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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10384 . 12 March 1982 USSR Report ENGINEERING AND EQUIPAAENT , (FO110 2/82) ~ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. ~ Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Othex unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. , The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT L,AWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION - ~ OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTEU FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040030-9 13 JPRS I,/10384 12 March 1982 USSR REPORT ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT (FOIIO. 2/82) CONTENTS AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE Practical Aerodynamics of Hel,icopters.............................. 1 MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING, 'Dock-Ship' Tran:3fer Sqstem 6 Unmanned Free SubmerEibles 9 DNCLEAR ENERGY Design and Tests of Thermal Emission Fuel Elements 13 PJeutron Radiation of Spent Uranium-Thorium Fuel 17 Regulating Energy Distribution of Reactor in Second Unit of Beloyarskaya Atomic Power Station................................ 21 Organization of Fuel Utilization at Kola Atomic Power Station...... 30 Methods �or Calculating Gas Liberation and Estimating Danger of Radiation-Chemical Apparatus With Water Coolant or Biological Shielding.......................................... 37 Abstracts of Articles in Co1lection 'RADIATION SAFE'1'Y OF AES...... . 39 NQN-NUCLFAR ENERGY ' Power Eugineering in Space.........................u............... 46 Turbogenerators IIsiag Supercilnductivity............................ 48 - a- (IIS - USSR - 21F S&T FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 riin vrria..IwL uJr, uIVLY INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY r Adoption of Typical System for Enterprise Management . . . . . . . . . 51 Abstracts From Machine Building Symposium 55 Deslgning Systems for Automatic Handling of Miniature Items........ 63 HIGH-ENERGY DEVICES, OPTICS AND PHOTOGRAPHY Heavy-Ion Accelerators 68 Collection of Papers on Charged Particle Accelerators, Part 1...... 70 Collection of Papers on Charged Particle Accelerators, Part 2...... 79 - Robust Detection and Ranging Devices 87 FLUID MECHANICS Numerical and Analytical Methods for Solving Prablems in Mechanics of Continuous Medium 91 . Particulara of Shock Wave Structure for Underwater Explosions of Spiral Charges................................................. 95 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS � Oscillations and Stability of Mechanical Systems 104 Load Capacity and Dynamic Properties of Mechanical Systems......... 111 Dynamics of Radiating Gas '120 Kinetostatics of Three-Dimensional Mecluinisms 123 TESTING AND MATERIALS Radiational Damage to Housing Steel of Water-C,,qled Water- Moderated Reactors 125 Measuring Oscillators in Nuclear Electronics 128 Using Liquid Fuels at Law Temperatures 131 - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AERONAUTICAL Ar7D SPACE UDC 629.735.45 (a?) PR4CTICAL AERODYNAMICS OF HII,ICOPTER3 1-icscow PRAKTICHFSKAYA AZRODINAMIKA VERTOI,ETOV in Russian 1980 (signed to press 16 Oct 79) PP 2, 282-384 [Annotation and table of contents from book "Practical Aerodynamics of Helicopters", by Vyacheslav Fedorovich Rotnasevich and German Alekseyevich Samoylov, Voyeaizdat, 13,000.copies, 384 pages] [Text] Annotation The book considers the aerodynamic characteristics, special featuros of helicopter design, stability and controllability, as well ra the maneuvering a,nO.. itloting properties, and special featurds of helicopter behavior and the teci;.llque of pilot- ing for various modes of fly'Lng and maneuvers. The book is intended for flying personnel of VVS [Military Aerial Forces], PVO [Antiaircraft Defense] and VMF [Military Ma,rine Fleet]. It ma.y be recommended to students in militar.y aviation schools and flying personnel of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. TABLE OF CQNTINTS introduction Page 5 Chapter 1. Ba.sic characteristics and apecial features of helicopter aerodynamics 20 1.1. Aerodynamic d.esign of helicopters - 1.2. Aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter rotors 30 1 Rotor propulsion and factars affecting it 31 Set-up angle (pitch) nf rotor 32 Space factor of rotor 34 Peripheral velocity 37 Shape af vane and profile 40 Flying velocity w+ 1 FOR OFFICIAL U:SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040034-9 av~~ va�rawrfL VDG VIrLI TABLE OF CCNTMTS . Page Purpase of norizontal and vertical pivots 51 � Flywheel motion of vanes 53 Reverse camber of rotary cone of rotor 56 Stroke regulator � 58 - 1.3. Aerodynamic characteristics of basic garts of helicopter 59 Fuselage _ Aerodynamic characteristics of the fuselage 60 Win$ 64 Aerodynamic charact eristics of wing 65 5tabilizer 68 Aerodynamic characteristics of stabilizer 69 . Tailfin 73 - Aerodynamic characteristics of tailfin 74 Tail rotor 7( Aerodynamic characteristics of tail rotors 77 Chassis of helicopters 82 1.4. Helicopter control systems 83 Control characteristics 91 Chapter 2. Power installations of helicopters 96 2.1. Purpose and arrangemerit of power installations - 2.Z. -aigine operating modes . 103 , 2.3. Opezational limitations'of GTD [Gas Turbine Lhgine] and their causes i05 2.4. Ba,sic operating characteristics of helicopter GTD 108 Throttlino characteristics 104 _ iiigh-altitude characteristics 111 Velocity characteristics t15 L+'ffect of atmospheric corditions on the GTD characteristics - 2.5. Unstable engine operating modes 121 Compressor stalling - Off-design operating modbs of free turbine 125 2.6. Joint operation of rotor and pewer installation 126 Chapter 3. Stabil:Ity and Controllability of the helicopter 132 3.1. General information _ Schema.tiza,tion of helicopter mation in flight, equa,tion of motion _ _ 3asic concepts of stability and controllability 141 3.2. Longitudinal stability and controllability 153 _ Static characteristics of stability along the angle of incldence _ 3pecial features of :zelicopter controllability along the incidence angle (pitch) 158 ~ 2 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TA13LOP CF CUNTIIJT3 Page Statlc characteristics of stability with change in velocity of flight 161 Special features of longitudinal centrollability with change in velocity cf flight 164 Stability of longitudinal motion of hellcopter 166 3�3� 3ide stabilitjr and controllability 171 3tatic stabilit characteristic along slide angle (path stability~ 172 Static- stability characteristics along the bank angle (transverse stability) 174 Stability of side motion 175 Special features of stde controllability of helicopter 176 5pecial features of controllability when flying with slidin- 179 3.4. Special features of balancing the helicopter 181 3�5� ilse of automatic devices in helicopter control systems 188 Special features of piloting with an automatic pilot 193 Chapter 4. :ielicopter flight mo3^.s 197 4.1. Required and availa'ale propulsions and rotor powers 198 4.2. Vertical .fli;ht modes 208 ciovering - Conditions and special features of hoverlng 209 Vertical lift 218 Conditions and special fPaturea of vertical lift 219 Vertical descent 221 Conditions and special features of vertical descent 222 4.3. Horizontal flight 227 Range of velocities and heights of helicopter flight 229 First and second modes of sustained horizontal flight 237 Conditions and special features of a horizontal flight 242 4.1+. Ascent along a sloped trajectory 245 Conditions and special features of ascent 246 4. S. ' Descent along a sloped trajectory 249 , Conditions and special features of descent 250 Conditions and special featurea of RSNB CMode of Rotor Autorotation] 252 Chapter 5. Naneuvering and piloting of helicopter . 257 5.1. N~aneuvering characteristics and operational limi-tations - Gyforess and flight limitations in manerverin 3 259 G-force .range of single rotor helicopter 267 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040034-9 . � ...�.~ai v,Ja. V1, %L1 TABLE OF CCKTLNTS 5.2. Horizontal maneuvers Acceleration and deceleration of helicopter Turning 5�3� Vertical maxieuvers Diving Steep climb ' 5�4. Spatial maneuvers Spiral stall turn Steep climb turn 5.5. 3pecial features of maneuvering nnder maximum conditions Spontaneous descent of helicopter Spontaneous turning of helicopter Helicopter spin Spontaneous increase in norma,l g-force on helicopter when maneuvering Spontaneous tilt of helicopter due to loss of effectiveness in transverse control Chapter 6. Distance and duration of helicopter flight 6.1. Concepts and principlea of calculating the distance and duration of f1:Ight 6.2 . Available fuel reserve 6.3. Iiourly and kiYometer fuel consumptions, d'lstance of horizontal flight 6.4. Effect of basic operational factors on distance and duration of flight Effect of flight velocity Effect of flight altItnde Ef'fect of flying weight of helicopter &fect of wind fffect af rotor speed, Chagter 7. Take-off a,t1d landtng of helicopter 7�1. Special features of moving the helicopter on the ground and operation3l limitations 7.2. ;pecial features of helicopter take-off and operational limitations .-Ielicopter take-off Plane 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Page 271 276 287 289 296 299 300 303 306 309 313 315 319 321 325 333 336 339 342 345 346 348 349 350 356 360 364 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 FAR OFFICtAL USE ONLY TABL23' OF CfVTIWTS 7.3. Special fPatures of helicopter landing and operational limitations Helicopter landing Plane landing in the mode in rotor autorotation mode _ Special features of landing~.with a side wind Supplement. Basic tactical-technical data on helicopters . Bibliography CCPYRIGHT: Voyenizdat, 1980 2291 CaO, 1$61/109 5 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Page 365 366 370 373 377 380 381 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040030-9 MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING unC 629.i2.002.28.00i.24i 539.4 'DOCK-SHIP' TRANSM SYSTEM MoscoW 3I3TNMA P',~TQW1Y~ "~_g(~pN� in Ru$sian 1981 (signed to press 29 Dec 80) pp 2-49 128-129 EAnnotation, foreword, table of contents from bocHl"Dock-ship' Transfer System", by Vitaliy Antonovich Topchiy, Izdatel'stvo "Sudoetroyeniye", 800 copies, 129 pages] . EText] Annotation Launching ships by using transfer (la,unching) docks is related to solving the prob- lem of launching safety, the strength of the ship, the doek arid movable components of the launching devices. Calcula.tions of the strength o"' the transfer dock-ship system di:ifer considerably from those made for raiaing the ship ta a floating dock; launching from a sloped longitudinal building slip etc. The book gives the general characteriaties of dock-ship system componenta at all stages of launching. TheoreLtical bhses are given for calculating the strengths of the components of this system (by the f inite element, Ritz and Rordyumov methods). Use of the finite element met.hod to solve the static indeterminacy of the dock-ahip transfer system is illustra,ted by e,xamples. The book is intended for design engineers and plaaners of shipbuilding enterprises, and it ma,y be useful to students of shipbuilding wz and wz departmenta. Foreword. Launching medium water displacement ships from building slips by floating repair docks or Prom transfer (launching) doaks especially made far this purpose is widely used in domestic and foreign ahiph-tilding. At present, domestic design organiza- tions and shipbuilding enterprises have a conaiderable aamunt of experience in-de- signing and operating la,unching complexes with transfer docka which makes it pos- sible to achieve all the advantages of their use and to determine the best methods and facilities for safe la,unching. Information on the indicated experience in ecientific-technical literature, in' paxticulax, that obtained in recent year$, Qannot be coneidered sufficient. In a number of fundamental paperst devolied �to ship launohing, apecial features of launching complexes with transfer docks are considered in the design aspect, or 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mentioned only in general terms which may be due to the trend toward specific topics in the papers, as well as the positi.on occupied until recently by the ust of transfer docks and a number of other methods for launching ships. In periodi- cals devoted to launching, there is very little information on pzoblems and methods for inauring the strength of the ships, the transfer dock aad other com- ponents of the complex with this type of Ia,unching. This paper presents methods for calcula.ting the transfer dock-ship aystem and gives a number of recornmendations on implemnting practical calculations on the strength of this system's components with aim of filling the above-mentioned blanks to a certain degree. The design fea,tures of la,unching complexes with transfer docks (number and rigidity of the dock supports, presence and type of hydraulic system of the ship-aarrying train etc.), the essential.changes in the proceas of la,unching,external forces and the interaction conditions between the dock and ship predetermine the necessity of considering several calculation arrangements of the transfer dock-ship.system which leads to the necessity of using various methoda within one calcula.tion; for exam- ple, at the basis of which lie power methods, reduction of.thg problem to calcula- ting beams on an elastic ba,se and other method.s using similar problems (raising the ship to a dock, launching from a longitudinal building slip etc.)for the solution. This circumstance, along witta the necea3ity of making a series of cal- culations even within the limits of one launching period, determined the selection of the finite element method,. one of the most perfect and universal methods for calculating complex ship designs, as the basic method, devoid of the above-men- tioned inconvenience. This paper provides a minimum amount of data on this metbod needed: #'or practical calculations of rod structures which rep.resent the transfer dock-ship system, and recommendations axe given for the prepaxation of initial data, decoding the calcu- lation results according to programs prepaxed for the "Minsk-32" computer. Making approximate calculations of the transfer dock-ship system may be useful and efficirt at the initial stages of the launch at the launch complex of the enter- prise. Methods of these calculations presented in this book ma,ke it possible to obtain rela.tively simply and quickly the necessaxy data for the speaial features of operation of the launching syst'em at vaxious stages. The author expresses his gratitude to staff xorkers of the "Con$truction Mechanics Department of the Komsomol'sk-on-Amur" Polytechnical Institute, Y. D. Zhestkaya and N. A. Taranukha, who made a series of calculatione, the results of which were used in the book. Tabla of Gontents Foreword Page 3 Chapter 1. Launching ships by transfer docks and groblems of insuring the strengths of the ship dock and movable components of the launching devices 5 1. Certain special features of la,unching ships by transfer docks 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 . v.. v~ a ~~,ar~a~ VJL� V]\LI Table of Contents Page Chapter 1. (continued) 2. General deformation characteristic of the transfer dock-ship systsm. Volume and content of strength calculations U Chapter 2. Determination of interactifln reactions in the tranafer dock-ship system by the finite element . method (FEM) ' 24 3. Basic FEM relationships'as applied to the calculation of transfer dock-ship system 24 4. Calculation of the transfer dock-ship system by finite � dlement method on the "Minsk-22" computer. Preparation of the initial data. Decoding results of calculationa 42 5. Certain features of checking component strength of the - transfer doc?,-ship system 47 6. ' Example of calculating the tran$fer dock-ship system by the finite element.�. method on the "Minsk-22" computer 51 Chapter 3. .Strength calculations when Iaunching ship by ship- caxrying train equipped with hydraulic system 58 7. Features of using hydraulic systems when launching by meana of transfer docks. Calculation scheme 58 8. Ecample of calculating the transfer dock-ship system when using the group hydraulics of the ship-carrying.train 72 Chapter 4. Approxima,te calculation of the transfer dock-ship system 78 9. Basic relationships of approximate methods for calculating the transfer dock-ship system 78 10. Ca,lculation of dual support transfer dock-ship system. . Case of transfer dock with three supports �`100 li. Approxima,te calcula.tion of single suppart transfer dock-ship system 109 Conclusion lis Appendix 116 Bibliography . 126 BQPXRIGHrs Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1981 - 2291 CSDi 1861/89 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R044500040030-9 h'UR OF6'ICIAI. USE ONI.Y UDC 629.127.4-52 UNMANNED FREE SUBMERSIBLES Leningrad AVTOMATICHESKIYE PODVODNYYE APPARATY in Russian 1981 (signed to press 10 Feb 81) pp 5-6, 219-221 [Annotation, authors' preface and table of contents from book "Unmanned Free Sub- mersibles", by Mikhail Dmitriyevich Ageyev, Boris Anatol'yevich Kasatkin, Lev Vladimirovich Kiselev, Yuriy Gennad'yevich Molokov, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Nikiforov and Nikolay Ivanovich Rylov, Yzdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 3100 copies, 224 pages] [Text] An examination is made of planning and design of free submersibles, mo- tion control in hydrophysical measurements in a water stratum, exploration of bays and searching for sunken objects under conditions of complicated bottom re- lief. The authors show the functional makeup and structure of control systems, methods of navigation and makeup of navigational exploration equipment. Information is given on the shipboard complex and marine equipment for data pro- cessing. Development of the Skat unmanned free submersible is summ,arized, and an analysis is made of a nwnber of original problems that must be solved in de- signing submersibles. The book is intended for specialists engaged in developing free submersibles and their systems. Authors' Preface The field of submersibles had its inception comparatively recently, and is cur- rently going through a developmental stage. Submersibles that have been developed in the past are quite diversif'ied. Some of them have become widely known, and - development on�them is continuing. In addition to vehicles for which, figurative- - ly speaking, "the principal source of information is the headligbt", more and triore recognition is being given to unmanned submersibles, or underwater robots as they are often called. This is no accident; unmanned submersibles have many advantages that have been proved in practice, and preaent-day advances in tech- . nology, especially in electronics, as well as the new research metYlods'that they have engendered, are a good basis for their further development. Judging from the persistent but isolated reports of the survey information press, such vehicles are being ititensively developed and used outside the Soviet Union in a wide range of underwater work. 9 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040030-9 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY Among unmanned submersibles, an important part is played by self-contained, self- - propelleii vehicles with programmed control that are automatic facilities for study- ing the ocean. - Tao principal distinguishing features character.ize unmanned submersibles: absehce of a connecting cable to the surface vessel, and small overall dimensions. In - themselves, these features are not yet advantages, but they can be turned into advantages if the "brain" concentrated in the small space of the vehicle iw equip- ped with such functions as would to some extent compensate for the absence of a connecting cable. . During operation, the automatic submersible�has limited capabilities for human communications, and therefore it must carry a set of devices that'ensure normal = operation, accumulation of information, and self-preservation in extreme sirua- tions. This complex must include: information-neasurement devices (including navigational) that form a representation � of the ambient environment and state of the vehicle; a control system that perceives and processes information and transmits control commands; actuating devi.^_es that realize the commands of the control system; facilities for at least intermittent human communication (input-output and communi- cation devices). With respect to their properties, urnanned vehicles can be classified as under- water information robots that comprise a separate class of submersible robotic systems. This circumstance, which is substantiated from general procedural prin- ciples in the book by V. S. Yastrebov et al., "Podvodnyye roboty" [Underwater Robots], Leningrad, Sudostroyeniye, 1977, is of great importance for consideration of fundamental problems of designing both the autonomous systems and the vehicle as a whole. Experience in development of automatic vehicles is still.rather sparse; many of their capabilities are so far not being used to solve tixgqn.t problems of investi- gation of the ocean. Automatic vehicles that belong to the f irst generation of robots are functionally simple, their actions can be rigidly programmed. However, even such devices that are unperfected in many respects can be successfully used in many underwater 3obs. Recently the idea has been formulated and implemented of changing to multipurpose vehicles with adaptive behavior, the control structure and desigr conf irming to unified requirements that ensure the most efficient oper- ation when there is a change in the external conditions and internal state of a vehicle. In our opinion, the time has come to generalize available knowledge and experience in the development of unmanned free submersibles. That is the idea behind this 'book. The initial material for the book has mainly been results of research on the Skat and Skat-geo vehicles done at the Institute of Automation and Control Processes of the Far Eastern Science Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences, as well as certain ideas aimed at further improvement of these vehicles. 10 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Collectives uf two laboratories at the Institute took part in developing the vehi- - cles: the laboratory of underwater vehicle systems, and the laboratory of navi- _ gation and control spstemr. The authors thank workPrs at t-izese laboratories, as taell as a11 who helped make this book possible. This is a multiplan book, since the problems involved in developing automatic vehicles are also multiplan. In addition, some of these problems are characterized by unconventional formulation of goals and so far do not have f inal solutions. This has obviously had its effect on the content of the book, and is responsible for some of its shortcomings. The greatest claims may be brought against the style of exposition of individual chapters, which are wirtten in "different lan- guages" due to the very diverse nature in a physical sense of the problems that are considered. For example, the second chapter, which deals with general princi- ples of constructing vehicle control systems, is written in the language of compu- ter technology with its attendant terminology. The third to fifth chapters examine problems on motion control and navigation, using mathema.tical methods of the theory of regulation and random processes. The sixth chapter gives a rather detailed description of the design of the Skat vehicle (this chapter is somewhat reminis- cent of an engineering description). The book does not reflect all aspects of development of unmanned submersibles, but only those that have seemed to us to be the most important, and to which the literature has given little attention. For example, no consideration has been given at all to ensuring strength of hu11s of deep water vehicles, hydrodynamics, power engineering, manufacturing technology and so on. For all these questions, the reader can address himself to known works, in particular to the monograph "Proyektirovaniye podyodnykh apparatov" [Design of Submersibles] by A. N. Dmitriyev (Leningrad, Sudostroyeniye, 1978), that has become a reference on the sub3ect. The authors thank the reviewers, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences V. S. Yastrebov and Professo.r., Doctor of Technical Sciences I. B. Ikonnikov, who made some valuable comments on improving the manuscript. The authors are especially grateful to Candidate of Technical Sciences G. K. Krylov, who did considerable scientific editing of the work. Contents page Preface 3 Authors' Preface 5 Chapter 1: State of the Art and Outlook for Development of Unmanned Free Submersibles 7 1. Designation-and types of unmanned free submersibles 7 2. Underwater jcbs handled by unmanned free submersibles 11 3. Some problems of designing on board systems of unmanned free submersibles 18 Chapter 2: General Structure of Systems of Unmanned Free Submersibles 25 4. Principle of design of unmanned free submersibles 25 _ 5: Information relationship between systems 31 6. Organization of programmed control 40 Chapter 3: Motion Control of Unmanned Free Submersibles 51 7. Organization of vehicle motion 51 8. Reference program trajectories 55 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 9. Motion control in exploring anomalous fields 10. Motion control close to the bottam with complex relief Chapter 4: Dynamics of Underwater Vehicle 11. Equation of motion. Hydrodynamic characteristics ,12. Stabilization of motion velocity 13. Depth controllability 14. Stabilization and motion stability in the vertical plane 15. Course stabilization system Chapter 5: Navigational Support of Operation of UndeYwater Vehicle 16. Methods of navigational support and vehicle makeup 17. Range-finding systems. Particulars of hqdroacoustic navigation 18. Methods of processing range-finder navigational information and accuracy analysis 19. Signal reception from pulsed hydroacoustic navigational system 20. Data processing 'and complexing of autonomous and hydroacoustic navigational systems Chapter 6:� The Skat Unmanned Free Submersible 21. Experience in developing and the Skat vehicle 22. General characteristics of Skat-geo vehicle, makeup and designation of its systems 23. Vehicle design and configuration 24. Construction and interaction of principal systems of the vehicle Conclusion References CUPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Sudostroyeniye", 1981* 6610 CSO: 1861/71 12 FOR OMCIAL USE ONLY 69 83 88 88 58 99 108 123. 127 127 131 143 155 165 176 176 191 197 ~202 215 217 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040034-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _.M , NUCLEAR ENERGY vnc 62i . 039. 54s DWIGN AND 7MTS OF TMMMAL IIMI,SSILK RM ROM1TS Moscow PROYIICTIROVANIYE I ISPYTANIYA TERM+OF~'I7.3SICKNYKH TYELDV in Russian 1981 (aigned to press 2 Dec 80) PP 29 4-5t 96 [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from book "Design and Teats of Thermal Eaisaion F5.ie1 Elements", by Vladimir Ivanovich Berahatyy, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Mayevskiy, Yiktor Vasil'yevich Sinyavshiy and, Valeriy Geront'yevich Petrovskiy, Atomiadat, 980 copies, 96 pa,gea] [Text] . Annotation The book considers engineering aspects of creating power generating channels (~GK) of the basic unit of the thermoemission rea,ctor=generator. Ba,sic attention is given to the design and teclinology of ma,nufacture of the BC~{ and the loop channel, optimiza,tion of geometry and calculation of the ~7QC and loop channele, rea,ctor loop inatallation, methods for carrying out all tests and investi,gation stages, the - analysis of test results and causes of chaxacteristic changes and failures. The book is intended for engineers and staff personnel working in the area of ~ direct conversion of energy and nuclear power. It will be useful to instructors , ancY students of engineering-physical and power vus. Two tables. Fifty-one illustrations. Bibliography containa 91 titles. Introduction The last several decades were characterized by intensiva investigations and the practical implementation of nsw electric poxer sources basW, on direct (without machines) conversian of thermal to electrical energy. . Thermoemission power,installa,tions have certain advantagea, especially if they axe used as independent sources of electrical power higher thaxl several kilowatts. These a.dvantages are mainly simplicity of eriergy conversion and the possibility:of operating the power installation at high operating temperatures aad at the high bottom temparature of the thermodynamic cycle, which is a necessary condition far operating space power installations where expenidable heat of the thermodynamic cycle may be removed only by radiation IIJ. 13 FOR OFFIC[AL USt ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 - . .01 Vaxious types of thermoemission power installa,tions are being considered.: sclar and isotopic (low power [2]), and high temperature superstructures a,dded to the usual electric power p].ants and AF5 which make it possible to increase plant effi- ciency to 50yb E1-33. However, the a.d.vantages of thermoemission conversion (TEP) are demonstrated, to the greatest degree when they are located d3rectly in the core ' the nucleax fission rea,ctor, for which purpose the TEP are combined with the fuel elements into a aingle thermoemission fuel element. In the USSR, such a thermoemission fuel element is mora frequently called an electrogenerating channel (EGK), while single, series connected TEp are called electrogenerating elements (XGE). A rea,ctor c o r e a s s emb 1 e d. .f r om s u c hM together with regu- lating devices and a system for assuring the composition of the i.nterelectrode medium and heat removal forms a thermoemission reactor-converter (rea,ctor-generator) in which not only hea,t is generated, but the entire cycle of converting the heat energy liberated, as a reault of nucleax fission of uranium into electrical energy, is implemented. Practical steps on creating power installations of such a type were initiated by and, under the direction of I.I. Bondarenko, culminated in successful tests, in the USSR, of the "Topa,z," the first reactor-converter L4, 51 in the world. One basic problem in creating such an installation is the development of an effi- cient and reliable EZ [6]. Since it is impossible, under la,boratory conditions, to provide actual conditions for operating multielement EGK, the main stage of their development became the loop test of BGK in reseaxch reactors where all specific problems relateii to the creation of a long-term operating EGK are studied, includ- ing the stability and reproducibility of the power chaxacter~stics, state of the electrod.e surface, strength of the electrical insulation etc. EGK reactor tests, in their turn, required, solutions of a number of additional problems in connection with ma,king these tests, such asi developing a loop cha,n- nel for EGK tests [1, 4-6], creating universal reactor loop installa,tions with gas- vacuum, thermal and eleatric systems and, in a number of cases, also modernising the core of reseaxch reactors [7], developing methoda for making prerea,etor, reactor and postreactor tests, as well as methods for monitoring and diagnostics of EGI{ a,nd the loop channel systems. The solution of the indicated problems is comparable in its complexity to the creation of the thermoemission reactor-converter itself. 5everal monographs [8-10] as well as textbooks [2,1] and popular public,ations were published in the USSR on problems related to thermoemission energy conversion. However, all these papers were devoted to the basic study of the thermoemission converter as a laboratory device and they, with the exception of pa,pers [1,2], practically do not touch on the engineering aspects of crea,ting thermoemission power instal'La.tions. There is no infarmation in these papers on experimental fin- ishing-off o:F the 'DGK, including design, aalculation and methods for testing the thermoemissicin of loop cha,nnels and the eystema,tized. r~,nalysis of obtained results; such information is contained only in individual uncoordinated articles and inac- cessible reports of vaxioua reseaxch organizations. With this book, the authors axe attempting, even though partially, to ma,ke up for the existing deficiency. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 F( )FFIr:AL USE OHLY Basically, the book describes resulta obtained by the authors themselves; however, published materials of other authors, which could be expounded upon from the same positions, were utiliaed. Tne limited size of the book made it impossible to include a number of section8, for example, on technical diagnostics, automation of the loop experiment etc., which will be s;lstematized in the book, "Principles of Engineering Diagnostics of Thermoomiasion Flzel Bl,ements." The authors intend to write this book in the very near future and it will be a logical continua,tion of this b.ook. Since the thermoemission method ha,s recently become a subject of broad investiga- tion, it still has no set terminology in this axea,; however, in writing about this ma.terial , the authors attempted to follow recommena,ations in 'the ha,ndbook "Thermoemission Conversion of Ehergy" (Moscow, 1971), prepared by the International Communications Group on TEP. All criticism with regaxd to the stated material, style of pre8entation and the cited results will be gratefully received by the authors. The authors express their gratitude to Ye. M. Strel'nitskaya for her help in the manuscript. Table of Contents Page Introd.uction y. Chapter 1. Special fea.tures in converting energy in thermo- emission EGE and multielement 3Z 6 1.1. Basic characteristics of thermoemission XE 6 1.2. Characteristic features of EQC 12 - Chapter 2. Designs and manufacturing technology of thermo- emission DGK and loop channels 15 2.1. Basic design-structural problems of EQC development . 15 2.2. Design features of 30 and EGK of varioua types 19 2.3. Design of loop channels 24 2.4. Manufacturing technology of thermoemiesion AGE and 3QC 28. Chapter 3. Principles of calculating thermoemiesion loop channel 34 3.1. Dpti;na,l geometrical dimensions of thermoemission elements 34 3.2. Calcula,tion of current-voltage curves and thermal fields of thermoemission 30 37 3�3 Calculatingcurrent-voltsge:cutves�of mu].tielementEGR andprofiling EGE lengths in accordance with height of M 39 3�4. Ttiermal calculation of the heat removal system, thermoatat and other units of the loop channel 41 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE,ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040034-9 Table of Contenta Page Chaptar 4. Fea,tures of loop installations of research nuclear reactors for testing thermoemissionfuel -elements 44 4.1. Purpose and composition of lcwp inatallation 44 4.2. Thermohydraulic and gas vacuum system of the loop - installation . tys 4.3.. ELectrical circuit of loop installation . 4$ 4.4. Measurement of basic technological characterlstics of loop channel 52 Chapter 5. Methodology and technique of ma.king loop tests of. thermoemission fuel elements 56 5�1. Ba.sic stagea of reactor tests of thermoemiasion loop channels 56 : 5.2. Rea,ctor teats and inveatigations of special prototypes of loop channels 56 5�3. Vacuum preparation of DGK and loop channel 57 5.4. Loa.ding loop channel into the reactor and unloading it from the reactor . 58 5�5� Start-up of BGK, change in power, planned stop 59 5.6. Methodology of making investiga,tions during rea,ctor tests of DGK 60 5.7� Features of making life tests of EGIC 63 Chapter 6. Analysis of basi.c results of reactor tests of thermoemission fuel elements 65 6.1. General results of teats 65 6.2. Effect of cesium vapor pressure on DGIC cha,racteris'tics. Transfer from diffusion mode of operation to the dischaxge mode 66 6.3. Effect of collector temperature on 37 characteristics 72 6.4. Effect of thermal power and emitter temperature on DGK chaxacteriati.cs. Ftill efPiciency of EGK 73 6.5� Anoma,lous current-voltage curves 79 6.6. Resource change in power chaxacteristics and basic changes and failures of BGT, 3GI{- and loop channel designs 83 Bibliography 91 CDPYRIGHI': Atomizdat, 1981 2291 CSDi 186i/86 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.039.51:621.039.667.9 NEUTRON RADIATION OF SPENT URANIUM-THORIUM FUEL Moscow ATOMNAYA ENERGIYA in Russian Vol 51, No 2, Aug 81 (manuscript received'23 Jun 80) pp 125-126 (Article by N. S. Shimanskaya] [Text] Considerable interest has recently been manifested in the thorium fuel cy- cle. The use of thorium in high-temperature and other power reactors is attxactive primarily from the viewpoint of long-term support of nuclear power enqineering with relatively inexpensive fuel. Moreover, U-233 is accumulated in the fuel in this case, which can be used along with U-235 and Pu-239 as the �issionable component after regeneration. Economic estimates also inacate the prospects of the thorium cycle [1]. One of the eomplicating factors upon regeneration of spent uranivm-thorium fuel and subsequent use of the produced regenerate may be the high le.vel of hard y-radi- ation caused by'accumulation of U-232 and its dscay psroducts [2]. From the view= point of predicting the expected rac]iation situntion, it is of interest to also have available data on the neutron radiation of thfs fuel--its intensity and ener- gy spectrum. So far as we know, there are not yet any corresponding experimental aata. Yield of Neutron Radi,ation of Speat (Ta02-ThO2)-Fuel With Different Burnup and Different Coolinq Time After Unloading From the Reactor, 103 Neutrons/s�kg U-Th SRro- ) roA (2) - P~ ae. o i 2 I a a so 013 , 0,505 0,453 0,442 9.499 0,437 0,493 0,5 1,22 1,11 i,l0' 1,09 1,09 1,09 . 0,8. 10,6 8,47 7~90 ?,87 �7,38 8,73 1,0. 2514 21,0 i9,7,~ i9,0 1811 18.2 Key: l. Burnup, fifa tvydr years 17 FOR OFFICGlL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An attempt was made in this paper to obtain the required estimates by calculation for the initial stage of the thorium cycle when the accrued operating time of thE. U-233 oczurs in uranium-thorium fuel. The results of quantitative analysis of irradiated spherical fuel elements of type AVR were used in this case [3]. ;'he initial Th-232, U-235 and U-238 content in the fuel element was 81.9, 16.8 rsnd 1.3 percent, respectively. The extent of fuel burnup varied from 0.29 to 1.02 fifa.* The Th-232, Pa-231, U-232-236 and U-238, Np-237, Pu-238-242, Am-241, Am-243 and Cm-242 and Cn-244 content was determined upon analysis. The yield of neutran radiation and its energy spectrum were calculated similar to how this was done in [4, 5] for spent U02-fuel. Based on interpolation of the val- ues of the individual nuclide content for four selected burnup values w(w = 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 percent fifa), the partial yields of spontaneous fission neutrons and neutrons of the (an)-reaction in oxygett were determined. The values of the total neutron yield Yn are given in the table. Curves that characterize the ratio of contributions of the most important neutron emitters for (U02-Th2)-fuel with burnup of 0.5 and 1.0 fifa and variation of these contributions as the cooling af- ter irradiation increases are presented in Fiqure l. 10~ r� ~ 2JBpu . . 10~ J 10= Z~Op~ 133-138~ ~ 1 U !0'~ U, 14471397#1pu l0~ i 141~ Y42Cm . 0 12345ti7@D!0 a Key: t4yCm ?38p~ ?42Cm 13711 o f Z 3 4 5 6 7 t&d,zod b (2) Figure 1. Partial Contributions of Individual Nuclides to Neutron Yield of Spent (U02-Th02)-Fuel with Burnup of 0.5 (a) and 1.0 fifa (b) and Their Dependence on Cooling Time After Irradiation. The initial mass composition of the fuel was 81.9 percent Th-232, 16.8 percent U-235 and 1.3 percent U-238 1. Neutrons/s�kg U-Th 2. tvyd, years An increase of Yn with burnup for freshly unloaded fuel (tvyd = 0) corresponds to the function Yn z w3�3, which essentially coincides with the function found for uranium fuel [4]. The exponent for cooled fuel is somewhat less and varies in the range of 3.3-3.0 for cooling of 0-10 years. With burnup up to 0.6 fifa, the determining factor is the contribution of Pu-238 and the neutron radiation of Cm-244 begins to predominate gradually with high * Ratio of the total number of fissions in the fuel to the initial number of fis- sionable nuclei (editor's note). 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY burnup. The partial yields of individual nuclides for uranium-thorium and uranium fuel at similar values of burnup differ very strongly. The total yield of neutrons Yn also differs by approximateiY t::o orders. It is obvious that this is explained by the different initial composition of the fuel, primarily by different percentage content of U-235 and U-238 in it. The fraction of U-238 is approximate'ly 97 per- cent in the WER [water-moderated, water-cooled power reactor] fuel anfi this value is approximately one-half as much for AVR fuel. The contribution of reactors in U-235 that lead to formation of Pu-238 is accordingly considerably greater in AVR fuel and the neutron radiation of Cm-244 begins to dominate only with high burnup and the relative constribution of Pu-238 neutrons decreases. Z'he thorium itself and the nuclides fozmed during its irradiation in a reactor do not produce signif- = icant neutron radiation. The partial neutron yields of U-232 and U-233 with burnup of 0.8-1.0 fifa do not exceed 1 percent of the total yield Yn. Accumulatinn of nuclides of the U-232 decay chain increases slightly--by 3-5 percent--with the same burnup Yn. Figure 2. Energy Spectri of Neutron Radiation of Spent (U02_Th02)-Fuel With Burnup of 0.5; (1), 1.0 (2) and 1.0 (3) fifa and En = 2.35, 2.17 and 2.21 MeV, respectively. For curve 3, tvyd = 10 years KeY = 1. MeV The initial content of U-235 and U-238 will determine the neutron radiation intens- ity of spent uranium-thorium fuel even in the case of a closed thorium cycle. Thus, accordinq to our estimates one can expect that the neutron yield at tvykh = 0 will comprise approximately 9.4�103 neutrons/s�kg of U-Th for fuel with initial ratio of Th-232: U-233: U-235: U-238 = 92.4: 2.4: 4.7: 0.5 [6] and burnup of approximately 1.0 fifa for the eqilibrium cycle of the htgr reactor in which re- generated uranium and U-235 make-up are used. The presence of U-233 in the fuel and the accumulation of U-232 with repeat utilization of uranium regenerate in the reactor have essentially no effect on the neutron radiation intensity of the spent fuel. Calculations showed that the energy spectra of neutrons also vary considerably with an increase of burnup (Figure 2). The energy spectrum of neutron radiation of U02- Th02 fuel varies appreciably even after it is unloaded from the reactor. The rela- tive contribution of neutrons of (an)-reactions increases over time and the hard- ness of the spectrtian increases. We recall that the neutron spectrum of uranium fuel of power reactors, on the contrary, softens as cooling time inereases [5]. 19 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 D 1 1 J 4 S 5 7 8.5 !0 ' fn, MJB /~.y l APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 FOR OFF'iCIAL llSE ONL`i The use of uranium and thorium carbides in the thorium cycle instead of uranium and thorium oxides should not result in appreciable variation of the level of neu- tmn radiation of the fuel since the yield of (an)-reactions on thick targets of UC and U02 differs by no more than 30-50 percent at Ea = 5.0-6.5 MeV [7, 8]. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Protsenko, A. N., ATOMNAYA TEKHNIKA ZA RUBEZHOM, No 1, 1978. 2. Yurova, L. N. et al, ATOMIIdAYA ENERGIYA, Vol 45, No 1, 1978. 3. Wenzel, U. and A. Monteiro dos Santos, in_ droceedings of the Fourth Inter- - national Transplutonium Elements Symposium, Amsterdam-New York, N.-H. Publish- ing Company, 1976. 4. ahimazlskays, N. S., ATONNAYA ENEFtiGIYA, VOl 49, No 5, 1980. 5. Shimanskaya,'N. S., loc. cit. 6. Hebel, L. et al, REVIEW OF MODERN PHYSICS, Part 2, Vol 50, No l, 1978. 7. Liskien, H. and A. Paulsen, ATOMKERNENERGIE, Vol 30, 1977. 8. West, D. and A. Sherwood, Neutron Yields from (an)-R,eactions in the Light Elements, Report AERE-R 9195, 1978. COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, "Atomnaya energiya", 1981 6521 CSO: 8144/096 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040034-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.039.50 REGULATING ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF REACTOR IN.SECOND UNIT OF BELOYARSRAYA ATOMIC POWER STATION Moscow ATONNAYA ENERGIYA in Russian Vol 51, No 2, Aug 81 (manuscript received 7 Jul 80) pp 91-95 [Azticle by 0. L. Bozhenkov, V. G. Dunayev, N. A. Kuznetsov, I. A. Luk'yanets, V. V. Mal'tsev, P. T. Potaperilco, V. N. Sarylov, E. I.'Snitko,, Ye. V. Filipchuk and A. G. Sheynkman] [Text] Operation of AMB reactors o� the Beloyarskaya AES imeni I. V. Kurchatov (BAES) demonstrated the econc,:aic effectiveness of nuclear superheating of steam that has now achieved furthez developneent in the project of the RBM-KP [1]. Equal- ized energy distribution and opti.mum ratio of outputs for production and superheat- ing of steam in the thermal balance must be aaintained fn the core when operating power reactors of the givea type. Therefore, the experience of solving these prob- lems with respect to the existiaig reactors of the BAES is also useful when working out effective control alqorichms for the RBM-KP. An algorithm for oontrollinq the positions of the control mds (RS) at steady pewer levels for the AMB-200 rsactor has now been proposed which ensures the best equalization of energy distribution in the sense of the selected entire function. with a given set of production restrictions. Fostulation of the problem. Charg:ing of the AMB-200 inciudes 998 production chan- nels (TK): 732 evaporative channels (IK) and 266 superheating.channels (~K) and the latter are located in the center of the oore-, alternatinq*rows'with the IK. A total of 78 control rods is also located in the reactor core. Controlling the operation of the reactor requires that a strictly specific ratio of output of the superheating and evaporative circuits be provided (ff = NpK/NIK = = const) and that the energy distribution Q(r) equal throughout the core radius be maintained [2]. This is achieved in practice by physical profiling: by a corre- spondinq arrangement ox the TK with different uranium and RS enrichaent and also by�profilinq the fuei burnup through the reactor radius. 'The core is conditionally dfvided according to the arrangement of the TK into four concentric zones charac- terized by qiven mean values of the neutron multiplication factor k2i for physic:al calculations. Under operating conditiens, TK recharging and uraninm burnup are selected so tliat the.mean values of ka,i in each isolated zeqicm correspond to the given values at 21 FOR OFFICiAL USE,ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040030-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the end of the operating interval (prior to fuel recharging). An attempt is made to maintain deviation of the mean values of the multiplication factrir from the given values [A]wi = kwi - kgi (i = 1, 4)] at a minimum level coiTesponding to redistribution of the submerged lenqth of the control rod during the period be- tween recharging [2]. Perfornv,ng this operation in practice is related to the need for operational analysis of a large wlume of information that characterizes the actual state of the reactor. To eliminate possible erroneous actions'of the operator and to increase the reliability and quality of control at this level, a computer can be used, allocating to it the function of advisor to operational per- sonnel in optimum management of the production process. According to regulatfons for reactor operation, the goal of control can be reduced , to minimizing the compoaents of vector AQ(r) = Q(r) - QO(r) that characterizes deviation of the actual energy distribut3on Q(r) from energy distribution QO(r), clearly detexmined by the given distribution of the multiplication factor k,04(r). The validity of this approach follows from the fact that the coefficient of non- uniform energy distribution assumes a minimum value for a given length of the op- erating interval of a reactor between recharges of the TK and for a system of con- ditions that determine its completion (average burnup of unloaded fuel and retention of criticality at full power with equilibrium xenon content when all the control rods are removed from the core), if the energy distribution re,mains con- stant from the beginning to end of the operating cycle [3]. Reliable heat,dissipation from the core that guarantees the absence of emergencies due to deterioration of heat transfer must be provided during operation of a reac- tor at power close to maximwn. For example, the temperature of the fuel element jackets must not exceed the maximum permissible value [4]. Therefore, the follow- ing production restrictions are introduced in AMB reactors by the temperature of superheating steam at the autput from them for PK and by the maximum output for IK. Taking this into account, the problem of controlling a reactor in which the best equilization of energy distribution is achieved during the entire interval between recharges can finally be formulated as one of finding the compon- ents of the control vector (movements of the control rods) that pirovide the best approximation to energy distribution QO(r) while conforming to production restrictions. Mathematical model of the reactor. The specifics of the problem of stabilizing steady energy distribution permits one to use linearized equations with respect to slight deviations (perturbations) from steady values of parameters when construct- ing the mathematical model of a reactor. In this case the reactox can be regarded as a control object in combination with the integral regulator of total output. Its mathematical model can then be represented in the form of a static transfer matrix found on the basis of experimental data [5]. Workers of NPO [Scientific production association] Energiya, A. Anikin and A. Oveshkov, determined in November 1977 on the reactor of the second unit of the BAES how the control rods influence the energy distribution and steam temperature _ at the output from the PK by moving individual control rods and by recording the established values of DPZ currents and steam temperature corresponding to these movements. The results of these experimenta were used by them in constructing the 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY mathematical model of a reactor on the basis of physical calculation for the prob- lem of optimization of energy distribution. A different approach, the basis of which is the harmonic model of the�neutron field of a reactor, was used in this paper to describe a reactor as a contx+ol object. The most typical spatial harm4nics of the neutron field excited during movement of the control rods had to be determined to work out this model. For this purpose, the authors of this paper carried out experiments in October 1978 on the AMB-200, during which they recorded the readings of the DEZ and thermocouples at the output of the PK when indiqidual control rods and groups of control rods (from two to four rods simultaneously) were moved. The results o� these experiments were also used in this paper to calculate the coefficients of the transfer matrix of a reactor used in determining the optimum movements of the control rods. The method of processing the experiments reduced to the following. Relative changes of the output of the channels being monitored were calculated by DPZ readings mea- sured before and after the control rods were moved. The increase of the nuetron flux density at an arbitrary point of the core was represented in the form of a linear combination of approximating functions of given type with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes that describe the more typical harnanics for the reactor under consideration as the first radial and the first and second azimuth. The effect of higher harmonics was taken into account by adding the weighting functions of the control rods calculated on the basis of physical calculation. Moreover, the har- monics mentioned previously were excluded from the weighting function. The amplitudes of the approximating functions were calculated by the least squares method from the condition of best approximation of the approximate distribution at control ?oints to experimental data. The coefficients of the transfer matrix of the reactor were determined from the values of amplitudes and the known type of approximating functions found in this manner. It was also taken into account that the automatic control rods for total output may excite the first radial and second azimuth harnonics during operation of the disturbing actions. A check of the ade- quacy of the developed model to experiment showed that the mean square deviation of energy distribution found in experiment and on the model comprises approximate- ly one percent when the same control rods are moved. Formalization of the problem. Algorithm for.calculations. The practical suitabil- ity of linearized models to describe a reactor as a control object in steady modes permits one to use effectivie mathematical methods of linear programming theory when working out optimum control alqorithms. Some versions of this approach to - the problem of optimum control of energy distribution for domestic reactors were first considered in [6, 7]. Solution of the pmblem of formulating the energy dis- tribution profile using the standard simplex method in the sense of the minimum coefficient of margin to maximum power was suggested in [6]. . Unlike [6], an entire function determined by regulation of AMB reactor operation and that characterizes the maximum modulus of deviation of the actual enargy dis- tribution from the given distribution is used in this paper and the heat engineer- ing restrictions are taken into account so that equalization of energy distribu- tion is achieved while retaininq the given level of heat engi.neering reliability. Moreover, a more effective algorithm of the modified simplex method was used when 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040030-9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044030-9 FOR OFF[CIAL USE OfVLY working out the computer program which made it possible to reduce the calc '.ating time by approximately an order of magnitude when compared to [6]. Let us select vectors Q and QO of the production channel output of the core as components Qi and Qi'with actual and gi.T�en energy distribution. To eliminate ex- treme requirements on-the capacity of the internal storage of the computer, by analogy with [6) let us divide the core into p polycells with number of production channels in each of them Mp and let us the mean output of the production channel for each polycell at the actual and given energy distribution: . - M r - - - - i p 1VI Qp = Wp ~j Qt, QP = ~yp ~Q{, P = 9, . . . , P. Variation of the deviation of inean output of the production channel of each polycelZ from its value at qiven energy distribution is written as a function of the control vector on the k-th.control step with regard to equation (1) in the form n M Q(k) _ jl(pk-1) p i P Ap -QP-f- M~, }..,i Q(k-!)aI/) aPtk), (2) fa! {a~ . p=1, P, , where aij are the coefficients of the static matrix of the reactor inodel, dpJk) is the reactivity introduced by the j-th control rod at t_1e k-th control step ad- n is the number of control rods. Thermophysical calculations and operating practice show that selection at maximum output of the AMB-200 is essentially not affected by the IK for which the safety factor to maximum output of the channel Kz exceeds 1.3 [4]. This permits one to take into account the heat engineering restrictions of type Zi (1 + ~ aijaP"') + imf ='f~! ^ Nu ! f) ~ Ns ~'i2 ~n~~2 Q(kt- ait-N~~~ Q~k-')a1j) 8P$k)