3, Sevastopol', Izd. MGI AI1 Ukrainskoy SSR, 1978, 82 pages. 2. Knysh, V. V., Plelepo, B. A., Sarkisyan, A. S. and Timchenko, I. Ye., "Dynamic- Statistical Approach to Analysis of Observations of the Density Field in Hy- drophysical Polygons," IZV. AN SSSR: FAO (News of the USSR Academy of Sci- ences: Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean), Vol 14, No 10, pp 1079-1093, 1978. 3. Timchenko, I. Ye., Knysh, V. V., Protsenko, I. G. and Yarin, V. D., "Dynamic- Stochastic Model for the Processing of Density Surveys in the Ocean," MORSKIYE GIDROFIZICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA (Marine Hydrophysical Investigations), No 4, Sevastopol', pp 81-96, 1979. 4. ICnysh, V. V., Moiseyenko, V. A., Sarkisyan, A. S. and Timchenko, I. Xe., "Com- plex Use of Measurements in Hydrophysical Polygons in the Ocean in Four-Dimen- sional Analysis," DAN SSSR (Reports of the USSR Academy of Sc.iences), No 4, pp 832-835, 1980. 5. Knysh, V. V. and Protsenko, I. G., "tlonlinear Effects in the Quasihomogeneous Layer of the ?4ain Pycnocline in the Sea During the i~istral," MORSKIYE GIDRO- FIZICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA, No 3, Sevastopol', pp 45-57, 1979. 6. Protsenko, I. G., Timchent:o, I. Ye. and Yarin, V. D., "Method for Predicting the Statistical Characteristics of the Field of a Conservative Admixture," ' MORSKIYE GIDROFIZICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA, I1o 4, pp 97-108, 1979. 27 FOIt OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7. Shchetinin, Yu. T., Kosnyrev, V. K., Agafonov, Ye. A. and Urdenko, V. A., "Oceanographic Investigations in the Northwestern Part of the Indian Ocean .During the.Spring-Su~ner Period of 1980," in this collection of articles, PP 7-18. COPYRIGHT: Morskoy gidrofizicheskoy institut AN USSR (MGI AN USSR), 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/82 . 7 ~ 28 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY UDC 551.46 NONCONTACT METHODS FOR MEASURING OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS Moscow NEKONTAKT~IYYE METODY IZMERENIYA OKEANOGRAFICI~ESKIKH PARAMETROV in. Russian 1981 (signed to press 19 May 81~) pp 2, 120-123 ~ [Annotation and table of contents from collection of articles "idoncontact Methods for Measuring Oceano~xaphic Parameters", edited by S. V. Viktorov, candidate of . physical and mathematical 'sciences, Moskovskoye otdeleniye Gidrometeoizdata, 560 . copies, 124 pages] [Text] Annotation.~These articles examine the results of theoretical and experi- ~ mental investigations directed to creation of noncontact methods and means for measur~ng oceanographic parameters. The greatest emphasis is on measurement of the - characteristics of sea waves, ice, temperature of the sea~aurface and contamination , of the sea surface by petroleum products using instruments carried aboard flight- craft. The collection of articles contains the following sections: I. Active SHF methods. ~ 2. Passive SHF methods. 3. Measurements in IR range. 4. Laser methods. 5. Space and aerial surveys in optical range. ~ 6. Ultrasound methods. ~ ~ 7. Methodological problems of noneontact measurements. The collection of articles is intended for a wide range of scientific workers and engineers working in the field of study of natural resources of the earth and world ocean and students in the advanced courses of the corre'sponding fields of specialization: ~ ~ Contents Foreword by Editor 3 Active SHF Methods Volyak, K. I., Glushkov, V. M., Yemel'yanov, Yu. N., Komarov, V. B., Kontorov, S. Ye., Mudrova, Z. M., Popov, A. Ye. and Starostin, V. A. "Investigation of Petroleum Contaminations of Sea Sur.face Using Side-Looking Radar" 6 Basharinov, A. Ye. [deceased], Baskakov, A. I. and Kalinkevich, A. A., "Use of a Radioalt%meter in Investigating Wave-Covered Sea Surfa~e" 9 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY Basharinov, A. Ye. [deceased], Kalinkevich, A. A. and Baskakov, A. I. "Investiga- tion of the Possibility of Determining the Height of Sea Waves by the Multi- ~ frequency Correlation Method When Using Satellite Radioaltimeters (Annota- tion) 13 ~ Zagorodnikov, A. A., Chalysliev, K. B. and Chegrinets, V. M. "Changes in the Two-Dimensional Spectrum of a Radar Image of the Sea Surface Due to Movement of Measuring Instrument" 14 Zhilko, Ye. 0:, Zagorodnikov, A. A. and Chalyshev, K. B.. Angular Spectra of Sea Waves According to Remote Measurement Data" " 18 Gagarin, Yu. B., Dyatiov, G. I., Zhilko, Ye. 0. and Meshcheryakov, Ye. M., "Results of Measurements of Parameters of Sea Waves and Atmospheric Turbulence Using Surface Incoherent Radars" (Annotation) 21 Baypur, Yu. Z., Gagarin,.Yu. B., Zhilko, Ye. 0. and Miroshnichenko, S. I. "Measurement of the parameters of Sea Waves by the Doppler Measurement MethUd With Different Atrcraft Flight Regimes" 22 n Bazhenin, V. G., Kalmykov, A. A. and Kharlova, N. M. Energy Characteristics of Envelope of Radar Signals and Their Relationship to Wave Parameters" 26 - Passive SHF Methods Shutko, A. M., "Evaluation of State and Physicochemical Properties of Ocean Sur- - ace According to Data From Spectral Measurements of SHF Radiation" 31 Chukhray, G. I. and Shutko, A. M., "Results of SHF Radiometric Sounding of Ocean Areas With Different Temperature and Salinity Values" 35 Rayzer, V. Yu. and Sharkov, Ye. A. "Spectral and Polarization Characteristics of SHF Radiation af Foam Formations" 39 Andreyev, B. M., Vinogradov, V. V. and Pomytkin, B. A. "Measurement of Micro- scale Elements of Waves and Foam in Microwave Investigations of the Sea Sur- face" 43 Lyushvin, P. V. "Determination of Wind Velocity at Water Surface Using Measure- ments of Microwave Radiation of the Earth-Atmosphere System" 4~ Bogoro dski~?, V. V., Darovskikh, A. N., Martynov, Ye. A. and Spitsyn, V. A., "Results of Experiment With Joint Use of IR and Microwave Radiometers for Remote Determination of the Characteristics of Sea Ice" 51 Nikitin, P. A. "Microwave Radiation of Sea Ice" 57 Measuz'ements in Infrared Range Paramonov, A. I. "Investigation of Temporal Variability of Heat Exchange of Seas in the Eastern Arctic With the Atmosphere by the IR Radiometry Method" 61 30 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE 4NLY Visnevskiy, A. A. "Use of IR Radiometry in Investigations of Far Eastern Seas" (Annotation) 6~ LaseY Methods Rokotyan, V. Ye. "Asymptotic Investigation of Laser Pulses Reflected From Sea Surface" (Annotation) 68 Korchagina, S. F., Kravtsov, A. L., Lezhen, A. S. and Khalturin, V. I. "Passi- bility of Determining the Concentration of Sea Hydrosol by Remote Laser Methods" (Annotation) , 69 Torgovichev, V. A., Kr3volanov, V. F., Klimova, T. N., Maslov, V. Yu. and Nefedov, G. Ye. "Remote Detection and Identification of Sea Contamination - by Petroleum From Fluorescence Spectra" F9 Lezhen, A. S. and Urikova, N. V. "Use of Statistical Tests Method for Computing Reflectivity of Ocean Irradiated by Laser Radiation" (Annotation) 74 Space and Aerial Surveys in Optical Range Drabkin, V. V. and Monosov, M. L. "Movements and Drift of Ice at Head of Gulf of Finland Applicable to Hydraulic Construction Problems (Using Ma.terials From an Aerial Photographic Survey) 75 Vanyushin, G. P. "Experience in Interpreting Zones of Increased Biological Pro- ductivity Using Multizonal Space Images of the Water Medium" 7~8 Yegorikhin, Ye. D. and Filatova, T. N. "Some Results of Measurements of Currents in Lakes and Reservoirs From an Aircraf t" (Annotation) 83 Mikhaylov, V. A. and Usachev, V. F. "Use of Analog-Digital Apparatus for the In- terpretation of Aerospace Information" 84 ~ Ultrasonic Methods Seregin, N. I. and Kalmykov, A. A. "Influence of Spatial Averaging on the Ac- curacy in Measuring the Wave Prof ile by a Sonar ~~ave Recorder" 88 Nekhonov, N. A., Kalmykov, A. A., Kirpa, Yu. I. and Vazhenin, V. G. "Compara- tive Analysis of Use of Electromagnetic and Acoustic Oscillations for Ship- board Sonar Wave Recorders" (Annotation) 91 Aleksandrov, A. P., Vayndruk,.Z. S. and Narodnitskiy, G. Yu. "Some Results of Measurements of the Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of the Sea Surface by the Aeroacoustic Method" 92 Narodnitskiy, G. Yu. "Information Content of Amplitude Characteristics of Scat- tering by Sea Surface With Local Irradiation" ~ 97 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Methodological Problems of Noncontact Measurements Dotsenko, S. V., Nelepo, B. A. and Salivon, L. G. "Optimum Calibration in Ramote Sounding of Ocean" 101 Dotsenko, S. V. and Nedovesov, A. N. "Reconstruction of the Averaged Field From Satellite Measurements" 105 Timofeyev, Yu. M. and Trifonov, M. I. "Influence of Some Factors on Accuracy of Satellite Method for Determining Temperature of the Underlying Surface" 109 Kats, A. V. and Spevak, I. S. "Reconstruction of Sea Wave Spectra From Measure- ments With a Moving Sensor" 113 Volynskaya, N. N. and Kon'kov, I. F. "Problems in Condensing Oceanographic In- formation in Remote Measurements" ~ 117 COPYRIGHT: Gosudarstvennyy okeanograficheskiy institut (Leningradskoye otdel- eniye), 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/85 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040015-6 FOR ORFICIAL USE ONLY _ UDC 551.46 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS 0~' RANDOM OCEANOLOGICAL FIELDS Leningrad SPEKTRAL'NYY ANALIZ SLUCHAYNYKH OKEAIdOLOGICHESI:IKH POLEY in Russian 1981 (signed to press 30 Jan 81) pp 2-4 [Annotation and table of contents frpm monograph "Spectral Analysis of Random ~ Oceanological Fields'!, by Konstantin Vasil'yevich Konyayev, responsible editor K. D. Sabinin, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Gidrometeoizdat, 1360 copies, 206+ page~] [Text] Annotation. This book contains a systematic exposition of multidimensional - spectral analysis and its oceanological applications. Traditional and some special procedures for the collection and processing of data are presented, including re- cently developed autoregression methods ensuring a high resolution. The errors in spectral evaluations and some fundamental limitations of the analysis are discuss- ed. The book contains various examples of analysis of oceanological fields, such as synoptic eddies, internal and wind fields and fields of acoustic noise. The book is intended for oceanologists, meteorologists and other researchers and also ~for students at universities and other hydromete~rological institutes. Contents � Preface 5 Principal Annotations and Terms 8 Introduction. Random Field and Its Correlation Function and Energy Spectrum.....10 Chapter 1. Linear Evaluations of Spectrum of Random Process 17 1.1. Linear algorithms for data processing 17 1.2. Weighting and smoothing in analysis (of window) 20 1.3. Time-discrete analysis 26 1.4. Systematic and random errors in analysis and uncertainty relatiion....... 31 1.5. Piodel processes and spectra 37 1.6. Correlation matrix 39 Appendix. Some Properties of the Fourier Transform 42 Chapter 2. Measurement of Field Spectrum 48 2.1. Features of multidimensional analysis 48 2.2. Computation and representation of space-time spectxum 52 33 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044015-6 FOR OFFlCIAL USE ONLY 2.3. Areal distrihution of sensors 59 2.4. Movement of sensors 67 2.5. Reconstruction of true spectrum from measured spectrum 73 Chapter 3. Analysis of Incomplete Data .................................o...... 78 3.1. Field sections and spectral projections 78 3.2. Analysis of radar image of wave-covered sea surface 79 3.3. Analysis of vertical profiles of current velocity field 81 3.4. Aperture synthesis 84 Chapter 4. Interference Systems of Sensors 89 4.1. Field projections and spectral sections 89 ~ 4.2. Measurement of angular spectrum of short wind waves 94 4.3. System with unambiguity with respect to direction of wave movement.... 98 Chapter 5. Measurement of Spectrum From Two Field Sections 101 5.1. Algorithm for processing sections 101 5.2. Properties of evaluation of spectrum 107 ~ 5.3. I4easurement of wind waves by two moving sensors 110 5.4. T-shaped distribution of sensors in horizontal plane 114 Chapter 6. Spectral Evaluations Using Few Parameters 118 6.1. Simple models of spectrum 118 6.2. Gradient measurements of angular spectrum 121 Chapter 7. Autoregression Evaluations of Spectrum of Random Series............ 127 7.1. Autoregression series and maximum entropy~condition 127 7.2. Data processing algorithms 130 7.3. Choice of length of "whitening" filters 134 7.4. Properties of autoregression evaluations 137 7.5. Uncerr_~inty relation and complementarity principle in analysis........ 144 Chapter 8. A~storegression Evaluations of Field Spectrum 148 8.1. Data processing algorithms 148 8.2. Examples of field autoregression analysis 152 8.3. Choice of reference sensor 167 Chapter 9. Features of Analysis of Vector Fields 171 9.1. Vector fields......., . 171 172 9.2. Expansion of velocity�vector.into.Cartesian�components 9.3. Expansion of velocity vector into rotational components 175 9.4. Spectral description of synoptic eddies 180 Chapter 10. Coherence of Temporal Variations and Spatial Spectrum 181 181 10.1. Coherence and coherence scale 193 - 10.2. Coherence measurement Summary. Principal Ideas and Methods of Spectral Analysis 197 Bibliography 201 Index 206 COPYRIGHT: ~idrometeoizdat, 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/86 34 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040015-6 FOR ORF7CIAL USE ONLY 1 UDC 681.325 MONOGRAPH ON INTERFACE FOR PROGRArIl~BLE INSTRUMEN'i~ IN SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATING EXPERIMENTS Moscow INTERFEYS DLYA PROGRAMMIRUYEilYKH PRIBOROV V SISTEMAKH AVTOMATIZATSII EKSPER- IMENTA in Russian (signed to press 19 Mar 81) pp 2-5, 261-262 [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from monograph "Interface for Pro- ~rammable Instruments in Systems for Automating Experiments", by Nikolay Ivanovich Gorelikov, Aleksandr Nikolayevich Domaratskiy, SergFy Nikolayevich Domaratskiy, ~ Vitaliy Alekseyevich Liskin, Nikolay Vasil'yevich Pc~penl:o and Leonid Semenovich Sitnikov, responsible editor L. S. Sitnikov; doctor of technical sciences, Izdat- el'stvo "Nauka", 4250 copies, 263 pages] [Text]~Annotation. This monograph is devoted to the interfaces used in ensuring an orderly exchange of information between self-contained measurement instruments, peripheral equipment and an electronic computer. The authors give a description of the IEC BUS interface, the basis for which was the HP-1B interface of the Hewlett- Packard Company for programmable measurement instruments. The interface functions and the controlling sequences are described in a high-level language. A description of the algorithms for the exchange of infor~aation between instruments along IEC BUS lines is given. Also examined are examples of the practical realization of inter- face elements for different instruments, an electronic computer and peripheral equipment, as well as problems relating to the construction of data measurement systems based on the described interface. ~ Introduction. The intensification and increased cost of scientific research is giv- ~ - ing rise to an insistent need for creating systems for automating experiments. The principal purposes of such systems are the automated collection, registry, process- ing and display of information, and in case of necessity, also monitoring of the experiment, which assumes the integration of ineasurement, recording and monitoring instruments into a unified complex. It is most effective to creata systems for the automation of an experiment on the basis of a combining of instruments of a uni- fied standard information line, which assumes a modular construction o.f the system and application of the programmed control principle. Recently considerable efforts have been made in this direction and a number of standards have been proposed, the best known of which is the KAMAK ~tandard. The KAMAK standard has come into the broadest use both in the automation of scientific research and in industry in those cases when the need arises for creating ac~tomation systems, including an electronic computer, and having a variable makeup of ineasurement converters and sensors, input and output devices for experiment~al data, measurement instruments and peripheral equipment. ~Iowever, the experience with use of the KAMAK standard 35 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY accumulated up ~.o the present time makes it possible to note a number of limita- - tions characteristic for it, the most important of which is a considerable excess of working elements, in many cases unjustifiable in those applications where there ~ is no need for the maximum speed. The most suitable standard for eonstructing auto- mation systems with a limited range of ineasurement and control equipment is a stan- dard which would make it possible to employ in the system any instruments, includ- ing those produced by industry and at a particular moment not adapted t~ systems application. It goes without saying that not one interface is ideal or identically well suited for satisying the many frequently mutually exclusive requirements. Nevertheless, the standard of the Hewlett-Packa.rd Company, serving as the basic standard for the International Electrotechnical Commission for the interface for programmalile instruments, makes possible the successful solution of most of the problems involved in creating measurement and control systems having rather broad functional possibilities. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in- " terface ensures the combining of instruments into systems with their connection to d single standard information line. A great advantage of this standard is the ab- of restrictions on instrument designs and assurance of the possibility of connection of these instruments, with or without sma.ll modifications, to virtually ~ any instruments produced by industry. The merits of the IEC interface are revealed clearly in those cases when the user (or developer) is faced with the one-time task of creating a system for automation of an experiment (or test svstem) and there is neither the time nor~money for special development work on such a system. In such cases the IEC standard connecting element makes possible the easy joining together of ineasurement, registry and control instruments, electronic computer and peripheral equipment in any combination in the desired system. The IEC interface has now come into extensive use throughout the world. Such well- known firms as "Solartron," "DEC," "DGC" and "Honelway" include the standard IEC bus in their hardware. It can be said with assurance that the IEC interface will find extensive use in our country as well. However, its adoption is made difficult due to the absence of publications containing not only a detailed description of the standard, but also examples of the practical embodiment of its equipment and programming devices. This book intends, insofar as possible, to fill this gap and facilitate the speediest possible introduction of the IEC interface into practical Soviet instrument making. The book is intended for a broad range of specialists, especially instrument makers and the developers of systems for the automation of an experiment and industrial test systems. The book can also be useful to special- ists in the field of automatic control sqstems, engineers and scientific workers directly engaged in experimentation in the most different fields of science (phys- ics, chemistry, geophysics and oceanology, biology and medicine, etc.) and stu- dents in the corresponding fields of specialization at colleges and universities. Figure 1 is a key which will be of assistance in working with the book and will help in saving time when studying the IEC interface. Work on writing of the book was divided among the authors in the following way: Chapter 1 was written by N. I. Gorelikov, A. ~T. Domaritskiy and L. S. Sitnikov, Chapter 2 by A. N. Doma.ritskiy, S. N. Domaritskiy and N. V. Popenko, Chapter 3 by V. A. Liskin and N. V. Popenko, Chapter 4 by A. N. Doma.ritskiy, S. N. Domar- itskiy and L. S. Sitnikov, Chapter 5 by S. N. Domaritskiy, Chapter 6 by N. I. Gor- elikoy, V. A. Liskin and N. V. Popenko. Chapters 1 and 4 were edited by N. V. _ Popenko. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLV The authors would like to express appreciation to A. G. Blagodarev, M. M. Borkov- skiy, K. V. Grinberg, V. A. Merzlyak and P. V. Shcherbakov for participation in the development of a number of devices described in the monograph, and to L. I. Lyut~bmudrov and G. I. Mesyatsev for a series of valuable comments on the presenta- tion of the material and finalizing of the work. ~ 9~ Novono � 16) lfmo B~~ ? Vumoumt 1) 10~ BBedeHUe ' /lodpobnee � 11~ 14) ~ do Pa~d ~ Z ub uNmep~erice ~ do Po~d. T.1-2.4;2.6;33, 2 AdnuHUCm amo , d.4 ; d.5 � J.6 ) P P u~ npuOupoOybr~ 17~ nem I . nem12 ) 15 ) ~ ' do od uNmep~euce ne u~e. ~ do Pa~d. ZI-?.4;1.6; 3~ Poa~odomvuK npu3opoE ? fn. l; poad. J l; J� 2 putiNeix n~u0opo~ 8~ 3 7; J 8 xem ~ Nem 4) Po~padomvuK cucmeM aBmo- 9 d~ ~ y~~~51~~~ ~~u~n~u6o oX pN~~~ ~ do Pa3d~4;S.4 nomwouuu 3KCnepuNenma P P 19) xem Nem ~ do Po~d.J.1;1.1;,i.1;31; o cucmeMO~ oOmnMOmu- do Pa3d 4.4;4.5;4.6;51; S~ /lons~o0omens y~~ S~~ z~.6 ~vuuu 3KrnrpuMeymo � 5..1; t~. 6� nem ' 20) nem � da Po~d. /.1;t~.1;4.1,'4.?, p n ot annu o~oNUU 9 do Po3d. 4.7; 4.5; 4,6; 6~ /lpozpanMUCm ? ZA S ~ P P 21 > rn. S . nem Nem . do Pa~d. 1.1;1.2'1.l'J.I; - CmydeNm me,~NUVecKOio B93o 7 y~. S'~ ' od uHmep~euce M9K ? Po~d. I.J; L 4; tn1 , 22~ Nem Nem 8~ NNmepecyroruuucn 7 d~ Poad. 1.1 me,~HUKOU yumodmie 2 3 ~oK~avenue Om7a~ um 13 � � ymryuA ~ . 24 Ironey . Fig. l. Key to book. KEY: 1) Who are you? 13) End reading 2) Administrator 14) Section ' 3) Instrument developer 15) Chapter 4) Developer of systems for op- 16) In greater detail timizing experiment 17) On interface of ineasurement instru- 5) User ments 6) Programmer 18) On interface of peripheral devices 7) Student at technical school 19) On microprocessor devices 8) Person interested in technology 20) On systems for automating experiment 9) Beginning 21) On programming 10) Read introduction 22) On IEC interrace 11) Yes 23) Read conclusion 12) No 24) End 37 _ FOR O~'FICIAL USE 01e1LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , Contents - Introduction 3 Cltapter 1. Principles of Interface for Programmable Instruments 6 1.1. Standard interface in systems for automating experiment 6 1.2. Interface of International Electrotechnical Commission for programmable instruments 20 1.3. Logical organization of interface for programmable instruments.......... 24 1.4. Electrotechnical and mechanical characteristics 39 Chapter 2. Algorithms for Interaction of Interface Functions 50 - 2.1. IDELA language for describing logical organization of interface......... 50 2.2. Algorithms for instrument-receiver operation 58 2.3. ~Algorithms for instrument-source operation 68 ~ 2.4. Broadening of possibilities of LO and TO functions in instrument complexes and controllers 81 2.5. Al~orithms for instrument-controller operation 81 2.6. Algorithms for exchange of information along line 93 Chapter 3. Programmable Instruments for Systems for Automating Experiments.... 101 3.1. Peculiarities of design of instruments with allowance for requirements ~ for systems use 101 3.2. Choice of interface functions for standard-produced instruments....... 112 3.3. Universal set of interface functions for instrument complexes......... 117 3.4. Scheme for realization of interface functions 126 3.5. Interface schemes for voltmeters and multimeters 131 3.6. Interface schemes for calibrators and programmable power sources...... 137 3.7. Interface schemes for storage units on intermediate carriers.......... 141 3.8. Interface schemes for photoreadout units 145 Chapter 4. Controllers 148 4.1. General characteristics and types of control.lers 148 - 4.2. Set of inter.face functions of controllers 153 4.3. Universal manual instrument-controller 157 4.4. Contro~llers based on memory units with intermediate carrier........... 160 _ 4.5. Controllers as part of small cor~puters 164 - 4.6. Controllers as part of minicomputers 170 Chapter 5. Features of Programmed Support 184 5.1. Nomenclature and makeup of programmed support 184 5:2. Control of line using programmable calculator 186 5.3. Programmed support of controllers as part of minicomputers............ 198 5.4. Programmed support of microprocessor instru~ents 218 Chapter 6. Systems for Automation of Experiment Based on Programmable Instruments 229 6.1. Autonomous systems for automating experiment 229 6.2. Hydrophysical sounding complex with programmable calculator........... 233 6.3. Multipurpose system for collecting data with programmable calculator.. 235 6.4. System for determining nonlinearity of frequ~ncy deviation of generators with oscillating frequency 238 - 38 ; FOR ~FF[CIAL USE ()NLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 ~ FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY 6.5. Industrial test systems based on use of calculators 241 6.6. Shipboard systems for automating experiment 247 Conclusion 257 Bibliography 258 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", I981 5303 CSO: 1865/68 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040015-6 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY UDC 551+550.3(267-26.03) MONOGRAPH ON BOTTOM GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS IN EASTERN PART OF INDIAPi OCEAN Moscow GEOLOGIYA I GEOFIZIKA DNA VOSTOCHNOY CHASTI INDIYSKOGO OKEANA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 26 Jun 81) pp 2, 254-255 [Annotation and tab].e of contents from monograph "Bottom Geology and Geophysics of the Eastern Part of the Indian Ocean,".responsible editors P. L. Bezrukov (deceased), corresponding mzmber, USSR Academy of Sciences, and Yu. P. Neprochnov, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Institut okeanologii imeni P. P. Shirshov, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 650 copies, 256 pages] [Text] Annotation. This monograph, based on materials of the 54th and 58th voyages of the scientific research ship "Vityaz'," gives the results of multisided geolog- ical and geophysical investigations carried out in 1973 in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean. On the basis of an analysis of.the collected materials the monograph gives a description of bottom relief, the magnetic and gravitational fields, struc- ture of the sedimentary layer and deep structure of the earth's crust in the East Indian Ridge, Central, West Australian and Cocos Basins and in the Sunda Trench. Materials on petrography, petrochemistry and geochemistry of the magmatic rocks in the region are systemactized. The new geological and geophysical data are compared with data from d~zp-wat~r drilling. The tectonics and history of geological devel- opment of the eastern parC of the Indian Ocean are considered. The monograph is of interest for specialists in the field of marine geology and geophysics and also for college students. Figures 99, tables 14, references 233. Contents . Introduction (P. L. Bezrukov and Yu. P. Neprochnov 3 Chapter 1. Geological and Seismic Inves~igations on the 54th Voyage of the Scientific Research Ship "Vitqaz (P. L. Bezrukov) 7 1. ~Objectives of expedition 7 2. Makeup of expedition 7 3. Experimental method 8 4. Raute of expedition 8 5. Volume of work carried out in Indian Ocean 11 6. Some scientific results 11 I~0 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044015-6 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONGY Chapter 2. Multisided Geological-Geophysical Investigations on 58th Voyage of Scientific Research Ship "Vityaz "'~(Yu..P. Neprachnoy) 14 1. Objectives of expedition 14 2. Makeup of expedition ~15 3. Experimental method 15 4. Route of expedition 17 S. Volume of work done 26 6. Principal scientific results ...........................e.................. 26 Chapter 3. Bottom Geomorphology (L. K. Zatonskiy and N. N. Turko) 30 1. Underwater margins of continents 30 2. Sunda island arc 32 - 3. Ocean floor 36 4. Summary 52 Chapter 4. Geomagnetic Field (A. A. Shreyder and V. I. Trukhin) 54 1. Introduction 54 2. Features of anomalous magnetic fields 56 3. Interpretation of data from component magnetic survey 68 4. Summary 71 Chapter 5. Gravity Field (A. G. Gaynanov) 73 1. History and method of research 73 2. Analysis of anomalous field 75 3. Interpretation of anomalies 81 Chapter 6. Structure of Sedimentary Layer and Basement 82 1. Brief review of preceding studies (Yu. P. Neprochnov) 82 2. Method and apparatus for continuous seismic profiling (L. R.�Merklin.and.� Yu. P. Neprochnov) 83 3. East Indian Ridge (V. Ye. Milanovskiy, L. R. Merklin and Yu. P. Neprochnov) 85 4. Central Basin (L. R. Merklin) 108 5. Cocos Basin (0. V. Levchenko) 116 6. West Australian and North Australian Basins (Yu. P. Neprochnov and V. Ye. Milanovskiy) 125 7. Sunda Trench (0. A. Levchenko, L. R. Merklin and Yu. P. Neprochnov)....... 128 8. Map of Thicknesses of Sedimentary Cover (Yu. P. Neprochnov and V. Ye. Milanovskiy) 138 . Chapter 7. Structure of Earth's Crust and Seismicity 140 1. Extent of study of eastern part of Indian Ocean by deep seismic sounding (Yu. P. Neprochnov) 140 2. Apparatus and method (Yu. P. Neprochnov and V. V. Sedov) 142 3. Results of deep seismic sounding on 54th voyage of scientific research ship "Vityaz (Yu. P. Neprochnov) 144 4. Results of deep seismic sounding in polygon V-58-1 (I. N. Yel'nikov, Yu. P. Neprochnov and N. A. Shishkina) 146 - 5. Results of deep seismic sounding in polygon V-58-II (A. F. Neprochnova and V. V. Sedov) 151 6. Comparison of results of deep seismic sounding (N. A. Shishkina).......... 158 7. Seismological investigations (V. V. Sedov and L. N. Rykunov) 163 41 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter 8. Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks (G. L. Kashintsev, G. B, Rudnik ~ and S. F. Sobolev) 166 1. Magmatic rocks 168 2. Associations of magmatic rocks and their relationship to tectonic struc- tures 185 3. Metamorphic rocks 189 4. Stages in formation of magmatic and metamorphic rocks 193 Chapter 9. Preglacial Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks (N. S. Skornyakov.a, V. N. Sval'nov, P. L. Bezrukov, V. B. Kurnosov, V. V. Mukhina, S. B. Kruglikova, 0. B. Dmitriyenko and M. S. Barash 195 l. Sediments and sedinentary rocks of East Indian Ridge............ 195 2. Sediments and sedimentary rocks of basins in eastern part of Indian Ocean 219 ~ Chapter 10. Tectonics and History of Geological Development 225 1. Review of existing hypotheses (A. A. Shreyder) 225 2. Complex geological-geophysical characteristics of principal structures (Yu. P. Neprochnov and A. A. Shreyder) 230 3. Tectonic map (V. Ye. Milanovskiy, L. R. Merklin and Yu. P. Neprochnov) 235 4. Some problems in geological history (G. L. Kashintsev)......... 238 , Summary (P. L. Bezrukov and Yu. P.. Neprochnov) 240 . Key to Phototables......~.... 242 Bibliography 244 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel~stvo "Nauka", 1981 5303 CSO: 1865/70 , 1~2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.463.2:551.596.1:532.517.4 S0~]ND ABSORPTION IN TURBULENT MEDIUM Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUIC SSSR: FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA in Russian Vol 17, No 11, Nov 81 (manuscript received 22 Dec 80) pp 1217-1219 [Article by V. P. Kuznetsov and A. V. Berezutskiy, Institute of Oceanology, USSR Academy of Sciences] - [Text] Turbulence exerts a great influence on many processes in the ocean [1], and in particular, turbulent fluctuations..of the speed of sound and current velocities lead to fluctuations of the amplitude and phase of waves passing through the medium. The propagation of acoustic waves in a turbulent medium is accompanied by the pheno- menon of scattering of waves on random inhomogeneities of the medium arising as a result of nonlinear interactions of the principal types.of movements of the fluid or normal hydrodynamic modes: potential, eddy and entropic. The most general anal- ysis of such interactions cvas presented in [2]. A great number of studies have been devoted to the development of a theory.of sound scattering in a turbulent medium, but this problem was solved most precisely in [3-5]. As was noted in [5], turbulence exerts an influence on the propagation of acoustic waves in two ways. ~'irst, the presence of turbulent temperature fluctua- tions leads to fluctuations of the speed of sound. Second, acoustic waves are en- trained by movements of the medium and therefore turbulent movement introduces ad- uitional random distortions in the field of the acoustic wave. In a general case. the acoustic wave itself perturbs tliis turbulence. However, in existing theories the reverse eff ect of sound on the eddy velocity field is usually neglected, that is, an approximation of the stipulated turbulence is considered, and therefore the energy exchange between the potential and eddy modes is not taken into account. It is obvious that in the approximation of the stipulated turbulence the processes of inelastic scattering of the acoustic wave or the proceases of sound absorption by turbulence are ignored. In j6] an expression was derived for the decrement of sound absorption in a homo- geneous and isotropic turbulent medium: _ . _ _ _ _rH~v~2L_!' . ~1~ ~~here V is the eddy component of the velocity of fluctuating movement, L is the ex- ternal turbulence scale, M= Vc~ 1 is 'th~ Mach number. This absorption was caused by the transfer of the energy of perturbed eddy movement in the wave number spectrum; � . 43 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY it predominates in t'.ie case of large Raylei~h numhers of turbulent movement. In the case of small Reynolds numbers, characteristic for microscale oceanic turbulence, developing in interlayers with a fine structure of hydrophysical fields, viscous eddy scattering is most important. The expression for the decrement of sound ab- sorption in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, caused by viscous attenuation of the eddy, will have the form ~ [B = vis~ous J r.=v~r=L-=, (2) where~Y is kinematic viscosity. The processes of sound absorption by turbulerice be- , gin to play an appreciable role under the condition of smallness of the turbulence scale in comparison with the wavelength of sound, that is, with kL < 1. It is im- portant that both expressions of the absorption decrement (1) and (2) are not de- pendent on the sound frequency. In [6, 7] the sound-eddy interaction was examined within the framework of a single formal scheme the Wild diagram technique for the canonical equations of mo- tion of an ideal fluid. It is clear that in adhering to th'is scheme it is impos- sible to obtain effects related to dissipation and therefore below we have written a related system of equations describing the dynamics of the potential and eddy modes in a dissipative medium. The authors of j6, 7] derived a nonlinear canonical ~ transform for variables in which the eddy and potential movements of the fluid are separated to the greatest degree. Since the concepts of potential and eddy move- ments of a f luid are a purely kinematic characteristic of the flow, within the . framework of hydrodynamic equations it is possible, with mathematical rigor and soundness, to separate completely the eddy and potential modes, representing the full field of velocities in the foria of the sum of the eddy and potential compon- ents: - . - - , ~ u(t, r)=~'(t, r)-o4'(t, r), div\'(i, r)=0. ~3) , In these variables the system of equations describing only the interactions of the types eddy-eddy and eddy-sound (that is, linear sound and an eddy of finite ampli- tude) can be represented in the followin~ form: Z _ a. a~~ - ~o=e~ = a bn~+e-~ -a vat~p - 2va ~ . (4) ~7r= at [ drQ 8z~ ( ~sa ~ ~ ~ a ` fff a~ a 1 ~ - - v0 ~ v~=~; +~~a 1 ea0 _ - - ~i~avb) J , at ~ a=n a=a (5) where G= 1 r 4~+;+x 1 11 Po L 3 \ ~o ~r 1 J is the coefficient of sound attenuation, 'V = I? /P0, _ ava __ava - aZ , ~ao = - - - ; e~a=a~a-~-~ ; a=, a=Q a={ a=a ~ ~-1 is an inte~ral operator, the reverse of the Laplacian, Xi are the components of the external forces, cp is the speed of sound. ~ _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040015-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The right-hand side of the wave equation (4) contains terms describing the pheno- menon of the dissipation of an acoustic wave, radiation and scattering of waves by the eddy f ield of velocity. This equation (4) is similar (with an accuracy to replacement of the variables) to the wave equation in studies [3, 5, 8]. Equation (5) differs from the known equation of turbulence theory [9] only by the presenc~ of the term e a~a~ia X p, describing the effect of sound on the eddy component. Assume that - - - - - V(t, r)=~"(t, r)+bV(t~ r), ~V'~~~5~'~, ~ (6) where V'(t, r) is the unperturbed eddy field of velocity satisfying equation (5) in the absence of sound, that is, with 0; b V(t, r) is the perturbation of the eddy field of velocity caused by the presence of sound. Substituting expression (6) into the system of equations (4) and (5), linearizing and omitting the effects of generation and scattering of sound in an unperturbed eddy field V'(t, r), in the case of small Reynolds numbers of turbulent movement we obtain the following system of equations for ~(t,r) and ~ V(t,r): a=~ a a= ac - c�-�~ ac ~ be~+ze-' a= a~ ~vaave), ~ Z a 4 a � a~ ~g~ I at - v~ 1 bV~~A~aeno a= � \ / 0 Here and in the text which follows the prime on V(t, r) is omitted. Expressing the perturbation of the eddy field ~ V(t,r) from equation (8) and sub- stituting into (7), we obtain the wave equation aZ~ a - - - az a~ z i - co 6~ _ - b~~+20- VaL~p,e{~ - , ~9~ ae= . ac , asa az, a=; We will represent the wave field in the form of the sum of the mean ~cP~ (coherent part) and scattered tP' fields: ~(r, r~=c~~+~', cW'>=o. (10) Averaging equation (10) for the set of inhomogeneities and assuming that