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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440019-2 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/ 10373 ~ 8 March 1982 USSR Re ort p AGRICULTURE ~ CFOUO 4/82a~ FBIS FOREIdGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 NOTE JP~S publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Textj or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or ex~racted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way repr~sent the poli- cies, views or at.titude~; of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040019-2 F( , JPRS L/10373 8 March 1982 - USSR REPORT AGRICULTURE ~ G~ouo 4/sz1 ' . CONTENTS 1 LIVESTOCK FEID PROCURENIENT ~ Strengthening, Modernizing Liveatock Feed Production (KORMOPROIZVODSTVO, Jan 82) 1 ~ LIVESTOCK Acceleration of Rates of Egg Production Called For ~ ~ (V. Annenkov; PTITSEVODSTVO, Dec 81) 6 ~ AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION i ~ ' Develo~ent of Food Progrem Within APK Syate~ Discussed (Yuriy Ivanovich Bystrakov, Mikhail Ani~imovich Pol,yakav;. I ~ VOPROSY EKONOMIKI,. Dec 81) 13 ~I ~ ~i ~ . - a - [III - USSR - 7 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . . LIV:~STOCK FE&D PROCUREM~:NT STRENGTHENING, I~DERNIZING LIVESTOCK~FEED PRADUCTION . Moscow itOlt'MOPROIZVODSTVO in Russian No 1, Jan 82 pp 1-3 . LArticle: "Strengthening and Developing the Feed Base for Animal Husbandry_'/ LText/ One of the chi.ef conditions for solving the taske aseigned by the 26th CPSU Congress for increaeing the production of animal husbandry product$ is that of creating a atable feed base at each kolkhoz and sovkhoz, converting feed production over to an industrial basis and attaching a branch character to auch production. . During the 1976-1980 period, the development of the co~~untry's feed base wr~s carried out by means of improvements in the structure of forage crop plantings, by an increase in the productivity of these cropa, by a more extenaive introduction into production operations of progreasive techaologi~s and methode for procuring and atoring feed and by increasing the production of mix~~d feeds and industrially produced feed additives. During the Tenth Five-Ysar'Ylan; the average annual expendituxe of feed increased by 9.2 percent above, the figure for the Ninth Five- Year Plan. However, on the whole the growth in feed production did not satisty the increasing requirements of animal husbandry, either from the standpoint of quantity or quality. The ratea of growth ia the cropping power of the principal forage cropa did not co~respond to those assigne~l in the tasks and a substantial increase was not achieved in the productivity of the natural haying and pa8ture lands. Ia recert, years the conaumption of concentrate8 has increased at higher rates, but at the same time the proportion of coarse and succulent feed within the overall structure of expenditures has not increased to the degree required. ~ The ~,ecisions handed down during the July (1978) Plenum of the CC CPSU called for a considerable increeae during the ~:leventh Five-Year Plan in the production of coarse and succulent feeds and improvementa in their quality. In carrying out this - Cask, priority importance will be attached to making maximum use of all available potential and reserves. Mare intense ~?ork muat be aarried out in connection with intra-farm specialization in feed production, crea~ing feed produ~tion subunits at the kolkhozes~and sovkhozes, with land areas, equipment ancl personnel aseigned to specialized feed production departmenta, sections and bri.gadea and further improvements muat be carried out in the control atructure. The work of creating epecialized farms and inter-farm asaociations for the producti.on of marketable feeda must also be continued. ' . Some chief concerns in feed production which ~ust be addressed in the next few years include achieving highly efficient uae of each hectare of feed land, 1 � FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 Fax or�r�luiai. us~ ornY raising the culture of branch management and sharply increasing the cropping power of forage crops on arable land and the productivity of the natural haying and pasture landa. The principal trend with regard to increaeing tiie production of feed on arable land~s continues to be that of improving the atructur~ of the areas assigned for forage crops. Special attention must be concentrated on expanding the plantings of - perem~ial leguminous grasses alfalfa, clover and others and increasing their proportion in the structure of mown perennial grass areas. By 1985, with a neglig~ble increase in the overall perennial grass area, the sowings of alfaZfa must be expanded to 9 million hectares, clovex and sainfoin to 10.5 million hectares. The work associated with reducing the sowing areas for annual cereal grasses should be continu~d. Taking into account the soil-climatic conditions of th~e olbasts, krays and republics, grass mixtures of pulse and annual cereal grasses should ideally be used mainly as intermediate and occupied fallow crops and also ~ within the green conveyer system. Under the conditions imposed by concentration and specialization of agricultural production, great importance is attached to introducing specialized feed crop rotation plans into operations, with consideration being given to the parti~ular animal husbandry trend at a farm. With the mastering of these plans, feed production on arable land can become the foundation for feed production and its further intensification. Silage crops, which annually occupy I8-19 million hectares, warrant special - att~ntion. An industrial technology must be introduced on a wide scale into kolkhoz and sovkhoz practice far growing corn for silage, with ears of milky-waacy _ ripeness and involving the use of highly effective herbicidea and early :{nening and mid-sea~~n ripening corn varieties and hybrids. Duriag the current five-year plan, a aharp increase must be realized in the e�fectiveness of use of~reclaimed land in behalf of forage crops, so as to ensure - that these lands serve as a guaranteed source for obtaining feed. Improvements in the structure ef the areas under craps, through an expansion of the plantings of perennial leguminous grasses (with irrig~?tion Co 76 percent and on drained lands to 68 percent), corn, food roota, the application of optimum fertilizer norms and observance of th~ irrigation regimes will make it possible to double, by 1985, the gross yield of feed obtained from reclaimed lands, compared to the average annual level achieved during the Tenth Five-Year Plan. Expansion of the sowing areas using new and highly productiv~e varieties of forage crops and grasses offers great opportunitiea for obtaining additional feed. Compared to 1980, the areas to Ue uaed for early ripening hybrids and varieties of corn during the current five-year plan must be increased by a factor of 2.5. Technologies will be introduced into production operations on a more extensive scale which will make it possible to obtain 2-3 forage crop yields annually on irrigated lands and in the zone of adequate moisture. The plans call for the area of intermediate sowings of forage crops under irrigation to be increased by twofold prior Co 1985. The sowings of early ripening mustard family crops (rape, oil-producing radishes, white mustard and others) must be expanded. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The creatton of a strong feed base is unthinkable in the absence of en intensification of the pasture-meadow econo~y and the extensive use of natural feed lands for agricultural purposes. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes are carrying Qut a grandi~se long-term program for mastering these lands and raising their productivity based upon the increasing potential of land reclamation, mechanization and the use of chemical processea. During the Bleventh Five-Year Plan, the plans call for a large volume of work to be carried out simed at radic~+lly improving the natural feed lands; creating irrigated haying and pasture lands, flooding pastures and developing catchwork irrigation. In addition to carrying out further work associated with improving haying and pasture lands, the attention of workers attached to kolkhozes, sovkhozes and agricultural organs must also be concentrated on their effective utilization. A radical change must take place in the attitude towards the use of improved natural !feed lands, the area of which will increase to in excesa of=31 million hectares by 1985. The timely caxrying out of a camplex of ineasures for the tending and rational use of these lands will make it possible to increase the fodder qield by a factor of 2-3. A great amount of ~aork must be carried out during ~he current five-year plan aimed at introducing a technology for the multiple-cutting use of grass standa. This technology will be based upon applications of canplete fertilizer norms and harvesting of the grasses during the early phases of development. The use of this technology fn regions of adequate moisture will make it possible to carry out 3-4 cuttings of the grasses and, in the process, to raise the quality of the feed considerably. Forage crop areas located on flood plain lands require strict attention. Even with low expenditures for developing them in many regions of the c~untry, they can become a reliable source for obtaining coarse and succulent feeds. In addition to the further watering of pastures in the arid zone, more intense work must Ue carried out in connection with improving their ability to produce feed. In addition to taking advantage of .existing scientific and practical experience, it will also be necessary to expand the work volumes associated with introducing pasture rotations with two seasons of use and alCernation of *he spring and summer pastures. This will make it possible to raise their productivity by 20 percent, increase the areas to be used for planting pasture-protective saxaul strips and for the additional aowing of grasses and to intensify the campaign being wagect against the degradation of pastures. One of the chief problems in feed production continuea to be that of improving the quality of the feed and reducing losses during their procurement and storage. Considerable feed ~osses and a reduction in their quality are being tolerated as a result af the untimely harvesting of the forage crops. A a~.onth or longer is being spent in harvesting the sot~m and natural grasaes at kolkhozes and sovkhozes and only 30-40 percent of their areas are being cut down during the optimum periods. And indeed just one day's delay results in a 2 percent loss in feed units. When corn is cut down during earlier phases (prior to commenc~ment of milky-waxy _ ripeness of the grain), each hectare produces 25 fewer quintals of feed units. The yield of dry substance is especially low in the case of late ripening varieties and hybrids. . 3 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040019-2 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY The untimely harvesting of forage crops is the result mainly of failure to observe technological diacigline, the absence of operational control over the course of feed procurement operations, weak organization of labor and unsatisfactory preParation and use of the feeachievinticompletemand~efficientkuseeofathesentirees are confronted by the task of g pool of machines and raising their productivity priorroductivenequipmentfithisewill plan. Taking into account the deliveries of highly p make it possible to reduce the s8 andlforfsilagevest~o 9gdayseSOr~mor~ thanltwofold. working days, for haylage to An important reserve for increasing production and raising the quality of feed is that of introducing progressive technologies for the procurement and storaoe of feed. During the Eleventh Fhee~thodpofnfo ced ventilation~,eWillhincreasertoe55s~ presaed and prepared using t percent instead of 25 percent as was the case in 1980. A technology for the chemical preservation of green plants holds great prospects for the future. This technology is preaently being employed for preparing 7-8 million tons of silage. In 1985, assuLaing deliveries by t~hegchemiWillibeupossible8toipreserve 60cmillion preservativea in the plannad vol , tons of fodder. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes are sustaining considerable losses in feed nu8r~iee~cent owing to a lack of feed stnrehouses. In 1980, 40 percent of the silage, p of the haylage, 10 percent of the root crops and 8 percent of the hay were placed in storage in capital facilities. Despite a great volume of feed storehouse construction to be carried out during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, the requirements of the farms for such facili~iod must beiviewed as menimalhandtuseCmustrbetmade of volumes for the 1981-1985 pe all available potential and res~eg vkhozr completing the construction of feed storehouses at each kolkhoz an A g'reat amount of atte�:~ion ~u8usbandrven ~n 1980nionly 44elrpercent ofdthefforage use of forage grain in animal h y ortion was used in an inefficient graire was procesaed into mixed feed. '~he remaining p ' manner in aimple feed mixtures or in crushed form. Special importance is being aL�tached at the present time to organizing the production of animal husbandry products wiCh minimal expenditures of concentrates. Bvery attempt must be made to ensure that all grain allocaCedin additionursnaximumg used ix~ the form of mixed feed or full-value feed mixtures. ~ effort must be dfrected Cowards reducing the proportionrassgmeal andtvaluable waste by increasing the proportions in them of high quality g products from the food industry and agriculture. Experience has shown that Che proportion of non-grain canponents in mixed feeds can be raised to 40-50 percent, with no harm being caused to the productivity of the animals. In the process, rather Chan simply mixing var~iduction of~rich mixedtfeedsewhich wil.lebeebalancednin manner so as to ensure the pr terms of the required nutrients. The non-grain feed resources which our country has at its disposal, assuming their camplete use, could also cnake it possible to reduce the proportion of grain in mixed feeds. For example, when organizing the drying of beet pulp residue, malt res:due, brewing waste and potato pulp, it is poasible to obtain on an annual basis ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY no less than 6 million tons of valuable raw materials used in the production of mixed feeds. However, drying is being carried out presantly only in the case of ~ beet pulp residue, and only on a limited scale. Each year the animals are being fed large quantities of skim milk, whey and - buttermilk. When these products become readily available during the summer months, when no protein deficit is being experienced, they are expended in an irrational ' manner. The orga~ization of the drying of these products will make it possible to obtain 1-1.5 million additional tona of rich raw materials. An increase is required in the production of feed additives of animal origin. At the present time, slightly more t:han 50 kilograms of ineat-and-bone meal are being produced per ton of ineat, although this indicaCor could be considerably higher. Measures should be undertaken aimed at procesaing into feed meal all waate products obtained from the meat industry and making complete utilization of all slaughtered animals. In order to achieve rhythmic operations by the inter-farm, kollchoz and sov~hoz mixed feed enterprises and departments and uncanditional fulfillment of the production plans for mixed feeds and feed mixtures, the USSR Ministry of Procurements must undertake additional measures to enaure that the tasks for supplying agriculture with protein-vi~tamin additives are fully carried out. Special importance is attached to ensuring that USSR Gosplan, ~7SSR Minkhimprom LM~.nistry of the Chemical Industry/, USSR Minudobreniy /Ministry of Mineral_Fertilizer i Production/, USSR Minmedprom lMinistry of the Medi~al Industry/ and Glavmikrobioprom achieve fulfillment of all plans and are able to supply agriculture with additional ! quantities of mineral additives, microelements, vitamins and other biologically ~ ~ active subatances. ~ It is presently impasaible to solve the growing ta3ks in feed production in the ; absence of active scientific participation and influence. I � The task of scientiats consists of intensifying studies of a r~search nature, i expanding scientific work of an applied character and sharply increasing the volumes of completed scientific studies introduced into operations. All possib:e measures must be undertaken simed at raising the operational effectivenesa of i scientific institutes~in the area of feed production and strengthening their contacts with kolkhozes and sovkhozes. I ~ ~ The placing in operation of all available reserves for feed production, the use of modern methods and technologies for preparing feed and the raCional use of feed are ~ making it possible to raise the productivity of animal husbandry and to enaure the _ successful fulfillment of the animal huabandry production voluanes planned for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Kolos", "Kormoproizvodstvo", 1982 7026 ~ CSO: 1824/174 ~ 5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 MuR UwF'1CtAL USE ONLY LIVESTOCK ACCELERATION OF RATES OF EGG PRODUCTION CALLID FOR ~ Moscow PTITSEVODSTVO in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 2-5 [Article by V. Annenkov, first deputy chief of USSR Ptitseprom: "Accelerating the Rates of Intensification of Egg Production"] [Text] While implementing the party's agrarian policy, our country's poultry work- ers have done an immense amount of work in the past three decades for concentration ~ and intensification of productioa in the branch. Before the changeover of public poultry raising to an industrial basis it was main- ~ ly small kolkhoz and sovkhoz farms that engaged in egg production, and extensive methoc~s were used in the branch. The average production of eggs per hen on farms of thQ public sector amounted~to only 117 per laying hen, 80 percent of the eggs were obtained during the spring and sum~er period, and they were produced at a loss on the ma3ority of the farms. In 1964 the groas yield of eggs amounted to 26.7 bil- lion, including only 7 billion or 26 percent from the public sector. The per capi- ta egg production was 126. The radical re~cructuring of the branch began in keeping with the decisions of the March (1965i Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee and the decree of the CPSU Central Comm3,ttee 'and the USSR Council of Ministers, "On Organizing the Production of Eggs and Poultry Meat on an Industrial Basis," of 3 September 1964. During the time that has passed since then a specialized system of poultry raising farms has been creat- ~ ed (USSR Ptitseprom). Reconstruction of existing enterprises, and the construction of large new poultry farms, breeding plants and other reproduction facilities were ~ carried out systematically and consistently. 1965-198(! 13.5 billion rubles' worth of capital investments were made in the development of a production base for the branch, amounting to a total of 15.6 billion rubles. A total of 437 poultry ' farms for egg production were constructed or expanded, as were 75 breeding farms. Almost all of the specialized enterprises underwent technical :earmament. New ca- pacities to accomodate 110 million laying hens were put into o~eration. Large poultry farms for 300,000-600,000 and 1.0-1.5 millio~l head of industrial stock were - created. . The rapid.technica~l progress in the branch, the conaolidation of enterprises and the improvement of the volume and planning deciaions led to a change in the stand- ard designs of poultry farms. Reinforced concrete structures with plant readiness, ~ asbestoe cement, and panels f~ced with sheets of aluminum began to be used more 6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY extensively. All this made it possible t~ use industrial methods to construct spe- cialized enterprises and to sharply reduce the time periods for putting them into operation. The development and mass production of highly productive equipment and machinea for various purposes contribu~ed to the.technical rearmament of poultry raising, and this considerab ly raised the level of inechanization and automation of al.l technolo- gical processes without exception. Durin~ the years of the Tenth Five-Year Plan.they began series production of such highly efficient modern coop equipment as the~KBR-2 two-layer battery for group maintenance of hens that breed other hens for egg laying, and a three-layer battery ~ of the cascade type for raising poultry to repleuish the flock and main*_aining lay- ing hens of the industrial flbck (BIQ~I-3 and BKN-3). Their utilization makes it possible not only to consi~erably increase the density of the poultry per one square meter of floor of the chicken coop, to reduce labor expenditures and to increase la- bor productivity by 14-47 percent, but also to provide for operating the equipment automatically and to create optimal conditions for~keeping the poultry. . - As of 1 January 1981 on egg farms of the USSR Ptitseprom more than 98 percent of the laying hens of the industrial~flock,.almoet 99 percent of the young poultry for replenishing the flock and about 70 percent~of the reproduction flock were kept in mechanized batteries. IKP-90 ineubators are being groduced for raising large batches of young poultry. The poultry farms are now receiving BSK-25 exterior bun- kers for storing mixed feeds and ASP-25 special feed carriers. � In order to change poultry raising over to an industrial basis, it was necessary to develop a principally new technalogy ~nd~effective methods of feeding and maintain-~ ing poultry, as well as to improve the forms of organization of the branch s.nd ad- ministration of the pou~try raising business. On the basis of a study of the prac- tice of poultry raising throughout the world and generali~ation of the advanced practice of the best farms of our country, Soviet scientists, in a relatively short period of time, developed and introduced into production a comprehensive system for running the branch on an industrial basis. This system includes methods of selec- tion, norm setting for feeding poultry, programs for controlling productivity (pa- rameters of the microclimate, lighting conditions, purposive raising of young for replacement~, artificial molting of laying hens, and so forth), technology for main- taining poultry in batteries of cages, effective measures of fighting against the most dangerous infectious diaeasea of poultry, and many other things. Improvement of breeding work and the creation of domestic lines and crosses of highly productive poultry for eggs played a special role. At the time of the creation of the USSR Ptitseprom system in our country there were no sufficiently highly productive lines and crosses for obtaining hybrids. In or- der to accelerate the creation of a breeding base, the A11-Unfon Trust of Breeding Poultry Farms was organized. It ineluded 20 of the best breeding farms. In to replace the less produr.tive poultry, more than 200,000 head of young foreign crossbreeds were imported. This poultry was propagated and improved in scientific institutions and at breeding plants. . _ 7 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY As poultry raising became more intensive, sele~ction workers were faced with more and more compl,icated tasks. Scien*_ists and specialists of scientific institutions and leading breeding plants, on the~basis of domestic and imp~rted genetic material, created and introduced. into production a whole series of highly p~oductive egg lay- ing ~rossbreeds. The most widespread on the specialized farms were the following crossbreeds: YantaL'-1 (38 percent of the poultry that waE utilized), Belarus'-9 ~ '(31 percent), Zarya-17 (12.7 percent), and Volzhskiy-3 (10 percent). ~ Many farms that used the Zarya-17 cross achieved high indicators of the productivity of the hens in 1980. Thus the Giryale poultry sovkhoz in the Lithuanian SSR gather- ed an annual average of 271 eggs per laying hen, the Veviskaya poultry farm in the Lithuanian SSR and the Zabrodenskoye association in Voronezhskaya Oblast--267, and the Gur'yevskaya poultry farm in Kaliningradskaya Oblast--264 eggs. ' At the present time there is fully developed system of breeding farms in operation in egg production, which makes it possible to utilize only hybrid laying hens at all couanercial enterprises without exception, which allows us to hope for a significant increase in the productivity of the hens in the near future. Ttiis pertains also to kolkhoz and sovkhoz farms and faranstead plots belonging to the population. At the same time, under the Eleventh Five-Year Plan selection workers will be faced with the task of creating producing crosses of poultry which produce 255-260 eggs ~ per laying hen with feed expenditures of no more than 1.4-1.5 kilograms per ten eggs. A large amount of work has been done to deepen the specializations of the farms, concentrate production and improve administration of the branch~on the basis of agro-industrial integration and the creation of various interfarm associations and complexes. As a result, the average size of the farms in the USSR Ptitseprom sys- tem has increased from 44,000 head of mature poultry in 1965 to 150,000 head in 1980, that is, more~than 3-fold. Whil,e in 1975 there were 60 production associa- tions in the USSR Ptitseprom system, as of 1 January 1981 there were more than 100. These associations now includ~e 400 farms or~28 percent of the overall number of farms in the USSR Ptitseprom system. The work experienc:e of the Minsk, Kiev, Tomi- lino, Kustanay, Vitebsk, Glebov and many other associations clearly sh~ws this form of organization of the branch contributes tq~improving technology and introducing comprehensive mechanization and automation; it also provides for more efficient uti- lization of fixed capital and a reduction of the expenditure of labor and money per unit of output with a sharp increase in its gross volume. . During the years of the~Tenth Five-Yc~ar Plan the farms of the USSR Ptitseprom pro- ~ vided for a significant further increase in~the gross yield and procurements of eggs, and compensated for the shortage-of them in other categories of farms, thus contributing ta successful fulfillment of the five-year plan which envisioned in- creasing the average annual egg production on a1S categoriea of farms to 58-61 billion. It actually amounted to 63 billion eggs. The overwhelming ma~ority of poultry farms and kolklzoz and sovkhoz farnas have suc- cessfully fulfilled the assignments for the past fi~ve years. There wus also a con- siderable improvement in the quality of egg products, and expenditures of labor and 8 FOR OF'~ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY feeds per unit of output decreased. Labor productivity, profitability and produc- tion efficiency also increased. One cannot but take note of the large amount of work that has been done for a sig- nificant expansion of the processing base on farms of the USSR Ptitseprom. During the past five years the capacities of slaughter shops increased from 1,800 to 3,400 tons of slaughtered poultry per shift. Enterprises of the Russian Federation and ~ the Be~orussian SSR have organized the production of powdered eggs, whose output amounted to 3,700 tons in 1980. All this made it possible to considerably improve the quality of the products and reduce losses of them. I srould like especially to discuss an important economic indicator of the develop- ment of the branch and the efficiency of the operation of its enterprises as labor productivity. Dur3ng the past fifteen years it has increased 4-fold on the farms of the USSR Ptitiseprom system, including by 41.8 percent during the years of the Tenth Five-Year Plan. The highest rates of increase in l.ioor productivit}~ were achieved on specialized farms of. Belorussia, Lithuania and the Russian Federation. ~ Under the Tenth Five-Year Plan, 80percen* of the increase in gross output was a- chieved as a result ~f increased labor productivity.. It ia typical that the rates of increase in labor productivity exceeded the increase in earnings 2.5-fold. This is a most important indicator of production efficiency. While in 1975 4.2 man-hours were expended for 1,OOU eggs, in 1980 this figure was 3.0 man-hours. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan the number o� head of poultry at- tend~d by one worker on the farms .of the USSR Ptitseprom system increased 1.5-fold. The 26th CPSU Congress earmarked increasing the average annual volume of egg~produc- tion on all categories of farms to no less than 72 billion during the current five- year period. In order to achieve this it will be necessary for all categories of farms to obtain no less than 75 billion eggs in 1985, including 52-53 billion eggs ' in the public sector. In order to carry out this task~it wi11 be necessary to evaluate critically all the work that has been done and to concentrate attention on unsolved problems. When. analyzing the indicators of the operation of specialized farms, one cannot fail to note the significant differences in them. In each oblast and republic there are farms that achieve a sharp increase in egg production from year to year and in- crease zootechnical and economic indicators, and there are enterprises operaring under the same conditions with a considerably lower level of operation. One of the main reasons ~hy the farms of a number of oblasts and republics fail to fulfill the plans for�zgg production is inadequate attention to such a~reserve as increasing the egg bearing of the hens. Fr.equently the explanaCion for their low productivity is the poor quality of mixed feeds that are sent to the farms. But still many entarprises with th e same conditions achieve quite a different result. Increased productivity of the hens is the result of a persistent, purposeful strug- gle for the further intensification of the branch. A good deal is being done in this area in a whole number of union republics. For example, in 1980 the special- ized farms of the Lithuanian SSR obtained an average of 249 eggs per laying hen, which is an annual increase in productivity of six eggs; and enterprises of the Estonian SSR and the Belorussian SSR gathered 246 eggs per hen, ti~ith the increase 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONGY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � in productivity per head being four eggs and one egg, respectively, as compared to 1979. ~ And yet on the farms of the PtiCis prom of the Tajik S5R the productivity of the hens decreased by 13 eggs, the K~.Y'B~~ SSR--by 8 eggs, ~the Latvian SSR--by 10 eggs, the Azerbaijan ~SR--by 5 eggs, and`~the UTcrainian SSR and the Kazakh S5R--by 2 eggs. ~ The immediate task of managers and�specialists of the branch consists in extensive- ly developing the struggle for increas~ng the productivity of the hens. As a re- sult of this alone,_with the same capacities, it is possible to significantly in- crease the production and procurement of eggs. ~'his task is closely related to another, no less important one--economical expendi- ture of feeds. For the greater the prcductivity of the poultry, the less feed 3s expended per unit of output. On the Vevisskaya poultry farm in the Lithuanian SSR, which obtained 267 eggs per laying hen in 1980, feed~expenditures per 10 eggs a- mounted to 1.5 kilograms, at the Borovskaya poultry in Tyumenskaya Oblast--258 eggs and 1.5 kilograms, respectively, and the Minsk production association--256 eggs and 1.7 kilograms, respectively. In the Tomilino production association in Moscow Oblas~ the egg production of the laying hens increased from 221 to.241 eggs during the past five years. And this is with a large number of head of poultry. In 1980 the Tomilino association produced 450 million eggs, and feed expenditures per 10 eggs decreased from 1.88 kilograms in 1975 to 1.77 kilograms in 1980. In the Glebov production association in Moscow Oblast the productivity of the hens increased by 8 eggs during this same period and reached 240 eggs per laying hen. Feed expenditures decreased appreciably here too. All~of these farms and associations strictly observe technology and strive to enrich the feed mixtures. One must not forget for a minute about efficient expenditure of feed resources. It ~ is known that th~e cosC of mixed feeds compri~ses 65-70 percent of all the expendi- tures on egg production. Therefore the primary duty of workers of the branch con- sists in struggling for economy of feeds each day and closing off a11 channels through which they are lost. An inspection of the work of a number of farms showed that from 2.5 to 5 percent of the feeds are lost when they are shipped in railroad ~ cars or open trucks, and 1�2 percent are lost while processing is being completed on the farms. Rodents eat 1.5-2 percent of them.. And losses from all these fac- tors reach 5-10 percent. Bu.t the greatest losses come from filling the feeders too full--the scattering of the feeds accounts for from 10-15 percent of the losses. And every gram that is lost means products that are not produced and labor that is - expended in vain. A thrifty attitude toward feed ahould become an indispensable law at each enterprise and f arm. An important reserve in egg production is to reduce the percentage of re~ection of laying.hens during the productive period. Many farms re3ect up to 40 percent of the poultry during this time. As a result, during the course of the year p'roduc- tion capacities are actually not utilized for about two months. , The extensive production experiments conducted st the Borovskaya poultry farm showed the possib ility of keeping laying h~ns from the time they are 150 days old 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL.Y until the end of the productive period without rejecting them, with the exception of removing dead poultry and those with symptoms of diseases. The results of the - experiments were utilized in the practiCal work of the enterprise. This made it poseible to reduce the culling of laying hens from 33 percent af the initial tlumber in 1975 to 18 percent in subsequent years, that is, to keep an additional 120,000 - hens, which produced 30 million more eggs. Further increase in labor productivity also requires unwavering attention. The differences in this most important indicator among individual union republics are still extremely great. Wtiile on farms of the Estonian SSR 1.8 man-hours are ex- pended per 1,000 eggs, in the Tur.kmen SSR they expend 7.5 man-hours or four times more. At specialized enterprises of the Georgian SSR this indicator is 6.7 and ir. the Azerbai~an SSR--8.9 man-hours, that is, almost three times more than the aver- age for the USSR Ptitseprom. Labor productivity is a comprehensive indicator which reflects the farms level of operation and determines its efficiency. Only constant and persistent study and introduction of advanced practice and improvement of the organization of labor as well as all other aspects of production activity will make it possible to achieve _ an improvement in this indicator, and, consequently, successful fulfillment of the tasks facing the farm. Despite the significant increase in the pro.3uction and procurement of eggs in past years, the demand for this valuable food product is still far from being fully sat- isfied. The per-cap3.ta egg production in the republics of Central Asia, Transcau- casia and 1 number of regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East still fall signi- ficantl,~ :~~low the scientifically substantiated norms. Therefore it is necessary to ship a iarge quantity of eggs there. In these regions it is necessary to considerably increase production capacities by reconstructing existing farms and constructing large new poultry farms and mechan- ized commercial farms. But in many oblasts, krays and republics the per-capita egg production has reached 300 and more, that is, it has approached the scientifically substantiat~d norms for consumption. In these regions the problem of providing eggs for the population has . practically b~een soJ�ad. Consequently we should discuss utilizing production ca- pacities more fully and increasing all qualitative indicators of production as well as its efficiency. ~ One cannot but take into account the role of farmstead plots e�ither. They are an ~ important source for augmenting food resources. Their annual egg production a- mounts to 20-22 b illion egg~. Therefore it is neeessary to fully satisfy the needs of the owners of these farms for highly productive young poultry. In 1980 570 mil- lion head of young poultry were sold to the population--almost 200 million more than in 1975. But this must be regarded as only the beginning of effective measures for rendering assistance in the development of farmstead poultry raising. The first year of the Eleventh~Five-Year Plan is ~rawing to a close. Labor col- lectives of poultry enterprises and farms, implement:ing the decisions of the 26th 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040019-2 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE O1~1LY Party Congress, are striving to fulfill and overfulfill annual plans and ~ocialist - commitm~nts for the ~production and sale to t~?e state of products of the branch, and to lay a firm basis for early~completion of th~ assignments of the five-year plan. The utilizar~~~n of the extremely rich reserve of indus~rial poultry raising will make it possi~~le ~to make a worthy contribution to the improvement of the supply of highly valuable food products for the population of our country. ~COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Kolos",~~Ptitsevodstvo", 1981 11772 CSO: 1824/154 ~ 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044419-2 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PROGRAM WITHIN APK SYSTEM DISCUSSED Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIKI in Russian No 12, Dec 81 pp 103-113 /Article by Yuriy Ivanovich Bystrakov, doctor of economic sc3ences, deputy chair- man of the Cammission on Scientific Principles of Agriculture under the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and Mikhail Anisimovich Polyakov, candidate of ' economic sciences, senior scientific worker at the Institute of.Economics of the USSR Academy of Sciences: "Agroindustrial Ccuplex and Development of the Food Program"/ ~ ~ ~ i~~ccerpt/ The party and the government pay constant attentian to the development of integration relations of agriculture with industry and service epheres. ~At the November (1979) Plenum of the CPSU Central Coamiittee L. I. Brezhnev stressed the following: "In the final analysis the consumer ~udges both the quality and quan- tity of agricultural output by what he sees arid can buy in a store. That is why it is necessary to strive f or a smooth and coordinated oper.~.tion of all the links of the chain that connects the field or the farm with the consumer. Everything~is equally important here--the txansport and production of contain~rs, atorage and processing of ~roducts and, finally, trade." ~'ha link that connects the field and ' the farm with the consumer is a figurative er:pression of the agroindustrial com- plex (APK). The agroindustrial complex of the USSR as a structural unit of the system of the national economy is the totality of technolQgizally and economically interconnected sectors subordinate to a common ultimate end--full satiafaction of the *~eeds of socialist society for food products and other consumer goods produced from agri- cultural raw matzrials. The agroindustrial complex received an off icial status in the national ecanomic plan. The f ollowing is stated in "Basic Directions in the Economic and Social Development o� the USSR for 1981-1985 and for the Period Until 1990": "The country's reliable provision with foodstuf�s and agricultural raw ma- terials is the basic task of the agroindustrial complex." The agroindustrial complex occupies a position exceptional in its scale in the sys- tem of the national economy. For example, more than 600 million hectares of agri- cultural land, in~luding more than.220 million hectares of arable land, are used in agroindustrial productian and over 40 million average annual workers are em- ployed in it. During the.llth Five-Year.Plan more than one-third of all the capi- . tal investments are allocated for the development of the agroindustrial complex (including nonproduction construction). The proportion of the agroinduatrial com- plex in the f orroation of the final product compriaea more than 50 percent. The share of foodstuffs in retail trade turnover comprises approximately 55 percent and of all the goods with the use of agricultural raw materials (foodstuffa, fab- rics, clothing, knitted articles, footwear and so forth), about 80 percent. . 13 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL,Y The structure of the agroindustrial complex is determined by technological and e- conomic relations and coanections among sectors directly participating not only in the production. process, but in the delivery of the final product to the consumer as we11. The correlation of sectors performing production functions at every etage of integrated agroindustrial production f orms the sectorial structure of the agro- industrial complex. Agriculture and f ood and light industry sectors are the basic complex forming sec- tors of the agroindustrial complex. The proportion of all these sectors in the production of the final product comprises about 65 percent. The following belong to the sectors of the agroindustrial complex: tractor and agricultural machine building; machine building for light and food industry; machine building for animal husbandry and fodder production; production of mineral fertil- izers and plant protection agents; mixed feed and hulling and milling industry; microbiological industry; repair of tractors and agricultural machines; material and technical supply (in the part made up for by the enterprises and organizations of the Sta~e Commnittee for Supply of Production Equipment for Agriculture); land reclamation; rural construction; road construction (in the part of intrafarm work); housing and cultural-general construction; personnel training; farming sectors; animal I:us~andry sectors; f ood industry (including meat and dairy industries); light industry; procurements; trade and cansumer cooperatives; specialized transport. In the physical and material component food products and agricultural raw materials for 'their production, which in their totality form the food subcomplex, constitute the predominant part (about three-fourths) of the final product af the agroindus- trial complex. The level of development of the food subcomplex in our country makes it possible to ensure the population's nutrition in terms of the total caloric value at the level of scientif ically substantiated norms. From 1965 through 1979 the per-capi- ta cansumption of basic food products increased at the following rates: of ineat, by 41 percent, of tuilk, by 27 percent, of eggs, by 88 percent, of fruits and ber- ries, by 36 percent and of vegetables, by 32 percent. During the same period the total caloric value~of food products 10 percent, amounting to approx- imately 3,000 kcal, which correapands to the average physiological norm determined by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Commission of the United Nations). Balanced nutrition in t~rms of the total caloric value should not be a calming factor, because the needs f or proteins and fata of animal origin are compensated at the expense of carbohydrates. At present the conaumption of milk, dairy prod- ucts, eggs, meat, vegetables and fruita lags behind rational norms. The partially unsolved problem of the population's provision with food products generated the need f.or the development of a special food program. Speaking at the October (1980) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, L. I. Brezhnev.said the fol- lowing: "Among.the problems on which the living standard.of the Soviet people de- pends improvement in food supply occupies the f irst place... The Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee adopted a decision on the preparation of the food program. It is a question of a program designed to link together problems connected with - the development of agriculture, of the industrial sectors servicing it and of the procurement, storage, transportation and processin~g of agricultural products and 11+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ problems connected with the development of the food industry and of trade in food- stuffs... This agroindustrial food complex should be plar~ned, financed and man- aged as a single whole, ensuring high end results. The food program should be pre- pared so that it becomes an organic component of the llth Five-Year Plan." Beginn ing in 1980 economic planning organizations, scientif ic research institutes, ministries and departments have been developing proposals for the food program. The USSR Gosplan has guided this work. The diff iculties in its development are connected with the intricate social and econ- omic structure of the food subcomplex, as well as of the entire agroindustrial com- plex, whose development is determined by the natural and climatic factors of the country and regions. Products are produced at atate and kolkhoz-cooperative enter- prises and on private subsidiary farms. The system of management and planning has a sign if icant eff ect on the stab ility and eff iciency of production. Theref ore, in the process of development of the food program special attention is drawn to the elimination of bottlenecks, that is, an inefficient structure_of fixed productive capital and an outstripping growth of the capital of agricultural pro- duction as compared with the capital of sectors of sphere III of the agroindustrial complex. The reasons f or the noted shortcomings are the low level of utilization of the existing natural and growing technical and economic potential of agricul.:ure and of the capital producing and processing sectors of industry connected with it; imperfect structure of agroindustrial production; weak effect of the existing sys- tem of the economic mechanism an production eff iciency. The insuff iciently high . rates of development of the agrarian sector of the economy are due not to the de-~ f iciency of the production potential, but to its ineff ective utilization owing to the separation of sectorial interests intensif ied by the practice of sectorial planning and management. At the November (1981) Plenum of the CPSU Central Com- mittee L. I. Brezhnev stressed that "during the preparation of the program it is necessary to carefully work out the structure of the agroindustrial complex and to eliminate the discrepancies existing in it. In the presented plan slightly more resources are assigned for the development of sectors supplying agriculture with means of production, as well as carrying out a more thorough processing and ensur- ing the preservation of agricultural products." ~ The following are the basic conditions for a successful functioning of the multi- sectorial agroindustrial complex: First, a balance of production stages in the volumes of output and resources; second, a apecif ic orientation of sectors func- tioning at various stages of reproduction toward a common ultimate end through the subordination of the activity of each of them to the task of the fullest possible satisfaction of the needs of sectors engage:i at the subsequent stage. of reproduc- tion for production resources. An increase in the stability of production of agricultural raw materials and food- stuffs is one of the important principles of the agrarian policy of the party es- tablished by the March (1965) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee and further de- veloped at the 24th, 25th and 26th congresses and plenums of the Central Committee of the party and in the decisions and decrees of the party and the government on problems concerning the development of agriculture and of servicing and process- ing sectors of the agroindustrial ~omplex. Therefore, the concept of a steady and 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY stable development of agroindustr~al production becomes basic in the establishment of the country' s f ood prugram f or the f orthcoming f ive-year plan and f or the period until 1990. The ob~ectives and tasks of the very near future and of a long-term period and large-scale measures and step~s aimed at the solution of the food prog- ram are deve?.oped fram this point of view. The fulfillmeat of the indicated conditions of developmeat. of the agroindustrial complex of the USSR in the specific proposals for an improvement in the structure and mechanism of its functioning is connected with the effectiveness of the basic principles of socialist management, in particular democratic centralism and so an. In the system of ineasures directed toward the attainment of stable rates of devel- opment of agroindustrial productian ratianalization of the structure of the agro- industrial food complex and improvement in the economic mechanism of management are put in the forefront. At the same time, the economic mechanism itself is a means of rationalizatian.of the structure of the agroindustrial complex--provision of op- timization of the functional structure of the agroindustrial complex and its em- bodiment in the sectorial structure. The object food program is aimed at ensuring the basic conditions of functioning of the agroindustrial complex--a balance of the production stages of this complex in the volumes of production and reaources and orientatian of the sectors of the ~ agroindustrial complex toward a coumion ultimate end. In other words, the program envisages not only rationalization of the structure of the agroindustrial complex, but also the elimination of the existing separation of its sectors by the motiva- tional mechanism of stiwulation of economic activity for the attainment of high end results. This will create favorable opportunities for the fullest utilization , of production, biological and material resourcea at all the atages of agroindus- trial production. The many-sided nature of solution of problems connected with the development of the agroindustrial complex requires a single management.of both the elaboration and the realization of the food progxam. This should be based on a systematic transition from the existing territorial-sectorial management to a primarily over- all territorial-intersectorial management of the.agroindustrial complex with a sep- aration of regional and.specialized subcomplexes. The sys'Cem of management of the agroindustrial complex should organically combine the overall (system-program) planning of all the stages of agroindustrial production, the economic mechanism and ' the organization of management ensuring a rational combination of centralism and democratic principles in the area of decision making and realization. Directing agroindustrial production toward the maxi~um output of the final product (f ood) rational in its structure per unit of integral production resources, not toward sectorial (intermediate) resulta, is the most important condition f or its effec- tive functioning. ~The creatian of conditions for the transition from sectorial to intersectorial program-ob~ect planning and management should become the most important task in the area of improvement in production planning. In this connection the develop- ment and utilization~of progressive norms as the principles of the system of the agroindustrial complex, as well as control over the observance of planning discipline, takes on special importance. At the same time, it is neces- sary to strictly observe the provision of planned assignments with resources in accordance with standard rEquirements. ~ 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040019-2 FOR OFFiCiAL USC ONLY Only the types of products needed for the formation of all-Union food stocks, as well as export and reserve resources, should be envisaged in the state plan for purchases of agricultural products, which fully regul~tes the production structure. The realizatior_ of the principles of program-ob~ect planning and management of the agroindustrial complex is connected with the elimination of bottlenecks hampering - the development of production and causing losses and with the liquidation of inter- mediary links in the sectorial and functional structure of agroindustrial produc- tion. The rationalization.of placemen t and specialization of the sectors of the agroindustrial complex serve this task. During the forthcoming years it is espe- cially important to begin the implementatian of ineasures for the fullest utiliza- tion of the country's natural and climatic potential with due regard for the real- ization of large-scale plans in the future. They include primarily the forma.tion of specialized production zones and an interregional exchange of the output of the - agroindustrial complex. The stability of production in the system of the agroindustrial comple~c should also be understood as the attainment of a regional structure of the agroindustrial food complex that ensures the maximum utilizatiore of all the resources available in its sectors. The development and mastering of advanced syateme of agricultural management, ac- celerated realization of the achievements of scientif ic and technical progress in the sectors of the agroindustrial complex (selection and seed growing, breeding of highly productive livestock and poultry, increase in the reliability and productiv- ity of machinery and equipment, development of land reclamation and so on) and the � solution of social tasks of rural development take on especially great importance. Measures f or changing the regional structure of agroindustrial production should ; be implemented simultaneously with an improvement in the sectorial and functional structures of the agroindustrial complex. For this it is necessary to change the relations among the complex forming sectors of the agroindustrial complex, giving consumer sectors greater oppor.tunities of influencing supplier sectors. The com- ' bination of planning levers with the development of direct cont~actual relations and the elimination of intermediary organizations could be the most acceptable so- , lutian of this problem. This involves, when approving the production and sale plan of the capital producing sectora of the agroindusrial complex, enabling agri- culture itself to form the orders for equipment on the basis of economic contracts. At the same time, it is also fundamentally important to create economic incentives for an improvement in the quality of the delivered fixed prdductive capital. This can be attained, for example, if, along with other conditions, contracts provide for the fulf illment of all the operations for complex repairs and care of equip- ment by the forces of the industrial enterprises producing them. In the area of price formation it is necessary to establish a stricter state con- trol, not permitting a rise in the price of a unit of useful effect of ineana of production in the sphere of their production consumptian. In order to ensure a price balance in the system of the agroinduatrial complex, prices of products in all its sectors should ensure the same conditions of accumulation per unit of the integral indicator of production resources, including land resources, in a mone- tary evaluation. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An important role in the system of ineasures aimedistassir~ed totlegal~supportechi~ nism of management of the agroindustrial complex 8n is necessary to significantly raise the level of legal regslation of economic rela- tions, in particular following the example of industry. The cancept of stabi~.ity should not be identified with the demand for production stabilization. Canversely, an effective develogment of positive tendencies and . flexibility (observance of the principle of elasticity) of rational decision making under changing conditions (foreign political situation, natural and clima.tic fac- tors, social and economic development and so forth) are needed. At the same time, stabilizatian and even a certain local reductian in the production of intermediate - products of the sectors of the agroindustrial complex are an inevitable measure of the period of transitian to a more productive and, therefore, economically advis- able stage in the development of agroindustrial production. This concerns prod- ucts the production capacities for the processing of which in the localities do not correspond:to the attained volumes of production and their transportation to the country's other regions or export presently is not possible or advisable. There- fore, stabilization of for thedureventionsofelossesaandiansefficientuutilizationin is a necessary measure P of the potential of the entire agroindustrial complex. A certain reduction in the areas sown wi-Ch some low-yielding crops greatly depend- ing on weather canditions, as well as in the population or` unproductive livestock, in a number of farms, rayons and Iarge regions is necessary for the attainment of an improved regional structure of the agroindustrial complex on the basis of for- mation of specia.lized zones of production of basic comm~odity products of the sec- tors of the agroindustrial complex and development of intrarayon spec3.alization and interregional exchange. The combined material and technical potential of the agroindustrial food complex rel.eased in the process should be .directed to the pro- duction collectives, sectors aed~efoods oductiontthrough utPtheacountryd(region) gressive effect of the increas P can be obtained. The most rapid elimination of losses in all the links and at all the stages of ag- roindustrial production plays an exceptional role in the solution of the f ood problem. Speaking at the November (1978) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, L. I. Brezhnev~, discussing losses, eapecially stresaed the exceptional importance of a radical solution of this pit and~cottonal ssesais not only anaeconcmic problem. lem of grain, vegetable, fru It is also a big political problem." Z'he set of ineasures for the fight against lossea should be based on the realiza- tion of the above-mentioned steps for an improvement in the sectorial and function- al structure of the agroindustrial complex and an the elimination of bottlenecks in the sectors of processing and infrastructure during the storage, processing and transportation of raw materials and products. For the purpose of increasing the balance of the structure and volumes of production in all the sectors of the agro- industrial complex, f or the llth Five-Year Plan provision is made for measures for an outstripping development of the concluding stages of production of theFor nal product of the agroindustrial complex and its deliveiy to the consumer. example, plans are made to increase capital investments for the establishment of storage facilities 1.6-fold and for the construction of intrafarm hard-surface 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ roads 1.4-fold. These measures must be combined with rationalization of the place- ment and specialization of production, bringing processing closer to the zones of - specialiZed production of agricultural products and developing an interregional - exchange. An elimination of losses is, at the same time, a f ight for an improvemeat in th~ quality and efficiency of utilization of productian resources. It is necessary to concentrate efforts on the development and use of advanced technologies (primarily resource saving technologies) and agricultural management systems and on the over- all nature of deliveries of machine systemsinstead of deliveries of separate units - and so forth. Principal attention in the area of agriculture should be given to an improvement of~qualitative indicators. An increase in the volumes of production ~ (with due regard for the internal balance of the agroindustrial complex) should be ensured primarily through an in the yield of crops and i~ the.productivity _ of livestock, refinement of tlie structure of plant growing and animal husbandry = sectors and improvement in the qualitative characteristics of output. The follow- ing are necessary for this: an ob~ective evaluation of qualityy enhancement of the role of standards and their observance and consideration in prices through the val- ue of useful effect of ineans of production and implementation of ineasures for the stimulation of the quality of output of the sectora of the agroindustr3al complex. In the solution of the food problem considerable attentian should be paid to meas- ures f or the introduction of nontraditional technologies of protein and food pro- duction. As investigations and experiments under productian conditions have shown, these measures can be realized without substantial capital investments and ensure the production of high-quality food products with the fullest utilization of ini- tial raw materials. ~ The stability of development of the agroindustrial complex is connected with the formation of a stable and reliable system of organization and management of the establishment of the country's f ood program. "It is important to determine the stages and order of the solved problems in the program," L. I. Brezhnev noted at the October (1980) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. "And, of course, it is necessary to have a system of program management clearly establishing personal res- sponsibility for every sectian of work and giving the necessary rights. Without all this~the program is not a program, but a sum of good wishes." As noted at the 26th CPSU Congress, work on the food program should constantly be in the center of attentian of the activity of party, Soviet and economic bodies. The development and realization of the program is one of the basic tasks of the current 5-year and lang-term period. This is not a one-time task. Conversely, - this is large-volume work requiring constant efforts on the part of workers of many ministries, departments, scientific research institutions and organizations, the personnel training system and so forth. "The program should represent a sub- stantiated plan of ineasures directed toward the end result and toward a complete solutian of one problem or another, a plan based on accurate calculations," said L. I. Brezhnev at the October (1980) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. The f ood program should encompasa a11 the components of the agroindustrial com- plex in their organic interconnection, unity and developt~ent. The process of de- velopment of this program should be continuous and iterative, ensuring the reali- zation of the principle of democratic centralism,and.adaptive,creating conditions for a systematic refinement and increase in its efficiency. ~ 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Discussing the food program, K. Chernenko, member of the. Politburo of the CPSU Cen- tral Committee, said at the festive meeting in Moscow devoted to the lllth anniver- sary of V. I. Lenin's birth tha~ "this is an important and large-scale task. Peo- ple's needs are growing constantly. Furthermore, not everything is obtained right away. In any work something must be corrected and completed. It is quite obvious that the fulfillment of the food program requires special attention, persistence and purposefulness. It requires a more rapid elimination of any manifestations of irresponsib ility, laxity, lack of departmental coordination and mismanagement and a bolder search for new unbeaten paths." Therefore, when developing the food prog- ram, it is important to take into consideration the principles of unity of the proc- ess of its elab oration and realization. Ever newer circumstances requiring correc- tions of previously developed individual parameters will inevitably~ appear in the course of study of program outlines. Owing to the organic interconnection of the technological stages in agroindustrial production, this will lead to the need for ref inement of the proportians among sectora, volumea of resources and so forth. In accordance with "Basic Methodological Principles of Development of Overall Na- tional Economic Object Programs approved by the USSR Gosplan it is advisable to work out the program in three stages. An analysie of the food situation in the country is made at the f irst stage. Then the initial.assignment for the program is developed and approved. The preparation and approval of the draft program rep- resent the concluding stage. - The basic task of the first stage in the elaboration of this program lies in the for~ulation of problpms connected with the development of the agroindustrial food complex, which bring about an aggravation of the food situation. For this it is necessary to investigate the patterns in the formation and development of the ag- roindustrial complex beginning with the establishment of the basic~values and goals of this. social and economic system and of the''structure of~its organization and mechanism of functioning. It is necessary to compare the real system character- ized by the actual values of parameters with its ideal representation in the form of a standard model described by specific standards (for example, norms of per- capita consumption of f ood). As a reault, the following should be developed: con- cept of the solution of the food problem; consolidated structure of the program's goals and the tentative values of the most important object standards; functional, sectorial and regional structures of the food complex; list of priority proposals, which can be included in the plan at this stage; consolidated structure of the program (list of basic subprograms). The tentative periods and evaluations of the expenditures on the program should also be determined. The food program, owing to its exceptional importance f or the solution of social and economic problems, should be an ob3ect program and receive priority among oth- er national economic programs in the allocation of various types of resources f or its development and realization. The order of the technical and economic calcula- tiona and draf ts of this program should correspond to the movement from the ulti- mate end of the agroindustrial complex through a system a~ measures to all the types of resources necessary for the attainment of intermediate goals at every stage of agroindustrial production. Preliminary investigations show that the attainment of the basic goals of the ag- roindustrial f ood complex is connected with the development and realization of the following subprograms: 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY 1. The subprogram "general concept and methodology": elaboration of the general concept of development of the agroindustrial food complex of the USSR; investiga- tion and development of the functional, sectorial and regional structure of the ag- roindustrial complex; substantiation of the system of goals for the development of the agroindustxial: complex; elaboration of basic directions in the solution of the f ood problem; creatian of the methodological scheme of the food program and substan~ tiation of the ways of its realization. 2. The subprogram "food production and the granting of services"; overall anal- ysis of the state and tendencies of and prospects for the development of function- al-sectorial and production-technological links in the systems of agricultural man- agement (farming, plant growing,.fodder production and animal husbandry) and prod- uct subcomplexes (grain, .meat-%egpt7-dairy, fruit-and-vegetable, potato and fat-and- oil subcomplexes; subcomplex for sugar production; sea-f ish-product subcomplex; subcomplex f or the production of salt, preservatives and foad~additives, of~non- traditional types of foodstuffe and so forth); evaluation of supply and demand; _ evaluation of the possible volumes of production and expenditures of resources; analysis of problems and solution alternatives. 3. The subprogram "production and technology investigation and analysis of the sectorial and territorial-sectorial structure and placement of production; devel- opment of concepts of improvement in the sectorial and territorial-sectorial struc- tures of farming and animal husbandry on the basis of formation of specialized zones; evaluation of the variants'of placement of production with due regard f or the expenditure on the development of production and social infrastructures; ela- boration of systems of economic management in the sectors of th~e agroindustrial complex and of resource saving technologies. 4. The subprogram "natural resources and the environment": overall evaluation of natural resources (land, water and forest) and of natural and climatic conditions of productian; development of inethods of rational utilization of land resources and of ineasures for their conservation and reproduction; elaboration of probleme of preservation of the ecological balance; rationalization of waste utilization. 5. The subprogram "material and technical resources": overall analysis of the state and structure of the material and technical base of the agroindustrial com- plex; development of ways, methods and periods of elimination of the lag of the material and technical base of the processing industry and sphere of circulation; evaluation of the volumes and rational structure of capital investments; develop- ment of alternative variants of the structure of material and technical resources with due regard for the poasibilitiea f or their interchangeability. 6. The subprogram "labor": investigation and development of the occupation~l- skill and age structures of labor resources; development of demographic forecast; investigation of problems of migration and development of inethods of its regula- tion; analysis of labor productivity and elaboration of proposals for increasing it, lowering personnel turnover and strengthening labor discipline; analysis of the system of training of mass trade peraonnel; elaboration of proposals for an , improvement in the material conditiona of work and employment in a rural area. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7. The subprogram "infrastructure": investigation and elaboration of problems of improvement in production infrastructure (procurements, storage facilities, mate- rial and technical supply and technological production support, transport, power faCilities, repair base and types of services--agrochemical, veterinary, land or- ganization,.informatioa-computer and so forth); elaboration of problems connected with the development of nanproduction infrastructure, including the system of pub- lic health, elementary education, municipal and everyda.y services and housing and road construction. 8. The subprogram "economic mechanism and management": analysis of production eff iciency in the system of the agroindustrial complex; formulation of proposals for an improvement in intersectorial relations directing all the lir.ks of the ag- . roindustrial complex toward the ultimate end; development of a system of economic incentives operating at all the levels of the agroindustrial complex; elaboration of proposals for an improvement in the system of collective wages and economic in- centives; determination of the forms and methods of ~combination of the plan and direct contracts; provision of conditions f or an enhancement of the role of con- tracts in the regulation of economic relatione; development of economic and legal principles of contractual relationa and of the.strengthening of contractual dis- cipline; elaboration of proposals for an improveIIent in economic legislation; de- velopment of the concepts and formation of the s~ stem of organizational .management of the agroindustrial complex of the USSR; determination of the principles of ob- ject program planning and management in combination with sectorial and territorial- sectorial management; development of proposal~ f or the establishment of a long- term scheme of management of the agroindustrial complex. 9. The subprogram foreign economic relations": el.aboration of the general con- cept of utilization"of the f oreign market for purposes of an eff icient development of the agroindustrial concept; investigation.of the structure of import and ela- boration of proposals for its improvement; evaluation of the opportunities of ex- port trade and of the ways of their realization; ~investigations of the possibili- ties of international division of labor and integration of CEMA members in the so- lution of the food problem; elaboration of proposals for the organization of out- put of the sectors of the agroindustrial complex on a compensation basis. 10. The subprogram scientif ic and technical progreas": development and substan- tiation of the basi:c" scientif ic and technical progress in the sec- tors of the agroin~3ustrial complex; elaboration of an overall program for scien- tific investigations of problems�connected with the development of the agroindus- trial complex of the USSR for 1981-1985 and for the period until 1990. 11. The subprogram "eff iciency and quality": development of the criteria and measurers of efficiency and quglity; analysie of losses and unutil~ized opportuni- ties with an indication of the reasons for their occurrence in all Che techno- logical production links of the agroindustrial complex; development of a program of urgent measures for an elimination of losses and realization of unutilized opportunities with an evaluation of the expenditures necessary for this; elabora- tion of proposals f or an intprovement in the standards of the assortment and qual- ity of services. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040019-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 12. The subprogram "social development": elaboration af the concept of social development of rural areas with the determination of immediate and long-term tasks; investigation of social factors in the economic devalopment of the agroindustrial complex; evaluation of economic efficiency of social transf ormations in the system of the agroindustrial complex; substantia.tion of sources of material resources for the solution of social problems. 13. The subprogram "experiment": development of proposals for an organization of an experimental check and performance of social and economic experiments for the solution of various problems connected with food supply for the population and in- crease in the social and economic eff iciency of the agroindustrial complex of the USSR. The developed operational (program) goals, system models and problems should be in- ~ tercoordinated. Such a combination of all the program tasks ensures a unity of approaches to the solution of the food problem and cansistency of results. At the same time, it becomes possible to correctly coordinate the organizations developing individual subprograms in the procese of program development. This equally applies to the determination of priorities and concepts, including f or the periods of solu- tion of the food problem, as well as to the comparison of the evaluations of prog- ram expenditures and results (effect of the program). The food program is one of the main components of the economic policy of the party for the llth Five-Year Plan and f or a long-t~~rm period. At the November (1981) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee L. I. Br,ezhnev noted that the "preparation of such a program is a~highly creative and--therE~ is nothing to hide--complex matter. It should combine efforts in agriculture itself, in the sectors of industry cerv- icing it and in the systems of procurement, storage, processing and transportation of and trade in agricultural products. What is especially important, it should _ subordinate the work of all the indicated sectors to the common ultimate end--meet- ing the country's needs for foodstuffs." The utilization of the uncovered reserves, increase in the effectiveness of capi- tal investments and rational utilization of ineans of production and labor and nat- ural resources will make it possible to give the country more grain, potatoes~ veg- etables, meat, milk and other necessary products. A skillful and efficient utili- zation of the advantages of planned socialist management, of the productian and scientif ic and technical potential and of the initiative and creative work of mil- lions of workers will contribute to a successful solution of the tasks envisaged by the program and to the attainment of new advances in communist construction. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda", "Voprosy Ekonomiki", 1981 11,439 CSO: 1824/164 F~ND 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040019-2