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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 1 0382 12 March 1982 I Worldwide Report ' TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOFMENT (FOUO 5/82) FBIS . FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044428-2 NOZ`E JPRS publications contain information primarily from foxeign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and bruadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headli:zes, Pditorial reports, and material anclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt:) in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no p*-ocessing indicator is given, the infor- matian was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli-. cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COFYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNIIdG OWNERSHIP OF MATERLALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040028-2 i i , FOR OFFI( , I ~ ~ ~ _I i ~ W~?p;_DWIDE REPORT ~ TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ~ (FOUO 5/82) i I CaNTEN7S I ASIA i JAPAN ~ Foreign Missions To Be Allowed To Operate Radios j (Kijio Sakakibara; SANKEI SHIlMBUN, 19 Feb 82) USSR Cormnunications During llth Five-Year. Plan (Yu. B. Zubarev; RADIOTEKHNIKA, Nov 81) WEST EUROPE INZ'ERNATIONAI, AFFAIRS Intelsat To I,aunch Three More Satellites in 1982 (Pierre Zangereux; ATR COSMOS, 18 Jan 82) ITALY � Cormnunications Switching: Zevsls, Objectives, Activities '(Paolo de Ferra; ELETTRONICA E TELECOM[JNICAZIONI, .Ne�v-Dec 81) - a - FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10382 12 March 1982 ~ 1 2 6 7' [III - WW - 140 FOUO] ~k APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440028-2 JAPAN -y FOREIGN MISSIONS TO BE ALLOWED TO OPERATE RADIOS OW221051 Tokyo SANKEI-SSIMBUN in Japanese 19 Feb 82 Morniag Edition p 1 y [By reporter Kijio SakakibaraJ [Text] The Posts and Telecommunications Ministry has decided to revise the wire- less telegraphy act to perm:it foreign embaseiea and iegations in Japan to have their own radio communication facitities. The decisic.~n w,'ill be included in a bill of amendments to the act which is bping prepared by the Ministry foi Submission to the current diet session. The '.evision is also designed to enable Japanese diplo- matic establishments abroad to have their owa wireless communication facilities, under the "principl.e of reciprocity," so that in the future such communication disruptions En that which happened to the embassy in Poland can be avoided. All communications with the Japanese Embassy in Warsaw were disrupted for nearly a month due to the suspension of general circuits under the martial law rule. According to the Posts and Telecommunicatione Ministry, there was a atrong request' from the Foreign Ministry to authorize foreign diplomatic establishments to oper- ate their own radio stations. Article 5 of the present wireiess telegraphy act stipulates that "a foreign govern-. - ment or its representatives" are not licensed to operate a radio station; under the principle of diplomatic "reciprocity" Japanese embsssies abroad'also were not = allowed to havE: their own radio facilities by tihe goverriments of the respective countries. Japanese embassies abroad have thus been depending solely on general communciations circuits for their comunicationa with the Foreign Ministry in Tokyo. Troubles . occurred in re:cember last year when the martial law rule in Poland susper.ded operations of the ger.eral circuits for nearly a momth, cutting all contacts with the embassy and causing problems in the efforts to protect Japanese nationals as well as in other areas. This prompted the Foreign M3nistry to review t'ne need for the nation's embassfes and legations abroad to have their own radio communication facilities, and to, strongly ask the Posts and Telecommunications Ministry to revise the wireless telegraphy act. As an initial stEp, the Posts and Telecommunications Ministry decided to delete the phrase "a foreign government or its representatives" from the text of article 5 of the act. Possible amendments to other related articles are also under study. CSO: 4120/163 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 USSR COMMUNICATIONS DURING 11TH FIVE YEAR PLAN Moscow RADIOTEKHNIKA in Ruseian Vol 36, No 11, Nov 81 pp 4-5 [Article by Yu. B. Zubarev, USSR deputs minister of coannunicat3.ons] [Text] The 64th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution has now passed. During tliis year, the entire country has lived under the influence of the 26th Congress of tfie Cammunist Party of the Soviet Union, which simnmarized the results of the lOth Five-I'ear Plan and adopted national development plans�for the llth Five-Year Plan. Major tasks fiave been placed before Soviet Science in terms of accelerating scientific-technical progr.,ess and impraving the welfare of the Soviet people; specific tasks have lieen defined-for individual branches. Uncler the guidance of the direct:tves of the 25th CPSU Congress, communications workers achieved major successes during tfie lOth Five-Year Plan: they fulfillled assignments witli respect to tfie most important Cerhnical-econamic inclicators, they improved the efficiency and quality of operation of conanuntcations facilitiies, and fulfilled and overfulf3:11ed assigrments for the development of technical faci- lities. A significant step was Taade in creating nationwide�Unified Autatnated Communications System (YeASS). The extent of long-distance telephone channels increased in 1980 by more tfian a factor of 1.9 over 1975, and a numtier of critical cable and radio relay links were put into operation, including a multichannel rad3o relay link along the Baykal-Amur Main Ra3:lroad Line. Thanks to the expansion of tfie netwoxk of communicattons channels and construc- tion of long-d istance telephone exclianges:, the 1eve1 of automation of long dtstance telepfione communications, to which more than 60% of city telephone sub- scribers now have access, has increased. Most rayon centers have automatic telephone communication wTtfi t~~eir oblast centers. The assignment �or the develc.~pment of telephone cammunications� in cities and rural areas was overful- f illed : the number of network stibscriliers increased Tiy atiout 6 million. The assigrrment to douBle tfie network used to receive newapaper columns pfioto- telegrapfiically at-decentralized printing locations was fulfilled ahead of schedule. Tfiis metfiod in contrast to delivering newspaper plates by air, has accelerated the printing of newspapers at remote locations andTnade it inde- pendent of weatfier, tfius speeding their deli'very to readers. For example, the 2 FOR UFFICIAL t?SL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY newspaper PRAVDA is now delivered to 90% of subscribers on the day it is pub- lished. Prototype message switching centers (TsKS-T) have been put into opera- ion. The indicators for bringing channel switching capacities of the Nationwide Data Transmission IJetwork (OGSPD) and telegraph network have been overfulfilled, and the subscriber telegraph and Telex network have been expanded. The develop- ment of radio broadcast and television stations has made it possible to provide the first radio broadcast program to the entire country, and the second program to 80% of the country; territory containing 86% of the country's population is covered by television broadcast. Tlie entire televtsion transmitting network provi3es color transmission, and the network which fee,;rt central television pro- g*:ams via the new "Raduga", "Ekran" and "Gorizont" ccrmmunications satellites has been expanded significantly. The wire broadcast network continued its develop- ~ ment, with over 80 million wired-radio outlets in place by the end of the Five- Year Plan, including 40 millien three-prvgram outlets. A aignificant amount of work has been done to develop postal enterprises and enterprises of Soyuzpechat': a large number oil new post offices and caaemunications departments have lieen put into operation, 108 3unction enterprises have lieen mechanized, and 99% of city delivery sections have been switclied over to mechanized delivery. The need for accelerating the scientific and teclinical progress: of all branches of the economy stands out in the resolutions of the 26th Congress. With respect to communications, this is especially emphasized on the part of f orming the national.unified automated communications system. During tlie 10th Five Year Plan, the USSR Ministry of Communicaticns together with the Ministry of Industrial Communications Facilities and the Ministry of the Electrotechnical Industry accomplished a great deal of work in creating new technical communications facilities which will provide the basis for further development of communica- tions during the I1th Five-Year Plan. In order to develop the primary backbcne communications network, high-capacity coaxial cable transmissionsystems liave lieen created: the K-1920-P, which trans- mits, over a normal cable (2.6/9.46n) with four type KMB-4 tubes, 3840 voice- grade channels; and the K-3600 system wfiich permits groups of up to 17,500 channels to be accomodated on a type KMB-8/6 cable. The 4 and 6 GHz KURS radio relay equipment allows up to 720-1300 or more telephone cliannels to be organized over 4 to 6 working trunks, as we11 as televtsion transmission. The MIDW-40, "Gruppa", "Orbita-RV", "Ekran", "Moskva" and other geostationary satellites, which carry television, telephone, radio broadcast and newspaper column channels, have been developed for the backbone system. The "MolniyaF" system, which trans- mits via satellites in high e1lipCical orbit, which makes it possible to trans- mit programs and maintain telephone communications with higli-latitude locations in the country, is still in operation. Beside the previously leveloped K-300, K-120 and K--60 analog communications systems, intra^oblast primary networks are making extensive use of the newly created IRM-120 time-multiplexed systems for a standard balanced caBle (to re- place or augment the K-60) and the IKM-480, wfiicfi uses a small coaxial cable FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 (1.2/4.6 mm), which can carry digital signals at 8.448 and 34.368 Mbps (120 and 480 telephone channels, respectively). This equipment has undergone testing on specially buikt.-experimental communications links. Since the testing indi- cated satisfactory results of operating the new communications sytems, they have been recommended for industrial production. Radio relay equipment opera- ting in the 2 and 8 GHz range has been created for these systems which can carry 300 voice grade c4annels or television channels in the RURS trunk, and "Oblast"" equipment f or teitphone communication. New digital IKM712 (soon to be IKM-15), IKM-30, "Zona", and IKH-120 (which saves significant amounts of cable and copper) are in extenaive use for local, city and urban telephone networks. Time-saultiplexed rad3:o relay link equipment will be introduced - the "Elektronika-11Ts" which operates in the 11 GHz range and has a 8.448 Mbps pcm multiplexing sy.stem. This system is now being tes.ted on an experimental link. Switching equipment is an important component of secondary cammunications networks. During the 11th Five--Year P1an, new quasi:electronic stations which were developed late in the lOth FiveTYear P1an and fiave lieen put into production, will be put into operation along with the already well-developed K 50/200 and 100/2000, ATSK-U and AMTS cross�-bar awitchtng equipment already in use in a11 branches of communications (rural, rayon, city and long distance). Ttits includes the "Kvarts" excfianges Por city and long dtstance communications, and tAe "Istok" for rural and rayon networks. Channel switching equipment in d irectrdialing, subscriber telegxapli and data t=ans- mission systems wi11 conti:nue to be introduced tnto teleptione comrAunications. In addition, a message swttching system a new fiigfily efficient fielegraph com�- munications system - wi11"a1so be introducedmore extenaively. The tirst years of operation have alread.y affirmed its tiigli tectlnical and operational imdicators. The new "Kurok" electronic telegraph switching exchange, which is expected to be put into operation by the end of the Five-Year Plan, is also under develop- ment. Telegraph equipment is being improved signif icantly: the development and a.ssimilation of 50 and 100 liaud electrameclianical alphanumeric teletype machines is reacfiing completion. Tiie use of ink-type facs3:mile machines ("shtrikh") will be developed furtfier. The development of radio broadcast and improvement of its quality will occur primarily on the tiasis of existing technical facilities, as well as re-equiping existing stations. In order to develop television networks, a graul, of fiigh performance rcmote-controlled unattended transmitters has been created: ttie "Wmen'-2", tlie ATRS-5/1, television relays, etc. The development of a11 communications branches during the 11th Fiveryear Plan wi11 thvs occur to a significant extent on the basis of new technology. In addition, besides introducing new facilities which have already been created, it remains to develop and create new, more sophisticated communications technology.- The main tasks in this area are determined by a gcal-oriented integrated pro- gram which provides for the creatid.n of the nexi generation of coaxial cable systems - the K-10800 frequency multiplexed s,ystem, the IKM-1920 time -mul t iplexed FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY system, as well as mastery of the production of IKM-480 equipment. An im- portant direction for technical progress in the area of developing transmission systetns is the creation of a fiber optic communications system. Experimental optical links carrying digital streams at 2.048 and 8.448 Mtips which were created during the lOth Five Year Plan liave indicated the applicability in principle of the components and optical caliles wliich have been developed. During the llth Five-Year Plan, fundamental problems of creating equipment and cables for oper- ational fiber optic links must lie resolved so tliat tliey can be introduced ex- tensively by the end of tliis, and the beginning of the 12tYi Fiwe-Year k'1an. The integrated program defines tasks o� developing and producing equipment, as well as a number of indicators regarding the volume of i'ntroduction, which im- poses def inite obligat3:ons for the construction of new communications facilities on the part of introducing new tecfinvlogy. Work is underway to create the new generation of "Elektronika-svyaz radio relay equipment f or oblast communication linlts in a11 frequency ranges allocated for those purposes. The development 3:s being done on the Basis of thelatest achievements of domestic radio electronic.s,.microminiaturization and stripline technology. It is expected tliat tliese wi1l be i'ntroduced extenaively by the end of tliis Pive-Year P1an. The tasks imposed by the 26th CPSU Congress are grandiose. Soviet comnunicators, recognizing the responsibility they bear for the further development and per- fection of communications facilities and systems and their role in managing the national economy, wi11 app7.y a11 of tlieir efforts and knowledge in order to fulfill honorably the plans of the party and of the people. COPYRIGHT: "Radiotekhniica", 1981 6900 CSO: 5500/1015 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040028-2 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS INTELSAT TO LAUNCH THREE MORE SATEI,LITES ItJ 1982 Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 18 Jan 82 p 33 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "Third Intelsat 5 Satellite to be Operational in March 1982"1 [Text] The third telecommunications eatellite (F3) of the Intelsat 5 series, launched 15 December 1981, will be put into service in March 1982 over the Indian Ocean. Initially, the satellite will be positioned at 15 degrees East to be con- trolled by Telespazio's earth station at Fucinc (Italy). Subsequently, it will be repositioned over the Indian Ocean at 62 degrees East, over the Atlantic Ocean to replace the Intelsat 5 satellite currently in service which will then serve the Indian Ocean region. The telecommunications demand in this region is growing very rapidly--to the point where the 6,000 telephonE circuits cvrrently being provided by Intelsat 4A are close to saturation. The new Intelsat 5 satellite (1,870 kg) will have a cagacity of 12,000 telephone circuits and two TV channels, Intelsat states that its satellites (Intelsat 4A and Intelsat 5) currently in service are carrying around two-thirds of the world's transoceanic telecommunica- tions traffic and almost all overseas television transmissions. The next Intelsat 5 satellites will be launched this year from Cape Canaveral (Florida), using NASA's Atlas-Centaur rockets. The fourth Intelsat 5(F4) is to be launched in March 1982 and the fifth Intelsat 5(F5) in May 1982. The sixth satellite, which will also be the first of the improved Intelsat 5A version, will be placed in orbit in December 1982. . ~ Intelsat plans to launch a total of 15 Intelsat 5 and 5A satellites, six of which ; during the next 2 years. These will be followed in 1984 and 1985 by six more , Intelsat 5A satellites. These launchings will be divided up between Ameriaan ; Atlas-Centaur rockets (10 satellites: Fl to FS and F.'9 to F13) and European Ariane ; rockets (5 satellites: F6 to FS and F14 to F15). In 1986, the first satellites of the new-qeneration Intelsat 6 series (40,000 telephone calls), the buil:-r of which is to be selected in March 1982, between Hughes Aircraft and Ford Aero;oace. These satellites will be launched by the 5huttle or by Ariane 4. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1982 9238 CSO: 5500/2096 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 ITALY COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHING: LEVELS, OBJECTIVES, ACTIVITIES Turin ELETTRONICA E TELECOMUNICAZIONI in Italian Nov-D2c 81 pp 227-234 [Article by Paolo de Ferra, doctar of engineering, central director of STET [Tele- phone Finance Corporation], Rome: "Switching in Italy: Levels, Objectives, Activi- ties"*; "Summary" as publifted in English] [Text] Summary--Switching in Italy: Levels, Objectives, Activities. The situa-:.:. tion of Italian telecommunications is firstly considered, and in particular the evolution of the last two years. The present guidelines, oriented to a future unique multiservice network, are then described. Indications are given on the conversion process (in the network and production plants) from analoque to digital techniques,.mainly regarding switching (transit exchanges and local exchanges). The topic problems are considered, concerning network planning, common channel channel signaling, digital subscriber lines. Some recent trends in system evolu- tion are shown, with particular mention to both UT 10/3 of ITALTEL and the con- centration of activities on a system of Italian origin. With reference to telephony, a chapter illustrates the results of electronic exchanges in operation, the technological activities in software (mainly high level languages) and in hardware (mainly microelectronics) and to the most recent switching system developments. Another chapter describes the new telecommunications services: circuit and packet-switched data, teletex, videotel, slow-video, videoconfer- ence, etc. Special mention is given to the philosophy of a multiservice inte- grated network, that is a network open to the interconnection of systems, even of different nature. [End of Summary] * This article is the translation into Italian of the paper presented by tl:e author at the "International Symposium on Switching" Montreal (Canada), 21-25 September 1981. This paper was Staly's contribution to the opening and orientation session of the 5ymposium. During this session, authoritative representatives of the seven most advanced countries in this sector (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Italy and the United State3) presented papers describing results achieved and the telecommunications developmental outlook in their respective cotxntries. Typewritten manuscript received 5 October 1981. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1. Introductior. The switching situation in Italy and the outlook for its development were dis- cussed by Prof D. Gagliardi in the opening session of the ISS [International Switching Symposium] held in Paris in May 1979. The memorandum presented on ttlat occasion contain� much information that adequately describes the Italian sittia- tion.1 The cocicluEions reached in that document can be very concisely summarized - as follows: Switching Outlook in Italy as of May 1979 Situation: --A certain number of manufacturing firms; --Switching centers almost exclasively of the electromechanical type (a'few semielectror:ic automatic transit-tra'cfic switchers); --Scattered use of digi.tal techniques in transmission systems. Plans: --Direct change from electromechanical to digital systems; --Specifications oriented toward future develapmental changes internal to the systems. Objectives: . --Introduction af digital techniques to the extent of 50 percent in the urban area and 80 percent in the interurban area by the year 2000;. --Concomitantly progressive introduction of new services beginning in the early 1980's; --Rapid,evolution of international switching for every type of service. Frequent references will be made in this paper to the foregoing memorandum, with the twofold aim of confirming the foregoing orientations and of pointing up, in some cases, new initiatives that have been undertaken since then from the stand- point of speeding up and better rationalizing the implementation of those plans. 2. Telecommunications Growth As regards telephony, at the end of 1978, there were in Italy 11.4 million sub- scribers and 17.1 million telephone sets. At the end of 1980, there were 13.0 million subscribers and 19.3 million sets. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040028-2 In ter^s of ratios to population, these figures represent a growth of from 20 sub- scribers and 30 sets per 100 inhabitants in 1978 to over 23 subscribers and 35 sets per 100 inhabitants as of m'_d 1981. _ _ These figures can be related meaningfully to the GNP [Gross National Product] per inhabitant. Figure 1 shows, in this respect, how Italy stood at the end of 1979 by comparison with some other European countries. The area of each dot is pro- portional to the absolute telephonic component of the GNP for the country to which it relates. This situation brought about the drawing up of the Italian telecommunications plan for the 1980's. Governmental bodies, social forces, manufacturing concerns and operating agencies are constantly trying to achieve a balance among �actors of diverse natures: Economic, financial, service, empl.oyment, and so forth. Pressures for accelerated growth stem from various factars. These include: The substantial current backlog of requests for subscriber services, involving in many cases long waiting periods; the conviction that telecommunications are an important infrastructure, essential to rhe improvement of the quality,of life and to the production of higher levels of income, particularly in peripheral and less devel- oped localities; energy savings; and the need to shore up the telecommunications industry, thus attenuating unemployment problems. On the other hand, the upward thrust on growth is being moderated by the need to ensure the economic balance of the system thrnugh adequate while not excessive rates for services as well as by the need to pace the:rat;es of growth of plant initially to conform to the capacity of in.dustry for converting to the production of modern systems in large quantities. In summary, the currently planned growths in subscriber services are shown graphically in Figure 2, which also shows in lighter lines, the previously projected growths announcedin Paris. Under current projections, service densities in 1990 will be 38 subscribers and 57 sets per 100 inhabitants. Figure 2 also shows traffic projections. Interurban traffic in particular is - expected to grow; an increase of over 160 percent in international traffic during the 1980's is being projected. . The 1980's will also see an expansion of mobile radio services: conversational, vehicular paging and personal message. The first of these types of service is actively used in most of nor.thern and central Italy's major cities and highways and its use is spreading to Southern Italy. The second type is in active use throughout Italy. Terminals for these two types of service now number 2,500 and and are expected to total some 28,000 by 1990. T',s third of these types is still in the experimental stage; our projection is that by 1990 around 5 percent of the population in urban areas will be served by terminals of.this type. Telex service is also expected to increase substantially durinq the 1980's, from the current 38,000 subscribers to 95,000 by 1985 and 150,000 by 1990. The pro- jection, however, is meaningful only until 1985, in that, thereafter, new services will be available such as teletex, facsimile, word processing and others,that will adversely affect the further expansion of telex service. 9 FOR OFFIC'YAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ As regards data services, the figures -iven in Paris are confirmed. The number of _ terminal installations increased from 50,000 in 1978 to the present total of 80,000 and is expected to grow to 250,000 by 1990. Based on a ratio of 2.4: 1, subscriber should total around 600,000. Tbis figure includes datafax terminals (facsimile between data network subscribers):;it does not include, however, videotex terminals. For the latter type of service, called VIDEOTEL in Italy, the grojection is around 350,000 terminals by 1987. The service is still in an experimental stage, as will. be discussed later, and is expected to be made available to the public by 1983. Experimentatian is also undec way,and will be discussed further below, on other services such as teletex, Fiow-scan video and telecoriferencing. Substantial use of these services, howeve.:, is not foreseen until the second half of the 1980's and a projection of the number of terminals is not yet available. 3. Evolution of the Network - The.need has long been recognized for an integrated services digital network [ISDN (in Italy, RNIS)], even though as a long-range objective, rather than having different networks for different services. For many years, however, it was pos- sible to introduce digital equipment only into the transmission sector. Only - recently have hardware and software technologies evolved to the point of rendering digital switching systems economically viable, pa.rticularly with respect to local switching. This means that only beginning now will it be possible tc start the large-scale deployment of those local exchanges throughout the country that are basic to the building of an effec'tive ISDN. Then, by interconnecting these exchanqes via a superimposed digi*_al network, it will be possible to offer subscribers, on a graduGl basis, those advanced services that an ISDN can provide. A certain length of time will necessarily be involved, however, in the evolution of these two pro- cesses, in the penetration of the market by these new digitalized systems, and in their gradual adaptation to grov'iding not anly telephony but other. serviees as well. Under these circumstances, the need to accommodate demands for new services(parti- cularly switched data services) has led to the prior introduction of specialized facilities. On the other hand, it has also been considered necessary to avoid future incompatibilities between Current facilities of this nature and the future network structure. The solution was actually to first draw up the basic specifi- cations for the future ISDN. The most important characteristics and connotations were identified and are now sufficiently consolidatedand tested. These character- istics and connotations subsequently became the basis for specifying the special- ized facilities.2 In short, our evolution toward a network characterized by a high degree of inte- gration of the various IS.DN services is proceedinq along the following guidelines: 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 : --Large-scale digitalization of existi.ig plant facilities; --Specialialized faailities to accommodate demand for new services without delay; 1 --Compatibility of specialized facilities with the future requirements of the ISDN. 4. Digitalization of Plant Facilities As regards transmission facilities, the degree of penetration of digitalized sys- tems at district levels will be about 44 percent by the end of 1981. This figure is expected to be around 70 percent by 1985, through the use of digital systems on physical bearer facilities (copper or optical fibers) flr on microwave links.. For longer distances, the process of digitalization is already under way. It will proceed initially on the basis of 70- and 140-Mbit/sec systems, going to higher-capacity systems subsequently. Signif icant development is also projected in the urban areas, where an intensive digitalization program has been started, using micro-caaxial cable techniques. 19-GHz microwave links and.:.optical-fiber links are to follow very shortly. With respect to optical-fiber systems, experimentation on various.applications has been under way for some time now. Planning calls for putting numerous pilot plants in service on live traL-fic over the next 2 years. Optical fibers are ex- pected to replace copper gradually not only in urban and.district areas but also on long-haul systems. Their application may well be limited (even in a country. the size of Italy), only for reasans of: policy, by digitalized satellite systems, as will be mentioned later. As regards switching, at the time of I5S 179 the introduction of time-division or frequency-division local exchan4es with capacities of 1,000-2,000 lines, suited particularly for containerized use, had already begun. As regards interurban exchanges, about 15 percent of their terminations were of semielectronic tech- nology. As of today, the number of small-capacity electronic exchanges of this type has grown. Figure 3 shows the localities that will be served by various tens of thousands of lines by the end of this year. 8txt what is more significant is that in 1980 the digitalization of trunk switching was initiated; the putting into service of a Proteo TN16 exchange in Milan and an AXE exchange in Naples. As Figure 3 also shows, the digitalized trank-switching exchanges are rapidly _ proliferating, and by the end of this year the various manufacturers operating in Italy will have already installed or be in the process of installing 10 ex- - changes of this type. As regards trunk.switching,, it is expectc-I that the process of conversion of production will be completed by 1985: This is to say that, beyond that year, no trunk equi.pment will be furnished that is not digital-technology. 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040028-2 MUK UrtlC:IAL UJL V1VLY The key point, however, remains that of local digital switching, and it is in this highly relevant area that the procFSS of "" mentioned above and a solidly based replacement plan will be maximally pres3ed. Figure 4 provides a Comparison between today's projectio:is as regards production of local exchanges and the modest ones exhibited in Paris. Correspondingly, it is projected that by'the end of the 1980, 30 percent of all subscriber lines will be connected to digital exchanges. It is easy to imagine what impacts this acceleration process will have on planning of the interconnecting networks in metropolitan areas as well as in the areas of medium- and low-density subscriber services. On the one hand, the digitalization of certain parts of the network tends to set off a chain reaction toward a more rapid digitalization of other parts of the net-. work; optimization can also affect the allocation of transmission-line stages, the scaling of exchanges in tandem, the aliocation of facilities, the organization of maintenance operations, and the advancement of dates by which new services can be made available. On the other hand, the axistence of r_ondigital plants very far yet from being amortized, and the financial effort required to replace them, tend to burden and slow the process and to maintain the "status quo" (at least to a break-even point). The results can vary widely according to specific areas and different situations. Hence, the choice of a suitable technical and economic digitalization strategy constitutes for the Administration one of its most press- ing problems.3 Obviously, the principal factor is the competitiveness of the digital local exchanges. Another important aspect of our planning has to do with our ability to effectively offer something more than basic telephony or POTS [Plain Ordinary Telephone Ser- vice]; that is, new and sophisticated telephonic services, data services, and so forth. If digital switching modules are to be installed nationwide for these purposes as well, our planning must take into account the existence, by the end of the 1980's, of new-technology modules in every locality of a certain size. Their interconnectidn will then be a requirement of some importance, particularly as regards CCS [Common Channel Signaling].4 It is expected that a nationwide CCS network will be in place by the rnid-1980's and able to interconnect a significant number of exchanges distributed throughout the country (Figure 5). In view of the current'multiplicity of conventional signaling systems, our objective is to achieve a uniform telephonic signaling method based on the CCITT No. 7 system** and capable of satisfying the demand for services other than telephony. Still another important aspect is that of the distribution network or, in other words, that of the digital subscriber lines. Two categories of multiple-service subscriber lines have been specified in the ISDN structure5: That of large private A CCS system recommended by the CCITT for international linlas and.designed to _ be used also domestically within the various countries. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 - digital networks with access via a 64-kbits/sec multiple-channel structure, and that of small private netwo-rks wizh access via a limited number of indiuidual subscritaer lines (including the single-line case). Both types are being studis"- and tes'tec, especially as regards their architecture and requirements for -erti- fication. 5. Systems Traditionally, the telephone switching systems installed in Italy are supplied by four manufacturing companies that have existed in Italy for a long time com- plete with research units as well as production units: ITALTEL (of the STET Group); FATME (L. M. Ericcson); FACE (ITT [International Telaphone and Telegrapfi Company]); and GTE. The largest share of the market is that ITALTEL, with over 50 percent. To this list must also be added TELETTRA, a recent entry in the area of switching. � With respect to the situation as of ISS 179, each of these manufacturers has in the intervening 2 and 1/2 years, had undertaken to develop and perfect his own products, to create- new devices, and so forth. The results achieved by them have given rise to various interesting contributions submitted to ISS '$l. First, however, due cognizance must be taken o� some important accomplishments and new orientatibns that have taken p];ace between ISS 179 and the present.. From the standpoint of technical evolution of products, the event that appears most interesting and promising for the 1980's is the intraductian of a new ITALTEL product--the so-called UT 10/3 exchange, which is the first second-generation product of the PROTEO family. Ttao substant3va contributions submitted to ISS 181 constitute its certificate of b3rth.5,6 By comparison with the preceding generation, the birth of which dates back to. the ICC [International'Conference on Communications] held in San Francisco in - 1975, the UT 10/3 represents a noteworthy departure. This departure clearly has some of its origins in the technological evolution that has taken place, above all in its use of VLSI cVery-Large-Scale Integration] components and in the architec- ture of its controls. But important origins of this departure also spring from a reexamination, together with the SIP [Italian Telephone Company], of the system specifications. The result was a new systemic approach, oriented toward the ISDN, highly modular, flexible and suited for use in networks in general and not only the Italian one. Figure 6 gives some idea of this exchange. An exchange of this type is currently - being tested in SIP's "Volta" central office in Milan. An assembly line, to an appreciable degree automated, is expected to be in place shortly. On this basis, a certain number of exchanges of this type can reasonably be expected to be in service in the network by the forthcoming ISS 184. 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040028-2 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONLY While Italian industry went about proving itself capable of independently design- ing its own products, the extent of the efforts necesscry to adapt existing sys- tems to the demands of national managements as well as to independently aevelop original systems became increasingly evident. An important decision was taken in this regard by the appropriate governmental bodies. The decision was aimed at coagulating all such activities around a switching system of Italian origin, even though this might mean by way of agreements between national and foreig n manufac- turers. Generally speaking, there is now a trend toward a reduction in the number of systems. In short, in compliance with the mentioned decision, an agreement was worked out and was signed between ITALTEL and 7�ELETTRA, providing among other things for cooperation between the R& D laboratories of the two compar.ies in the forthcoming development of the above-mentioned second-generation system. 6. Tests, New Devices and New Developments The purpose of this chapter is to furnish basic information and a few comments regarding the technical actirities that have taken place in Italy between I5S '79 and the present. Chapter 7 will furnish further information and comments on parallel activities devotec~ to new services. TPSts: As shown in Figure 3, the introduction of the first electronic exchanges was purposely distributive over the national territory, thus involving vast sec- tors of the operating organization. This made it possible to obtain data in actual practice and over a broad base with regard to the response of the equipment and of the organization in terms of service-restoration-time patterns, with re- gard to utilization of employed personnel, and so forth. The point that warrants underscoring, particularly as regards the exchanges devel- oped within the STET Grou,?*** is that the introduction into the network constitu- ted only the final, though highly important, step in a long procESS. During the preceding steps, from the drawing up of the specifications to the production stage and on to the testing phase, throughout the ogerating structures, there were created numerous interactive nuclei of persons, who are now prepared to draw on the findings of these field tests and to put them rapidly to fruitful use. A - typical example is the speed with which the results of the initial live operating tests were converted into significant improvements in restoration times and in the efficiency of the personnel.a New.Devices: In this domain as well, the close cooperation among the various functional units, in the form of rapid interactive reactions between one unit and another, produced fruitful results. For example, there was the joint development of new devices based on SDL [Specification and Description'Language] for opera- tional uses such as the verification of completeness of a specffication, the maintenance of software, and so forth. Now, the same devices are being used in manufacturing applications, in view of their utility as aids in the development of software.9 '"he STET Group has the advantage of a structure similar to, though differing ii, size and environment from, that of the Be11-System, comprising within itself functional R& D, productional and operational capabilities. ' 14 FOR OFFI(."IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 , . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Reciprocally, a system based on an SDL editor, a CH1LL concurrent compiler, and a comtuand language des'onated L-CHILL was developed by IT~,.LTEL as a supporting _ device in the design and development of software. Now, this same system will enable the user to operate independently on data structures as well as on operg- tional programs.l0 7n general, the two important factors are: The close interaction among R& D structures, pMfiictional as well as operational, and the experience gained in the development of innovative projects. With respect to the latter, it was proved once again that to gain a-true,,understariding of the!~qreater.or lesser importance of implications relating to a given sector, an essential condition is that one _ actually constr;uct something within that sector. Still within the doma-in of software-development devices, TELETTRA has enhanced its own capabilities in the domain of engineering methods relating to software pro- ducts for large systems. A high-level language for this purpose was developed'and has been used sinc.e 1980.11 Lastly, as regards the production of hardware, the prime importance of acquiring the capability for developing LSI [Large-Scale-Integration] components has been confirmed. It is cor.respondingly and equally important to be capable of designing new architectuies that will maximize the advantages that can lae derived frorri~the use of these components. Particularly active in this regard are the SGS and the� CSELT [Telecommunications Research and Study Center].12 New Developments: During the past 2 and 1/2 years, substantial further efforts have been,devoted to the study and development of new products and to the improve- ment of existing ones. With regard to the PROTEO system, mention has already been made of the second- generation UT 10/3. Concurrently, however, first-generation products, including the CT 2 terminal exchange and the TN 16 transit exchange, have undergone consi- derable technological improvements. The TI 2 exchanqe for transit and operator- assisted services is also now being upgraded by the introduction of a higher- capacity digital-connection network to meet the special requirements of ITAL- CABLE.13 Aside from the PROTEO system, two further activities in this domain merit special mention: --The upgrading of the operating and maintenance performance characteristics of the digital transit exchange developed by TELETTRA;14 --The related development, within the STET group, of a system designated the ESCT for the real-time supervision and control of the existing long-distance telephone network.l5 15 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 F4R OFFiCIAL USE ONLY - 7. More Advanced Telecommunications As mentioned above, it is planned to offer new services commensurately with the gradual introduction of digital urban exchanges. For certain services, however, specialized facilities will be introduced on an advance basis. As regards data, as was indicated at ISS 179, the introduction of circuit-switched as well as packet-switched data services, with adequate availability of optional features, will begin in the early 1980's.1 As of today, it is planned to put into service during the initial months of 1981 a first circuit-switching network that will be known as the RFD [Telephone and Data Network]. The related plants, including interconnections with the telepholze network, are now in the test phase. The transit exchanges are located in a few large cities; the remote-controlled concentratars are installed in 87 important localities throughout the country. A new type of concentrator, using digital technology and particularly suited to networks of this type, is currently under development by TELETTRA.16 _ Paralleling this, orders have been placed with industry for three hubs and several dozen ACP's [packet adapter-concentrators] for delivery by 1982 . The distribution of data services subscribers is expected to be as follows in 1983: Subscriber terminations: (Thousands) --on circuit-switching network 8 --on packet-switching network 12 --on direct links 60 --on the switched telephone network and RFD 40 Total 120 As has been indicated above, all new service developments are being undertaken . from the viewpoint of their integration into the ISDN. For example, the above- mentioned ACP's were developed by CSELT and ITALTEL in such a way that they will be easily absorbed into the ISDN.17 Fundamentally, in the design of the ISDN, the telecommunications network may be viewed as transparent lake into which the information can be transferred (digital corinectivity) but not limited to this. With technological evolution, new "islanc7s" will surface within the network (Figure 7) and will justify the alloca- � cation of facilities in it for such as packet-treatment of inessage-oriented communications services, and thus even the memorization and treatment of the informational content. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040028-2 On the one hand, this involves a series of efForts to rationalize the allocation of necessary facilities to the individual services and to enforce a strict standardization of interfaces and equipment specificationse On the other hand, this is the only way the public network can be made effectively an open network offering maximized facilities for communication between individual terminals, and between terminals and the facilities of the nettaork. This is the concept embodied in the term OSI EOpen System InterconnectionJ, in the sense of a network open to interconnections between systems even though these may be systems of differPnt - natures. In this concept, all new services are viewed as part of a sinc,le ser- vice, namely, the public telecommunications service. Italy devotes substantial resources to the pursuit of an international standardi- xation, convinced as it is that every unilateral initiative constitutes not an advance but rather a delay of progress. Particular attention is being devoted to subscriber and network interfaces:- Two contributions submitted to ISS 181 refer to work currently being done toward a rationalized standardization of subscriber accesses to the ISDN.15,18 One contri- bution is devoted to multiple-service CCS.4 Another refers to current develop- mental work on adapting a digital telephone-switching system (ITT 1240) to stan- dardized interfaces for other services.19 Other work currently under way is being devoted to experimentatioii. As regards teletex, a service test is in the course of preparation in the form o� an electronic mail experiment. After an initial phase limited to post offices and to a few large-scale subscribers, the service will be extended gradually to other subscribers. With regard to facsimile, once the standardization phase has been completed tktere are no plans as yet to include specific facilities for this service in the net- work. Worthy of special mention is the experimental work to be done on VIDEOTEL and on its potential market in the Milan area beginning in the first half of 1982. The future standard has not yet been decided; far the moment, experimentation is being based on Prestel technology, with a view te rendering it more "open" to accommo- date also interconnections between data banks and VIDEOTEL centers via the net- . work. The experimental phase will involve some 1,000 subscribers and some 100 information providers. The service is expected to be made available to the public by 1983. Still regarding video services, developmental work is proceeding on a slow-scan video system using a 256 x 256 standard and 64-kbit/sec transmissi.on with reduced redundancy. It is expected to find applications in the field of-remote surveil- lance (for example, vehicular traffic intersections) or in association with tele- conference services, and so forth. In the field of images in motion, plans call for the start of an experimental videoconference within a few months. Two subscriber videoconfererice rooms are 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 FOR OF[`'IC[AL USE ONLY being 'pr.epared--one in Rome and one in Milan. Speed of transmission will be i Mbits/sec. Ope:dng thus is the "diqital wideband" era, the era of spee'.'s great- ly ex,_-eeding 64 kbits/sec. Such speeds will be found useful in the future ic: not only images in motion but also for other video services (for example, the projec- t?.on of slides during teleconferences) and for updating of files, etc. The subject of diqital wideband is being pursued diligently also because of the current unavailability of distributional digital facilities at high bit rates. This, among other things, imparts a stimulus to the study of a satellite capable _ of providing wideband digital connectivity over the entire national territory. The design of a satellite of this type is currently under way, to provide wideband services and to serve as an alternate facility for the carrying of any other type of signal, and particularly telephony (for example, in case of natural disasters). To enhance its competitiveness, the satellite system should be equipped with a switching capability that can be shared, as necessary, between ground stations and the satellite itself.20 ~ 8. Conclusions The current status of switching in Italy have been set forth, as well as the developmental work that has been done or is being done in this sector. The infor- mation submitted on this topic to ISS '79 has been usec7 as a benchmark. The correspondence between the evolution under way and the previoasly indicated l,ines of advance has been confirmed. The fact is that these lines of advance are still: being closely monitored and brought into convergence by government bodies, social forces, manufacturing firms, and operating agencies in an ongoing effort to f ind a balance among various . factors of diverse natures: Economic, finanaial, service, employment and so forth. New actions undertaken recently in this domain, toward acceleration and greater rationalization, have been discussed. Studies, projects, and results with regard to the technical aspects of the situa- tion have also been discussed, reference having been made to the numerous contri- butions of Italian origin submitted to ISS 181. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Gagliardi, D., "Telecommunications Switching in Italy: Present Situation and Development Prospects (ISS 179)." ELETTRONICA E TELECOMUNICAZIONI No. 5, 1979 p 187. 2. Mossoto, C. and Micciarelli, A., "Technical Aspects in the Implementation of a Public Switched Network for Data (ISS 179)." 3. Mazzei, U. and Biciocchi, E., "Prospects and Strategies for the Digitaliza- tion of Loca1 Areas of the Italian Network (ISS 181). 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 4. Romagnoli, M. and Others, "Prospects for a CCITT No. 7 National Common Channel Signaling Network .(ISS '81)." 5. Parod~,'R, and Others, "Evolutionary Steps Towards an Integrated ServiceG ~ Digital Network (ISDN) (ISS 181)." I6. Galimberti R. and Others, "PROTEO System: An Overview (ISS 181)." ; ~ r.~. I 7. Dal Monte, S. and Israel, J., "PROTEO System UT 10/3: A Combined Local and Tall Exchange (ISS 181)." 8. biagnolfi, G, and Others: "PROTEO System.7'est and Operating Experience (ISS '81)." 9. Saracco, R. and Others, "Application of CCITT SDL for Software Development and Its Maintainability (ISS 181)." 10. Rosci, G. and Others, "CHILL Programing System: Implementation and Opera- ~ tional Aspects (ISS 181)." ; 11. Borsotti, A., "A Method for Engineering and Production of Large Software Systems (ISS 181)." i 12. Melindo, F. and Others, "LSI Components for Digital Line Stages (ISS 181)." 13. Balducci, R. and Rizzo, G., "PROTEO System: TI-5 Exchange for Direct Dialing, and Operator Services (ISS 181)." 14. Carra, S. and Morganti, M., "AFDT1 Operation and Maintenance (ISS '81)." ; 15. Tiribelli, P. and Others, "Maintenance and Operation Upgrading of the Italian ; Telephone Network by Means of Real-Time Control Systems (ISS 181)." 16. Ciccotti, M. and Others, "SLN: A Time-Division Subscriber's Line Stage for , Digital Exchanges (ISS 181)." , 17. Corsi, N. ancl Others, "Design and Performance of Subscriber Access Equipment _ for Packet-Switched Networks (ISS 181)." ' 18. Montemurro, R. and Villani, F., "Customer Access to the ISDN Facilities (ISS 181)." 19. Treves, S. R. and Tolusso, G., "Text, Image and Data Integration in a Dis- ' tributed Control Digital Voice Switching System (ISS 181)." 20. Preti, R. and Others, "Integration of a Satellite Switched System with the Terrestrial Network (ISS 181)." CGraphs and illustrations follow3 19 1 FG:~ OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 el Va% oJi`cl'I.IAL UJC Vl\a.r b s 41 _31 r z ~ a 0 a ~3 ac ~ 0 m a t io 3 - OS - , ~OK CH� ~ � NL p � A �N 41F � 6R s 8 OE � IRL i Key: l. Subscribers per 100 inhabi- tants. 2. GNP per inhabitant - in $ thousands (1979). Areas of dots are propor- tional to the total numbee of subscribers in their respective cauntries. ( 2) PRODOTTO NAZIONALE LOR00 PEA A617ANTE (a10Sj 1979~ Fig 1- Telephone subscribers versus Gross National Product (GNP). Key: ~ ~ - 1. Millions of inhabitants. a 2. Total calls. o 3. Subscribers. ~ 4. Local calls. ~ ~ 5. Billions of calls. 6. ISS 1979 forecasts. p t~ . ~ ~ 20 ~ i-~ ZQ Is is Np'(~ ~ ~~~~r.'� A~ ~N lAl ~ CHI~Mp~E 10, � (6) ~ i PREVISIONI 155 1979 5 S 0 0 i9eo 1985 Fig 2- Subscriber and trafi ic forecasts. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J a a e ~ s x a E 2 ,s9o i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 Key: l. Small local exchanges. 2. Digital transit exchanges. Fig 3- Electronic switching centers (December 1981). o J z 20 � o IV O Q C KeY : W 40 x l. Conventional-technology Z subscriber lines. W r 60 2. Digital-technology sub- ? scriber lines. Z 3. ISS 1979 forecasts. ow � WW Z 'j 10 ` I � ~J ( - - - ( 3 ) 4 PREVISIONI I551979 - 0 luu q) BO u a W E ~ 2 50 = u z W ~ 402 W r ~ 20'0 W W 7 ~ 1980 82 gq B6 89 1990 972 Fig 4- Forecasts of local exchanges to be provided. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040028-2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Key: 1. District peripheral area. Fig 5- Fundamental structure of CCS network. Fig 6- Camponents of UT 10/3 switcher. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440028-2 Fig 7- Model of ISDN. ; Key: 1. Access to the network or specialized facilities. COPYRIGHT: 1974 by ERI-EDIZIONI RAI ~ RADIOTELEVISIONE ITALIANA i ' 9238 CSO: 5500/2097 END 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040028-2