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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040023-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/ 10377 _ ~ ~ March 1982 U~SR Re ort _ p PC~LITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 8/82~ FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 NOTE - JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and baoks, but also from ne~rs agency _ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those frnm English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics recained. Headiines, editorial reports, and ma~erial enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [TextJ or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. [~here no processing indicaror is given, t~C i.:~~r- _ mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parenthe:�es were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes wittiin the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGEiT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF = MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTEB FOR OFFICIAL USE 0?~ILY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040023-7 JPRS L/10377 10 March 1982 . USSR REPORT POLITICAL ANB SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS ~FO~o s,~82? CO?~TENTS I N TE RNAT I ONAT. Maoist Falsifiers of. Rirghiz liiatory Attacked (M. Ya. Suehanlo, et al.; PROTIV MAOISTSKIKH FAL' SIFIKATSIY ISTORII KIRGIZII, 1981) 1 Ideological Coordination Described (V. A. Rylach; VOPROSY NAUCHNOGO KOMMiTNIZMA, No 47, 1981) . 10 Continuing Need To Combat Petty iourgeoi~ Influences Seen (A. Migashova; VOPROSY NAUCHNOGO KOMMiJNIZMA, No 47, 1981) . 12 NATIONAL ~lienation Under Socialism Discussed (P. Yu. Saukh; VOPROSY NAUCHNOGO KOMMUNIZMA, No 49, 1981) . lb - F.thnic Relations in the Workplsce Surveyed (N. S. Kavunets; VOPROSY NAUCHNOGO KOMMLINIZMA, No 48, 1981) 18 Functions, Problema of Soviet Family Described (N. N. Rovtun, et al.; VOPROSY NAUC:?NOGO ~OMMUNIZMA, No 49, 1981) 20 _ a _ [III - USSR - 35 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL I15E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040023-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY y INTERNATIONAL ~ MAOIST rALSIFIERS OF KIRGHIZ HISTORY ATTACKED Frunze FRO`fIV M.AOISTSKIiCH FAL'SIFIKATSIY ISTURII KIRGI'LII in RuSsi_~~n 198.1 ( to press .14 rtay bl) pp 1--2, 128-140 [Book; introductory paragraptl and concltision from book "Agai.nst Maoist Falsifi- cations of the History oE Kirghiziya," by M. Ya. Sushanlo, V. 'I'. Gurevich, V.y. Ploskikh, and G. P. Suprunenko, Frunze, Kyrgyzstan, 1981, 140 pp] [Text] On the basis of a vast amount of material, the book eYamines the history of the relations between China and the peoples who settled Centra]. Asia and Eastern Turkestan from ancient times to the 19th century. 'Calcin4; ~ccount of tl?e work of Soviet historians and of the data of sources, the auttior.s establish the common nature of the economy, culture, and ever~day life of the peopl.e wl:o settled Kirghiziya in anci.ent times, how rel.ations between the Ki_rghiz pec~pJr: and- - Russia were born and grew stronger, and in what historical-ethnographir. situation and under what pol.itical circumstances the Russian-Chinese terri_torial demarr.ation in Central Asia took place. Conclusion The entire path which has been covered by the peoples oF Kirghiziya afLer ~lie Great October Socialist Revolution confirms the correctness of the choice the Kirghiz people made when it voluntarily accepted citizenship in Russia ~incl tied its fate to it. Despite the colonialist policies of Tsarism, ttii~;liistoric act objectively was an outst3nding progressive event in th~ lif.e of the i:il-~hiz peoole. Kirghiziya's voluntary entry into Russi~ protected it against the e~:- ternal danger from China and helped to dampen inter-tribal warfare. Th~~ amrkers of Kirghiziya joined in the revolutionary struggle of the great Russiar. Peoplc- and togettier with the Russian working class, led by the Leninist party ~.~f Bolsheviks, struggled for the overthrow of tiie power ~f the l.andowners, hni~r- geoisie, and petty feudalists, and for the establishment of the dictator-sl~ip uf the proletariat. The progressive nature of Kirghiziya's voluntar.y ent:rnnce i.nto Russia also consisted in the fact that the Kirghiz be~an to experience Che in-- fluence of advanced Russian culture. Under the influence of capitali_srn r.lic pr~~~- cess was begun of the decomposition of the patriarchal-feudal system anci r.t~c development of capitalist relations and the formation of. a clr~~;s. 1 ~;(,~t n!~~~?~'~,~.9, [i~F~ ~~;~~r~ ~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440023-7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Only +the Great October Socialist Revolution made it possible for the Kirghiz people to move in such an historically brief period of time from a patriarchal- feudal system right to socialism, bypassing the capitalist stage of development, to overcome its economic and cultural inequality, to build a Soviet national statehood, and to be formed into a socialist nation. This leap is a firiumph of the Leninist nationalities policy of the communist party. In the Summary Report of the CC to the 26th CPSU Congress L. I. Brezhnev empha- _ sized: "From the first years of Soviet power our economic and social policy has been organized in such a way as to lift the f~rmer national outlying districts of. Russia to the level of development of its center as rapidly as possible. And this task has been successfully achieved. The close cooperation of all of the nations of the country and, above all, the disinterested aid of the Russian people played a most important role here. Today backward national outlying districts do not exist."~ The accomplishment of this historic task can rightly be placed in the same rank as such victories in th` construction of our new society as the socialist industrial- ization of the country, the collectivization of agriculture, and thz cultural revolution. For this reason, at the current of social devel~pment the further perfection of the new historical community of the S oviet people is taking on especiai importance as a necessary condition for the development of socialism into communism in our country. Along with all of the others, the workers of Soviet Kirghizstan are also making a, worthy contribution to the construction of a communist society and to the strengthening of the friendship of peoples. The strengthening and expansion of the economic basis of the fraternal coopera.tioa of the people of the USSR is testimony to the further strengthening of the moral - and ~init~ of our people. A decisive role is being played in this hy such directions of party policy as the development of socialist production rela- _ tions and their gradual t.ransformation into communist relations, the strengthening of the co~onwealth of our people during the course of the joint construction of the material and technical base of communism, and the consolidation of the single r.ational economic complex of our country. The Leninist nationalities policy of our party has always been based on a profound combination of concern for the national development of each people and the growth of the public wealth of our entire multi-nationalist country~ The successes which have been achieved by the workers of socialist Kirghizstan during the years of S oviet power are truly historic. This region of former nomads and primitive agriculture has been transformeu into a highly developed industrial and agrarian republic. During the postzaar years large production capzcities have been created in the republic. Such highly important branches of inds:.,try as nonferrous metallurgy, machine tool building, the electrc.~n~.c, electrical engineering, instrum~nt making, motor vehicle, l~.ght, food, and others have been successfully dsveloped. In 1980 � 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 F'OR 06FICIAL USE O\LY the Kirghiz SSR had 405 large industrial enterprises which represented more than 130 branches producing 3,700 different items of output. Fixed productive capital is the material base which determines the level of pro- duction in any branch. In the republic's economy as a whole, as of the beginning of 1980 it came to 8.5 billion rubles, or 4.2 times more than the 1965 leve~.. In addition, 80% of the productive capital was reconstructed on a new tectinical basis or created anew during the years 1966-1979 when more than 200 large modern enter- - prises and shops were put into operation and the gross output of industry increased , by 4.6 times, and that of the kolkhozes and sovkhozes by 1.6 times, while national income increased by 2.3 times. Kirghiziya's agriculture is an organic part of. the counCry's total agricultural complex and constantly experiences the beneficial influence of the consistent realization of the party's agrarian policy. During " the 8th Five-Year Plan c�pital. investments in agriculture came to 31% of the total. capital investments in the republic, during the 9th--32%, and, according to the plan of the lOth Five-Year Plan they were to be 35%. In 1979 the fixed productive capital af the kolkhozes and sovkhozes exceeded the 1965 level by almost three times, and gross output increased by more than 1.5 times. "The powerful economie and scientific and technical potential which has been created in ~oviet Kirghizstan," the First Secretary of the CC of the Comn~unist Party of Kirghiziya T�U.Usubaliyev said at the 26th CPSU Congress~ "is making - it possible today to accomplish qualitatively new econom~~ tasks." Ot course, such a powerful upsurge in the republic's economy could only be achieved as a result of the joint efforts of the workers of all of our nations and peoples and thanks to the consistent realization of Leninist policies-- policies of a correct combination of the interests of each nation with the interests of all of society. Implementing the decisions of the 25th and 26th CPSU Congresses, and taking active part in the All-Union socialist competition for a further increase in production efficiency and improvement of work quality, the republic's workers are achieving large successes in development of its economy, science, and culture and in raising its standard of living. Representatives from the liberated countries acquaint themselves with great inte- - rest with the experience of the social and economic transformations of the first socialist country. In 197? an international seminar was held in the capital of Kirghiziya, the city of Frunze, on the topic: "The Experience of Agrarian Trans- formations in the Republics of Centra)_ A.sia and Kazakhstan and Its Significance for the Liberated Countries." The conclusions ;ahich generalize the rich exper- ience of the Soviet East will undoubtedly be used in the liberated countries during the course of carrying out the entire complex of socio-economic trans- formations in them. Hasan Hafez, the Deputy General Secretary of the Organization for the Solidarity of the Countries of Asia and Africa, made public a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kirghiziya and the Council of Ministers Kirghiz SSR which 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040023-7 FOR OEFICIAL USE a1VLY had been adopted at the serainar and in which it was said that the participants in the seminar had become convinced of the fact that in the harmor~ious famiJ.y of Soviet ~ peoples 5oviet Kirghiziya had achieved outstanding successes in economic and cultural construction. "The fundamental transformations in the republics of Cen- tral Asia and Kazakhstan occurred on such a scale as causes sincere delight," the Vietnamese economist Le Toan stated to journalists. "We are endlessly grateful to the people of Kirghiziya and to all Soviet people for their complete solidarity with the Vietnamese people." _ The guests acquainted themselves wirh the life of the Kirghiz people. During a visit to the kolkhoz "Syntash" the Indian Professor Gogula Partkhasaratkhi stated that the Indian peasant can only dream about such a level of inechanization--goviet Central Asia could be consi_dered a standard for the developing countries of Asia and Africa. And hear the words of the general director of the Ministry of Planning of Somalia Jama Rabile: "We can rightly call the seminar a school in the new life. I see the future of my country in the present-day republics of Central Asia." Seriously upset by such a revolutionizing influence on the liberated peoples from the graphic example of the national development of Soviet Asia, the imperialists and their ideological underlings, together with whom the Maoists are singing in the general chorus, are attempting to falsify the history of *_he Soviet Central Asian republics. Our ideological opponents are increasingly spreading malicious slanderous assertions about "SoSiet colonialism" in Central Asia, about the forced Russification of the Central Asian peoples, including the Ki~ghiz people, and about the allegedly unequal position of the Central Asian republics in the Soviet Union. But here is what the prominent French journalist Henri Bordazh who visited Kirghiziya has said: "Kirghiziya ~ecame socialist rather recently. And we can understand what enormous difficulties had to be overcome and that far from all of them were of a purely material nature. All of the peoples of the Soviet Union gave Kirghiziya great and measureless assistance in order for it to become a modern country. That which has been accomplished in such a short period of time resembles a miracle, a socialist miracle. Here, as in any other place, one can see with what respect the Soviet sLate regards the distinctive character- istics of each union republic. To those who in the West irresponsibly speak about 'Soviet colonialism,' I can give no better advice than th~ following: 'Visit Kirghiziya. "'3 With the cultural flowering of ancient Kirghizstan there have occurred truly astonishing changes in the spiritual life of the people which until the rEVOlu- tion was at an extremely low level of cultural development. Thus, as recently as 1920 of 510,000 Kirghiz, 489,000 did not know how to read or write. During the years of Soviet power illiteracy has been completely eliminated in the republic. _ Today it has more than 1,600 general educational schools and 45 higher and secondary specialized educational institutions; more than 1 million people, or _ every third inhatiitant of tlie republic, is covered by the various types of education. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Soviet Kirghizstan is a model of an indestructible commonwealth of people-brothers. There are living together and worki.lg harmonious~y on the territory of the repuhlic Kirghiz and Russians, Uzbeks and Kazakhs, Dungans and Uyguri, and the representa- tives of many other nationalities who along with the Kirghiz enjoy the equal rights and opportunities defined by the Soviet Constitution. "The nationalities policy which is being conducted by the CPSU in Kirghiziya, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan," the First Secretary of the CC of the Communist Party of Kirghiziya comrade T. U. Usubaliyev writes, "is close and understandable to the ~eople of `:~.njiang who are very attentive to the experi- ence which has been gained in some of the nationalities questions and constructing socialist national statehood in the Soviet republics. This is connected with the fact that the indigenous inhabitants of Xinjiang represent either a part of the peoples whose basic mass lives in the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Uzbeks, Tajiks), or ha~ve numerous f_ormer compatriots in the Sovi~t Union (Uygurs, Dungans, and so forth3. In addition, historical economic and cultural relations tiave existed since far away times among the peoples of Xinjiang and the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan."4 When in 1949 the people's revolution was victorious in China, in ;tiinjiang it was greeted as a national holiday which opened a road into a bright future. "The people hoped," Major General Zunun Taipov writes in his memoirs, "that the time of humiliation and oppression has gone into the past and that the People's Liberation Army of China had come not to subjugate and conquer, but to liberate, and that a ti~e of equal rights and respect for the value of every nation was coming, and the Ctiinese administration's first steps stren~thened these hopes. In 1949-1950 Chinese cadre workers in Yinjiang tried to show that they had come to %:injiang as friends."5 Indeed, the first successes in ~he field of industry, - agriculture, and culture in the Ririjiang Autonomous Region encouraged hope. They were achieved to a substantial degree thanks to the selfless fraternal ai3 of the peoples of the Soviet Union. It was precisely the USSR which provided China with modern technical documentation and supplied enterprises which were being built with modern equipment and materials. Deficit cargoes flowed in a continuous stream through Kirghiziya into China on a specially built highway. A large number of Soviet specialists worked in Xinjiang and with their active assistance the first detachments of the worlcing class and of the technical intel- I.igentsia were formed from among the difierent nationalities. During the period 1950-1955 many young men and women, the representatives of the various nationali- ties of iaii~; received a higher education in the USSR; they also studied in Soviet Kirghizstan as ~vell as in other republics of the Soviet I:ast. Increasingly solid economic and cultural relations were established among the peoples of; and the peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. "The successes gained during the first decade of. the existence of the Chinese People's Republic convincingly demonstrated to the non-Chinese peoples that they were achieved only when the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party based them- selves upon and acted on the basis of the universal laws of Marxism-Leni.nism and in close alliance with ttie CPSU and the Soviet Union and the socialist countries. 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040023-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040023-7 FOR OFFIC[AL USE OND.Y The failures and mishaps in the economy and other spheres of the life of China always set in when the policy of the Chinese Communist Party was determined by petty bourgeois nationalism and adventurism."6 The leaders of China long ago retreated frum the Marxist-Leninist solution of the nationalities question which provides, first of all, for the rights of nati~ns to self-determination. Peking refused this right to non-Han peoples, including Moslems. Recently on the pages of the periodical KHUNTSI a speech given by Zhou Enlai in 1957 was published. In it the right of nations to self-determination was announced to be "not .i.n correspondence with the historical condition" of China. Instead of self-determination, t!~e non-Han acquired only a truncated territorial autonomy. Beginning at the end of the 1950s, when the great power-hegemonistic platform of _ the Maoists took form, they began to openly carry out a chauvinistic course with respect to the non-Chinese. natl.ons and peoples. How pernicious this policy is can be seen from the example of Xinjiang. With regard to the area it occupies _ (17% of tfie territory of China) it is in first place among the other provinces and autonomous regions. Despite the fact that local national cadres at one time expressed themselves in favor of granting the Uygurs self-determination and pro- posed calling Xinjian~ Uyguristan, the Maoist leadership completely ignored ~ this demand of the Uygur people, granting it the right of local national autonomy. Th~ chauvinistic national policy of the Maoists in Xinjiang took on an especially unbridled character during the years of the "cultural revolution" which brought khe Uygurs, Kazakhs, Kirghiz, and other peoples of this area ruin and hunger and outiages against the distinctive characteristics of their life and their cultural and religious convictions. It is not accidental that during 1959-1966 not less than 200,000 people moved from Xinjiang to the Soviet Union. Speaking in December 1964 on the question of education in the village, Mao Zedong ~ cynically stated: "There are so many people in China that several tens of thousann~ of people can be allowed to run away. Did not several tens of thousands of people leave Xinjiang? There are only a few people of this nationality-- Kazakhs. It would not be a disaster if several million people were to leave China--only that after running away they abuse us."~ And this is the response of the "Great Helmsman" to the uprising of local peoples in~{injiang and to their escape to the Soviet Un~on ac a measure of salvation. Refusing the non~lan peoples of the Chinese People's Republic the right to national self-determination, the Beijing leaders imposed upon them truncated territorial autonomy. Thus, for example, an a~ministrative reorganization carried out in the autc,nomous region of Inner Mongolia of the Chinese People's Republic was executed in order to eliminate the Mongoli