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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 1038~3 12 March 1982 ~ ~ ~ Ja an Re or p p t CFOUO 17/~2)~ ~ ~ , . . FB1~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL'Y � ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 NOTE ~ JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [ExcerptJ in the first line v"r each item, or following the ~ last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was proc~essed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- , mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. ' Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044429-1 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY JPRS L~'1Q383 ~ 12 March 1982 i ~ ~ ~ . JAPAN REPORT (~QLO i~; sa1 i . CONTENTS ~ i POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL ~ ~ k'oreign Missiona To Be Allowed To Operate Radios : (Ki~io Sakakibaxa; SANI~I SHINIDUN, 19 Feb 82) 1 j i ECONOMIC - MITI May Send Adviser Naohir~ Amaya to U.S. (JIJI, 22 Feb 82) 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ~ ~ Caonputer Development Traced Up to Fifth Generation RbD Goals � ~ (Sozaburo Okamatsu; DnVKI SHIN~UN, 8-11, 15-18 Dec 81) . 4 Country Moves Towaxd Nucleax Energy Geaeration . ~ (Shigeru Matsui; BUSINESS JAPAN, Feb 82) 21 ' Country Reported Step Closer' to NuclEax Fusion i (THE DAILY YOMIURI, 17 Feb 82) 26 New Pumps for Nucleax Energy, Space Exploration ~ ~ ' (BUSINESS JAPAN, Feb 82) 28 ~ Kaanatsu Begins Shipping Pipeleyers to USSR ~ (NIHON KEIZAI SHIN~UN, 2 Feb 82) 31 Optical Fiber Communications Are on Takeoff. ' (DIAMOND'S INDUSTRIA, Feb 82) 32 Whether Robots Wi]:L Create Unemployment Discussed . ' (DIAMOND'S IYDUSTRIA, Feb 82) 39 - a - ' [III - ASIA - 111 FOUO] FOR OFFICIA~. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 r~ic urrtt,l[iL UJC. U1VLY ~ NTT Pr~~sident Proposes Qpening Termiaals to Private Sector (NlHON I~IZAT sHIMBUN, 20, 21 Jan 82) ~+5 Denationalization Proposal Debate Over Proposel NIHD Generator 'ETIs Mark ViI' Ca~pleted (TECHI~TOCRAT, Nov 81) .........................~.......o. 48 High-Performa.nce Logic VLSI (TECHNOCRAT, Nov Sl) 55 Materials: Res earch of Bionic Synthes~s (1) (TECFINOCRAT, Oct 81) 58 - Materials: Reseaxch of Bionics Synthesis (2) (TECHI~TOCRAT, Nov 81) 70 Briefs Curb LSI Exports to U.S. 83 Policy on Cc~munication Satellites 83 . Turbine Order Fram PRC $g Vibration Absorption Material 83 - b - � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL . . JAPAN FOREIGN MISSIONS TO BE AT.LOWED ~0 OPERATE RADT.OS OW221051 Tokyo SANREI S'HIl~IBUN in Japanese 19 Feb 82 Morning Edition p 1 - [By reporter Ki~io Sakaicibara] [Text] The Posts and Telecommunications Ministry has decided to revise the wire- less telegraphy act to pQrmit foreign embassiss and legations in Japan to have their own radio communication facilities. The decision will be included in a bill of amendments to the act which is being prepared by the Ministry for Submission to . the current diet session. The revision is also designed to enable Japanese.diplo- matic establishments abroad to have their own wireless communication facilities, under the "principle of reciprocity," so that in the future such comsunication disruptians as that which happened to the embassy in Po~and can be avoided. All communications with the Japanes~~Emb~3ssy in Warsaw were disrupted for nearly a month due to the suspension cf gencral circuits under the martial law rule. Aceording to the Posts and Telecommunications Ministry,.there was a strong request from the For~:ign Ministry to authorize foreign diplomatic establishments to oper- ate their ~wn ra.dio stations. ~ - Article 5 of the present wireless telegraphy act stipulates that "a foreign govern~ ment or its ~r~:presentatives" are not 13.:.ensed to operate a radio station; under the principl~ of diplomatic "reciproc3.ty" Japanese embassies abroad also were not allowed to their own radio facilities by the governments of the respective countries. Japanese embassies abroad have thus been depending solely on general communciations circuits f or their communications with the Foreign Ministry in Tokyo. Troubles occurred in DP.cember last year when the martial law rule in Poland suspended operations of th.e general circuits for nearly a month, cutting all contacts with the embassy d::~d causing problems in the efforts to protect Japariese nationals as well as in o�ther areas. ~ This prompted the Foreign Ministry to review the need for~the nation's.embassies _ and legations abroad to have their own radio communication facilities, and to strongly ask the Posts and Telecommunications Ministry to revise the wireless telegraphy act. As an initial step, the Posts and Telecommunicat3ons Ministry decided to delete the phrase '~a foreign government or its representatives" from the text of article 5 of~the act. Possible amendments to other related articles are also under study. CSO: 4120/163 1 . FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 _ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY ECONOMIC . MITI MAY SEND ADVISER NAOHIRO AMAYA TO U.S. OW221400 '~okyo JIJI in English 1343 G'r1T 22 Feb 82 [Text] Tokyo, 22 Feb (JIJI Press)--The Ministry of International Trade and Industry is considering sending its adviser, Naohiro Amaya, to the United States from late this week to earl;~ March to warn againet the implementation of trade reciprocity bil~s, which Japan sees as threatening bilateral trade. The trip, to ma3or cities stxch as Washington, New York and Boston, would coincide~with renewed publicity efforts in the United States by the foreign office. Miti is also studying the ~ossibility of using American cable television networks fn its drive to put Ameri- cans wise to Japan's sincere effor`ts to solve trade~friction with the United States _ and Western Europe. But there is little expectation that Tokyo's efforts so �ar, including a reduction in advance of import tariff s and the lowering of non-tariff trcade barriers, will - lead to~any 3ignificant easing of pressure from'Washington. Consultations are now . under way between Miti and other government agencies on what additional steps the government can take by the time Foreign Minister "~oshio Sakurauchi visits the ~ United States in late March. Among the new measures reportedly under considera- ~ tion are the advnr_a~cy of framing rules regarding investment and services in the - are~ca of the general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT), a review of the list of product i:*.ems whose imports into this country are still restricted, and an ~increase in the number of retailers of American~made tobaccos. Iiowever, it is ~ clear the government would want more thrust to impress the Americans. ~ The third round of talks~o~ the stalled pro~ect to build a gigantic petr~chemical complex in Bandar Khomeyni in Southern Iran will be h~ld in Tehran 23-27 February. ~ The ~oint ventcre project, undertaken by Iran-Japan Petrochem~!cal Co (IJPC), now hangs in the balance with the Mitsui group, the Japanese partners, displaying reluctance because of th~ pro~ect's soaring costs. The Iran-Iraq war has left the venture in abeyance With no. breakthrough in sight. Miti indicates no change in t~e Japanese position, nor does it anticipate any drastic proposals from the ~_ranian side at the Tehran talks. Nevertheless, the ministry says it is important to continue dialogue with the Iranians. Rumors get abroad fram time *o time that Iranian leader.Ayatollah RuHollah Khaneyni is dead, and Miti is ~oncer~ed they could throw the Gulf nation - into confusion and deprive the Tehran Government of the ability to proceed with negotiations. ~ 2 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Miti will enter into discussions with the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications on the liberalization of data communication whis week. The Posts and Telecom- munications Ministry is inclined to incorporate it in a package proposal only in a.vague form. But Miti is bent upon full liberalization based on a recer.t interim report of the second extraordinary administrative research council, a governmerit advisory body. CSO: 4120/161 i 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 rvK ur~r't~t~~ u5E ONI.Y ~ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT TRACID UP TO FIFTii GENERATION R&D GOALS Tokyo DENKI SHIMBUN in Japanese 8-11, 15-18 Dec 81 [Article by Sozaburo Okamatsu, head of Electronics Policy Division, Bureau of Machine Intelligence, MITI] ' [8 DQC 81 p 3] [Text] To Break the Barrier of the Neeurtan-Type Computer . Development of computer technology, which has made such brilliant progress so far, entered the "fourth generation" when super LSI became practical. By the 1990's, a brand new type of computer capable of understanding human speech is expected to make its appearance. Confronted by the development of an informa- tion society and the need for this type of advanced computer, MITI undertook the development of the "fifth generation computer" starting in 1981. To be sure, this "f ifth generation computer" is not yet generally we11 understood, partly because it employs a computational format basically different from that of the conventional computer and partly because its development has 3ust begun. As part of its technology series, thi,s neGispaper will introduce the circumstances related to R&D of the "fifth generation computer".and its prospecta. Circums~ances Leading to R&D:of Fifth Generation Computer Today, the computer is said to have entiered the fourth generation, in which ~ super LSI elements are utilized. In approximately 35 years since the first practical computer was developed, the computer has experienced ,q number o� gener- ation.changes and expansion in the number of fuactions as a result of innovative tecluzological development. ~ . The greater part of these computers belong to the so-cal~led Neuman-type based on ' the theory developed in 1946 by Dr von Neuman in the United States. If we look f orward into the future, the comp.uter environment is expected tn change drastically in the next 10-year period, and as th~ field of applications is expanded rapidly, new utilizatinn formats and the technology to realize them will be in demand. However, ~ith the Neuman-type computer, the software increases enormously in si~e and complexity as the computer is applied to more and more advanced problems. 4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE U~NLY The basic flaws of the present-day computer havin~ their origin in th~= construc- tion and design concept of the computer have bec~me evident, and it_is highly . probable that the computer of today may not be able to cope with,the advanced functions demanded by the future. Therefore, based on the past experience in the life cycle of technological change, a brand new fifth generation computer based on brand new theory and tech- nology is expected to appear in the early 1990's. MITI ha~ therefore.undertaken R&D of the f ifth generation camputer as a national pro3ect on the basis that computer techno7.ogy is not only one of the basic technologies in support of industry, but also a technology indispensable for the establishment of an abundant informationalized society. The Background of Research and Development 1. Possibility Due to Advancement in Semiconductor Technology The development of semiconductor technology is quite astonishing, as evidenced by the development of sup~r LSI. Within 10 years, a chip several millimeters square containing several million bits of inemory elemenCs or hundreds of thousands of gates (gate = the smallest unit of logic element) may become a reality. In view of the recent technological advancement and reduction in the hardware cost, it is necessary to undertake R&D of a computer system desirable in the 1990's by drastically reexannining the construction of the computer. ~ 2. Problems P.elated to the Software Running counter to the trend of hardware technology, the software cost is rising year after year, and 80-90 percent of all 1985 information processing cost is expected to be the software cost. This is so because the computers used today are dependent on the software. We must reevaluate fram scratch the construction, the basic concept, and the lan-~ guage theory concerning the computer and carry out R&D of the software system = which will be desirable in the 1990's. 3. Utilization of the Results of Basic Theoretical Research Ttiose research activities which are at the basic research stage today, includin; analysis of natural language and study of artif icial intelligen~e, are expected to be the technologies which will have an important impact on the field of in- formation processing i*~ the future. It is therefore imperative that due atten- tion be paid to.these basic theore~ical research activities, and new development of comput:~ technology must be attempted through 3ntroduction of new concepts and fruits .~f research.activities. = 4. Changes in the Social Environment Observing the conditions of society that are expected to exist in the 1990's, analyzing the demands that will be made by this society on computer technology, 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 - FOR OFF~CIAL 'US� ONI,Y and viewing it from the standpoint of the user, the computer system that will be desirable in the 1990's must be carefully investigated. ~ ~~i ' The LSI package used in the computer. [9 Dec 81 p 3] [Text] Epoch-Making "Internally Stored Program" The History of Computer Development (I) In science fiction novels, scenes in which man and computer or robot carrying on a conversation naturally are often depicted. The day when computers may break the shell of being just a"computing machine" and truly become man's associate may not be too far off. Computers are already so deeply involved in our daily lives today that it is fair to say that we cannot do without them. Newspaper editing, telephone ex- change, traffic signal control, Eeat reservations, and depoeit and withdrawal at the bank---computers are being utilized all around us today. , HoweveX, the history of the.practical computer is surprisingly short: only about 35 years. ~ _ Indeed, we must not forget that before the practical computer was born, the head- waters of technology which sprang up in ancient China were passed on by numerous mathematicians and scientists over ~ iong period of time. There are three mainstreams leading to the establishment of the practical com- puter we know today. The first stream consists of a"computing machine" such as the abacus which was the product of an attempt to mechani2e the ability to count numbers. By the 19th century, a machine capable of computing square root and cube root to say notliing of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division was perfected through the use of a combination of intrica~e gear trains. 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The second stream has its origin in the pattern paper (punch cards) that was used to control the threads of a weaving machine. A"statistical machine" which han- dles and classifies large numbers belongs to ehis streaL_. This machine demon- strated its power by the 1890 U.S. census a?ta in 2 years (a popula- tion of 62 miilion), which formerly took 8 years done The third stream consists of a"logic machine" which generalizes and mechanizes the computing process by analyzing the human thought process employed in computa- tion and patterning after it. It represents the most substantial �aay of thinking related to mechanization of the algorithm. It has been judged the key which opened the way to today's research into artificial intelligence. It is also expected to play an important role in the development of the fifth generation computer. These three streams have been united through the introduction of electronic tech- nology and adoption of the binary system, and significant progress has been made since. . The p~actical digital computers o~ today include the MARK I(Harvard, 1944) using electroma~netic relays, and the world's first genuine computer (electronic com- puter) developed after electronic technology was introduced was ENIAC (Pennsyl- vania University, 1946). ~ This computer consisted of 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 30 tons, consumed 150 kW of .electric power, and required.a room big enough for ~.00 tatamimats to contain it. Its performance characteristic4, including 0.2 millisecond for~addition and subtraction and 3 milliseconds for multiplication, were considered marvelous at the time (as a reference, the addition speed of the modern computer is of the order of approximately one-millionth of a second). However, EN?AC'~ electric circuit had to be reassembled for different 3obs. The lack of a large data memory capacity was one of its shortcomings. The idea advanced by Von Neuman, a mathematical genius, to eliminate these short- comings consisted of an internally contained program format (commands and data are contained in the "memory unit" and retrieved from there for processing). . The prototype of the modern computer (Neuman-type computer) was completed when = EDSAC (Cambridge University) appeared in 1949, followed by EDVAC (Pennsylvania University) in 1952. The history of the modern computer had just begun. Since then, the performance characteristics of the computer have improved by leaps and bounds, but no significant change in the essential principle has been made up to today. ~ - The computer MARK I contained 3,300 electromagnetic relays (completed in 1944). 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 N'UK UI~~ICIAL USE ONLY [ 10 t)ec 81 p 3] [Text] The Fourth Generation Computer Using Svp~r LSI Makes Its Appearance ~ History of.Computer Development (II) - Who could have guessed that the huge computer which occupied a room big enough for 100 tatamis could be miniaturized to fit in the palm of one's hand after only 35 years. The development of the practical computer from its inceptton to today is oft~n divided into "generations" based on the changes in technology. Todaq. is the dawn of the fourth generation. ~ The first generation was the "vacuum tutse era" which began in 1946 with ~he com- pletion of ENIi~C. ~ During that generation, the computer was utilized with programs written in - machine language consisting.of a series of binary numbers or in assembly lan-- ~uage consisting of command code symbols. Toward the end of the f irst genera- tion, progratmning languages such as FaRTRbN (gcientif ic and technical computa- tion language) and COBOL (business computation language) were developed. These . languages could be translated into machine language automatically and are still being used today. As a result, the number of users expanded significantly. As the speed of computation and processing was upgraded, the operating sequence was indicated to the camputer through use of control cards, the com- , puter to continuously carry out necessary operations such as assigning ttie input unit and retrieving a program from the memory. ~ The second generation, the "transistor era," started in 1959 when the commercial. computer using transistors was introduced. The first gene.ration vacuum tube computer had problems because of the huge space it occupied, the frequent failures, and the large quantity of heat generated~. These problems were solved through use of the transistor, which possesses many.advantages over the vacuum tube, a requirement for approximately one-thousandth the electric power consumption, small size, and long useful life. ' 1'he transistor (for transfer resistor) was invented in 1947 by Dr Shockley et al of Bell Laboratories (the United Stat~s). It was found capable of functioning like a vacuum tube through utiliza?:ion of the property of certain substances (known today a~s semiconductors) such as aillcon and germanium which become ' conductive or nonconductive dependiag on the conditions. The second generation may be termed the true computer utilizat~.on period,.and the present-day operating system cons~.sting of a software system was firmly established. The remote bat~h format, in which a user at a remote location can log-in and use an advanced large-acale computer at a central location via a ~ ~ ~ommunications circuit, was also introduced during this period. ~ . S . FOR OFFICIA.L ~JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY The third generation, consisting of the "IC (integrated circuit) era," atarted in 1964 with the appearance of the IBM 360 series. The IC was successfully developed in the early 1960's by integrating an entire circuit consi.sting of various parts performing various functions, such as rectification, amplifica- tion, and resistance, on a single chip. In the early days of development, the work accuracy of the IC was of the order of 15 microns and it contained one-two gates of logic circuit per ch~p (1 gate in general consists of one-four transistors, two-five resistors, and three-six - diodes). Since then, high-density integration and miniaturization of IC has progressed rapidly, and by the 1970's, LSI (large-scale integrated circuit), consisting of - more than 100 logic gates or 1,000 memory bits per chip, appeared. Then, the 3.Sth generation computer, represented by the IBM 370 series using LSI's, appeared. During this period, significant advancement was also made in the utilization format--for example, the time-sharing method of computer utilization in which an arbitrary number of users can access the computer from on-line terminals and share the use of the computer on a divided-time basis, and transition from the batch process to the on-line process and also from the concentrated processing - format to distributed processing. And since the technology of drawing lines with an accuracy in excess of 1 micron has been established,. it is now possible to integrate~more than 1,000 logic cir- cuits or more than 100,000 memory bits on a single chip. This means the thresh- old or the era of super LSI and the fourth generation computer using it. The quickening can be felt by the ~nnouncement of the IBM H series made in 1980. 1071'~t~'i _ . . . ~ . � ,i y. ~r - M j � ' � . ( 9~:.. . , : ~ ~3 21:~.:.:. ~ '~tzn~nreNr+oic~9e9~~ita . ~ ioo~' ~ ~3~tt"`~aaeofrNao~~r) 7 4 - F : ~ . . (t9s~) � t~E!eso_ :e~it-f ' ~:,u..,.~ L7Ci~6~1.08'~'n~135. ~t'�. ~ ^y� . ~ ~ ~ � 1~5(k4`~~c9 ) ' ~bN.168/198(6l032~C) _ . 191972 ~ I BM 3T0/116 � :r 1973 0.6 I BM 303 X ~9q7 IBMi~tbEV9~c.(~300 6 ' IBM~~T6HiN-~~9081~'l . ~ ~ A~,~,~~~~,~Y ~ . .(M08 64IS) ~ . The volume (cubic feet) per 1 million characters of IBM memory. Key: (1) 400 cubic feet . (2) The second generaCion IBM 1401 (1959) and the third generation 360 model 300 (core) (1974) ~ (3) 100 cubic feet (4) The first generation IBM 650 (5) 8 cubic feet, sy~tem 370 model 135, model 145 (bipolar) , (6) IBM system E series (4300) (7) IBM system H series (3081) (8) Reference: ACT Technical Analysis Group 9 . : FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~ ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY ' T 1 t ~MaY � - - � ' s/aeot~Nt s~~tt ~It~t~tt ~ ~ ~~sm~c~~4 ~5 , ~la ~6~ ~8~ s~~ MQ 47 i~liy' 1U~ ~ ~ . e g~7o~z ~~c~~e~eo as ee as~10~ ( i~~~!! : ACT~~FJ~~t~1N-y The generation changes seen in IBM products Key: (1) (Unit: 1,000) (6) Product cycle 6 years (2) Number of systems (7) Product cycle 7 years (3) S/360 generation (third generation) (8) Product cycle 10 years(?) (4) S/370 generation (3.5th generation) (9) Total output (5) Fourth generation (est3.mate) (10) Year end . (11) Source: ACT Technical Analysis ~ Group ~ - [11 Dec 81 p 3J [Text] "New Idea" Electronic Computer ~o Appear in Next 10 Years Necessity foY Development of Fifth Generation Computer . The advancement of computer~technology has been extremely rapid. In the rela- tively short period of about 35 years, from the development of~the f irst practi- cal computer until today, signif icant achievements have been m~de in high speed and miniaturization, and an advanced technical level represented by the fourth generation computer using super LSI is about to be reached. Under these circumstances, why is it necessary to develop the fifth generation ' computer? Because the Neuman-type computer has reached its limit. It is there- fore imperative to develop a new type of computer, and this new computer tech- nology is very important. - Demand for the Development of New Computer . The present-day compu;er technology is based on the theory advanced by Von Neuman in 1946. Its go,31s were set from its inception on high speed, large - capacity, and digital camputation, and its development has been guided by these principles throughout the peri7d. � The hardware cost was very high at the time the Neuman-type computer was devel- oped, so the computer design was based on a concept of making the machine struc- - ture simple while achieving the necessary funetions through accumulation of programs. ~ , . ~ . . As a result, the following problems croppad up as the utilization of the computer became more advanced and sophisticated and the fields of application broadened. ~ 10 FQR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY ~ . 1. As the fields of application were expanded from the scientific field to in- clude the business processing field, the demand for a computer input-output for- mat compatible with the format of communciations by which human beings transfer information, such as voice, letter, and diagram, became stronger and strongsr. - However, conventional computers are designed to process only digital data, with a consequent restriction on its input-output format. This placed strict restric- tions on the areas of application and the method of utilization. The computer utilization cannot be expanded freely. 2. Since the conventional computer is software-dependent, expansion of computer functions and expansion of the utilization field are tied directly to the heavily loaded operating system and the oparating software. This has evolved into a situ- ation known as a software crisis, in which the rise in personnel expenditure and the low productivity of the software compound the problem. In order to alleviate this difficulty, it is not enough to treat the problems surrounding the software only. A reexamination of the basic concepts, including computer structure, basic ideas, and the language theory, is called for. 3. The Neuman-type computer employs the sequential processing format, in which the commands and data are first stored inside the main memory unit, and during the processing the content of the main memory unit is transferred one word at a time from it to the central processing unit through a narrow and straight route (called Neuman's narrow path or bottleneck) c~nnecting these two units. In addition,ttie data traffic consists mainly of the data name and not useful data. Therefore, a limit is imposed on the computational processing speed, and this type of computer cannot cope with the tremendous expansion in functions expected in the future. 4. During the data processing period, the data to be processed can also be transferred from the external memory units (secondary units), such as magnetic disks and magnetic tapes, to the main memory unit as they are needed. However, as the volume of data handled became so big as to require the use of. a gigantic data base, the data transfer speed between the external memory un3ts and the main memory unit became another bottleneck. In order to solve this problem, development ot a secondary memory unit, equipped with some ~udgmental functions so it will be able to tran~fer only the necessary . data to the main memory, has become highly desirable. At the same time, a new technical foundation is maturing, with which new archi- _ tecture, improvement of computer intelligence, and new functions may be realized. This new technological foundation contains the seeds for the development of the new technologies conceived in the past several ysars--for example, super LSI technology, large capacity memory unit, and the mass application technology for super LSI's, including research into a separated instruction [funkyo 0433 2403] system and a parallel processing system, and development of the elemental tech- nology for the realization of artificial ir.telligence and pattern recognition technology. ]1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Taking into consideration the ~orrespondence between these needs ai~d seeds, it appears quite cer:3in that new computers based on a brand new concept will appear within th~ next 10 years and accomplish another big stride in the 30-year - history of computer technology. - - - . . . - . . . - . . _ , ~ . ~ ' C P U ~ O O . Jl, p ' S ~i ~~~.ri'; . M~M � ~ ~ ~ 6~9~oR~tlt ~ " ~ ~t : r~r- - The problem points of the present-day computer Key: (1) Man (4) CPU (central processing unit) - (2) Input/output unit (5) MEM (main memory unit) (3) Programmer (6) External memory units [15 Dec 81 p 3] , [Text] Ultra Modern Technology for Broad Foundation of Industry Necessity for Development of Fiftti Generation Computer The Importance of Computer Technology There is no need to reiterate how much power can be developed from the utiliza- tion of the computer. Without the computer, one cannot imagine how that gigan- tic space shuttle could be launched into space and then returned to earth to land on a predetermined airfield (which is oniy a spot viewed from the global scale) without the slightest error. Computers have not only entered factories and offices, but they have also per- meated deep into our daily lives and become the."central nerve of our economic society," playing an increasingly important role in a society that is growing more sophistiicated and complex. The number of general purpose computers in Japan has reached approximately 88,000 (end of March 1981), and Japan has become the world's second most informationalized nation, after the United States. Such e~cpansion in the field of computer utilization and continued development of the informationalized society are in large part due to the phenomenal progress of. semiconductor technology centered around the IC (integrated circuit). With the appearance of super LSI today, we are entering a period in which the once large-scale computer is making an appearance as an office camputer or personal computer. 12 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 Furthermore, the microcomputer, which was realized by integrating the computer functions in a single chip, has been incorporated into numerous machines, includ- ing machine tools, autamobiles, robots, and household electric appliances, impart- ing in each new functions, higher performance,. and better quality. Some new com- posite products have even been born. Based on the viewpoint that computer-related technologies constitute the most important technologies which are the sources of an international competitive edge and thus may affect the nation's future, every nation in the world is in- vesting a large sum of public funds to assist in the technologieal development and cultivate its computer industry. In the United S~ates, the computer enterprises are en~oying indirect assistance through enormous military demand centered around the Department of Defense and the tremendous technical development undertaken by NASA for the purpose of space development as well as military applications. � IBM was able to grow.into the "giant" it is today, holding approximately 60 per- cent of the world's share less than 30 years after World War IT, because of this enormous backup. The Department of Defense has recently launched a new 6-year project on VHSIC (very high speed IC) research with an investment of $200 million. In Great Britain, France, and West Germany, too, the development of technologies related to the computer is said to receive huge public subsidies, estimated at over 10 billion yen a year. Although Japan's computer industry has grown smoothly so far, the total share of all Japanese computer makers is no more than 7 percent, compared with the 80 ~per- . cent share held by the American makers. The difference in the enterprise power is plainly evident. Up to now, the goal of Japanese makers has been to catch up with the advanced technology of the Euroamerican nations, but Japanese makers have become some- what comparable with these advanced m~kers in a portion of the technical field, such as super LSI. However, J~pan's improved technological power has been greeted by the Euroameri- can advanced nations' reluctance to supply the ultra-modern technologies. This trend will probably worsen in the �uture. Computer technology is a field in which progress is very rapid. If a nation fails to endeavor, it will soon be dethroned from the position of a technically advanced nation. Therefore, Japan must strive to improve its own unique technological development potential, and it must keep on carrying out research and development with large sums of financial assistance in order to insure the future development of its - computer industry, which constitutes the foundation of vast industries. ~ On this basis, it appears highly significant that R&D of the fifth generation computer, which involves ultra-modern and broad technYcal bases, should be under- taken aggressively as a national pro~ect. 13 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 - � ?~UR UFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 (1) IBM ~2) Japan's A company - com uter de artmea~it (2) . . Total sales $26.2 billion 581.7 billion yen 10.2 (~.933 trillion yen) Profit before tax 55.9 billion 31.6.billion yen 48.9 _ (1.5458 trillion yen) Profit to sales ratio 22.5 percent 5.4 percent R&D expenditure $1.5 billion 53.8 billion yen 6.3 (339.7 billion yen) . Capital . $4 bi111on 44.6 billion yen 23.5 (1.048 trillion yen) Own capital ratio 61.6 percent 30.6 percent ~ Note: 1. IBM: 1980; Japanese maker: 1980 2. Dollar conversion rate: 226.45 yen (average value, 1980 calendar year) (A large difference exists i,n the enterprise power of the U.S. maker and the Japanese maker.) [16 Dec 81 p 3] [Text] Logic Type "Nuclear Language" Desirable Theme and Prospects Related to R&D of Fifth Generation Computer (I) ~ The fiftih generation computer will be an intelligent, information processing- oriented computer system capable of ineeting the needs of the highly advarced and diversified society of the 1990's. To utilize the computer today, man must prepare a pcogram by carefully analyzing the processing method and the operational sequence and then instruct the computer. Ho~*ever, if the computer is to really become man's companion, then the intelli- gence level of the computer must be raised f irst of all. That is, the computer must acquire the function of automatically making ~udgments by using the data accumulated in its own knowledge data base. ~ Second, instead of man working for the convenience of the computer, the machine, the computer, must acquire the necessary functions so that man may be able to utilize it using the most natural information transfer format he knows, including daily conversation, writing, and diagrams (intelligent interface function and automatic program synthesis function). It is necessary to improve drastically the man-machine communication capability. Furthermore, these functions must be capable of processing the problem at high speed within a practical time limit, using a format which can fully ut~lize the potential of the super LSI. l~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 Tliese functions must also be able to contribute positively to the realization of such systems as a machine translation system and a consulta~.ion system in.vari- ous specialized fields, which could not be realizea easily by the conventional computer technology. ~ To be able to realize the fifth generation computer, innovative technol~gical , development must be carried out covering a large area, including hardware, architecture technology (construction format) and software technology. The themes for research and development are as follows. 1. Problem-Solving Reasoning System This system constitutes the nucleus of the processing function of the fifth It determines the level of intelligence capacity and the ~ flexibility (adaptability) of the computer. For a computer to be able to make up for incomplete instrur_tions concerning a problem and to farm a complete model of the problem (computer understanding of the problem), or to process the problem and find its solution (the goal) based on various abstract facts including axioms and laws storedi in the system as knowledge.(computer reasoning), research and development of ~he following items must be carried out first: 1) a"nucle~r language" suitable For the reasoning process with which both the method of solution and the data can be described; 2) "basic software for problem-solving and reasoning" whic:h carries out the reasoning operation using the equivalency format (substituting something w~ith its equivalent); 3) "parallel processing type architecture using distributed - control format" with which to carry out parallel processing at high speed. _ For example, in order to compute the "average age" of a group using t}.ie modern computer, the areas in which to carry out various computations inclu~ing the sum of ages and the number af persons must be defined and the method of computation indicated to the computer by a program. However, as far as we are concerned, we do not care about the convenience of the ~ computer as long as we get the average age. Therefore, the computer should be taught the general concepts such as "average" and "age" (including the method of computing~and information the sequence of operation). To be able to do this, a"nuclear language" of the logic type which facilitates logic description is considered most desirable. . To utilize these concepts, the computer must be in possession of a mechanism by which the computational method, consisting of dividing the "sum of ages" by the "number of persons," can be found automatically (the reasoning mechanism)--the mechanism being provided by software. A reasoning format using syllogism (e.g., if A= B and B= C, then A= C) comes to mind as a possible solution to this problem. Furthermore, until the necessary solution can be obtained, the reasoning procass must carry out a number of operations by the trial and error method. Therefore, in or~er to be able to obtain the solution within a reasonable practical time limit, a reasoning structure which is based on the parallel processing architecture of the distributed control type, capable of carrying out parallel proce~tsing simul- taneously, is considered necessary, and the data flow format is considered the most powerful. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 . rux v~rtt,tA~ u~~: UNLY r'' .M ~s~+.em�~~-~- ~ , . ~G~ ��C Y ~TM.. ~ . . ~ � sN~ ~ . q~ ~ e ^ i ~ ~ ~ _ F~~ D ra~n~ '`C'~` ~I~ ~ ~R I ~ ~ K~ ~ ' N ' ~ ~ ' ' ~ l'~;~ ~'~.3~T~ ~~~r. . . . ~ The fifth generation computer ' Key: (~1) Voi~e (8) Conventional digital data . (2) Daily conversation (9) Conversation format .(3) Writings (10) Reasoning-learning function (4) Drawings (blueprint, etc) (11) Rnowledge data base ~ ~(5) Charts. (12) Special function ~ .(6) Photographs ~ . (13) Raowledge-information processiag system (7) Picture images (14) Optimum function distribution system [17 Dec 81 p 3] ~ ~ "Resource Bag" as Nucleus of Processing Function ~ Theme and Prospect Related to R&D of Fifth Generat3on Computer (II) . 2. Knowledge Base (Knowledge Data Base) System ~ This system, together with the problem-solving reasoning system, constitutes the nucleus of the processing func~iot~ of the f if th generation computer. The , knowledge base--in other words, resource bag--is a collective body consisting uf organized information corresponding to the knowledge of a human being~ Up to now, the computer is progra~ed separately for each problem it is to . solve; so the inforffiation used by the computex is confined to that which per- tains~to a specif ic problem. However, if a computer is expect~d to find out the related data, to understand the problem to be solved~ and to find cut the rt~t:~od for solving the problem, its data base must store the information in such a way that it can be utilized as "knowledge" rather than as a mere collection ot individual dat~a. To be able to realize such a knowledge base system, 3t i~ first ne~essary carry ouC R&D of the fol.lowing items: 1) "knowledge expression laaguage" suitable for expiess- ing and acquiring new multidimensional knowledge; 2) "basic software for the management of knowledge base" capable of accumulating at~d searching for knowledge; - 3) "knowledge base structure" based on a multidimensional memory~(structural ~ memory) instead of a one-dimenaional memory. 16 � . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The content of the knowledge base may vary according to the field of application. For example, in a machine translation system, the knowledge base may contain data concerning vocabulary and grammar. The knowledge base used in a special field such as medicine may be said to contain a specialist of the field in it. The "knowledge base structure" must be such as to facilitate execution of collec- tive computation based on the relaCive logic with high speed and high efficiency. A relative algebraic machine with parallel architecture is considered highly desirable. 3. Intelligent Interface System This system is to give a flex ible conversationa.l function to the fifth generation computer so as to eliminate the gap between the language used by man~and the language used by the machine. To be able to realize such a function, it 3s f3rst necessary to carry out R&D of the f ollowing itema: 1) "basic software for of intelligent inter- face" capable of natural language processing and voice processing by means of ' phoneme recognition and diagram and picture image processing; 2) "intelligent interface structure" consisting of a special elpmental processor capable of pro- cessing voices and signals; 3) "high performance man-machine interface unit" capable of advanced processing of voice, diagram, and picture image, as the machine becomes more advanced. 4. Intelligent Programming System It is necessary to carry at~t R&D of an intelligent progra~ing system which will be capable of synthesizing a program which meets the needs of the user by with- drawing those programs k~aving the necessary functions from the algorithm bank (knowledge base) using its own reasoning power and assembling them, and then verifying that the optimized program thus synthesized sat3sfies the needs. - 5. Basic Applica.tion.System ~ ~ It is also necessary to carry out R&D of the basic application systems repre- senting human functions, including listening, speaking, l~oking, drawing, think- ing, and solving, which constitute the foundation for various other types of application systems. The secondary themes may incl~:d~ a~�~?tj.lingual "machine translation system" which is also capable of sig:~zificant informstion processing and a"consulta- tion system" which is capabl~ of giving appropriate instructions in response to various requests made by Lhe user by utiliz:tng its vast knowledge base sys- tem containing special knowledge of a particula~a: field. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 h~uK ur~~~tc~,+~ u~~ utv~Y ; . . ~ . - K~=r.xra . I ~~i.~ ,~'lr~tio~ez .xraf~~+Yl!#t,~~ ) ~ sari7a ~ yzr~ -~.Y,,~.e.. 4 ~ $ ~ 10,_. . , - ~ ~ ~ ' axa ~ 1. . ~~r~. ' :r. � ~s iC~eR~lt ~ % yo~vs rs ~ . 1~ . -C,~ :t t~+te,K . , ~ + 72l0! 4 e.~rv. ~~'S ~ ic2 s Fl~iik� ~ v~r � ~ tK , i.. u ~+ia.. � , i � : s ta oi�r . , , � ' .M ' 1_ ~ ~ . ~^~-7~ ~ � 3 ~~X~Y~ j 'lib~fk S T%% ry~ yi ~ 3 fi 'i OCtb :p M;~. 1,3~ ~'�r . S~~'~ �~t~~+'~. ~5 ~~~ttT~,t~ 'b ` .t~ ~=~x ..K . ~ x=~x~a : ~20) . . . . .e� . . Conceptual diagram of the fifth generation computer from the viewpoint of program- ming Key: (1) Human system (application system), model system (software system) (2) Human system (hardware system) (3) Intelligent progra~ing system (4) User language using voice, natural language, diagram, and picture image (5) Analysis, understanding, and synthesis of voice, diagram etc (6) Intermediate specifications and responses (7) Problem solving and response synthesis (8) Processing specifications and results (9) Optimizing program synthesis (10) Logic language, knowledge e~pression lan~uage (11) Problem-solving reasoning machine (12) Symbol-processing machine ' (13) Knowledge related to language and image . (14) Knowledge related to the prob].em (15) Knowledge related to machine systiem and knowledge expression (16) Knowledge base machine ' (17) Data base machine ~ (18) Scientific computation machine ~ ,(19) Knowledge base system ~ (20) Interface with the fourth generation machine [18 Dec 81 p 3] [Text] Flexible R&D System Necessary; International Cooperation Too Development Plan for the Fifth Generation Computer ~ According to the past history of compuCer development, by.the time a new generation of.machine is made public, the R&D of technologies which will be~come the basis of the next-generation machine have already begun. R&D of the fifth generation computer based on innovative theory and technology is expected to require about a period ~f 10 years, and the R&D~activities may be roughly divided into three phases. ' 18 . ~ , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The f irst phase consists of the first 3 years (1982-84) . This is the period ~ - in which "development of basic technologies" including the hardware, architec- ture, and the software ot the fifth generation computer will be carried out. 'The ma3 or pro~ ects f or this phase are as follows. 1. Design and trial manufacture ~f the component elements of the reasoning mechanism and the knowledge base mechaniam, which constitute the nucleus of the f ifth generation computer. The component elements include various modules ac~ording to various functional mechanisms, including a basic mechanism module and a data flow mechanism module for reasoning and knowledge base. 2. Design and~manufacture of an experimental action simulator to be used ~for the purpose of evaluating the construction aud combination format of various component elements of the module.system used for simulating various modules according to various functional~mechaaisms. 3. Design and trial manufacture of.basic software system comprising the nucleus of the knowledge information processing system. This system may be called the operating system of the f ifth generation computer. ~It contains software modules for various functions, including problem solving, reasoning, knowledge base management, intelligent interface, and intelligent programming. 4. Design and trial manufacture of a software develcpment pilot model~(small- scale pilot model of serial control reasoning computer) which is to be used to carry aut development of software for the f ifth ger.~ration computer eff iciently. This pilot model is to be derived from ex3.sting Neuman-type architectu~e by ~ remodeling and improving.a portion of it, and a language suitable for reasoning processing will be selected and improved. 5. One of the goals of developing the fifth generat~.on computer is to design its structure in such a way that the potential of super LSI can be fully utilized. Therefore, a technology with which super LSI design may be carried out eff i- ciently must be developed f irst. In addition,.a comp7.ete set of tools used in support of the R&D .activities, including machines and the networks interconnect- ing them, must also�be provided. . . " The second phase consists of.the next 4 years (1985-19$8). This is the period in which, based on the results obtained during the f3rst phase, development of a"small-scale subsyst~m is to be carried out. The two mechanisms comprising . the nucleus of the fifth generation~computer will have been finished by this stage. . The third phase consists of the last 3 years (1989-1991). This is the period in which development of a"total system" is to be carried out by combining all R&D results obtained thus far, including the reasoning mechanism, the knowledge base mechanism, and the software. By this stage., a basic application system will have been trial manufactured based on the prototype of the fifth generation computer and its performance and functions will have been explored and proved. For this R&D pro3ect, a budget of approximately 509 million yen was requested for the development of bas~.c technologies to be carried out in 1982. ~ 19 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OF~rICIAL USE ONLY ~ The Drive System for Development of the Fifth Generation Computer To carry out R&D of the fifth g~neration c~~mputer successfully, the most advanced technologies which are to become the nucleus of the future information-related technologies will~be required, and at each phase of the development, r_he results must be evaluated thoroughly and carefully. Therefore, a flexible R&D system suitable for a new generation, in which all concerned, including uniqersities, governmental research institutes, makers and users, may participate positively in the area of the specialty of each, is highly desirable. Moreover, the international symposium on the fifth generation computer held in October this year was attended by approximately 100 specialists representing 14 countries, including the United States, Great Britain, France, and t~est Germany. ~ Although this project did catch sufficient world attention, some form of inter- national.cooperation seems desirable in view of the fact that the magnitude of this project is so enormous, the technologies involved so basic in nature, and the extent vf the contribution that Japan may make. _ ' +r7J~Z_T~.Ail3~ 1 ~~~~~i � . ~~ei ~~c~s4~*17J~T~ i ~ , 3~ 6A41 .J Z~l~ ~ - ~2~ ~~~n_xraRU~~=~~u f ' ' {6) i~~~i=3v- o . ' VLSI .iG i# fF . ~ r , � 9EOo~/~ ~'f 7.Ula~ '~n� - x~~~n_x~~~ r3-n~ ~ - ~ . ~3) ~t~~~2~ti~=u~- I ~a C 3F06wh-~ 7 J.Z~-G,) VL51 t+~ ~'~i.., , I--9JVJ~~Wl~J'3~~ ~ ~GrJ7h-"JIP � ~ ; v seaat, x 3tt1x - v, osa5 : ~ 9~ J T ~ - . 9 `-ti I~ , v � � . ~ : . � R&D activities f or the fifth generation computer Key: ~ .(1) Development of basic technologies (approximately 3 years) (2) Modules according to functional mechanisms used in reasoning subsystem; simulator to be used for action experiment; technologies to realize VLSI (3) Modules according to functional mechanisms used in knowledge base subsystem; . ~ simulator to be used for ~ction experiment; technologies to realize VLSI .(4) Basic software system (OS-type); pilot model for software development ~ _ (5) Subsystem development (small-scale exper3mental subsystem)(reasoning subsystem) (6) �Intelligent interface software; problem-solving reasoning software, re;~son- ing mechanism; intelligent progr~ning software (7) Intelligent interface software; knowledge base management software; knowledge base mechanism; intelligent progra~ning software; (knowledge base subsystem) (8) Total system development (9) Reasoning knowledge base mechanism (realized by VLSI); basic software; basic application system software ~ COPYRIGHT: Nihon Denki Kyokai 1982 9113 CSO: 8329/0746 20 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500444429-1 EOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECIiNOLOGY J~~ COUNTRY MOVES TOWARD NUCLEAR ENERGY GENERATION ~ Tokyo BUSINESS JAPAN in English Feb 82 pp 33-35 ~ [Article by Shigeru Matsui: "Japan Moving Rapidly Toward Expanded Nuclear Energy Generatian"] [Text ] iAPAN's power consumption in- assembly of the Organization of Petro- J creased at an average annual in- leum Exporting Countries (OPEC} crease of 8.97o from fiscal 1971 to held in October 1981 adopted the 1973. At the end of 1973, the first oil unified price of $34 per barrel. Of the crisis took place as the Arab oil pro- total cost of oil thermal generation, ~ ~ ducing countries resorted to a strategy fuel costs assume 75.6%, an extremely of suddenly increasing oil prices by high rate as compared with 34.1% for - several times as a result of the fourth coal thermal generation and 26.29'o for Middle East war. Consequently, nuclear power generation. This has Japan's power consumption de- been markedly affecting power genera- . creased by 8.6`~o from the previous t'?on costs in general. year in fiscal 197.4. From fiscal 1976 oWer eneration costs are to fisca] 1979, the nation s power As far as p B consumption grew at an average annu- concerned, oil power generation costs . al rate of 5.8`l0. Due to cool weather ~18�8 per kW~hour, wh~le coal genera- during summer months, power con- tion costs ~12.3, nuclear generation ~ sumption declined to 98.9% of the only ~10.3 and LNG generation previous year's Icvel in fiscal 1980. ~16.1. , . Accorc~ing to a forecast by the Japan Though the initial cost is relatively Electric Power Research Committee, high for hydraulic generetion, it costs however, the natinn's power con- less from a long-term standpoint as sumption from now to ~scal 1990 is there is no f eeofCOOwe Tge~neration ex ected to row b 6.3�~ on an appropriate typ P p g y for lapan wh~ct? depends on foreign annual average. drau- . Of the nation's total power uutput countries for fuel sources, but hy _ in fiscal 1978, oil thermal power gen- lic resourcts in Japan have already eration assumed 51.7%, hydraulic been almost fully exploitediaced t on ~ generation 22.3`Jo, LNG thermal gen- sense, emphasis is be~ng p eration 10.9%, LPG Ehermal genera� Pu~rP~~s"�P P�~"'ei gcneration that tion 0.5%, coal ther~nal generation ~ recycles used water, lt is planned tha~t 3.7~/o and geothermal generation 0.1%. the power industry' i�amount d U to Tl~ougli the rate of oil thermal genera- this method tion assumes a high position, the price 9+~ kW 1� f~al 1978 - wi11 be increased to 27 million kW in fiscal of oil has gonQ up sharply. The price. 1990. Along witli this, thcre are plans of crude oil was only $13 per barrel at to increase the industry's hydraulic the end of 1978, but it grew to nearly o~,er output, which totaled S40, about thre~ times, in .only two j~~150,000 kW in fiscal 1978, to a and half years. It has now slightly tevel of 23 million to 24.5 million kW declined and the extraordinary general ~~scal 1990, some 1.34 to 1.43 dmes. 21 f FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY Main emphasis will thus be placed Co., are light-water type reactors. The on nuclear, coal and LNG thermal one at Tokaimura is of cooled gas generation. The laCgest emphasis will type. While Tokyo Electric Power, be placed on the most inexpensive Chubu Electric Power, Chugoku Elec- huclear power generation, which costs tric Power, Tohoku Electr.ic Power and only 54.8`~0 0~ the amount for oil Japan Nuclear Generation Co. have . thermal generation for basic fuels. The utilized, through Toshiba and Hitachi,. , power industry's targets for power Japan's representative Electric Ma-� generation according to the types of chinery companies, boiled water re- power sources is shown in Table 1, actors made by General Electric Co., based on a report by the Demand- Kansai Electric Power Co., Kyushu Supply Committee of the Power Electric Povrer Co. and Shikoku Elec- Industry Deliberation Council. tric Power Co. have bought through The table indicates that nuclear Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co. power generation, which generated pressed, water reactors from Westing- 12,7 million kW in fiscal 1978 or house Corp. Plants currently in IU.8"/o of the industry's total output, is o eration. include 11 boiled water re- expected to produce some 28 million ac ors with a combined capac:ity of tu 30 million kW in fiscal 1985, 15.G%~ ~,993,OU0 kW and nine pressed water to 16.8%, and some 51 million to 53 reactors with a total capacity of million kW or 22.1 to 22.9~o in fiscal 6,793,000 kW. 1990. In fact, however, the ratio is Throughout the world, however, expected to be somewliat less than there are about twice as many pressed these estimates. . water recctors in operation as boiled There are 22 nuclear plants in wa:er ones, and their number is ex- operation with a total output capacity pected to further increase: of 15,510,000 kW and ]0 plants.with To briefly explain about these a total capacity of 9,220,000 kW reactors, while in a boiled water re- under construction sr.heduled to be actor (BWR), steam, that rotates the completed for operation by the end of, turbine, is directly heated in the pres- fiscal 1985. And even if another one, sure vessel of the reactor, in a pressed ' approved by the Deliberation Council water reactor (PWR), water that lias for the Development and Adjustment been heated in the pressure vessel of of Electric Power Sources and to be the reactor is transfered to different put into operation with a total output water. Steam that has thus been capacity of 1,100,000 kW by the end generated rotates the turbine. The nf fise;al 1985 is included, ttie total structure of a PWR, therefore, is more uutput capacity will reach only complicated than that of a BWR, but 25,830,000 kW, 92.3~0 of tl~e target tlie steam that rotates the turbine is capacity. In addition, it is hardly less polluted than in the BWR. ' believable that the nation will com- Tokyo Electric Power C~., the plete another 20 or so plants with a nation's largest power company, was combined output capacity of some 38 using solely BWRs. Now it has started million kW within five years after preparatiuns for incorporating PWRs. fiscal 1985. Nevertheless, the above pt present, Tokyo Electric Power is ' . council intends to give approval to the the world's largest user of BWRs. Tlie power companies for new locations for company has requested Toshiba and nuclear plants at th~ earliest possible Hitachi, which have provided the for- . opportunities. In this sense, it is al- mer with BWRs, as well as Fuji Elec- most certain that the number of tric to study technology concerning nuclear plants will increase from now pyyRs produced by West Germany's on and it will be in the not too distant Kraft Werke Union (KWtn which it is future that their scale will expand p~anning to induce. This technical from the current scale of 1,100,000 tieup with KWU has been concluded , kW each to 1,300,000 kW. with the approval of Ceneral Electric As far as commercial power gener� Co. with which Tokyo Electric has ating reactors currently in operation ~en long enjoying cooperation in are concerned, all, except for one in technology concerning BWRs. operation at Tokaimura, Ibaraki Pre- The PWR produced by KWU has fecture, by Japan Nuclear Generation been completed with KWU's tech- nology which was developed on the ' 22 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY Table 1. Ratios of Power Generation by Power Source at the End of Each Fiscal Year ~Unit. 10,000 kW) Fisca11978 Fisca11978 Fisca11985 Fisca11990 Fisca11995 � Ratio Ratio Ratio itatio ~~n) ~ Nuclear 1,270 10.8 2,800~3,000 15.6~16.8 5,100~5,300 22.1~22.9 7,400~7,800 26.7~28.2 _ ( Coal 440 3.7 1,000 5.6 2,200~2,300 9.5~10.0 3,300~3,600 11.9~13.0 LNG 1,275 10.9 3,200 17.9 4,050~4,350 17.5~18.8 4,600 16.6 Hydraulic 2,625 22.3 3,950~4,030 22.1~22.5 5,000~5,150 21.6~22.3 5,950~6,200 21.5~3?.4 Ordinary ~ 1,715 14.6 2,000~2,080 11.2~11.6 2,300^-2,450 10.0~10.6 2,600~2,850 9.4~10.3 Pumping-up ~ 910 7.7 1,950 10.9 2,700 11.7 ~ 3,330 12.1 Geothermal 10 0.1 50~80 0.3~0.4 200~300 0.9~1.3 400~600 1.4~2.2 I.PG 60 0.5 450 2.5 ' 600 2.6 600 2.2 a I ni~ ' b,Q�i5 51.7 G,450~6,140 36.0~34.3 5,950~S,IUO 25.8~23.1 5,4SU~4,3UU 19.7-I5.5 rL-- - - - Total 11,765 100 17,900 100 23,100 100 27,700 100 Source: Interim report by the Ucmand and Supply Subcommittee of the L:lectric F,nterprise Deliberation Council. basis of fundamental technulogy intro- 1973 as the result of the amalgamation duced from Westinghouse Electric of the nuclear departments of both Corp. of the U.S. Siemens & Halske, A.G. and Tele- ~ Tokyo Electric does not intend to funken. KWU is ~iemens' 100% sub- induce the PWRs as they are from sidiary and the only maker of nuclear ~ KWU. First of all, the company plans reactors in West Germany. The com- , to dispatch engineers to KWU for pany once succeeded in the standardi- feasibility study, Ano if the study zation of LWRs with an output pruves the feasibility of such induc- capacity of 1,250,000 kW. KWU, how- tion, the company will then start ever, has been confronted with , preparations for it. ~ managerial difficulties in recent years. The engineers to be dispatciied will There have been no new orders from be selected from among th~ose working the domestic market. The company for the three Japanese makers. Tech- also lost the Iranian market after the nology concerning the core of tlie revolution.,Even though KWU received reactor will be dealt with by those an order from Br~il, no construction from Tosl~iba and Hitacl~i, botli of work l~as yet been successfully pro- _ wliicli I~ave long-time experiences witli moted. KWU had thus almost decided light-water reactors, while thuse from to. cut back its personnel. KWU is now Fuji Electric will study tlie peripheral expected to show strong recovery purtions of the reactor. Fuji Electric because of Japan's interest and the once provided Japan Nuclear Genera- new conUact with Tokyu Electric - tion Co., Japai~'s first company to Power Co. = engage in nucle:!r generation on a Not only Tokyo Electric Power but commercial basis, with the Tokai Ne~. l also other Japanese power companies reactor, a gas-cuoled reactor. But sinc,, and electric machine makers have been ~ light�water reactors (LWRs) became studying West ~ermany's nucle~r tecli- the mainstay of Japan's nuclear gene- nulogies., N:~cPear generation in West ration, Fuji Electric Co, has shown no Germany, like tliat in Japan, was results at all in providing reactors. The establisl~ed o?? the basis of technology reason why tl~e company 'l~as been ~nduced from the U.S. West Germany s selected one of the three companies nuclear generation has been based on - this time is that the company has been tlie fundamental technologies of GE s technical cooperating with KWU. BWRs and Westinghouse's PWRs. With Such moves on the Japanese side the intention of developing West . have been gratefully accepted by Germany's own technology concerning KWU. The companv was established in LWRs, the government in 1964 ~ 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OF ~ICIAL USE ONLY regucsted that Siemens and two other ~rst joint conference of specialists on companies study such technologies. nuclear .generation and energy was Total costs for research aad personnel held in West Germany in February for this purpose were extended by the ~980 with some 20 nuclear generation government and a iwge amount Specialists from Japan attending. equivalent to some ~500 billion was Japan is thus intend~ng to complete spent in ihe fve years between 1964 its own technologiesconcerningLWRs and 19G8. As a result, West Germany by inducing technologies from West succeedcd in the development of its Germany. - own system of nuclear power genera- 1n addition to its intention to in- ~ tion. It became possible for West duce technologies for KWU-type PWRs Germany to cancel its contracts for from West Germany, Tokyo Electric technology induction from the U.S. _ power Co. is also promoting improve- The nuclear generation departments of ' ments for conventional BWRs. It has both Siemens and AEG Telefunken exchanged a memorandum with GE, were thus amalgamated and KWU was Toshiba and Hitachi concerning a pro- ~ . cstablisl~ed in 1973. ' ject to develop new' BWRs over the While West Gerniany was con- next five-years. Such power companies centrating its efforts on dcveloping as Chubu, Tohoku and Japan Nuclear technulogy concerning LWRs, the power Generation are participating in _ Japanese government spent only ~6 this project, which is promoting devel- billion for technology concerning ~pment of an improved-type A Model . LWRs out of its aggregated budget of g~yR. Results are expected to be ~ '~360 billion for nuclear generation utilized in future nuclear generation from 1954 to 1973. From fiscal 1974 for plants with an output capacity of . on, the government started to spend ~,3 million kW. more for LWRs, ~ 12 billion for the The monopoly held by Mitsubishi first fiscal year. This difference in Heavy Industries in the PWR market is expenditure has failed to make Japan thus expected to be broken down by reach the level where it can design its the new entries, Toshiba and Hitachi. . own systems as West Germany has Iyleanwhile, tvlitsubishi Heavy In- ~ done, Japan still needs to study some dustries is promoting the development - West Gerrnan technologies. c; a new PWR in cooperation with - In 1975, the Ministry of Inter- Westinghouse Electric Corp. Mitsubishi national Trade and Industry (MITI) Heavy Industries has recently decided establist~ed a study committee for im- to extend cooperation in both tech- ~ oving and standardizing equipment nical and business aspects to Korea ' i~or nuclear power generation as well as Heavy Industries Co., South Korea's ~ a committee for improving and stand- only nuclear plant manufacturer. _ ardizing nuclear generating facilities. The aforementioned project to in- Projects to improve and standardize duce technology from West Germany . LWRs were thus initiated. The projects for improving and standardizing LWRs . are, in fact, following the pattern of is intended not only to fulfill require- similar projects in West Germany. The ments for the present LWRs but also ~ Japanese projects are divided into to solidify the foundation for inducing , three stages of development. On the ~n the future technologies for fast basis of both the first stage study from breeding reactors (FBRs). Therefore, it ~ 1975 to 1977 and the second stage ~s necessary to train engineers, who study from 1978 to 1980, model have experience in handling various plants are expected to be completed in technical problems concerning nuclear - the third stage study from 1981 to reactors, for these future projects. It is ~ 1985. By means of the model plants, with this intention that Tokyo Electric . improvement in capability for systems power has requested both Toshiba and designing and in operational reliability Hitachi not only to improve the con- will be attemptcd. Four model plants ventional BWRs but also to undertake will be built including u BWR and u the study of KWU-Model PWRs so as PWR with an output capacity of to raise the technicai level of their 800,000 kW each and a BWR and a engineers. PWR with an output capacity of 1 When Japan completes its million kW each. � acquisition of technologies concerning ~ - It was with the intention to learn LWRs, its nuclear power .Reneration . from West Germany in mind that tlie 2~ FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in~us~ry is expcctcd tu citl~cr takc a On the side of machinery makers, ruutc tuward directly inducing FBRs the Fast Breeder Engineering Co. was or inducing FBRs only after having . established in April 1981 through the attempted power generation with ad- joint efforts of the four nuclear plant vanced thermal converter reactors makers - Toshiba, Hitachi, Metsubishi (ATlts) developed by the Power Re- Heavy Industries and Fu;i Electric Co. actor and Nuclear Fuel Development The company will design FBRs. Corporation. Nuclear generation authorities in . ' As far as ATRs are concerned, both the U.S. and Britain have recent- ' experimental reactors have already ~Y inq~?ired of their counterparts in been in operation in the past two and ~apan on an informal basis concerning a half years. Construction of com- the feasibility of conducting jolnt de� mercial plants has been considered, Ve~opment of F~Qs. lt will be interest- but as construction and power gener- ing to see how these moves progress. ating costs are so high, power industry ~ cir~cles are not very enthusiastic about the construction of such plants. Never- theless, as an ATR can use reprocessed fuel that have been used once by LWRs, some people insist that ATRs be induced until FBRs can be realized. , As for FBRs, the Power Reactor ~ and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. started prepararory designing in 1968. The cos't for constructing a. FBR is abaut ~400 billion, with the budget being ~llocated from fiscal 1981. Of the total construction cost, 20% or ~80 billion will be borne by the related private enterprises, including . . ~60 billion for power companies and ~�20 biUion for machinery manufac- � . turers. The power industry decided to ex� tend cooperation for the construction pruject with the Japan Nuclear Gen- eration Co. as the project represen- tative. A section to be engaged in the development of the FBR was set up at the company in February 1981 and witli the concerted efforts of engineers specialized in FBRs from every com- pany concerned, technical cooperation is being extended for the completion - of the reactor. The target is to develop a proving reactor witli a capa~ity of I million kW once the experimental re- actor has been proven successful in the . experiment currently under way. Con- ceptional designing of the proving re- . actor was started in Marcli 1981. The 3�year program is being under taken by a section set up to develop FBRs in the Electric Enterprise Federation. COPYRIGHT: 1982 The Nihon Kogyo Shimbun CSO: 4120/160 ~ - 25 ~ . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ~ . , COUNTRY REPORTED 'A STEP CLOSER' TO NUCLEAR FUSION ~ OW181405 Tokyo THE DAILY YOMIURI in English 17 Feb 82 p 2 . [Text] Japanese scientists have come a step closer to nuclear fusion power stations with the recent completion of a new plasma heating system which they claim to be 10 times more powerful than any other. [passage published in boldface] Researchers~at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute said that new device would help them heat plasma, the ionized gas that fuels the fusion reactor, to a l.evel high enough for a self-sustaining fusion reaction within fiscal 1985. With the device just completed last year-end, they have successfully sent powerful heating beams for a record 10 seconds as against 0.3 second in the US. The feat came while scientists are still racing for the development of s system capable of bombarding plasma with neutral heating particles for one second or so. "Ten seconds are required for the next-generation test nuclear fusion reactor' rather than for the research reactor we are developing at present," said one in- stitute researcher. ' The plasma is required to [be] heated to 100 million degress C to harness surplus ~ energy, and many scientists are trying to attain the critical heat through par- ticle bombardment. One common trouble the short-lived heating beams as the result of the over- heating of the emitter, mostly in a fraction of a second. - The Japanese scientists have succeeded in keeping the high-energy beams for 10 seconds primarily through developing a unique cooling system for the emitter. They plan to use the new heater for their experiments on the TOKAMAK (Troidal Camera Magnet) fusion simulator, hoping to attain the critical fusion level within fiscal 1985. In the TOKAMAK test device, plasma is heated to nearly 20 million degrees.with electricity while the beams of neutralized hydrogen nuclei, traveling at a speed of 3,800 kilometers per second, provide heating energy the xest of the way toward 100 million degrees. - 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040029-1 FOR OFFiC1AL US~: ONLY According to the institute, however, the latest break-through would not spell the imminent arrival of the nuclear fusion age. "We are still at a half-way mark," sai~ one of the institute's researchers. - He said the practical~use of fusion energy would be preceded by developing high- - power superconductive magnets to contain the critical plasma and new materials to shield the strong neutrons generated during fusion reaction. COPYRI(~T: Daily Yomiuri 1982 . CSO: ~+120/162 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFF'iCIAI. USE ONLY . SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . NEW PUMPS FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY, SPACE EXPLORATION Tokyo BUSINESS JAPAN in English Feb 82 pp 91-92 ~ [Article: "New Pumps to Open Way to Nuclear Energy and Space Exploration"] ~ [Text] IGH level technology is required drainage at power stations and facto- H in the manufacture of pumps for ries, and for agricultural irrigadon. ~ feeding water to the boiler in thermal Growth rates of single�stage models electric power plants. Technical know- and multi-stage models in the past five how of large-size pumps was inducted years were 132.4% and ~139.7% respec- from abroad repeatedly after the con- tively. ' struction of the Chikujo Therrrtal Axial ~low pumps are used to feed Power Piant by Kyushu Electric Power liquid in the direction of the axis like a Co. in 1952. motor fan and ~are suitable� ~'or large- The discharge capacity of feed capacity, low-head water feeding. Dia- pumps has markedly increased along gonal flow pumps make use of both , . ~ with the increasing output capacity of the thrust of the rotating blade and power station. The latest model has as centrifugal force and have the charac- high a pressure as 300 kg per S cm~ . teristics of both centrifugal pumps and ~ Previously the driving force was elec- axial flow pumps. Such pumps havE ~ tric motors but now turbines of rapid high cavitation characteristics and are revolution are used. Domestic tech- }ughly adaptable, to varied flows so nology has now reacheu an inter- that they are widely used ior drainage national level and inany large capacity systems. The output of diagonal flow ~ pumps are used for pumping up water pumps increased even in the period of . for power plants. Their reliability has recession following the oil crisis. The phenomenally improved. Japanese- output in 1979 attained a peak of made pumps have been installed in ~33,300 million. The growth rate cor- both waterworks and for sewerage in responded to 260.13'o compared with huge cities, and in long undersea tun- ~ q~q, nels. Rotary pumps are subdivided into The types.of pumps can be divided Lutz pumps and screw pumps. They basically into centrifugal pumps, axial are resistant to high pressure and are flow pumps, diagonal flow pumps, used in fields where durability is re- rotary pumps and reciprocating quired as compared with reciprocating pumps. They can also be classified into pumps. ~ . ~ corrosion�resisting pumps, submarine Corrosion-resistant pumps are made pumps, etc. by lining the interior of the above- Centrifugal pumps are used to feed ~ mentioned pumps with tantalum, liquid with centrifugal force by rota� titanium, fluoride resin or polyvinyl ting the impeller within the casting. r,hloride. Their production is stagna- Such pumps assume more than 1/3 of ting after attaini~~g a peak in 1974, the total output of pumps and are chiefly owing to the slowdown of extensively used for water supply and equipment investments in the chamical 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ~DNLY Table 1. Pumps Production ~ (Unit: YI milliun) Year '79/'78 '79/'74 TYPe 1974 '75 '76 '77 '78 '79 (qr) (7n) Centrifugal pumps (single-stage) 43,427 40,359 40,328 47,023 49,424 57.518 116.4 132.~1 . Centrifugal pumps (multi-stage) 18,775 19,708 19,492 22,076 23,270 26,234 112.7 139.7 A~ial tlow pumps 4,624 4,433 3,940 2,720 4,902 3,997 81.5 86.4 . Diagonal flow pumps 12,838 13,431 19,763 16,465 24,894 33,389 134.1 260.1 Rotary pumps 5,325 4,231 4,187 5,494 5,382 5,934 I I().3 I I 1.4 , Reciprocating pumps 5,844 5,942 4,900 4,697 4,532 5,478 120.9 93.7 Corrosion-resisting pumps 18,183 15,186 10,579 9,972 9,123 10,701 117.3 58.9 Submarine pumps 21,594 18,726 23,763 26,603 29,995 �39,669 132.3 183.7 Other pumps 10,747 10,313 6,837 7,827 7,957 7,913 99.4 73.6 Subtotal 141,357 132,329 133,789 142,8.7? ~ 159,479 190,833 119.7 135.0 Compared to previous year (�k) (128.4) I (93.6) (101.1) (106.8) ~ (111.6) (119.7) - - Vacuum pumps ~ 7,431 6,223 6,158 6,941 7,452 9,236 123.9 124.3 industry. Production in 1979 corre-�~ have established mass production ~ sponded to 58.9%of 1974. setups through standardization. In the ln many cases, a centrifugal p~;mp csse of inedium-size pumps, as d~ey . is submerged with a motor to be used vary by use in capacity, pressure, as a submarine pump. Such pumps are temperature and liquid to be handled, suitable for use . in civil engineering medium and smaller specialized manu- works, seweraoe, deep wells, etc. As facturers are mosdy engaged in their - they are comparatively easy to main- production. ~ tain, their use has shown marked As far as feed pumps for boilers in progress in recent years. The output in ~ermal power plants are concerned, 1979 was the highest past record the discharge pres zure was at a level of corresponding to 183% of the figure in 60 kg per 5 cm in prewaz years. ~ 9~4, Tokyo Electric Power's power station Like other industries, the pump built in 1954 used pumps with a . industry received a paralyzing blow pressure of 120 kg. Pumps for use in during the recession period after the power stations with an output capaci- ~ first oil crisis. But it has been gradually ty of 1;000 MW in recent years have a recovering since 1977 thanks to the pressure of 310 kg per 5 cm~ and a resumption of public works including water feeding capacity of 1,740 tons tl~e construction of ~~w sewerage per hour. At pumping-up power sta- systems. ~ tions, machines with high capacities Vacuum pumps have .shown rapid and head for both pumps and water progress in postwar years and include wheels are in general use. The size of two types, mechanical and diffusion. stations has beeome much !arger than The mechanical type includes several before, and today the largest pump has types such as the Nash and Lutz an output capaciry of 350,000 kW. models, and is used for machines with Pumps for waterworks and sewer- comparatively low vacuum. Along age systems are capable of feeding with the development of vacuum en- water over a very long distance. They gineering in recent years, requ'vements are equipped with higtily advanced for super high vacuum pumps have control systems including the Kraemer become more strict, and large-scale oil System and the Serbius system so as to diffusion pumps and others are rT:anu- cope with the diumal and seasonal factured for use in nuclear power variations of demand. generatinn and space development. Countries .in ~urope and America Pumps of large size and capacity are are conducting intensive vacuum pump produced by the 4eh leading manufac- research and development for the nu- turers, and as for small-size general- clear industry and space exploration, purpose pumps, lazge manufacturers ~ . ~ 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540040029-1 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY spending a huge amount of time and developing countries and public works money, Japan is also consolidating its being conducted in Japan. research setup in order to overcome pemand for pumps throughout the the backwardness of its vacuum indus- world is never likely to decrease. t Japan's pump industry is urged to ryProdnction of pumps has made strengthen its foothold and establish a tremendous progress since the waz system to develop its own technology, . through the induction of foreign tech- which can improve its intecnationai nologies and the industry's effort to competitive power. O establish domestic production, sup- ported by the high-paced growth of the nation's economy. Demand for pumps is still markedly growing for the construction of industrial plants in ~ COPYRIGHT: 1982 The Nihon Kogyo Shimbun . CSO: 4120/160 ~ ~ 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ~ KOMATSU BEGINS SHIPPING PIPELAYERS'TO USSR OW050207 Tokyo NIHON KEIZAI SflIMBUN in Japanese 2 Feb 82 Morning Edition p 7 [Text] In defiance of the U.S. Government's request for a halt to its export of pipelayers to the Soviet Union as part of anti-Soviet economic sanctions, Komatsu ~ Ltd has begun shipping pipelayers under an order received last autumn in connection with a West Siberian pro~ect. This was made known on 1 February. Since the Export and Import~ Bank of Japan endorsed the deal with loans and since the Japanese Goverrnnent takes the position that "it is difficult to have companies stop exporting goods under a contract which has already been concluded," the deal is likely to be blessed with a"tacit approval." The deal calls for the export of approximately 36 billion yen (about $160 million) worth of pipelayers, bulldozers, e~c, for use in a natural ga.s pipeline project. eyed by the Soviet Government for West Siberia. ~ Last.summer, when talks on the deal started, the pro~ ect fell victim to the U.S. Goverrnnent's opposition for its linkage to the Yamburg pro3ect. However, since the Soviet Union later changed the Yamburg pro3ect, Komatsu formall}~ concluded the contract with the Soviet Machinerq Import Corporation (MASHINOIlKPORT) last October. _ Subsequently, Reagan's U.S. Administration announced eocnomic sanctions against the Soviet Union in connection with the Polish situation, resulting in the sus- pension by caterpillar tractor and General Electric Companies of the United States of their export deals related to the West Siberian natural gas pipeline project. Washington called on Komatsu to stop exporting pipelayers to the Soviet Union in line with these measures, and Komatsu for its part has been watching the develop- ment of talks between the Japanese and U.S. Gov~rmnents.~ However, the Japanese Goverrnnent takes the position that "the export deal has already been contracted for and the contract, endorsed by the Export-Import Bank's loans, has been already formally approved by the goverrnnent." Minister of International Trade and Industry Abe has conveyed this position to the U.S. Government.~ It is believed that Komatsu came to the conclusion that, in view of the government's position, it may start shipping those which have already been contracted for. It started shipping since late last year and is scheduled to carry out~the shipments in several in- stallments over a period of several months. ~ COPYRIGHT: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha 1982 CSO: ~+120/162 31 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ' OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS ARE ON TAKEOFF Tokyo DIAMOND'S INDUSTRIA in English Vol 12, No 2, Feb 82 pp 8, 10-16 . [Text] . Active in World Markets ~ the project. Fujiuu planned to buy more American prod- ucts, wch as an electric generator to operate the system. In October, 1981, it was reported that Fujitsu Ltd., a lead- However, Fujitsu could not join the project. - ing )apanese comrriunications equipment ~nd ~ computer ~ Fujitsu s tender for the AT&T project p~ovided a chance producer~ had made the lowest bid at an international bid- for the Japanese industry to demonstrate to the world that ding for the construction of the New York~Boston and its technology in optical fiber communications was above WashingtorwMosele~, corridors of an optical fibercommuni- ~e intemational ~standard and ~ that ~it had strong inter- cations network, which is being built by American Tele- national competitiveness. The failute to win the bid drew ~ phone & Telegraph Co. (AT&T). So far, Western Electric ~e worldwide attention as ) apanese and American govern- Co., AT&T's subsidiary, has supplied almost aA the major ~nt sou~ces commented many times on the delicate - equipment and systems AT&T bought. If a Japanese maker ~tter. #~ad joined the huge AT&T project, it would have been Only a few years have passed since optical ~ber com- extremely significant for the future business of the Japa- ~nications technology was put to practical use. Durin~ nese communications equipment industry. However, ~e short period both government institutions and private FujFtsu was, in fact, ruled out for security reasons on the ~rms in Japan have produced notable results in the aevelop- part of the U.S. ment of optical fiber comrnunications, while raising their In making the bid, Fujitsu developed a new system to technological standards in the field. keep the cost of the project to a minimum. For optical ~n February, 1977, Fujitsu and Furukawa Elecv+c, a ~ fiber communications, mainly laser beams of the 0.85-�m ~eading cable manufacWrer, expor~, d a 4.2-kilometer optical (micron) range has 6een used. However, those of the 1.3 �m fiber communications �system to the Telecommunication range are cansidered more suitable for long-distance, large- Auehority of Singapore. That was the ~rst wch system to ; capacity communications. Fierce competition has been be put to practical u~ for public telecommunication in� going on in the world to develop systems employing that the world. In 197~, Nippon Electric Co. (NEC), )apan's ~ range of laser beam, ~and Fujitsu is in the forefront in the ~argest maker af communications equipment, delivered an ; development. In the AT&T project, Fujitsu proposed the optical fibec communications systetn to link two telephone ; use of a wide-band communications system of 135 Mb/s exchange stations 9 km apart to Vista FloridaTelephone'in , (mega bits per second) that would employ the 1.3 �m range. ~e resort area of the Walt Disney World, Florida. This was Because of the specific system, Fujitsu's system can dras- foilowed by the conclusion of contracts for the export of ; tically decrease the number of optical fibers and relay similar systems to the U.S., Canada, Mexico; Argentina~ ~ facilities ;,:.mpared with the system proposed by Wesurn Braz~~, Hong Kong and Singapore. Electric. Among big export contracts was a~25,000 million It seems that Fujitsu had an apparent aim to avoid possi� order for a tandem telephone exchange system using optical ~ ble trade friction by buying American-made optical fiber fiber cables that Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) and Sumitomo : cables which would account for about half the total cost of Electric Indusvies, anothe~ leading cable maker, jointly , ~ ; ~ 32 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY received from ENTEL, the Argentine public communica- Glass Works developed an optical fiber made of quaru. tions corporation. NEC was also designated as a long-term SELFOC is now being used widely for lens material for vendor that would supply telephone exchangers to ~NTEL micro-optics. over the next 15 years. In February, 1971, shortly after the announcement by (n addition to those mentioned above, a number of Corning Glass Works, Nippon Telegraph & Telephone optical fiber communications systems were exported i~ Public Corp. (NTT) launched research on optical fiber 1981. In January, Fujitsu and Furukawa Electric jointly~ communications with the esWblishment of an optical received an order for a new optical fiber communications ~ber research team in its Electrical Communication trunk line network from the Hong Kong Telephone Co, l.aboratory. In the U.S., Bell Laboratories ~f the AT&T An order for the railway system modernization project Group developed a MCVD (Modi~ed Chemical Vapour received by Mitsui & Co. in August included a 150-km Deposition) method by improving the CVD method of optical fiber communications system. In October, PIEC and Corning Glass Works. The optical fiber made by the MCVD Sumitomo Electric Industries received an order for a method has a less transmission loss than that of 250-km communications system employing the coaxial Corning. In May, 1975, NTT began joint researches on and optical fiber combined cables from the Mexican Trans- optical fibers with Japan's top three cable makers - portation Ministry. Sumitomo Electric Industries also Furukawa Electric, Sumitomo Elecuic Industries and received a 130-km optical fiber communications system to Fujikura Cable Works and developed a VAD (Vapour be used by Manitoba Telephone Co. of Canada. Phase Axial Deposition) method. Optica{ fiber communications are spreading rapidly in An optical fiber is a~ne glass fiber (core) covered with [he U.S. In 1981 NEC won a contract for an optical fiber a glass tube (clad) of lower refractive index. The beam that _ communications system from New York Telephone under passes through the core will not go outside the core thanks the wing of AT&T, while exporting si~nila~ systems to to the principle of toWl refraction. In the MCVD method other U.S. ~rms. Recently, however, the U.S. raised import silica gas (to be made in core), added by germanium and . ~ duties for optical fiber cables to 17.9% (8% in Japan). other compounds to adjus[ the refractive index, is blown in i:+is could develop into a trade issue between the two the quartz wbe (to be made in clad) and is deposited inside counuies, since there is another case - the AT&T decision the tube by heating. The soot preform thus made is heated to reject Fujitw. Optical fiber cables have also been export- again to make transparent preforrn. A fine optical glass ed tu European countries, but their quantities are still fiber is made by drawing a preform. - small. In the VAD method developed in Japan, core material On the other hand, developing countries whose tele- gas in blown and deposited to the lower end of a glass rod. phone system lags behind that in advanced nations show By lifting up the rod, core is developed. The core thus made strong interest in employing optical fibers in their new is put in the clad tube to form a preform. The size of the telephone networks. Makers . of optical fiber communica- preform made by the VAD method can be made far larger tions equipment from various countries are frantic, trying than that of the MCVD method. This means a longer to sell their products. But, in fact, a majority of orders are optical glass fiber can be drawn by the VAD method. won by Japanese manufacturers. This proves strong com- In Japan, optical fibers are being made by both methods. petitiveness of the Japanese industry in this field. For the MCVD method of Corning, Furukawa Electric in , ~ 1978 became the sole licensee in ) apan, and other' makers Deve~opmeni of Unique Technology have taken sub-licenses from Furukawa. In fact, both The principle of optical fiber communications had long methods are undergoing rapid advances in technology. been known to experts. But the United States was the first In :1979 an optical fiber having the world's lowest power to put this to practical use. It was reported in October, loss of 0.2 d6 per kilometer was made under the VAD 1970, that Corning Glass Works had developed a glass fiber method. This ~ber can transmit 95% of the beam to a of a low transmission loss - 20 d6 (decibels) per kilometer. receiver a kilometer away. In 1980, a 100-km single mode This report triggered a worldwide race to develop optical optical fiber was made by the VAD method. - glass fibers. Optical fibers are classified as a graded index type and a _ In Japan, NEC began research on optical fiber communi- step index type by the disuibution of refractive index, and - cations in 1967, and in 1968 it announced a joint develop- as a multi�mode type and a single mode type by the transfer ment of an optical fiber, called "SELFOC," with Nippon "characteristic of beam. In the graded index type, the refrac- . Sheet Glass, the 2nd largest sheet glass maker in Japan. tive index of the core changes gradually from its center _ SELFOC was a glass of multiple contents. La[er, Corning to [he outer direction. This keeps the transmitting speed 33 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~OR OFFICIAL USI: ONLV of beam constant and transmitted information clear. The and facilities before starting the laying of optical fiber core is about ~0 �m in diameter. In the step index type, cables in the site in October, 1977. All the facilities were the refractive index of the core is uniform. Recently the comple:ed in J uly, 1978. Then, the association asked 158 graded index type fiber is used more frequently than the households in the area to become monitors and installed step index rype. The core for the single mode type is about terminal equipment, which are linked with ihe central 10 �m in diameter. This type fiber keeps ttie aberration of facilities by way of sub-centers, along with ten terminal information-carrying beams to a minimum. This is suitable equipment at public facilities. The system went into opera- for long-distance transmission. The fiber of the single mode tion in July, 1978. type is difficult to make and the VAD method was the best. $ince the Hi-0VIS uses optical fiber cables, the data Therefore, )apan was the first to commercialize the single transmission capacity is extremely large, and full two-way mode fiber. communication is possible. This toWlly differs from the In 1973 Furukawa Electric and Fujitsu conc{~~1ed a CATV (Cable Television), which uses coaxial cables. The conuact with Corning Glass Works for joint research in terminal equipment of the monitor incorporates a terminal optical fiber cables and opticai fiber communications adapter, a key-board, a TV�camera and a microphone and system. These moves contributed to a rapid advance in _~an be connected with a TV set. The central facilities are Japan's optical fiber communications technology. Furu- equipped with a broadcasting system, a video system, a kawa supplied a large quantity of optical fiber cables to still pitture system, a central computer, etc. The monitor Corning to be used for the construction of an optical fiber not only sees specified programs on the TV set but also can communications system in Canada. call for other programs or information and also take part in - In 1972, Sumitomo Electric Industries deve.loped a~e programs using a TV camera or a microphone. double coated optical fiber cable with the primary silicone ~n the production of the optical fiber communications resin coating and the overlay nylon coating on the optical yystem for the Hi-0VIS, Sumitomo Electric Industries and fiber, and granted its license to Corning Glass Works. Fujitsu p~ayed a majar role. An LED of the 0.85��m range . ~ ~In optical fiber communications, the beam that carries is used for the light source; the light sensing element is P1N information is produced by LED (light emitting diode) or photo Diode; the optical fiber has a core diameter of LD (laser diode). Optical modem, a modulation equipment 150 �m and a clad diameter of 350 �m; the external to change electric signals into light signals and vice versa, diameter of the fiber is D.7 mm; and the main line of the and various other equipment are necessary. Japan is at the cable has an external diameter of 17 mm with 24^~36 fibers world's top level in communications and electronic equip- bound inside, while the subscriber's cable has an external ment for non-military use, and this has benefited Japan diameter of 13 mm with two ~bers. The cables used in in speedy development of optical communications equip- ~e system total 44 km in length and the fiber length ment. The rise in international competitiveness has brought toraled, 350 km. The broadcasting facilities were manu- about many export contracts. facwred mainly by Matsushita Electric Industrial, while Challenge to New Era the computer was made by Fujitw. Fuji Telecasting Co. ~ cooperated in broadcasting techniques. In Osaka's satellite town of Higashi-Ikoma, a large scale The Hi-0VIS is a new experiment. A number of equip- experiment, claimed to be the world's first of its kind, is ~nt had to be developed to meet its requirements. The now under way to develop a visual information system ~ftware for broadcasting and op~rations is all new. All is using optical fiber cables. The experiment is of the Highly being developed in the course of experiments. This is a Interactive Optical Visual Information System (Hi-0VIS) ~hallenge to the new era. With the start of the test opera- being conducted by the Visual Information System tions, a system.evaluation committee was established. The Development Association under the guidance of the overall operations are reviewed and assessed annually, and Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the results are reflected on the test operations. To develop this type of system, both MITI and the The evaluation report prepared in March, 1930, gives Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications created associa� full particulars of both the hardware and software of the tions in 1972. Since their purpose was the same, they were system. It states that all the equipment and facilities merged into one association in June, 1973. The association ~ontinue normal operations and th~t the foundation of is joined by electric appliance makers, electric cable makers, ~e system has been laid. It also says that the system is broadcasting companies, banks and other information- useful for the formation of a community and can make related businesses. It selected the test site, designed the great contributions to the life-lon~ education and welfare system, and developed and installed necessary equipment of community members. The association has received many 34 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFRICIAL USE ONLY inquiries about the experiment of the Hi-0VIS from nounced its plan to install additional optical Fber cables, overseas, and many visitors have come to see the operations with a total length of some 2,000 km, at 31 districts in its of the system. Following this Japanese system, plans to network in fiscal 1982. conduct similar experiments are now under way both at In another move, NTT announced in May, 1981, that it home and abroad. had wcceeded in tests ~of an optical fiber undersea cable The current operational experiment will continue until laid in the seas off Izu Peninsula near Tokyo. The tests March; 1983. Then, work will begin to develop a proven were designed to lay the optical ~bet cable between islands system, which will proceed to a commercial system to be or through straits. The light source was a laser beam of the established in che future. The Hi-OVIS can also be applie~d 1.3-�m range and had a data transmission speed af 400 Mb/ for an industrial information system within an enterprise or s. Notable in the tests is that a light relaying device worked an industrial complex or for an educational system. satisfactorily in waters 700 m below the sea level. The feat was the first of its kind in the world. Inroads into Telecommunications Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co. (KDD), Japan's overseas The optical fiber communications system has been ~~ephone and telegraph monopoly, plans to launch a series exported to be used for telecommunications purposes of tests on a 50-km optical fiber undersea cable in March, Japan, however, is lagging behind in its commercial use, 1982~ off Ninomiya Cable Landing Station, cenG'al Japan, - since the telephone network is already advanced in the Which is the terminal of the Pacific undersea cable to country. On the other hand, it is obvious that the present lapan. Optical fibers are witable for the undersea cables, telephone network will be inadequate sooner or later to Which are required to carry a large volume of information, meet the rapidly growing demand for data transmission, to long distant places at high speed. Since the power loss It is quite understandable that no sooner had NTT learned ~n transmission is small, the use of optical fibers can extend the development of optical fibers by Corning Glass Works the distance between relay facilities underseas where than it began research on the subject. maintenance work is very difficult. KDD is now engaged While continuing basic research, NTT launched, in 1978, in research in this ~eld and plans to lay a Trans~Pacific experiments of optical fiber communications for practical optical ~ber undersea cable in the late 1980s. use in a 21�km distance in Tokyo. It is now carrying out a yy~de Applications long-distance, large�capacity experiment and medium- ~ range, medium-capacity experiments for practical use. In March, 1978, Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Kyushu The former experiment began in October, 1980, in the Electric Power Co. built some 6-km optical fiber communi- outskirts of Tokyo by linking an 18-km distance with an ~ations lines between electric power plants and substations, optical fiber cable of the single mode type. The experiment respectively. Unlike the ordinary electric wire, the optical is now continuing in an 84km distance. Adopted for the fiber is immune from electramagnetic interference and light source is a laser beam of the 13-�m range produced enables the installation of an optical ~ber cable right along by an InGaAsP semiconductor.The information transmission a wper high tension power transmission undergroUnd cable. speed is 400 Mb/s. A single optical fiber of the kind now in Other power companies followed suit in adopting optical use can handle 5,760 telephone channels at a time. It will fiber communications for data transmission and control be used for a trunk line linking major cities. purposes. The electric power ~ndusuy, so far, has most In the medium-range, medium�capacity experiments, Widely adopted optical fiber communications for practical optical fiber cables of the graded index type are used. They use in fields other tha~ the public telephone and telegraph are being conducted in Tokyo, Kyoto, Nagasaki and nine system. other cities where optical fiber communications are being In February, 1979, Sumitomo Electric Industries and tested between telephone exchanges or relay stations 6^~ Idemitsu Industries, a leading petroleum company, jointly 13 km apart. The light sources used are laser beams of the developed a composite cable of the electric wire cable and 0.85-�m range produced by GaAIAs semiconductor and of ~he optical fibe~ cable, first in the world. A 4�km composite = tHe 1.3��m range produced by InGaAsP semiconductor. ~able was laid between a refinery and an oil storage facility The transmission speeds are 32 Mb/s and 100 Mb/s, respec� for the electric power supply and controlling and tele- tively. This series of commercial experiment began in communications purposes. March, 1981, and on December 3, a test channel in Chiba In November, 1979, NEC completed an optical fiber near Tokyo was linked with the ordinary telephone net- communications system linking the mainframe computer work. Since then, similar linkups have taken place in with eight data stations in Wakayama Steel Works of Sumi- Tokyo and other cities. On January 21, 1982, NTT an� tomo Metal Indusuies. It was [he first full�scale system for 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ = two-way communications by a single optical fiber cable. NEC developed a short�distance optical data communica- The optical fiber cable free from electro-magnetic inter- tions system, called "NEOLINK," and its applications are = ference is suitable for the communications system in being studied jointly by NEC and Hokkaido University. , _ factories where a web of powpr lines and other electric The system, using LED as its light source, has a built-in tlrcuits are laid across. It is also good in oil retining faci{i- optical modem, and it has been used widely for NC tie: and petrochemical plants where there are dangers of machine tools. ~ explosion induced by electric sparks. Various research Optical fibers have also been used in gastro�cameras, and institutes and educational facilities were also relatively other medical instrumenu. A bundle of many optical quick E~ introducing optical fiber communications. fibers can transmit images to a distant place. Optical fibers At [he end of 1980, Fujitsu and Furukawa Electric joint- ~an also be used for lighting and other indusvial purposes. ly completed a large�scale information network, called Optical ~bers have extremely wide-ranging applications, "Research Information Processing System" (RIPS), which and application technology is rapidly advancing day by day. would link nine research institutes of the Agency of Indus- To promote the development of optical fiber communica- ~ trial Science & Technology, Ministry of International tions technology and its applications, 11 major elecuic Trade and Indusuy, with its head office. The research appliance and cable makers jointly promoted to establish institutes are now under construction in Tsukuba Academic the Optcelectronic Industry and Technology Development New Town, Ibaraki Prefecture, north of Tokyo. The big qssociation. The association was formed in July, 1980. mainframe computer, FACOM-M2000, installed in the The promoters were Fujikura Cable Works, Fujitsu, head office, is linked with each institute by an independent Furukawa Electric, Hitachi, Matsushita Electric Industrial, line and a common ring line - both using optical fiber Mitsubishi Electric, Nippon Electric, Nippon Sheet Glass, cables. The system will eventually be a network linking pki Electric Industry, Sumitomo Electric Industries and ~ about 3,000 terminal units. The totai length of optical fiber Toshiba. Besides these 11, many other 'firms have joined used in the system is about 350 km. Thus it is an unprece- the association. dentedly large communications and data processing system According to the assaiation, the numbers of optical for research purposes in the world. systems shipped yearly by Japanese makers from 1974 to Around 1978 optical fiber communications began to be ~ggp were 3, 6, 23, 27, 47, 102 and 110, respectively. used by transportation facilities. Osaka and Kobe munici- These amounted to 318, of which 34 were exported. Of . palities reclaimed man-made islands in the Seto Inland Sea the total, 106 were delivered to electric power companies at the same time and built computer-controlled new transit (~ncluding 8 exported), 54 to manufacturing plants (3 , systems. Both systems employed optical fiber communica� exported), 38 to educational and research institutes (3 . tions to link monitoring TV cameras at stations with the exported) and 36 to public communications facilities central control offices. To transmit many TV pictures (19 exported). These systems vary widely'in scale. In terms simultaneously, WDM (Wave�length Division Multiplexing) of the volume of optical fiber cables used, public com- systems using four different wave lengths were adopted, munications facilities are the largest group of users of the - For Hanshin Expressway an optical fibercommunications systems. system was completed in the summer of 1981 to monitor According to a survey by the Nihon Kogyo Shimbun traffic conditions and transmit data to the control office. ()apan Industrial Daily), makers of optical ~ber communi- Data are sent to the control office 35 km away without ~ations equipment and optical fiber cables are all pushing using a relay facility by the laser beam of the 1.3 �m greatly expanded production plans. Their production plans - range. for fiscal 1981 and 1982 follows: The Transit Bureau of Sapporo in Hokkaido developed a voice-responsive optical data transmission system for Equipment Manufadurers FY1981 FY1982 subways in cooperation with Nippon Signal Co. and Matsu- (in'~100 million) shita Communication Indusvial Co. and put part of the Nippon Electric 100 150 system into operation in December, 1981. The system Fujitsu 50^�60 100 totally controls the exit gate, the automatic ticket punch- ing machine, the fare adjustment machine and other equip- Gble Manufacturers ment by linking them with the control of~ce by optical $umitomo 50^~60 100^~120 fiber cables. For example, if the term of a season ticket Furukawa 24^25 50 expired, a synthetic voice tells the user that the ticket is Fujikura 20 40 out. Hitachi 15 25^~30 36 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI,ti' Dainichi�"Jippqn 5 10 optical fiber communications. Showa 2 4 NTT is now developing the "Information Network Sys- . tem" (INS), a highly advanced data transmisston system With the exception of Dainichi-Nippon, all these makers employing optical fiber technology to replace the conven- plan to export more than SO% of their products. tional telephone network. In the system, new netwbrk Big cable makers are manufacturing not onl~~~ optical would carry not only voice, like telephone conversations, fiber cables but also optical modems, optical ~ber I'snks, but also images of facsimile and computer data. NTT is LEDs, semiconductors and other parts and materials for also developing a small facsimile for home use and other optical fiber communications. They can also take orders for products, while conducting commercial tesu of telephone small� and medium-sized optical fiber communications communications by using optical fiber cables. NTT aims to systems. Sumitomo Electric Industries has grown into build a new highly�efficient communications network af Japan's top maker of gallium-arsenide compound semi- a system which will employ fiber optics-applied digital conductors. Meanwhile, Fujitsu is making optical fiber techn~logy, instead of the current analog technology. In cables. It is noteworthy that electric equipment makers and fiscal 1984 NTT plans to launch an experiment of INS at cable makers have begun doing business in each other's a model district to be designated in suburban Tokyo. field. This is because advances in optical fiber communica- The Agency of ;ndustrial Science & Technology tions technology are so fast that manufacturers need to designated the development of an optical measurement hardle the entire system if they want to survive competi- and control system as a national research & development tion in technological development. project. To promote the project, the "Engineering Research Association of Optoelectronics Applied System" (OAS) was Toward Even Higher Technology established in January, 1981, by the earlier�mentioned In October, 1981, NTT announced that it had developed Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development a super high performance semiconductor laser of the Association and its 11 promoters as well as Fuji Electric, 1.5-�m range. KDD also announced a success in the Shimadzu and Yokogawa Electric Works. development of a similar product. NTT and KDD achieved Research funds totaling'~18,000 million are to be spent the world's first successes in pursuit of the same goal for the new project during the 8-year period swrted in fiscal through separate development efforts. 1979. In the project, studies will be made on three subjects In the development of systems for long wave length - optical element technology, functional sub-systems and ~ ranges above 1 �m, the system of the 1.3-�m range is total systems. Optical elements to be taken up ~re lasers, especially advanced, because the loss of power in the optical fibers, optical sensors, optical actuators and optical optical fiber is low in the range and because the wave forms circuit elements. Sub-systems will include high�speed of signals are quite steady. It had been known that the picture data sub-system, high-quality picture data sub- power loss in transmission of the 1.5-�m ~ange was mini- system, high-speed process data sub-system, composite mum and about half the amount of the 1:3-�m range. And, process data sub-system and data control sub-system. As to _ two years ago KDD succeeded in an experiment of con- the towl systems, plant, enterprise and social systems will tinuous operation of a semiconductor laser of the 1.56-�m be studied in the project. The Optoelectronics Joint range in the ordinary room temperature for the first time in Research l.aboratory, established under OAS, is engaged the world. But when the semicond~ctor iaser was operated in the development of basic technologies of "opto- at high speeds to transmit a large amount of information, electronic integrated circuits" - integration of optical many different wave~ lengths close to the 1.56-�m wave elements and electronic elements. appeared and disrupted the wave form of the signal. There- The Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Develop- - fore, efforts were made to develop a semiconductor laser ment Association hasundertaken research and development that would produce a uniform wave length even at high of the total systems of the project and also research on the speed operations. Both NTT and KDD attained the goal by standardization of opto-electronic devices, which is assigned devising new structures of the semiconductor. by the Agency of Industrial Science & Technology. _ The newly developed semiconductors can double the The VLSI Technology Research Associatiun, created in relay span in optical fiber communications compared 1976 to establish technology for future generation com- with that of 1.3-�m range. This is a great advanWge for the Puters, has achieved spectacular results and attracted the optical tiber undersea cable. For the practical use of the attention of the world. An even large research and develop- products, it is necessary to grade up their dependability. ment system has just begun activities to advance opto- But they have definitely brought us closer [o the ideal of electronic technology. 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040029-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Electric technology created modern civiliiation, and the social structure of today is based on electric and electronic technologies. Now, optaelectronic technology is emerging to form a new industry. The optical fiber communications industry cannot remain merely part of ~he information . industry. It is a new industry that is bringing renovations in the social structure. In the futuristic industry, )apan is ~ at the world's top level. But the future of the industry is too great, and so is difficult [o predict, now. COPYRIGHT: Diamond Lead Co., Ltd. 1982 ~ CSO: 4120/172 1 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044429-1 FOR OFFICIAL LSE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WHETHER ROBOT'S WILL CREATE UNII~LOYMENT D~SCUSSID Tokya DIAMOi~1D'S INDUSTRIA in English Vol 12, No 2, Feb 82 pp 38-42 IText] . . , , An internntlonol robot show, "AUTO~GIAN '83, "!s to be held ~ ln London /n Moy, 198;~. A re%vant /apanese orgon/zorlon ond manufocturers ore now preparing to toke part in the robot show Robots wh/ch executed only part t~f mon's work ~ in the past o~e becoming maJor work force /ndispensab/e for . ~ foctoNes. However, the wider use of /ndustrla/ robots !s dosely reloted to employment problems A/though there is ' ' no p~essing p~oblem Jn /opan /n this regard, the fa1/ure In the use of robots ond In emp/oyment meosures cou/d creote problems In the future. Let us int~oduce to our readers some examples of reoctfons to the odoption of robots from /opa- nese labor and management. Co~trast ~ workers of their jobs." In contrast, The working group on information, lapanese representatives said, "The computers and communications influence of ME on employment has policies of the Organization for not become a serious problem in Economic Cooperation and Develop- japan." This remark seems to have ment (OECO) has been conducting surprised representatives from other = research for the past three years counuies who got the impression that on the influence of micro-electronics the Japanese were likely to settle the (ME) on productivity and employ- problem skillfully, although the Japa- ment. nese said there might be a problem in In the course of the research and the future. More than that, Professor examination of the problem, the Hiroshi Inose of Tokyo Institute of working group heard serious .�com- Technology, one of the Japanese plaints from a majority of European representatives, reported later 'that he coun~ries that "robou will deprive and U:S. representatives "had eased . 39 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL L1SE ONLV ~ � conside~ably" the pessimism of Euro- the employment level or curbed the pean countries by suessing the ME's rr~argin of dec~ease in employment." It effects of r~ising productivity an~ was als4 found that "the change in ~ creating employment. the types of job and the relocation of The All Japan Federation of workers were carried out smoothly ~ Elecuic Machine Workers' Unions has and there were only minor direct compiled an interim report on the personnel cuts." "Outlook for the Flecuic Industry in Rationalization of Production the 1980s. According to its inquiries, sent to member unions to collect data The ME revolution centered on for the report, the invoduction of indusuial robots has just beg~n. Since ' microcompuiers and robots has not the robots will have added-value and produced seriaus effects on employ- increased efficiency year after year, ment. A majority of the unions the amount of work per robot, or. its replied that there is "no change.'" labor-saving effects, will go up steeply. Although some of them said emptoy� The effects of the ME revolution on ment was "reduced," .almost the same employment wili ~radually become number uf unions reported an appreciable, but, at the same time, it "increase." will be a condition necessary for ~ Why was such a situation brought survival of enterprises in this resource- ~ about? The number of workers in the less country and a weapon for them to Japanese elecuic industry dropped win international competition. right after the first oil crisis. There Japanese enterprises are willing to were 1,400,000 workers at the peak increase labor productivity, rationalize time in 1973, but they declined by production to lower costs and step nearly 13�k to the present 1,220,000. up investments for labor and energy The drastic cut in the work force was saving. Behind this is the rise in raw covered by overtime work or a twa material costs. If the average price of shift work system. Therefore, there is products in the manufacturing indus- a feeling of busyness at factories even try in 1973 is set at 100, the price today. In addition, there is a tendency went up to 171, while the raw material among workers to dislike dirty or costs reached 209 in 1980. It is not dangerous work, raising the voices for too much 'to say that the ME or the stepped�up automation, including the robot revolution first took place in use of indusuial robou. Japan in order to cover this gap be- The Ministry of. Labour started a tween the price of products and raw two-year research in 1981 on the material costs. As a rewlt, raw . effects of ME on employment. The materials have come to be used more . research was entrusted to a committee effectively, than before. The annual headed by Professor Shojiro Ujihara of rate of increase in ~ raw material/ Shinshu University. A preliminary productivity in the manufacwring ~ wrvey was carried out in )une, 1981, indusuy was 0.5% a year during the on the basis of figures for 1980, and period of fast economic development 2,000 manufacturing plants in the between 1965 and 1973. But the rate country were inquired about the shot up sharply to 1.9�~ a year be- problem. The results of the research tween 1973 and 1980. showed a rosy picture that "the inuo- It was also devised to absorb the d~ction of NC machine tools and ever�rising labor costs with the others, coupled with the expansion of modernization of facilities (that is, production capacity and the increase automation and the inuoduction of in che booking of orders, maintained industrial ' robotsj. Workers' wages 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044429-1 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ~ more than doubled from the 1973 japan, as stated above, will continue index of 100 to 211 1980, whereas until labor shoruge in specific divi- the price of machinery and other sions is settled, and there cannot be facilities increued from 100 in 1973 any employment problem arising from t~ only 143 in 1980. The ratio of d~e use of industrial robots. The wages to machinery and facilities problem is the invoduction of robots increased from 100 in 1973 to 147 in pu~ely for increasing productivity. 1980. In other words, there is a greate~ Since they are for labor-saving incentive to substitute capital for labor purposes, a decrease in employment is force. The incentive will become even unavoidable. And, the use of roh.ots greater from now on, could ultimatcly lead to an unattended There is another reason for the, operation of plants. . wider use of industrial robots in )apan. For instance, Hitachi, Ltd. is carry- That is the chronic shortage of skilled ing out a five�year plan to cut the ~ labor force. According to the Labour number of workers in the assembly Ministry's survey on the demand and division by 7096 by introducing wpply of skilled labor fo~ce~ the racio industrial robots into 60% of the of shortage in the manufacwring assembly process. Toshiba Corp. industry as a whole rose from 6.7�~6 in iniroduced FMS (flexible manufacwr- 1978 to 9% in 1980. The situation ing system) centering on the use of is more serious rn such sectors as robots into the entire production welding~ resin molding and metal divisions in fiscal 1981 in an effort to pressing, in which the shortage ratio cut production workers (now totaling reaches 13%. The shortage is higher 25,000) by about 10,000 in the latter in the types of jobs which workers half of the 1980s: The OECD's Japan tend to avoid as dirty work. The Working Group h~s found in its survey recent Vends of young people to go that the number of workers will be ~ on to institutions of higher education reduced by the introduction of ME a:so led to the current situation. and industrial robots into the manu- Although the shortage of skilled facwring divisions. To be affected ar~ workers is acute in small� and medium- the makers of process control equip- scale enterprises, about 20% of large ment, automated manufacwring enterprises also complain of such machines, general office machines and shc+~*.ages. It is nawral that a manager . equipment, equipment for commerce-~ (the President of Japan Robot Lease related clerical work, equipment for Co., Shinichi Mauuda) deplores: the automation of railway swtion "While the annual economic growth work, timepieces and electronic calcu- rate averages 596; the rate of increase lators. It was also found that the in labor force in the secondary indus- 'users o~f these machines and equipment try is only 0.7% a year. At this rate, are gradually reducing their depe~- it is impossible to recruit new workers dence on skil~ed workers and em- to make up for those quitting." ~ ployees engaged in simple work. Industrial robots in Japan are being These industries are still developing used, first of all, to cover the shortage industries. Stimulated by the harsh of skilled labor force and to do dirty competition for the improvement of and d angerous work on behalf of product quality, lowering of product workers. prices and the development of new products, these industries will employ Highly-efficient Robo:s robots to increase production as a The use of industrial robots in whole, while maintaining a certain ~+1 . ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ degree of employment-creating effects. and re-educa[ion of~workers and com- Corporate managers say that personnel ~anies' adaptation to new changes - cuts in the production process will be would proceed smoothly and a certain carried out, as in the past, through degree of e~onemic growth and expan- the natural decrease in the number ~ sion of the industrial scale would of employees or by changing the types conYinue from now on. If there of workers' jobs over a long period of emerge problems in these respects, the time. But, as a matter of fact, nobody use of industrial robots might rewlt in can foresee the future employment creating mass unemployment. situation. Wo~y Demand for production�process work force from the machinery, electric What is worried by many experts is ~ and precision equipment indusuies the question of re-edutating middle- � will reach about 2,430,000 men in aged and aged workers. Regarding this, 1985, according to the average annual there is a mood for giving it up. The � . ~ growth rate estimated by the Indus- national cenws (in 1975) shows that, trial Structure Deliberative Council. of the male factory workers, those in ~ Considering the 1,880,000 workers in the age bracket between 40 and 54 . - 1975, the increase will be very large. account for 20%. Above all, the ratio But the labor-saving effects of ME and of workers. over the middle age is high industrial robou was not taken into at 2196 to 2496 among metal machine account in making the estimates. tool ' workers~ welding work~ers and OECD's Japan Working Group metal pressing workers, who are estimates that the introduction of ~YfE believed to be the ~cst to be affected and robots will have the effects of ' by the progress in automation, This reducing the work force by the maxi- shows the fact that middle-ag~d and mum of 480,000 and by the minimum aged workers are subject to the effects of 210,000 by 1985. If this estimate on employment resulted from rational- is correct, the number of factory ization and automation in ~the produc- workers in the above three sectorsof tion process. On the other hand,.the ~ industries will increase only slightly ratios of the worke~s of those ages to ' or level off. ~ the total number of information ' ~ � Separately from robots, estimates processors and corr.puter operators are on the distribution industry com- extremely low, accounting for 496 prising department stores and super� and 5.6�~, respectively. The ratio of . . market chains show that the diffusion young workers is overwhelmingly high. of POS (point of sales) system will cut It is in this computer-related work, the work f by the maximum of such as software, computer operation, ~ 23,000 by ~,.i. ~Since the number of engineering and maintenance, that ME _ employees in the distribution indus- revolution will c6rastically expand try is estimated to increase from employment and that a decrease in 260,000 in 1975 to about 283,000 in the work force will be covered by 1985, the increase is expected to be robots. Thereforc, employees over the absorbed exactly by POS and other . middle age art likely to be driven automation measures. further into a disadvantageous posi- Thus, seen from the macroscopic tion, unless tf~ey are given chances for viewpoint, the introduction of robots , re-education. . and microcomputers is not likely to . According to estimates by the cause a serious anxiery among workers . Labour Ministry's Employment Policy about unemployment. But this is Research Council, the working popula- based on condition that the ~elocation tion in 1990 will reach 61~400,000 ~+2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFtC1AL USE ONLY (compared with 56,500,000 in 1980). .past, it was diffiwlt for small- and Since those in employment are esti- mediurrrscale enterprises to employ mated at 60,300,000 in 1990, the skilled workers~ but the introduction difference, meaning the unemployed, of robots has settled the problem and will be 1,100,000. Now, let us apply eliminated the danger involved in the , the employees' distribution rates by process. The company was able to sex and age in each industry in 1980 increase employment, . successfully to those presumed to be in employ- adapt itself to the recent trends - ment in 1990. Then~ it becomes clear toward receiving higher education, that the working population (wpplyj, give employees education and t~aining both male and female workers under ~ and contribute to the disaster preven- the age of 55, wii( be bel~w demand, tion on the part of users. What the while those over 55 will exc~eed those company is doing might be a good - employed (demand). For one thing, example of the future-oriented ME - aged workers will not be able to catch revoluticn. up with the changes in industries in Undoubtedly, the ME industry in the direction of knowledge-intensive- the broad sense of the word will ness. But the development of ME is touch off an expansion of employ- so remarkable~ that there may emerge ment at the level of small-and medium- foolproof computers or ME systems scale enterprises. OECD's Japan Work- which can be easily operated by ing Group estimates that the number ~ anyone. Then, there may be a of information praessors alone will pdssibility of chances being given to reach the maximum of about 796,d00 age~, or disabled employees who are in 1985~ compared to 130,000 in generally poor mechanics. 1980. Demand for operato~s of punch- - ME Revplution ing machines and electronic com- . ~ puters is also expected to increase at . . Orii Automation Machine Co., a , the same pace. An overwhelmingly _ specialized maker of automation large number of companies consider machines for pressing in Isehara in the that the employment for automation- wburbs of Tokyo, developed indus� related jobs will either remain at the uial robots incorporating microcom- present level or increase over the next ~ puters a,few years ago: As a rewlt, the ~ three years, when industrial robots and company with about 100 employees NC machine tools ~will be introduced needed to increase the number by 20, ~at an increasing speed. to 30 during the past year. More than Is it too optimistic to conclude, at half of the new recruits were univer- this moment, that Japan will be able sity graduates. In addition, university to do everything smoothly with regard graduates were assigned to the manu- ~ to the increased use of robots? At facturing workshop because the least, .it seems unlikely that the J installation ~of robots and after-sale introduction of robots in Japan will services need to be done by those cause mass unemployment and incur engaged in robot production. serious social unrest about employ- This maker gives financial assistance ment. Then~ how is Japan going to to employees who buy "personal avoid the possible emergence of un- computers." About half of the em- employment? "On the basis of the _ ployees study software by using their )apanese-style management, labor and own personal computers at home. The management may join hands to attain pressing process, which is a basic the highest productivity in the world process of manufacturing, requires and gain further international com- skills and involves danger. In the petitiveness, thereby exporting un- . 43 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL.Y empluyment to other parts ot the of inember cc �~uies of the OECD's w~rid through the massive exports of ME commission. And this ~n impor- Japanese-made industrial robou." This tant problem which Japan, too, must - is the fear harbored by representatives consider seriously. Is Robot Production ~ rrofitable? Moves for exports of industrial robot to have required a long time before p[oduction tech~nologies have been Kawasaki was able to get on the right accelerated. Hitachi, Ltd., Japan's irack in the ~eld of robot produc- largest elecvic and elecuonic equip- tion. Kawasaki's robot sales are ment manufacturer, has already con- estimated at about ~7,000 million, cluded with two U.S. companies and while its overall sales stand at around ~ a British company, including General *750,000 million a year. This means Electric of the U.S., for exports of that it will take more time before the rob~t production technology. Mitsu- company geu full scale merits. bishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. gave In view of increasing populari~a- license to an Australian manufac- tion and sproad of industrial robots, ~ ~ turer, while Dainichi Kiko Co., Ltd. many manufacturers have been is providing its technology to a entering this field of business. At British company. In addition, Fujitw present; a total of some 150 com- Funac Ltd., a subsidiary of Fujitsu panies are engaged in the production Ltd., is expected to conclude a� of industrial robots. )apan Industrial ~ similar contract with a British maker. Robot Association forecasts that At home, a number of foreign Japan's robot production will total engineers are visiting robot manufac- about ~300,000 million in 1985, . turing plants almost every day. while it reached ~78,400 million in Reflecting such a situation, stock 1980. A private economic research prices of robot producers have been institute estimates the production on the rise. value at even ~500,000 million in However, robot production dces 1985. not always seem to bring large profits Sooner or later, robot producers to the maker. For example, Kawasaki will get merits accrued from mass Heavy Industries, Ltd., the top production. But considering wch a ~ ~ maker in this field, began commercial large number of participanu in robot ' production of industrial robou in production and expected harsh com- 1968 but suspended the production petition among themselves, profits , on the way due to sluggish sales. may vary with producers. In addi- It was about three years ago that the tion, the development of high- company resumed robot produc� performance robots will require a tion after clearing cumulative losses huge amount of money. It is, there- caused by the robot busir,sss failure fore, unlikely that all the robot at the initial swge. manufacturers will enjoy thriving Oil crises on two occasions seem business. COPYRIGHT: Dianwnd Lead Co., Ltd. 1982 CSO: 4120/172 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 , FOR OFFICiAL I1SF QNi.Y SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NTT PRESIDENT PROPOSES OPENING TERMINALS TO PRIVATE SECTOR ~ Denationalization Proposal ~ Tokyo NIHON~KEIZAI SHIMBUN in Japanese 20 Jan 82 p 1 [Text] Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation (NTT) has followed its announcement of plans to completely open to private enterprise the business of communications terminals, including telephone receivers, by making it known that it intends to reorganize its structure and concentrate all terminal-related divi- sions into a"private terminals 3usiness division." NTT expects to operate this division as an independeat profit-making entity, and has made 1983 the target date for its establisHment. It is anticipated that this division.will have some 50,000 personnel. That means that the overall structure of NTT will be broadly divided between a network~division, with the telephane exchange, long distance circuits, and the like, and a terminals division, with tel~phone receivers, facsimile ma- chines, and the like. Th~ese wi11 become dominant, quite beyond comparison with the small, money-losing, data and telegraph divisions: The Provisional Committee for the Investigation of Administration is presently considering whether to con- tinue,the organization of NTT as it is or to denationalize it, and NTT's autono- mously determined "large divisiona" policy will necessarily have an impact on future discussions of the administrative structure of NTT within the committee. NTT Fresident Shindo Ko haa made it known that "basic telephone receivers" (the first receiver installed by a aubscriber), alone excluded from the offer for private participation iri the terminals business made by NTT last year, will also be opened to private enterprise. Thus the entire terminals field will be opened to competition from the private sector, but, in fact, there are complaints from the private sector that by making the terminals division financially sutonomous there will be open cumpetition between NTT and private enterprise. Within NTT up to now the business window and maintenance personnel of the tele- phone office, the adm~nistration division, and so on, have been equal with those of the network and terminals divisions, and, on~the grounds that differentiation would be difficult, their finances have not been kept separate. However, Presi- dent Shindo has directed that personn~l, structure, and finan~es must be co~ pletely separated, so as to give priority to competition with the private sector, and this has become settled as NTT policy. The area taken i~ by the newly established private terminals division wi11 cover telephone receivers, facsimile machines, PBX (private telephone exchanges), and ~+5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY all other kinds of terminals connected to telephone circuits. As tkere is no manufacturing division, all terminals installed will be purchased from outside, but subsequent maintenance of terminals installed by the user will be included. ~1TT will take charge of maintenance of well over 50 million telephone instrum~nts over the whole country, including, besides the installation of some 200,000 new instruments a year, the transfer of about 300,000. Furthermore, income from terminals other than basic telephone instruments, such as PBX (14 billion yen) an~ tolnr~l~nro F.o.~.c+,;~~:..�. .T...�C~':~.^.~S (7 Trill~tnn ~+nnl .a.y.^.'.`..^.f~...c... .F..^. ~7A ir371{nn ~son /-t~ -r� ~ ~--~i a ~ ~ all cases as of 1980). When these are included, even after allowing for Che re- duction in the installation of new equipment due to the entry of private competi- tion, the overall income would give birth to a giant "terminal specialist firm" of 1 trillion yen. On the human side, this new division will field some 50,000 personnel, as a lower limit, from among the 330,000 of which NTT is eomprised in its competition with private enterprise. COPYRIGHT: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha 1982 Debate Over Proposal Tokyo NIHON KEIZAI SHIl~UN in Japanese 21 Jan 82 p 3 [Text] A positive statement by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) President Shindo concerning~ the problem of denationalizing NTT, now being studied by the Second Provisional Committee for the Investigation of Administration, has recently attracted much attention. The new form of NTT as presented by President Shindo, who came from the private sector, is as a half public, half private special legal entity like Japan Air Lines or RDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa), with the data communi- cation division becoming an independent private corporation. It might be said that Shindo's idea has taken the wind from the sails of the com~ittee. However, careerists in the Ministry of Posts and Telecoimmunications and NTT who wish to preserve the structure of NTT are bewildered by the pace of Shindo's activity. It seems that.Shindo's idea will not be realized easily.. "Why is President Shindo coming out with a succession of concr~te denationaliza- tion proposals?" (an NTT manager) "Does President Shindo understand that his own words are gradually wringing the neck of NTT?" (a ministry leader) President Shindo's latest~statement has provoked cries of "we cannot fathom his real pur- pose," not only within the ministry but within NTT also. , All of this is since President Shindo, who had originally said, "All will be de- - cided by the provisional committee; the persons concerned should say nothing," himself began at the end of Iast year to make known a succession of his own ideas concerning the denationalization of NTT. President Shindo first presented a group of three ideas being studied within NTT: 1) to turn NTT into a fully pri- vate corporation like the American AT and T(American Telephone and Telegraph), 2) to make it into a special legal entity combining pubiic and private capital like Japan Air Lines or KDD, or 3) to maintain its status as a public corporation, but in a form close to a private corporation, unfettered legally and budgetarily t~6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY and requiring as little governmental permiesion to act as possible. Next, he sug- gested that among these three proposals the Japan Air Lines form was the most suitable, and then, on the 14th, he presented the idea that the data communica- tion division should be separated from NTT and made an independent private corpo- ration. President Shindo seems to have reached a different 3udgment from the thinking within the ministry and NTT. Above a11, he sees that the Suzuki cabinet is not - ~ei.i:eaLing =rom zne denaLionaiizacion, zo some exLent, or the aciminlstrative structure of NTT, which follows from the general trend to reform the administra- tion, which is taken as an overwhelming mandate. Consequently, the best approach is to adopt a posture of being prepared for denationalization. Moreover, with the present public corporation structure, even minor matters in the budget are sub3ect to determination by the Diet, and when they wish to inaugurate new services they are restricted by regulations and the need for ministry approval, so that whate,a~ar they may wish to do they are tied hand and foot. President Shindo, who came froru private enterprise, has complained that "vigorous management is impossible." In - this instance the idea that it would be beneficial to gain the vigor of private enterprise by escaping these shackles has directly~led to the denationalizatiun thesis, it would seem. There is also a selfish aspect to Shindo's thinking. The data communication divi- sion is a burden on NTT's management, as it has lost money from the beginning. With the separation of this division from the body of NTT, it would retain as its responsibility business which should expand greatly over present levels, such as the high=level information communication systems (INS systems in which telephones, facsimile machines and data comanunications are installed in con3unc- " tion), which are under development as the 21st century successors to the tele- phone, and circuit service for communications circuits installed by private enter- . prise. One can see that included among his considerations is the aim of trans- fortaing the conservative atmosphere within NTT through denationalization. ~ Also, there are those who think that President Shindo's views are influenced by a desirce to win credit for the chairman of the Second Provisional Comanittee, Tsuchi Hikaru, whom he regards as a mentor. If NTT is transformed into a'half public and half private special 1ega1 entity, the new corporation would have capital of 1 trillion yen, and authorized capital of 3 trilliAn yen, according to NTT studies, and would be the largest company in Japan, surpassing the Tokyo Electric Power Company, with 650 billion yen. The contribution of this to the revolution in administration and finance would�be great, hence the attention of the Second Provisional Committee. ~ ' ~ President Shindc, has recently shown a tendency to present his own views on dena- tionalization in opposition to the Second Provisional Committ~e. To that extent he has legitimized before the committee the arguments concerning the denational- ization problem within NTT that have been stirred up by the pace of Shindo's own activities. However, at this ~uncture one also sees the start of bickering among the conservative career employees of the ministry and NTT and, as we approach a climax, it seems that the intensity of the debate has been raised a degree. COPYRIGHT: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha 1982 9898 CSO: 4106/41 ~+7 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AAID TECHNOLOGY � MFID GENERATOR 'ETL MARK VII' COMPLETID ' Tokya TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 14, No 11, Nov 81 pp 46-49 [TextJ ~ The Electrotechnical Laboratory of the Agency of Industrial Science and Tecluiology has recently completed an MHD ~ generatior "ETL Mark VIl" and has installed it at the Takasago Test Center in Hyogo Prefecture. Open cycle MHD generation is a compound system that directly generates power by passing at high speed, combustion gas plasma, obtained from fossil fuel and burned at high temperatures, thiough a power genera= tion channel placed in the powerful magnetic field (Fig.l) and also. to use exhaust heat for steam turbine power generation (Fig. 2). The total heat efficiency can be greatly improved to over 50 percent, compared with about 40 percent for usual steam ~ power generation. The M~ID generation system has the great advantage of directly using coal combustion gas and has importance in increasing power generation efficiency and . providing ~eans for overcoming reliance on oil as a source for electric power. � . Figure 3 provides an overall system diagram of the newly developed MHD Mark VII generator and Fig.4 shows the layout. The main facilities are various and include supply . units for fuel, oxygen, air, and seed, cooling wator facility, . burner, accelerating nozzle, power generation channel and . ' load unit, copper/iron magnet, excitation power supply, diffuser, high�temperature duct, low-temperature duct, elec- ~ ~ trical dust precipItator far seed collection, low temperature catalyzer denitration unit, silencer, chimney, operation meas- , uring control unit, and data proassing unit. ~ The burner consists of a pilot burner, a subburner, and ~main burners. The pilot bumer is used for igniting the sub- burner by making .the flames longer by buming in an air�shortage condition in the burner cylinder through LPG.air combustion. The subburner effectively provides the remaining heat of the ~ power generation channel and high-temperature duct, and also seed and sulfur dioxide during prdinary operation. The . ~ subburner is equipped with one mixed�air nozzle for oxy~gen, sulfur dioxide, and seed centering around it, and five fuel nozzles around it. Fuel bums mixing with oxygen jetted out and circulating in the sunoundings with steam atomizing. ~+8 FOB OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 � ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Din elon or ' . o~ mp~ntie fi~id . SupK-conductivs ~~~~4~~~ ` ` Fwl ~I~ctromapn~t s~ ~ i . . ~ Oinetion of mowm~nt (flow Of pNl ' 8urn~r s PowM q~n~ration ~ ~ ~ . / channd ' y� O ' ~ ~ . - ~ / 4r/p Hiph-t~mpaatur~ yas ` " N ~o> I. (ov~r 2600�C) . ~ ' '~~~~o ~ ' . f~ya - Fig. 1. Principle of MHD Generation ~ MMO powv p~n~ration wction Hiph�ampa~tun air , Stwm ~r r N boil~r El~etrom~yn~t o � IFuN ~ SNd ~ e (k~lluml ~ ~ burna Alr c AC/DC p ~ Stum t W~t~r � � eonvvtor ~ StNm-pow~r Turbin~ d~n~ntor ~~~ntion uesion ~ ' 3e ' ' OL d � COnd~n~ � Coollnp w~t~~ , , ~ - . Fig. 2. Conceptual Dia9ram of MHD Generation Plant There ace three main bumers mounted and fuel is made into a mist in a two-fluid spray system that uses air as the misting medium. Two oxygen nozzles for main combustion and two air nozzles for adjustment of gas temperature aze mounted at a tangent and they improve a mixture of fuel ~ ~+9 FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and oxidizer by making combustion gas have a circulating - flow and tengthening retention period. The main portion is structured with a water-cooled wall, the inside of copper :..nd the outside of stainless-steel. The accelerating nozzle accelerates combustion gas plasma ~MOtMM 1 I . ~ i ~ Tr~n~IM Ou~np N~uaMl=~t1sn ~ . YnitlponOl low�p.wwn ooollny El~enon~ue aua Cb~mn~v ~tl IMU1~1~0 W~Y w~W Wmp OnelP~nter ~ ~k~ ~ i CooI1n0 toww ~ Cnimnp o~~~ + ; ~ ~ S~I~nar g ~ow nw~ uen~Mr y�~_-_ i a nni ~ I SoelNi.~ KiCp~ Gmy:n g a.nitnnon unh cy ^ Wnu Oeo~ I ChlmnM g~~ KilO///~~~~....~,, ~ ^ O N~ evl7nWr i i r-~ w~ ~ ~ ~ ~ prnK Su~fu� aie~d~ : e Nin~ Oumo ~ ~ ~ ~~u~l ~i I ~ rNnow w wOOIY uMt S~ 7 = ltNm i~ MOOWr SNC ~SO~~N : i E Mlph�O~MWr ~ � ~ ~ ~7 Alr eo~nO~Mer �;~~e0011r1~ w ~ g~ a ~ I 1~= ~y WnerW wnN ~001 I u~ = 3 Ei~etrle ~ No.] ~Olu~iinPUn+Wr~tur~ ~irtr~Y F NII~OUet atOr ~$O �i bOHN ~ y = ; ?~r-~upp1Y YnIT .e....rn�.non a g ~ e0Mn~1 4- Clreubtllq w~Nr Dum W~nr unk LiOuIA-0avW~ eMY 1 ~ Y g Ipw~wq~ 1~ 2 ~ ~t ~ ~ O~yOin�wDOlyMm 1 uW O. O~�tM~Ww~Wr~ -NO.=M1lplbtMnOM~Nn:. Ii St~~T ~NM)OUmO Ynlt ~ ~'~''7y~ p AlnmOnl~-wOOIY un~l OYI11M ~~O~M ~f KNONn� S j . nnk ir~ne0ort~ PMyI F+~m,mn, ~4 M~, ~T 5 ' ~1.~~ fM~fM{ ~ I � _ 'itl~ C011vN~M pMNI ~uWwOply unlt KMOMM ium0 J e . MrvM.~ pnk i . ~ O e . t ~i ~ ~an~a� -~l ~ oo.oo.aoa.. LO~O Y~It P/~'~M Ynl~ CMIfH GOfIt101 D~IHI Tr~n~fo~TY MpnR. OOwM wDOW ~~O - r~�Nvlno [r~mformM Heility . Fig. 3. Systematic Diagram of MHOMark VII Generator . _ ' y � ~ ' ' ~ ~ ~ ~u Ma not { ti; L. v R- oY.. F.~~~f'v~L~ ~ .o , rnsc\ ~ w~~ ~ .1�p "15i Burnsr '~r~~.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ , ~ ~ y ~ s� I ' ~ i. ~ ~ t ~O , :I tl. ' . ~_y..,? ~ : Photo 1. Burner and Magnet Photo 2. Power ~eneration Load Unit (Load Switching Switch) 5~ FOR OF~[CIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFIClAL USI: ONLY generated in the burncr and moves it from the burner exit ~ ~ section 220mm in d~ameter, to the power generation entry ~ section measuring 220x90mm~ . Construction is of water- cooled copper. The fust channel used for experimental power generation consists of an insulated wall of an alumina-coating peg ancl . a water=cooled metal electrode wall (Fig.S). The entry section of the channel measures 220x90mm2 and the exit section is measures 280x90mm~. The total length is 1,600mm. Dimen- sions of the effective power generation portion are 217x75mm~ for the entry, 266x75mm' for the exit, and 1,248mm long. ~ The electrode pitch is 20.8mm, electrode logazithm 60, electrode width 9.4mm insuiated wall width between elec;rodes ~ lOmm, and base width 0.7mm. Anodes of stainless steei (SUS 304) and cathodes of copper tungsten (Cu~ are used as electrode material in the same manner as the generation . channel of ETL Mark V. The power generation load unit provides a load resistor to consume electrical output of the generation channel and performs switching of Faraday and diagonal generation, and increase or decrease of load resistance to measure generation ~ characteristics. The iron magnet generates a maximum flux density of 2.5 Tesla in space with a gap of 240mm between polarities . and 1,200mm long. For experimental convenience, the magnet . ~ itself and its stand can be divided into two, right and left, structually. The stand can move on a rail up to about 2m. ~ o ~ o c m � 'o ~ . ~ ~ O p ~ 4 ~ 7 ; O C ' . ~ m d ~ tt+ ~ ' p�~;~ i.;~:. .s.~' ~ NO ' lc tl~~~ hi0h.~e fipere~~~e' No . e h~ h,re~ _ ~rat~~~ a`cr Photo 3. Overall View of Inside Laboratory ~ El~ctro~tatic dust c pncipitetior o � m . c ~ t m ( - C) v . m N 1 " � U �'d~ t ~ ,~.j=~. ' _ j ~ - _ ~ r Photo 4. Exhaust Gas Processing Equipment r..~r~,;,_. ....r...... 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040029-1 _ FOR OFFICIA~. USE ONLY ~ It wei~hs about 90 tons and excitation power supply outputs - 685x2,700A (D.C.). Tht diffuser moves from the exit section measuring 280x 90nnmZ , of the generation channel, to~ the entry section 560mtn in diameter, of the back cunent high-temperature duct and it is a cone duct to recover combustion gas pressure. ~ ~ The high-temperature duct consists of the first and second high-temperature ducts a~td a high�temperature elbow. The � first high-temperature duct is used, with an air-phase reaction, to dissolve and reduce NJx concentrations in combustion gas . generated in the burner. It is constructed with water cooling comprising fueproof materials fitted inside, having a total _ 1~~~,~,~~?~~~~,~~~~~~~~ ~ , i I~ctrode ~ , , , ; ~ N ^ Intulation b~tw~~n elsetrodes! . 17 "'I"""t"""'f'~'"_ " Nozzla orific� Imulated wall Pep piec~ Nozzle orifice 1248 (affective generation part) . iT5 Cooling water path Insulated well i Fig. 5. No.1 Power Generation Channel . length of lOm and a thickness of 90mm. The combustion gas temperature is about 2,200�C. T}:~ second high-temperature ~ duct is. used to decrease combustion� gas temperature with a water spray and to completely burn any unburnt portions of ~ combustion gas, through the injection of axygen. It is con- structed w.ith water cooling, partly comprising fireproof materials fitted inside, having a Yotal _length of lOm and a thickness of 90mm: The combustion gas temperature is about � 1,300�C at the exit. The high�temperature elbow is used to . ~ bend combustion gas current in a right angle for its connection to the low temperature duct. The elbow is constructed with suf~cient thickness of fireproof materials fitted inside in order to maintain higher wall temperature to prevent attach- ment or accumulation of seeds in combustion gas. The low-temperature duct consists of a temperature adjustment duct at the upper current part and a denitration 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY W . ~ ~ 8M M 42M ~ Il. M 8M , ~ I ~ i I . - m Pow~r pm~ration ; load unit eh~mb~r ' ~ 1/l. M~pn~t 26.5~ t28~+ p 8urn~r ; Hiph�t~mp~rstun t .i duct Buildi~p N OIffYNr'- - ; Low�t~mpn~cun = tluet~ .Y Y ~ ~ 39537M ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Air El~etricity I ch~mbn eh~mb~r Z E/P ~ ~ ~ ~0 ~ p ~ C~alyt~r NM3 Ou door Knoun� $ a ~ d~nitr~tion St~bill:~r oO~Y tnn~form~r Nrvic~ tank � = M }aCiliLy . ~ - - . C~nt~rroW- - � ~ . c V 9 ' S C 7 O < 7 ~ SNd stor~q~ � o S . r'y ~ f ~I D ~ S` ~O ~ , xr ~ O ~ ~ d ~ v ~ COOlinp 7 . ~ a . D p i � < ; to1NN i 4~ ~ w ~ C \ ~a n ~ ` . � ~ r' < a ~ y ~ ~ Q~ � g~ ~ w~ I) w ~ 1 w I M ; �~g N I ` O Q ~ t ~ 1.7SM [ ~ a 9 ~ ;I _ N o � ~a OD _ c e � c� c ; D ~ -3 ~-3 ~ c Ea~s roW y i a I~ ' $ M 4 M - M (23M 3 Fig. 4. Layout of Takasago Test Center duct at the tower current part. The temperature�adjustment duct is used to adjust combustion gas temperature using a water spray, in order to uotain maximum denitration efficiency in the denitration duct. The total length is about 7.Sm and the combustion gas temperature ranges from 1,300 to 1,050�C. � The temperature-adjustment duct is constructed of a welded 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ water�cooled tube wall and passes circulatinR water from the steam generator to collect heat. The denitration duci is sirrular to the temperatureadjustment duct structurally,~ but it injects ammonia gas instead of a water spray and performs ' non-catalyzer denitration at high temperatures to decrease ~ NOx concentrations. ~ ~ The electrostatic dust precipitator is used to collect sulfuric acid kalium powder that is generdted by the reaction of seeds with sulfur in the combustion gas. The precipitator cieazs the concentration of dust and SOx that aze for exhaust gas control. NOx concentration is further decreased to below 200 ppm by the low temperature catalyter denitration unit. According to the Electrotechnical Laboratory the experi- mental study of the Mark VII gneerator is scheduled as follows: (1) Adjustment of all system devices (April and May) The overall adjustment will be made to the Mark VII generator. .(2) l~st experiment of power generation (June) ~ 20�hour experimental generation will be made after adjusting trial operation (combustion test) to accumulate various expo;i- mental data. (3) 2nd experimental power generation (September). Experiment for power generation will be made aiming at 100kW/200 hours to accumulate data on durability of the generation channel. (4) 3nd experirnental power generation (November) Based on the results of the previous experiment, parts of � electrodes and insulated materials will be replaced for 100�hour experimental generation. COPYRIGHT: 1981 Fiji Marketinq Research Co., ~,td. CSO: 4120/171 5~+ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECFINOLOGY ~ _ HIGH-PERFORMANCE LOGIC VLSI Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in English Vol 14, No 11, Nov 81 pp 54-55 [Text] Nippon Telegcaph & Telephone Public .Corporation (NTT) has ncently developed successfully, the highest level "Logtc ~ VtSI" in the world, which has about Z0,000 gates on a chip . of 1~cin=, and which can calculate with 32 bits. Thus, a new VISI procxssor using this L,ogic VISI will possibly be intro� . duced in 1983, and ii can be said that the success of this VISI - . ~ has made one step forward to realize plans for the Information Network System (INS), one of NTT"s new goals. In developing a Logic VLSI, the problems to be overcome are higher integration~ multitern~inals, low power consumption, . � and shortening of the desiga period. Success has been due to adopting a CMOS technique with a minimum 2~cm linewidth, superfine processing techniques, and automatic design tech- nique. As a result, the improved points are ~ in minimum linewidth, and about 1�~ time in integration, compared with ~ data previously published. The electronlc exchange board (DE7~ and the information processing system (DIPS), which have been developed and - " introduced by NTT, use processors in their central units, and ' development of the L'ogic VLSI, which constitutes the heart of the processor~ will possibly be appHed to the VLSI processor~ and thus will contdbute to developing processors, smaller in size and at low cost. ~ Because NTf's new goal INS - requires a higher network performance, merging electrical communications and informa- tion processing, a large number of performance processors will . be necessary, and thus, this VLSI will contribute significandy to development of INS, which is now undergoing planning using ~ a model system in the Mussshino�Mitaka area of Tokyo. The main features of the now Logic VISI and the VLSI ~ processor are as follows: ~ 1. ftitain Feahues of Logic VLSI (1) By using CMOS techniques with a minimum 2~m line- width, it can calculate with 32 bits, have high integration with a maximum of 20,000, and have low power consumption of 0.75 W. It also has 200 terminals. _ 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' ~~neuon e? D!X axw~e~ Runatlon el DI~! oroe~wer fYneew~ M~ae1~r~M RYnetlen Of 'YnetlM o1lnfOfm~tlen � pO0MM11~ CW111wnieation OroCMMM Prot~WM . . ~ /IpO~IqM 01 ~I/MI~ : I/OfOC01 O CNCYNt1~M ~Of /CIMG . . ~n sb uMMan+~tlon. ~n0 erMw~ory. ~nA o Oi.~eteenuel ef mW4 aaafam~[b OuNnw ~ ~ eannwnlwtlen ~ Id~ntkM ^w~MM o Infornrtbn npbvN CMnMN CMnTUnk~tlOn. ~hMMtlv~ I~C~~Ot . ~ 4 4 TMhnquN 01 wnRlNtln~ . ~T~d~nlquMOf eoeqtlWtin~ OtX peawp~ . OI?i p~oewre~ ~ ITM~nlqw of eem4wNey (T~el~~lau~ Of eon~tltutlry . ~UfAWMM ~IM~ qfMl~f~) hMAMIM~ ~114 p~IW~f~) ~rk t~MnWuM ef V~fl (T~aheqw Of CMOi. t~el~nWw Of ~ woM~n~ O~eaNM~. rellnWu~ of wtarotlC AwNnl Fig. 1. Reiation bstween Basic Technique of VLSI and . Function Sharing of VLSI Prxessor ~ . (2) By selecting combinations of common basic circ.uits (logic ~ cell), many typa of Loglc VLSI's for DEX and DIPS can be made efficient and economic. ~ 2. Main Features of VLSI Proasaor ~ (1) VLSI's processors for DEX can be ~used economically in . a wide range of applications~ smaller telephone exchanges . handling a few thousand subscribers only, to' those handling ~ fifty thousand or more subscribers, by combining a number of processors in needs with an exchange's size. ~ (2) The VISI procxssor for D~S is a minimum scale type in the DIPS' series, having the ~unctions of current DIPS, such as multiprocessor, high�level communications control, various processing and connecting functions with peripheral apparatus, , - and fucther, new functions, such as switching of power supply~ handling operations, and diagnostic testing from a remote ~ station. (3) The software programs for both procesaors are the same as prevlously. ~ 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ 881 dwie~. � D10 Oroc~aor i~ ~xPrw~O 100. ~ eon�m~mory; 100 . (700! ' ~ 1 ~ Fliph d~n~ity intpntion ~ 4K�bit LSI m~mory c ~ 0 t a 26 . E a ~ ~O 111) Miph�~pNd proe~uor ~s 4K�i 18K~b1t Lsl n+~mory ~ 10 ' VLSI proeN~or . ~ 64K�blt I.SI (al m~m0?Y 14! , Nam~ of D10 Low ewt F~tt ~p~~d VLSI ' p~O�~~ D10 D10 ~ YMr wh~n it wu ~970 1976 1977 19e~ mad~ pneHeal DEX p?oc~aor SSI d~vic~. . OIPS-1 proe~por If ~xPrpwd M 100 ' corFm~mory t00 . f1001 � , . - ' . Nlph d~ndty intpntion � a ~K�bls LSI m~morY ' . , ' : . . ~ e E 0 : ~ 26 . ~ � � 0 20 > 120) t5 MSI dwie~ , 64K�bit LSI m~mory 10 VLSI procwor ~ 64K bit ~SI � m~mory (4) ~ N~m~ of DIPS-1 OIPS-11 OIPg-11 V~SI proe~aor ModN 10 ModN 6 Y~~r wh~n it was 1970 1976 1979 (1983) mad~ pnetic~l , Olr$ Procn~or Fig. 2. Volume/Performance Ratio of DEX DIPS Prxessors ~(Yearly Chan~as of Smell Size and Cost Reduction) - COPYRIGHTs 1981 Fiji Marketinq Research Co., Ltd. CSO: 4120/171 57 ~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02109: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MATERIALS: RESEARCH OF BIONIC SYNTI~SIS (1) Tokyo TECFINOCRAT in Enqlish Vol 14, No 10, Oct 81 pp 37-42 [Text] At present, biotechnology is highlighted as one of the tech- . ~ nolo~es for th~e next generation. The Agency of Industrial . Seience and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry (M[TI), has proposed from FY 1981 a new item called . . 'Research and Development of Basic Technology for Industry . in the Next Generation," and as one subject, has taken up biotechnology (budget for FY 1981: ~f675-million), naming the following three as prime development tasks: . 1 Bioreactor for industrial use . 2 Te~hnology of cultivating large amounts of cells ~ 3 Technology fnr utilizing rearranged DNA ~ . However, since the 1974s, the agency has been engaged in - research and development related to biotechnology as "Re- search of Bionic Synthesis". Here we introduce "Research of J Bionic Synthesis" for FY I981, as compilec~ by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technoiogy. . f . Research of Bionic Synttiesis" . Research of bionics, including application of the function . of organisrns ~to engineering and the creation of materials haw ing organic functions, has basic concepts effective for solving ~ various problems, such as information handiing; labor-saving, . etc. which are fields that are expected to make, rapid progress from now. To this end, while securing close research coopera- tion from research organs outside thjs agency, we will posi- , tively proceed the researches. . 1. Research with Reference to Technology for Phys- . ical Measuring i~n Organisms (1978-1982) Mechanical Eagineerin~ Laboratory (Special ~ Study) ~ 58 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONY.Y ~ ~ Targets: ~ A noninvading and, ef.fi_cient method for measuring various ~ physical characteristics of systems of organisms and body fluids to be developed and related data processing system to be es- . tablished. Further, as application to engineering and medical science, there is need for establishment of automatic diagnosing _ technology, sensors for robots, rehabilitation technology, and ~ technology for measuring the speed of a blood Dow. . Contents: - (1) Reseazch of electric and dynamic characteristics of soft tissues � Data of the electric and dynamlc characteristics of organs in a physiolo$ical state have been collected, at the same time, an apparatus enabling measurement of electric characteristlcs in the microwave aone of an organism, has been developed. (a) Elucidation of dynamic characteristics: The oscillation charactedstics and hardness of organs in a physiological state were measured and position�wise and case-wise data collected. (b) Development of an apparatus for evaluating electric and dynamic characteristics: An apparatus and a probe for measuring the dielectric characteristics of an organism in the ~ mictowave zone were developed. ~ . ~ (c) Elucidation of electric characteristics: Measuring the ~ ~ dielectric ~haracteristics of organs of organisms and classifica- tion per case were carrled out. Image analysis of NMR (nu- clear magnetic resonance) of the organs was carried out. (d) Examination of safety: The invading states in a rat, uf ~ various organic materials, were examined and organism adapt- . ability was evaluated. (2) Research of optical measuring teclu~ology of a blood flow Measuring of 2- 3 animals was carried out using a Laser . ~ . ~ Doppler method, basic experiments investigating the correla- tion between blood tlow rate (physical amount) and the state of organisms were carried out and consideration� was also made with reference to the measuring limits and problems of the . apparatus used. (a) . Measuring of blood flow under transparent tissue of an . animal: Analysis of correlation between the organism coritrol funcrion and variation of blood flow rate. (b) Measuring of subcutaneous blood flow: An apparatus . for measuring subcutaneous blood flow of an animal was made on an experirnental basis. And experimental consideration of ~ ~ the precision and measuring limits of the appatatus was made. (c) Application of technology for measuring blood flow: Development of necessary, attachments at each measuring posi- tion was carried out. (3y Research of three~dimen~onal measuring technology of . the structure of an organism A practical apparatus for measuring the shapes of limbs was developed, and at the same time, junction of the measured ~ ~ results of the shapes with NC processing technology was ~ continued. ~ ~ 59 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (a), (b) Manufacture of an apparatus for measuring the shapes of the limbs: A practical�type apparatus for measucing the shapes of limbs utilizing a position sensor and a laser spot was conswcted based on an improved Moire�type method. . . (c) Software: Based on data obtained by the aforesaid appara- ~ tus, software describing a curved surface was developed, and at the same time, a system for connecting this to NC processing was developed. (d) Technology for fabricating an artificial limb socket: ~ Based on actual measured results of the shapes of limbs, an ex- periment for npmducing such shapes was carried out. ~ (e) Evaluation of the adaptability of an artificial limb socket: Data conceming distribution of intemal pressure of an arti- ficial limb socket were collected, and at the same time, evalua- tion of the adaptab~ity of the socket was examined. Technology for fabricating an artificial joint: The pos- sibility of ~indicating a bone-like shape by a contour line image ~ ~ was examined. � � Progress: . (1) Research of electric and dynamic charactecistics of soft tissue ' FY 1977: In `"The material strength characteristics of an organism system (Tokken), the electric and dynamic charac- teristics of hard tissue and a part of soft tissue were eluadated. FY 1978: The dependence on the frequency of sonic speed . of ultrasonic waves and absorption damping rate in soft tissue ' were examined, position-wise and casawise class'~fication was ~ . made, at the same time, a probe for measuring tHe viscoelastici- . ty of an organism which was clinically usable, was fabricated on an experimental basis. FY 1979: Measuring of the dielectric spectrum of soft tissuo and an apparatus for handling information of an organism were developed. FY 1980: Eluadation of electric and dynamic characteristics of specimens of organs and development of an apparatus for measuring kinetic physical - properties; capable of ineasuring an org~nism were canied out. (2) Research of technology for optically measuring a blood flow ~ ~ FY 1977: In "Optical information handling in a compound . eye" (Tokken), transfer of superfine gcanules in an organism was measured using a Laser poppler method and basic data for . applying the method were obtained. F'Y 1978: A Laser pop- . � pler apparatus for measuring blood tlow was fabricated on an experimental baais, and the measuring method, measuring precision and optimum wavelength wero examined. FY 1979: , Measuring of the flow rate of the blood flow at fixed positions - . (tail and fin of a fish) was carried out, a Doppler signal handl- ing apparatus was constructed on an experimental basis and a ~ simple preliminary experiment for measuring weak light by the ~ . Foton Counting method was carried out. FY 1980: Measuring of distribution of flow rate at each position of organisms (tail and fin of a fish and mesentery of a 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ! ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - rat was carried out and the response to stimulus of variatian of flow rate was examined. And a weak iight data processing apparatus was fabricated on an experimental basis. As the optimum position to be measured, a blood vessel under tcans- pazent tissue was selected. . (3) . Reseazch of technology for three-dimensionally measur- ing the structure of an ocganism. FY 1979: Exanrination was made concerning measuring a cucved surface shape, and at the same time, a curved surface measuring system based on Moir6's method was developed. ' FY 1980: Improvement to the curved surface measuring system based on Moire's method was made, and at thr same . time, designing of a practical curved surface measuring system was completed. ~ 2. Research Concerning an Enzyme Reactor ~ (1979-1983) National Chemical Laboratory for Industry . (Special Study) ~ Target: In recent years, in along with the rapid development of . , biochemistry, development of research concerning reactions of biochemical methods ~o chemical synthesis and related technologies, has been strongly requested by industrial circles. ~ To meet this request, development of technology for applying a biochemical method to synthetic chemical industries was made a target. � Contents: ' By a reactor using a hollow system or a molecular sieve ~ membrane, the relation between a substrate (especially long- chain fatty acid) and transfer of a substance .was examined; and further, examination of a composite enzyme system react- or was started. As such an enryme system, the composite enzyme system of the previous fiscal year was used, using mixed fatty acia, such as fish oil, containing highly unsaturated fatty acid as a material, prostaglandin was synthesized. ~ Progress: ~ ~ Improvement of an enzyme reactor and construction of a ' hollow reactor on an experimental basis :vere carried out, data for development of a composite enryme reactor for synthesis ~ were obtained, and. at the same time, the actions of various enrymes to unsaturated fatty acids for ~ synthesis of prostag- landin and the influence of additives were clarified. . 3. Research Concerning P:oduction of an Active 6~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544444429-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . Substance of an Organism Utilizing the Function of the Organism (1980-1983) Fermentation Research lnstitute (Special Study) . Target: - - Utilizing the unique function of a creature, a novel active sub:tance of an organism was sought, whose biochemical production technology was developed to attain energy saving and high advancement of technology for preparing fine chemi� cals, and at the same time, contributing to human welfare was aimed at. As specific targets: ~ (1) Elucidation of an enzyme function control substana ~ (phosphodiesterae-obstructing substance) and development of . its field applications. (2) Searah for a microorganism producing a hormone action- related substance by the use of animal cultured cells and devel- ~ opment of praduction technology by a microorganisrn. �(3) Development of D-peptide decomposition enzyme and . ~ynthetic enzyme, and development of synthetic technology for D-amino acidcontaining pepdde by an enryme reaction. Cantents: (1) Development af an enryme function control substance The structure of phosphodiesterase-obstructing substance produced by a newly found microorganism was analyud by a ' method such, as analysis using a machine or tool. (2) Search for a microorganism producing hormone action- related substances ~ Examination was made about production conditions and sep- _ aration and refinement of a blood pressure�reducing substance ~ ~ obtained in the previous fiscal year. ~ (3) Developmtnt of technology for production and separa- tion of enzyme decomposing D-peptide (a) Examination was made about production conditions for . . enryme decomposing D-peptide by a microorganism obtained by sepazation and selection from nature. (b) The influence of temperature, ion strength and kind of enryme (mainly molecu� ~ lar weight) exerted over aqueous two-phase distribution was analyzed. Progress: . (1) During the previous fiscal yar, a microorganism produc- ~ . ing a substance obstructing phosphodiesterase was discovered ~ and it was possible to exami�,~ ~~,asure condirions and therefore, ~ completely refine this obatructing substance. . . In an ordinuy research, culture conditions for the system ~ of animal kidney cells were examined and by these cells, a method of examining a hormone, such as vasopressin was es- tablished. From FY 1980, ss a special study, a hormone ex- ~ amining method by radioimino auay method was examined and separation and search for a bacillus producing a blood pressure control substana was carried out. ' 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (3) In FY 1980, scarch for a bacillus dc~composing peptide containing D�amino acid was carriad out and it was possible . to separate two kinds of bacilli. With reference to an aqueous twaphase distribution method, examination was made about ~ ~ the influence of the lcind of polymer and pH exerted over the distribution coefficient. 4. Research Concerning Engineering Synthetic Utiliza- . tion of Enzyme Functions (1980--1984) Fermentation Research L~stitute ~ (SPecial StudY) ~ Target: Enzyme reacdons aze to be systematiud engineeringly to . ~ develop highdegree utilitation technology to piovide applica- ~ , ~ tions to the.chemical engineering and medical industries. More specifically, development of the following technologies is being aime~l at: (1) Preparation of an ion selective membrane having a novel function ~ (2) Development of general enzyme fixing technology by the above ion selective membrane and its novel application ~ Contents: ' (1) Examination of a process for preparing a membrane substance having an ion exchange function was carried out. . ~ (2) Examination was made of general tixing conditions for ~ enryme urease by the above membrane substance. Progress: In FY 1980, by using p-chloromethyl polystyrene as a ~ starting material and working thereon ethylene diamine and trimethyl amine, it ~ was possible to prepare a polysryrene� ~ derivative containing quatemary amine. Next, using the same . derivative, it was possible to make urease into the state of � microcapsules by a drying method in a liquid. 5. Researcl~ Concernin~ Development and Processing Technology of an Active High Polymer of an Organ- ~ ism . . (1978-1982) Research Institute for Polymers and Textiles . (Special Study) ~ Target: In order to develop an engineering process utilizing the function of an organism effectively in the energy-saving field, a continuous chemical process at room temperature, by fixing of an active high polymer of an organism is to be designed. . 63 : FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044429-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Cotents: (1) Research of development of an active Iugh polymer of an orginism As a model of a fur.ctional high polymer, a composite unit , of nickel torate and poly~:nyl alcohol. or polyvinyl pynolidone was selected and in order to raise catalytic acti rities, optimvm production conditions in a colloidai state having a large surface ~ area were sought, and at the same time, stabiiization was at- tempced. FLrther, with re~erence to a liquid membrane iuing a copolymer containing vinyl adenines, its funciion as a reaction place was elucidated. And, the influence by a liquid crystal sx- erted over the asymmetric synthesis reaction to be carried nut in a cholesteric liquid crystal solvent, was ~xamined with the possibility of realizing the structure of an organism-like function ~ being sought. (2) Researc:~ of processing technology by fixation An a~paratus having a filter paper-type f xed carrier wi>.h a large surface area, was used and a continuous en:.yme reaction experiment at a high-flow rate was carried out.Further, a com- _ posite appazatus capable of carrying out a nonaqueous enzyme reaction was constructed on an experimental basis, and using the already made fixed carrier, a basic experiment f4r process- ing was carried out. Progress: _ (1) Research for development of an active high polymer of an organism Various metal complex-type polypeptides. were synthesized ~ to evaluat~e the active function of an organism and the oxygen transporting function of a cobalt-histidine complex was ascer- cained. The catalytic effects of a hydrophobic liquid membrane were recognized. (One patent apFlication was filed on the basis.) The dependence on the temperature of a Ziquid crystal of the chotesteric series and a cholesterol liquid crystal was clarified ~ to ascertain change as places for the reaction. Research for processing technology by fixarion It was ascertained that the adsorption activity o` enzyme ~ ~ by aminoacetalized, sulfonated and ion complexed poly- vinyl alcohol was high (three patent applications were filed on the basis) and the properties of a fixed membrane by optical ~ . cross-linking was analyzed. It was asoertained that an ad- . sorption-type carrier adsorbed a large amount of enzyme by the surface treatment with fine Cbcr, establishment of a simul- ~ taneous enzyme reaction and filtration syst�~m incorporated with a filter paper-type carrier, using the same, was carried out (one patent application was filed on the basis). . 6. Research~ Concerning a Material of a High Polymer Having a Pharmacological Action ~ ~ 6~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (1980-1984) Research Institute for Polymers and Textiles (Special Study) Target: The contribution of inedicines to me~ical welfare and securing of resources is very great. 'Ihis research is charac- terized by utilizing properties inherent in a high polymer possessed by an organism and a synthesized high polymer, and . development of materials of a hsgh polymer having a phatmaco- ~ . logica! action . from the two aspects of the synthesis of a mole� � cule having a pharmacological activity, and synthesis of a high polymer helping a pharmacological activity was carried out. . Contents: . (1) Research of a high polymer for slowly releasing medicines (a) Research of a high polymer chemically connecting a medi- cine: The hormone ~activity of a water-soluble high polymer bonding somatostatin was measured and the relation between ~ ~ the bonding method and the activity was examined. (b) Research of a high polymer physically retaining a medi- cine. The medicine stabIIizing action and it slow release of cyclodextrin becoming a cross�linked high polymer were ex- amined. Further, the cross�linking conditions were examined. . Research of a high polymer having a pharmacolo~cal action (a) Research on the synthesis of peptide having a pharmacol- ogical activity: As polypeptide, high in activity, a somatostation ~J � derivative was synthesized and its activity was measured. The _ evaluation of recognition of an indispensahfe metal ion in an organism of biscyclupeptide containing a synthesized non- protein amino acid and a basic amino acid, was carried out. (b) Research ~of synthesis of a high polymer having a phacma- - colo~cal activity: The cancer inhibiting action of a maleic , anhydride - viny] ester copolymer bonding 5�fluorouracil and nitrogen mustard, was examined. ~ (3) Research of a high polymer having a. pharmacological action and a capacity of recognizing the affected part . ~ The mark recognizing capacity (for examF~e, gathering to ~ the affected liver) possessed by latex, was examined. ~ Progress: ' (l) Research of a high polymer for slowly reteasing a medi- ~ cine _ (a) Research of a high polymer chemically bonding a medi- cine. Somatostatin was bonded ionically to a water�soluble high polymer and the strength of bonding was measured. (b) Research of a high pclymer physically retaining a medi- cine: The medicine ,.~~bilizing capacity of cyclodextrin was measured. (2) Research uf a high polymer having a pharmacological action ~ 65 . _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY (a ) Rese~rch of polypeptide havit~g pharmacolo~ical activity: ~ Somacusc~tin }iaving a hormone action was synthesized by a , solid�phase method and biscyclopeptide having an ionofore (phonetic) action was synthesized by a liquid-phase method. ~(b) Research on the synthesis of a synthetic high polymer having a pharmacolo~cal activity: It was studied to bond a msleic anhydride - divinyl ester copolymer to S�fluoroura- cil, a cancer-inhibiting drug. 7. Research of an Adsorption-Type Artificial Kidney Material and Its System ~ _ (1981-1984) Research Institute for Polymers and Textiles ~ (Special Study) Target: In order to contribute to medical welfare and the infor- mation industry's technology, for the purpose of developing . a material for adsorption-type artiticial intemal organs and a blood component sensor, a material having a particular func- _ tion of adsorbing or responding to organism components and its system was studied. Contents: (1) Research on an adsorbing macerial of organism com- _ ponents and its system - A composite high polymer material combining polyhydroxy ethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) with various materials such as an inorganic adsorbent was prepared and the selective adsorbing capacity to specified electrolytes such as inorganic phosph- ' orus was examined to seek the compatibility with an organism of these composite materials. (2) Research of a blood component sensor . In order to control reaction between leucine amino peptide and a substrate, an experiment centering around pH control ~ was carried out. � Progress: In the special research conducted until FY 1980, a human body function substituting system was studied and the follow- ing results were obtained: (I) A plasma separator was developed to obtain the possibili- ty of realizing an adsorption-type artificial kidney, and at the ~ same time, direction of development concerning novei absorb- ~ ing materials was found. (2) Research of an artificial internal organ circuit was car- ried out and knowledge of a material having thrombus re- sistance was obtained. (3) In a research of an adsorption system initiated from FY 1978, an adsorbent to a poisonous substance, such as am- monia, was developed. A research entitled "Research concern- ing separating teclinology of organism components" at the ~ . 66 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY expense of the Special Research Promotion Adjustment Fund of the Science and Technolegy Agency, was carried out in FY 1979 and 1980. In "Special research concerning energy of a:: - organism" conducted until FY 1980, new knowledge was ob- tained about the electric potential of an organism membrane. Also, an oxygen electrode aimed at urea and GPT was fabri- cated and made into~a sensor. 8. Research Concerning an Informarion Han~ling ~ System of an Organism ~ (1980-1990) (Electrotechnical Laboratory (Special Stud~{) Target: This research will solidify the basis of development of the information handung technology and measuring technology of a high degree, in the ncxt generation, by elucidating the ~ mechanism of an excellent information handling function possessed by an organisn. 'Contents: ' ~ (1) . Research of acceptance and conversion technology of information obtained by visual sense ~ For the purpose of separating the visual stimulus process ~ from the outer knot to the inner knot of the visual cell, the � feed�back process from the secondary neuron to the visual , cell, the electric potential of a single cell of the rod visual ctll . ~ and the pyramid visual cell, were measured, and the response of this visual cell to an optical stimulus was examined. Also, a computer simulation of the electric potential generating mem- brane of the visual cell, was canied out and the photoelectric . conversion function was considered. ~ ~ (2) Research on stimulating. membranes of an organism Of proteins constituting the stimul~tir.; membranes of an organism, cellulaz bone proteins, such as a very small tubular microPilament are considered to control the function of gen� eration and dissemination of stimulus were noticed and the physiological functions of these proteins were elucidated . in detail. (3) Research on formation of an ozganic imitation place and revelation of the function The change of structure of inembranes, such as ribosom, taken place when a peculiar interaction is carried out between ~ molecules in the medium and an organism by simple ribosom and a lipid membrane abnormally accumulated, was closely examined. ~ ~(4) Research on ~the function of a composite neuron group _ ~ system . ~ For the purpose of clarifying a highly reliable transmission mechanism due to the parallel and cooperative information handling of a composite neuron group: (a) The effective computer utilizing method to the ~analysis of system data of an organism when it has a large ca~acity, ~ . 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . was established. (b) The algorithm extracting interdependence in terms of space and time of the system at the time of apply- ing an impulse to the activity of the neuron group, was de- veloped. (5) Research in terms of information system of the function of an organism (a) The perceptual interaction of a motion diagram and a still diagram was examined using an optical illusion diagram. (b) The function of information handling of neuron cells in the visual nerve system, was examined from the viewpoint of space frequency analysis and the evoking eyeball motion. - (6) Research on the responsive chazacteristics of color sense structure _ For the purpose of elucidating responsive characteristics of color sense structure necessary for establishing the predict- ing form of a visible color of a colored matter under optional illumination conditions, the following researches were carried out. (a) The stimulus presenting portion of an apparatus for ex- perimenting with a reactive color response was developed. (b) The responsive chazacteristics to the strength of a stimulat- ing light of outer knee�shaped cells .of an organism, was ex- tracted. . Progress: ~ This research attempted to elucidate the function of an or- an organically connected information handling system from FY 1981, on the basis of achievement of the "Research concerning the information handling function of an organism" completed in FY 1980. � _ (1) Reseazch on acceptance and conversion functions of - information perceived by the visual sense In the "Reseazch on responsive functions of the visual system," color signal transmission characteristics of horizontal cells and the background optical effect to the ac� cepting field of bipolaz cells were made clear, and at the same ~ tiz;~e, antagonism (reciprocity) of a color signal and spaca . information in the accepting field of the visual sense of botl~. the cells, were considered and a feed-back signal to the.visual cells � fr~m these cells, was conflrmed. (2) Research on the function of a stimulating membrame of , an organism In the "Reseazch of information handling function of an organism," for the first time in the world, breeding of squids in a water vessei was carried out successfully, making possible a constant supply samples of good quality, and at the ~same time, it was elucidated that the phenomenon of nerve stimuius was of the same type as the phenomenon of laser oscillation. Further, restructure of the nerve was realiZed. (3) Research on formation of a synthetized organism imita- - tion position ar.d reveladon of the function In the "Research on the physical properties of organism� i related substances," a model liquid crystal of an organism was ~ ~ I ~ . , 68 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500040029-1 ~ FOR OFF7ClAL US~ ONLY developed and structural change of the liquid ~ crystal along with ion and intermolecular interaction, was made clear. A lipid unimolecular membrane was formed and the relation- ~ ship of the surface electric potential with the structure of the ~ membrane was examined. (4) Research on the function of a composite neuron group ~ system ' In the "Reseazch on the modeling of the function of a nerve group," a multicompact electrode apparatus was deve- ~ loped, making it poss~'ble to ncord simultaneously, the act- ing electric potential of the neuron group, three-dimension- ally distributed and existing locally in the local and micro- ~ wave zones. In FY 1978-1980, a leaming nerve model capable of systematically describing characteristics concerning acquisi- tion of learning, had beea proposed and analyud. (5) Reseazch on funetion of an organism ui terms of� an information system In the "Reseazch on a system of information handling function of an organism;' chronic experimental technology of a cat was established. The edge emphasizing action of a dia- ~ gram was proved by the neuron cells of a cat. Using Pocken- ~ ~ dorf's diagram, perceptual interaction of a still diagram and a ~ motion diagram, was made clear. (6) Research on the responsive characteristics of the color . ~ sense system. From the visual evoking brain wave, a response in the op- posite color was extracted for the first time in the world. A nerve joining model concerning color adaptability was devised, and further, a nonlinear color-adaptable model was developed. This model made it possible to systematically predict various ~ color preceiving phenomena hitherto regarded as independent. COPYRiGHT: 1981 Fuji Marketing Research Co., Ltd. ~ CSO: 4120/171 , � ~ 69 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500444429-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECFINOLOGY MATERIA;S: RESEARCH OF BIONIC5 SYNTHESIS (2) � Tokyo TECHNOCRAT in Enqlish Vol 14, No 11, Nov 81 pp 40-45 [Text] g, Research on Adaptability of a Synthetized Poly- amino Acid Composite Membrane to a Material of the 0utermost.Cutis Gayer (1978-1983) (Industrial Products Research Institute) (Special Study) . Target: ~ For securing cutis for grafting, much time and labor is required and considerable human and material inv~estment is also required, in addition, it is said that' there is a problem = in storage of such cutis ovex long periods. Therefore, for covering damaged azeas of the cutis outermost layer and pro- ~ tecting the areas until the epithelium reclaims thereon, devel- opment of a wound~overing material of a composite mem- ~ brane, composed of synthetic polyamino acid was made the target. Content: . (a) An experiment for examination concerning the adapt- . ability as a material for the cuds outermost, of a composite . polyamino acid~vinyl polymer membrane carried out in. the ~ previous fiscal year, was continued. Namely, a composite ~ membrane of a Teflon vinyl polymer, etc. was synthesized, ~ having physical properties such as permeabIIity of saccharide, electrolyte, oxygen and aqueous vapor, as well as strength and elongation, and was measured. (b) As a polyamino acid membrane, a carbobenzoxylidine- . benzyl glutamate copolymer membrane and its composite ~ ~ membrane were synthesized, the relationship between the ~ copolymer composition and making it hydrophilic is made - ~ clear, and measurement of the same as in (a) was canied out to examine aptitude as a substitute for the cutis. . Progress: . ' During the period from FY1973 to FY1977, "Research concerning the synthesis of a high polymer~ membrane having a physiological action and a permeating membrane" was carried out. Making an amino acid polymer which was the 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY closest to protein, cunstituting an organism was made the ub~ect, whose membrane�forming property and permeability were explained. In the first year of this research, FY1978, as a chemically treatable polyamino acid membrane, membranes . of polymethionine membrane, polybenzyl glutamate mem� _ brane and a leucine-benzyl glutamate copolymer were taken . up, and making only one surface thereof, hydrophilic properties were studied. Structural analysis was also carried out. In FY1979, with reference to membranes obtained by making one surface and two surfaces thereof, ~hydrophilic, their ~ strength, elongation, permeability of oxygen and aqueous vapor as well as solute, were measured to examine their functions as substitutes for the cutis. In FY1980, for the ~ ~ preparation of a composite membrane of a vinyl polymer and polyamino acid, a plasma treatment was carried out to � improve bondability. 10. Research on Fluorine-Containing Functional Materials of An Organism , (1~974-1981) (Government Wdustrial Research Inatitute~ ~ Nagoya) (Specisl Study) ~ Target: , A fluorine chemical manufacture using, fluori:ie chemistry, ~ has already been studied and developed extensively, as a life science�related industry, ~ especially, conceming research and ~ development of materials for functions organisms based on fluorine~containing organic compounds, to which attention has. been paid. For example, development of fluorocarbons as ~ . . arti~cial blood (oxygen transporting liquid) and research on ' ~ the synthesis of fluo~ine-containing amino acid derivatives, . anticipated to have physiological activity, at present attract ~ attention. ' . This laboratory has heretofore been engaged in reseacch , of fluorine chemistry, whose achievements have been highly evaluated in and out of Japan, making such achievements as the basis, research is being driven forward, such as the synthesis . of materials far artificial blood and physiologically active ~ compounds, playing a guiding role for the further developmerit of Japan's fluorine chemistry and industry as well as life science. . Content: ~ ~ (1) Synthesis of fluorocarbons ~ Perfluoroalkyl substituted adamantanes were synthesized by electrolytic fluorination of adamantanes having halogenated alkyls or fluorination by high�degree . metal fluoride. The characteristics of the perfluorocarbons obtained were com- ~ pared with those of previously synthesized materials and their evaluation as artificial blood was carried out. . (2) Synthesis of tluorinecontaining surface active agents Surface active agents of the perflu~roalkyl group series containing phosphorus and nitrogen were synthesized and the various properties of fluorocarbon emulsions (emulfcation 71 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY rate, distribution of particle size, tucbidity, etc.) of these , surface active agents were measured. Further, the performance of materials for artificial blood as emulsifiers was sought, and at the same time, these agents were conpared with nonionic ' � fluorine-containing surface active agents in respect of emulsify ing properties and the cesults were studied. (3) Synthesis of fluorine-containing amino acids By introducing the perfluoroalkyl group to the imidazol ring of histidines, synthesis of fluorine-containing amino acids, each having a physiological action, was carried out. Also, the synthesis of fluorine~containing derivatives of histidines and urocanins that, are rnetabolic intermediates in an organism was attempted. Progress: Based on the technology and results accumulated by the research of fluorine chemistry at the laboratory, research concerning materials for the function of a fluorine~containing organism was carried out. Namely, in the research on the synthesis of fluorocarbo:?s as materials for artificial blood (oxygen transporting liquid), in FY1974, perfluorocyclo�alkanes were rynthesized by an electrolytic ~luorination method, in FY1975, tritluoromethyl substituted perfluoro-cyclohexanes ~ were synthesized, in FY1977, a chain-like perfluoroether was synthesized, in FY1978, long chain perfluorocarbon ethers were synthesized, FY1979, perfluoroadamantane was synthe- sized and FY1980, per fluoroallcyl adamantane was synthesized. . In research on the synthesis of fluorine-containing surface active agents, in FY1974, an addiYion the reaction of fluro- alcohol, fluorocarboxylic acid and ethylene oxide was also carried out, in FY1975, addition reactions of perfluorocarboxy ~ lic acid, amid perfluorocarboxylate and ethylene oxide were carried out, in FY1976, addition reactions of fluorine-contain- ing alcohols ~having various structures, a fluorine-containing - carboxylic acid derivative and ethylene oxide were carried out, in FY1977; addition reactions of a fluorinated ester and amines were carried out, in FY1978, a fluorine~containing surface active agent was prepared by a 1:1 addition reaction of long~hain fluoroalkyl and ethylene oxide was carried out, in FY1979, a multimotar adduct was synthesized by a similar reaction, and in FY1980, fluorocarbon emulsions were pre� ~ pared by these nonionic fluorine-containing surface active agents and their behaviors as emulsifiers were elucidated. In . research on the synthesis of fluorine~ontaining amino acids, - in FY1974, fluorine-containing alanins were synthesized, in ~ FY1975, ~luorine~containing phenyl alanins were syn!"~sized and in FY1976; alanins, each having a fluorine-containing furil group were synthesized. In FX1977, a fluorine�containing amino acid precursor was synthesized, in FY1978, amino acid having a i]uoropyridine group, a fluorophenyl goup or ' a fluoroalkyl group was synthesized, in , FY1979, examination of a process for synthesizing fluorine-containing amino .acid via oxazole, and the synthesis of amino acid having a substi- ' tuted polyfluorophenyl group were carried out, and in FY1980, the synthesis of a valine derivative containing a polyfluoroalkyl group and the synthesis of amino acid having a pentafluoro- 72 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . phenylthyroxy group were carried out. In FY1977-1980, an . entrusted research conceming a material for tluorocarbon oxygen transporting liquid was carried out at the Medicine ~ Faculty~ of Osaka University. 11. Research Concerning Blood Compatibility o~ High-pAlymer Material and Application to Artifi- cial Internal Organs (1978-1981) (Government Industrial Reseazch Institute, ~ Osaka) (SPecial Study) ~ Research Concerning the Medicai Evaluation of Thrombus Resistance of a High�Polymer Material, an Antithrombosis ~ Substance and a Line-Soluble Substance Fixing Material (Chemical Resesrch Department of Nadonal Osaks Hospltal) (Entrusted Study) ~ Target: ~ ~ Artificial internal organs are now contributing to life saving of many people, however, there are still many unexplained points to be solved. The first such important point is that a high-polymer material for artificial internal organs should be resistant to thrombosis. This research will examine the problem of blood coagulation by a high�polymer material to establish . the guiding principle for development of an anti��.hrombosis material, and at the same time, improve the throinbus resistance of existing materials and additionally, develop a new dialysis system, such as an artificial kidney, wherein lies the target. - (1) Research on surface characteristics of a material and blood compatibility ' The surface structure of a material, interaction of physical properties and blood components, and the physical properties of a material for making it into heparin, must be made clear to obtain the guid'uig principle for developing antithrombosis material. ~ (2) Synthesis of a material compatible with blood and its . ~ . application to artificial internal organs . {a) . By a surface polymerization method, and a surface modification method, an antithrombosis material will be developed. (b) By research of a polysaccharide composite membrane. a new dialysis system will be developed. Content: . (1) Reseazch on surface characteristics of the material and blood compatibility _ (a) The interaction of a material's surface and blood com- ponents: The surface characteristics of cnaterials different in thrombusis-forming capaclty, and adsorption of piasma protein, are measured using mainly, a spectroscopic method. And adhesion of the thrombocyte and change of the shape are observed by both optical and electron microscopes. The measured results of the two are compared and examined to 73 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY coUect the correlation between adhesion of the thrombocyte, ~ adsorption of protein, and the kind of material. (b) With reference to materials, making a matter into hepazin (covalent bond method, electrovalent bond method) different in throm- bus resistance, bonding densicy and content, the elution be- havior (safety) -of these bonded heparins were examined and the relation with the thrombus resistance was coilected. (2) Synthesis of a material compatible with blood and its application to artificial internal organs (a) Synthesis of a composite antithrombosis material: Applying surface polymerization and surface modification treatment methods, thrombus resistance is improved, and various tubes were made and experiments using animals with these tubes were carried out to evaluate the aptitude as a blood cucuit material. (b) Research on a dialysis system having a new function: Based on the analyzed results of a � ~ery small amount of urine components obtained in the previous year, the practical evaluation of a polysaccharide composite membrane as an artificial dialysis membrane was carried out. Progress: {1) Ressarch on the matedal surface and the blood compati- bility In FY1978, for research of the surface structure of a material, SEM, ATR infrared methods, and a Raman total internal reflection method were employed to examine the ~ surface structure. Especially, concerning the Raman total � internal reflection method, a measuring technique was estab- lished. A Flocel (phonetic) system for a microscope was made ~ on an experimental basis to examine the relation between the flowing conditions of the thrombocyte and plasma, and the adhesion of the thrombocyte. In silicone rubber becoming heparin by a covalent method, increase of the density of heparin bond increased the retaining strength of heparin and good thrombus resistance was shown in an organism. In ~ FY1979, using the Raman total internal reflection method, a double�layer sample was measured, the measurable surface thickness was examined in detail. The basic capability as a ~ surface measuring method was established. With reference to 7 kinds of high-polymer material and 6 kinds of plasma portion, the adsorbed amounts of protein were measured and their relationship with thrombus resistance was examined. With reference to quaternary basic polymers, their cation contents and the underwater dissociation behavior of anion complex of an acid coloring matter and the polymers were made clear. In FY1980, using a Fourier infrared internal reflection spectro- scopic method, the adsorbed amounts of plasma protein and lipid were measured and their relation with the kind of material ' was clarified. With reference to matter grafted to polyethylene, the hydrophilic degree, distribution of graft chains and adhesion ~ of thrombocyte, change of the shape and relationship thereof ~ with thrombus resistance were examined. ~ (2) The synthe~'~ of a material compatible with blood and ~ its applicatic :o artificial internal organs In FY1978~ a high-polymer film was impreg~iated with many compounds, thereafter, a glow discharge treatment was 7~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 _ ~ ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , i ; carried out and the relationship of [he film with the thrombus . ~ resistance was examined. And from a polyethylene graft co- . ! polymer, a high-polymer complex was synthesized. The ~ membrane-making conditions of a chituson membrane were ! axamined~ a membrane excellent in solute permeability was j obtained and the relationship between the membrane structure ; and the permeable characteris ::s was clarified. Siloxane having , a polar substituent was synthesized and various properties ~ thereof were examined. In FY1979, a flow discharge treatment method was ' examined and the relationship between thrombus resistance of a sample and the treated offect was examined. The safety of the synthe::~ed ~high�polymer electrolyte complex was tested to ascertain that it was sufficiently stable. A composite ~ ; membrane of the chitosan fibrous active cazbon series was i prepazed, and permeability and ' adsorbing capacity were I examined. Two kinds of silicon compound, each having a polar group, were selected and a low molecular weight polymer was obtained therefrom. In ~ Y1980, it was shown that 1,2-polybutadiene material ~ � subjected to a glow discharge treatment was improved in . thrombus rasistance and Xhere was no deterioration of the j substrate. The thrombus resistance of a high�polymer elec- trolyte complex was eva~uated in an organism. And it was made clear that graft acrylamide to polyethylene was especially significant In thrombus resistance. The analysis of urine components was canied out and it was cleac that cellulose ~ membrane and chitosan membrane differed considerably in ~ permeability and ~dsorbing properties. i . 12. Research Concerning Development of Biochem- . . ical Pulping Technology . ~ . (1980-1983) (Government Industriel Research Institute, Shikoku) (Special StudY) , Target: As pulping methods, until now there have been, roughly, orily two kinds, namely, a mechanical pulping method and a chemical pulping method. From the viewpoint of effective utilization of unused natural resources, it is necessary to . newly add to these a biochemical pulping method. An object of this research resides in establishing the basis of applied ~ technology . to nonwood fiber out of a biochemical pulping meth~d. The most important material of nonwood fibers, is bast fiber, which is used for making high-class paper. Therefore, this research aims broadly, at searching for. the kind of bacillus producing an enzyme system effective for pulping bast, using such bacillus in overcoming a slow reaction rate which is a shortcoming possessed hy the enzyme, and seacching for a new biochemical pulping system for making pulp ~having paper�making characteristics comparing favorably ~ with chemical pulp~ 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Content: (1) Research on technology for producing a pulping enzyme ~ In order to advance the productivity, of the enzyme of Bacillus sp. GIR-277, separated and identified at this laboratory, using a physicochemical method, various species were produced. A ten-fold productivity of the present productive capacity of enzyme was aimed at. - (2) Research on pulping technology ~ Continuous to the previous fiscal year, optimum pulping ~ condirions were sought centering around the relationship between the amount of enzyme and the degree of pulping. (3) Evaluatio?t of biochemical pulp The physical properties of a pulp sheet and paper-making , ~ characteristics were examined and evaluation was aL~o made concerning the conelation between pulping conditions and ~ physical properties of the resultant pulp sheet. Again, com- parison with pulping by. Erwinia enryme was carried out. ~ Progress: ~ . . Of a group of bacilli having afffnity with alkali, there was what produced a pecdn-decomposed enzyme and as a most powerful productive bacillus, Bacillus sp. GIR-277, was obtained. This bacillus produced lyase pectate by allcali culture. By examining culture conditions from various angles, it was possible to increase the enzyme productive capacity to 5-10 times. And it turned out that a pulp sheet comparing . - favorably with chemical pulp sheet was obtained by either . Letting's (phonetic) method or an enzyme method. - 1. Researcli on Visual Sense Function and Simulation (Study in FY1981) (Mechanical ~ngineerla~ Laboratory) The nerve structure of a composite eye visible system is ~ being examined, and at the same time, application of the image handling to the medical zone will be explained. (1) The nerve structure of the information handling mechan- ism in the composite eye visual sense nerve system will be ~ analyzed. ~ (2) The treating method for automatic detection of focus at the live~ and RI image, w~71 be established. 2. Research on Energy Conversion Organism-like Functional Niaterial (Study in FY1981) (National Chemical L.aboratory far ~ Industry) " From an organism having high activity and a stable energy ~ , conversion system, an energy conversion element is to be extracted and incorporated in a stabilized artificial membrane, 76 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040029-1 FOR OFRICIAL USE ONLY and as an artificial energy conversion element, an aggregate of various coloring matters and electronic carriers is to be prepared and the energy conversion function of artificial membranes incorporating the aggregates (lipid membrane, liquid membrane) is to be examined. 3. Research of Organism-lik~ Reaction Transporting Membrane (Study in FY1981) (National Chemical Laboratory for Induatry) Based on previously conducted research concerning pre- paration of an artificial organism membrana, first of all, an efficient separating membrane, especially a membrane which = could separate a substance sim~ar to an organic substance, is to be developed. In a carbonic acid Fixing reaction, a reaction syntheslzing a low molecular . weight organic acid ~ having about 4 carbon atoms from COZ , is to be exattuned and in research of an artificial enryme, o~cidized, then a reduced enzyme model is to be prepared and its functions are to be examined. ~ 4. Research on Stability of Spherical Protein and Three~dimensional Structure (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polymers and . Textiles) By changing the annular state of spherical protein, such as an enzyme, conditions for enabling enzyme to maintain the ' enzymatic activity and its structure at a high degree at high and low temperatures, is to be sought. In this ~scal year, ~ saccharide peculiarly bonding to this protein will be added mainly to a lysozime solution to measure the change of the bonding constant by temperature and the influence given by the bond formed over stability to heat of the structure of a ~ high degree of lysozime will be sought. S. Physical Properties of a Nucleic Acid and Its Utili~ation as a Functional Material (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polymers and Textiles Various characteristics of a nucleic acid fragment will be ciarified from ths study of its physical properties, and at the same time, creation of functional groups utilizing these 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040029-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY : characteristics will be attempted. In this fiscal year, the inte*- action of a nucleic acid fr..gment and a substance of a different lcind will be studied and its application� as a high�polymer material for selective separation will be examined. � 6. Research on Tnteraction Between a High-polymer Interface and Cells (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute . for Polymers and Textiles) The interaction of cells and protein with a high�polymer interface is being investigated in connection with the physical properties of the material surface an3 acquisition of the basis of the material designing in separation technology of cells and protein, development of an antithrombosis material and culture technology of cell, is aimed at. In this fiscal year, the adsorbing behavior of the thrombocyte with reference to natural and synthetic high polymer material whose surface characteristics are controlled and the connection between the adsorbing behavior and the surface physical properties, . such as surface energy and surface electric charge, are being sought systematically. 7. Fixation of Membrane of an Organism and Its Selective and Active Transport ~ (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polyraers and . Textiles) - For the purpose of realiaing utilization uf the selectiv~ ~,?u active~transporting functions of various metal ions possessed by the membrane of an organism, fixation of the membrane of the organism to a high-polymer material, is being at- ~ tempte~i. To that end, formation and culture of plotoplast of a microorganism and bonding between plotoplasts and bonding to a lipid membrane is being attempted to seek their stabilized conditions. Further, they will be synthesi~ed, and bonding ta high-polymer materials is to be examined. 8. Research of Constitution of a Chemical Sensor ~ for Organism-imitation Organic .Membrane (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polymers and � Textiles) A creature has the capaci:y of detecting and discdminating very small amounts of cherrucal substances as taste and smell. It is also known that a creature reveals the function of accepting chemical informadon and converting it to an electric _ 7$ , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY signal and handling such signal at a level of the membrane - of the organism. This research aims at artificially reproducing this chemically accepting function and utilizing a reproduced function as a chemical sensor. In this fiscal year, a method of forming a thin membrane using an organism substance and the change of physical properties shown by the thin membrane ir: the presence of a chemical substance will be examine~i. 9. Synthesis of Cyclic Peptide and Its Substrate Dis- criminating Capacity - (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polymers .and Text~~s) The balance of the interaction between the ligand of an organism and the indiapensable metal ions in the organism, is one of the important factors indispensable for maintaining life. In this research, as a simulating compound of the ligand of an orga,~ism, cyclic peptide will be synthesized and the substrate discriminating capacity to a low molecular weight compound is to be made clear. In this fiscal year, using cyclic peptide having a discriminating capacity of various cations of elements in Groups I and II of the Periodic Table obtained in previous fiscal year as an object, tha structural chemical ~ conditions. for revealing the discriminating capaci�y, is to be examined and consideration will be made about the molecular design and functional design of the novel cyclic peptide. . 10. Structure of Hydrogel and Its Compatibility with an Organism . . (Study in FY1981) (Research Institute for Polymers and Textiles) The sttucture of hydrogel of the PVA series will be analyzed and the basic data for developing a new material compatible with an organism will be obtained. In this fiscal year, based ~ ~n the results obtained in the previous fiscal year, the interaction between body fluids of an organism and gel will be evaluated frcm an in vrtro experiment by serum and an in vivo experiment at the camera oculi anterior of a rabbit including the peripheral tissues of the organism. With reference to vinyl pyrrolidone graft gel to PVA, organism compatibility will be examined by pouring into a vitreous body. 11. Reseazch of Nerve Circuit Network ~ (Study in FY1981) (Electrotechnical Laboratory) - 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON~,Y With combination of nerve knots at the abdomen wi~h those at the brain, side and feet, a pair of cells having direct bond a:e to be confirmed by staining in cells, an electrode . for measuring stimulus will be inserted, and the transmission characteristics between the two cells will be examined using a transient memory. 12. Research of Complementazy Function of Rod and Pyramid Visual Cells (Study in FY1981) (Electrotechnical Laboratory) The eye's spectroscopic sensibility control function, ranging , . _ from seeing in a bright place through seeing in a dazk place~ ~ via seeing in a dim place, will be examined and the comple- mentary function of both the pyramid~ and ~ rod visual cells attained in bright~dark adaptation, will be clazified. 13. Research of Nuineration of Sense of Smelling . (Study in FY1981) (Electrotechnical Laboratory) As research of numeration of the sense of smelling by the induced electric potential, the concentration of a smelling substance reaching the nostrils,� will be precisely deternuned and especially the technology of detecting and filtering a bad smell will be developed to carry out advancement of brain shape analysis. On the other hand, a molecular, physiological basic research will be ca:ried out concerning the initial process of accepting the sense of smelling. 14. Research on Weighing Mode of Perceptual Judg- ment .(Study in FY1981) (Industrial Products Research Institute) Development of the weighing model of human perceptual judgment and scrutiny of its oractical nature will be studied. By this, quantification and prediction of perceptual judgment characteristics will be made easy, at the same time, the results ~ will be made data for establishing the psychological measur:ng method for designing and evaluating industrial products and , making the method instrumental. 15. Physiological and Engineering Research on Con- tcol Mechanism of Voluntary Action - 80 ~ ~ FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500040029-1 FOR ~OFFICIAL USE ONLY (Study inFY1981) (Insutrial Products Research Institute) ~ The control mechanism of cuoperative activity of muscles in fundamental actions of man will be clarified using physiologi- cal and engineering methods, and based on these data, the . fundamental characteristicx of obstacles to motion are to � be obtained, and at the same ti~ne, basic data is to be obtained aiming at the welfaze of handicapped persons in functions of locomotion and development of electronic instruments neces- sarY� � ~ 16. Research of Information Handling Mode in the Central Nerve ` (Study in FY1981) (Industrial Products Reaearch lnstitute) An orientation�reaction related to signal detection and the ~ . action of inemory and leaming related to extraction of the characteristics of a signal will be physiopsychologicatly sought ~ to elucidate the nerve mechanism and a way for engineering . applications of these vital functions by simulation using a mathematical model, will be opened. ' 17. Research of Visual Sense Mechanism . (Study in FY1981) ('Industrial Products Research Institute) ~ Of ti~e visual sense mechanism, the mechanism of color sense and eyeball motion will be examined. With reference _ ~ to the color sense, quantification for the industrial utilization of color and development of a new measuring technology is to be carried out. With reference to the eyeball motion, examination will be made conceming uevelopment of a machine for measuring eyeball motion, measuring and examination of two-eyeball motion at tha time of space perception, and progressive characteristics of the eyeball motion system ~ ~ in~,;tuding congestion of infants and those with open eyes ~ to obtain basic data for development of welfare instruments . for ,nedical use. 18. Research on Transmission of lnformat~on of ~ Sensation (Study in FY1981) (Iudustrial Products Research Institute) Through the comparative study of information handling modes of the sensation system, the handling modes peculiaz . to the respective sensations, will be made cleaz. Further, _ based on these data, . basic data for aiming at develc~pment 81 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500444429-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of electronic instruments for welfare and medical care of physically handicapped persons, is to be obtained. 19. Research of Decomposition and lnactivation of Biohazards (Study in FY1981) (Govenunent Iadustrial Development I,aboratory, Aokkaido) The decomposition mechanism of nucleic acid-related sub- stances by oxidizing agents is to be exa,mined in the initial fiscal year. ~ ~ ~ 20. Synthesis of Elastomer of Polyurethane Series ~nd Application of Such Elastomer to Materials ~ for Medical Use ~ . _ (Study in FY1981) (Governimnt Industrial Research Insti- tute, Osaka) - Ethylene oxide - propylene oxide. block copolymers having ~ various molecular weights and different in polyethylene oxide content are to be used as a diol component in synthesizing novel polyurethane ureas by reaction between diphenyl- methane diisocyanate and ethylene diamine, and the mechanical - properties, dynamic properties (viscoelasticity) and water , contents of these ureas will be examined, and at the same ~ time, Cheir coagulation resistance outside an Qrganism will be evaluated. And the influena of the molecular weights of the ' diol component, polyethylene oxide content and molar ratios in reaction between diol and diisocyanate exerted over these . characteristi~s are to be examined in detail. . 21. Research of Information Handling of a Blood ~ ~ ~ Vessellmage (St,udy in FY1981) (Government Indnstrial Research Insti- tute, Chugoku) . As a basic study for elucidating the physiological function ~ of the blood circulation system, the analytical method of measuring the diameter of the blood vessel two-dimensionally ~ from the blood vessel image, will be examined. ~ COPYRIGIF7',~: 1981 Fuj i Marketing Research Co. , Ltd. ~ CSO: 4120/171 82 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ~ BRIEFS ` ~ CURB LSI F,XPORTS TO U.S.--The goverrunent has called on semiconductor manufacturers to "use discretion" in exporting large-scale integrated circuits (LSI) to the United States, a Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) official said Friday [12 February]. The MITI served the notice separately on Iiitachi, Nippon Electric, Fujitsu, Mitsubishi Electric, ODI Electric arid Toshiba after the U.S. National Semiconductor Industry Association began pressuring Washington recently to curb imports of 64-kilobit ram (random access memory): chips from Japan. - Japanese products currently account for an estimated 70 percent of the American market for 64-kilobit ram chips. The official said the ministry has no statistics on the export of the 64-kilobit type to the United States. He added, however, that Japan was a net integrated circuite (IC) exporter to the United States, if _ by a narrow margin, in the first 11 months of 1981. The o�ficial said Japan's IC exports to the United States in the January-November 1981 period totaled 63.9 billion yen ($272 million) worth, compared with 63.4 billion yen ($2Z0 million) worth imported from the United States in the same period. [Text] [OW161001 Tol~ro THE DAILY YOMIURI in English 13 Feb 82 p 1] [COPYRIGHT: Dai~y Yomiuri ~982] , POLICY ON COI~IUNICATION SATELLITES--Tc~kyo, 16 Feb (JIJI Press)--The Quasi-govern- mental Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corp (NTT) has fixed its�policy of orbiting its large-capacity communications satellites using the space shuttle of the U.S. National Aeronautics and S~ace Administration (NASA). Japan's comanunica-~ tions satellites for practical use have hitherto been launched using domestically- produced rockets. NTT, the nation's telecomm+inications monopoly, will seek appro- val of the space d~velopment council before matiing a final decision on this score. Under NTT's plans revealed so far, it will blast off a or.a-ton communications satellite with a capacity of 25,000 telephone circuits iri fiscal 1988 and a four- ton satellite with a capacity of~100,000 circuits arour..d fiscal 1992. Japan's fiscal year starts in April. NTT also plans to linlc via these satellites tele- phone stations exclusively for Iong-distance calls to be set up in each prefecture by putting up antennas of four meters in diameter on the roofs of these stations. Another factor be,lxind NTT's emerging policy of launching large-capacity communica- _ tions satellites is its strong wish to advance into data communications business. [Text] [OW161451 Tokyo JI.TI in English 1436 GMT 16 Feb 82] TURBINE ORDER FROM PRC--Tokyo, 3 Feb (JIJI Press)--Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd announced Wednesday that it has received an order for a 300 million yen (about 1.3 million dollars) compressor-driven steam turbine from China's National Technical 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500440029-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Import Corp the turbine with power output of 20,000 kilowatts will be placed in an ammon~a plant in Anhui Province which produces 1,000 tons of ammonia per day. This is the 24th such turbine the Chinese corporation has ordered from the Japanese company. [Text] [OW040931 Tokyo JIJI in English 1332 GMT 3 Feb 82] VIBRATION ABSORPTION MATERIAL--What is claimed to be the world's highest vibratidn absorption material has be~n developed by Nippon Electric Co (NEC), a ma~or Japanese maker of electric appliances. A company spokesman said it is a ferrite ~ complex material whose vibration suction is some 100 t~mes more than steel and aluminum and will be effective for noise prevention. The material is a mixture of grain condition ferrite ranging from 0.1 to 10 microns and polyester resin and its corrosion resistance is very high against acid and alkali. It can be pro- cessed freely like steel and aluminium, he said.~ The s~okesman said that by using a vibration proof pad made from the ferrite complex material, it is effec- tive in production of ultralarge scale integrations (LSI), asseani~ly of precision malchinery and inspection of optical microscopes. The companp will shortly pro- duce the pad at a subsidiary, he said. He also said that the company has been developing vibration-proof material, using a large amount of regenerated ferrite available as byproducts for use in roads, railway roadbeds and~bridges. [Text] [OW22144i Tokyo MAINICflI DAILY NEWS in English 20 Feb~82 p 5].[COPYRIGHTt Ma,inichi Daily News, 1.982] C~O: 4120/162 ~ . ~ a 84 ,_4; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040029-1