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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850RQ00500050022-7 I~OR OwFI('IAI. USF. ONLY JPRS L/ 10446 12 April 1982 Wor~dwide Re ort p . TELE~OMMUNICATf~NS POI.ICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FOUO 8/82) _ ~B~$ FOREIGN ~ROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR GFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 PJOTE JPRS publications contain information priaiarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Mate~ials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Textj or [Excerpt] in the firs*_ line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was - processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclozzed in parentheses were not clear i.n the - original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Tio~es within ~.tems are as given by soc:rce . The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, ~,iews or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF - MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTFcICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500050022-7 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10446 ~.2 April 1982 WORLDWIDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICA7IONS POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CFOUO 8/82) CONTENTS ^ ASIA JAPAN Satellite Broadcasting Pro~ected in 1990 (ASAHI EVIIdING NEWS, 22 Ma.r 82) 1 Briefs New Meteorological Satellite Launched 2 WEST EUROPE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS France To Participate in Development of Sweden's TELE-X (AIR ET COSMOS, 6 Mar 82) 3 , I'RANCE Navy Reveals Details of Military Satellite, Future Options (Pierre Langereux; pIR ET~COSMOS, 31 Oct 81) 5 Ariane Elicits Colombian Interest, Competes With NASA (Francois Lebrette; VALEURS ACTUELLES, 28 Dec 81-3 Jun 82) 7 MATRA To Build New Facilities, Enter DBS Market _ (Pi~rre Langereux; AIR ET COSMOS, 6 Mar 82) 10 ~ _ a _ [ III - WW - 140 FOUO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500054022-7 JAPAN SATELLITE BROADCASTING PROJECTED IN 1990 OW221305 Tokyo ASAHI EVENING NEWS in English 22 Mar 82 p 3 ~ [Text] In the report the Study and Research Coim cil on tihe Diversification of Broadcasting submitted or Friday to Posts and Telecommunications Minister Noboru Minowa, it says that people will be able to enjoy telzvision broad- ca:ts ~sing broadcasting satellites in the 1990's. Broadcasting satellites wil]. make it possible for people to enjoy TV programs that are as clear as movies, the high-fidelity reproduction of music, and to receive, by means of a facsimile machine, hundreds of thousands of pages in just 30 seconds, as well as still ;mages with soimd. _ The report called for studies on technical developments, the establishment of technical standards, the benefits to listeners and the economic feasibil- ity of. such broadcasts. Th e council was established within the Posts and Telecommunications Ministry - in July 1980 and consists of 15 professors, journalists, researcher~ and . critics. They studied demand treilds, technical developments a:id problems connected with future bros~lcasting policy. 'Phe report submitted Friday to Minowa consisted of three parts: (1) Trends toward diversification in the broadcasting field; (2) outl~ok for and problems of broadcasting policy; a~d (3} proposals. Symbolic of the whole is satellite broadcasting, which will begin with the i~ broadcasting satellite (BS-2) to be latm.ched in Niarch 1984. There will be color broadcasts on two channels; both channels wil~ be used for NHK broadcas*s to remote islands and mountainous areas, where the reception of ordinary broadcasts ispoor, and during disasters. I.ater two sate.llites, BS-3 and BS-4, will be launched to make available eight channels under an international agreement. Users can receive broad- casts anywhere in Japan if they turn a bowl antenna ~nF ineter in diameter toward the point where longitude 110 degrees east crosses the equator. - The problem is economic feasibility. If the advertising charge system is adopted, the NHK channels will compete with commercial broadcasting stations. The report proposes that the broadcasting waves be encoded and that listeners U~ry ma~;netic cards each mo~th to i.nsert into decoders. The proposal i.Q, i~: e~fect, for pay television. The report says that such broadcasts tr~ll be ecotiomically feasible if 10 m9.llion people buy the pay TV receiving cards. COPYRIGHT: Asahi ~vening Npws 1982 ~ CSO: 5500/2167 - 1 FOR OF~'1CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R004500050022-7 JAPAN BRIEFS N~[d ME`.iLOROLOGICAL SATELLITE LAUNCHED--Tokyo, 17 Mar (JIJI PRESS)--Ja~an will launch a new geostationary meteorological satellite, called GM~-3, by N-II rocket in fiscal 1984 to replace the present "Himawari (Stmfluwer) II," the Space Development Council decided Wednesday. The council also decided that Jap anese space engineers wi.ll start in fiscal 1983 preliminary des.igning of the nation's third telecommunications satellite, dubbed CS-3, to be lofted by the nex~-generation large rocket H-I. The council, chaired by Director-General Ichiro Nakagawa of the Science and Technology Agency, works out Japan's space development program every year, taking into accoimt tlle domestic and international s~tuati~n. [Text] [OW171445 Tokyo JIJI in English 1433 GNiT 17 Mar $2] CSO: 5500/2167 ~ 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS FRANCE TO PARTICIPATE IN pEVELOPMENT OF SWEDEN'S TELE-X Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 6 Mar 82 pp 43, 48 [Article by P,L.: "Important French Participation in the Swedish 'TELE-X' Sat- ellite"] [Text] French industry isbeing called on to play a very considerable part in the building of the Swedish TELE-X experimental telecommunications satellite. The CNES [Nationsl Center for Space Studies], which has participated in the preliminary project studies since 1980, is taking on the role of consultant to the Swedish Space Corporation during the definition phase preaently in pro- - gress. Furthermore, the Swedish company SAAB [Swedish Aircraft Corporation]- Scania, responsible for the design and construction of the satellite, is get- ting support from the Franco-FRG Eurosatellite group, which will furnish the platform for the T~LE-X satellite, and from the French company Aerospatiale for ~ project definition and management. In addition, the Swedish firm LM Ericsson, responsible for TELE-X's payload, is getting imp4rtant technical support from the French company Thomson-CSF [General Radio Company], notably for definition of the repeaters, which will make maximum use of the equipment deveioped for tl~e French direct-TV satellite TDF 1 and the Telecom 1 telecommunications sat- elli.t-e. Withi.n the framework of the contract made with the CNES at the end of 1981, the Toulouse space center has formed a special support team for the TELE-X project; in liaison with the personnel responsible for the French direct-TV satellite TDF 1, it is assisting the Swedish team with t:rie technical monitoring of the industri~l contracts in progress ai~d preparation of the contract for construc- tion and launching of TELE-X. Furthermore, an agreement to reserve a European launchcr was signed by the Swedish Space Corporation with Arianespace on 11 Feb- ruary 1982. It pruvides for.the launching of TELE-X in June 1986 with an Ari- ane 2 rocket. " Furtt~ermore, the TELE-X project has been considerably revised from the initial proposal. In particular, tt?e Swedish Space Corporation has eliminated the Truclcsat payload, intended to p?-ovide for communications with trucks in.West ~ Europe. The three other missions of the TELE-X satellite, using two repeaters for di- " rect TV and two others for transmission of data and video images, are retained, ttiough. They involve preoperational missions for: 3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 r~x v~rri~twL u~~, uNLY --transmission of digital data: a two-channel repeater, operating in the 14-14.25 Gliz frequency band (for upwarn connections) and the 12.5-12.75 GHz band (for downward connections), provides for transmissions among a large num- ber of earth stations located on the territory of the Scandinavian countries. The choice of a high radiated power for the satellite (100 W per channel).is related to the objective of use of earth stations that are as simple as pos- sil~le; --transmission of video signals, using, on a time-share basis, the same equip- ment on board the satellite as for the preceding mission. These video-signal transmission cover both visual- and sound-broadcasting transfer connections and teleconference, tele-education and teledistribution connections; --br.oadcasting via satellite, through the intermediary of a two-channel repeat- er operating in the 17.3-18.1 GHz (upward connections) and 11.7-12.5 GHz (downward connections) irequency bands. This is a broadcasting (direct-TV) mission in which the choice of high radiated power on the satellite (230 W per channel) Permits individual reception with the aid of a small-diameter (60 to 90 cm) antenna at any point in the territory of the Scandinavian countries (same coverage as for the preceding two missions). We note that TELE-X will be used not only by Seden but also by Norway, Finlar~d and Denmark. It effectively prefigures the future Nordcom operational telecom- munications satellites of the Scandinavian countries. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1982 11267 CsO: 5500/2155 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 FRANCE NAVY REVEAT,S DETAILS OF MILITARY SATELLITE, FUTURE OPTIONS Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 31 Oct 81 p 43 ~Article by Pierre Langereux:"The Syracuse Network Will Be Operational in January 1984"; for related article see JPRS 79740, 24 Dec 81, #194 of this series, pp 35- 36~ [Text~ By 1 January 1984, the French Army and especially the French Navy will have available to chem an operational SYRACUSE ~Satellite Radio Communication System~ network for military and government telecommunications via satellite. This was revealed by the French magazine ARMEES U~AUJOURU'HUI in an article by I~avy Capt Christian Ract-Madoux, a distinguished officer of the SYRACUSE prograin - in the Operations Division of the Navy Staf�. This SYRACUSE program, the existence of which we revealed several months ago (see AIR ET C~SMOS No 866), will use the first two national civil telecommunications satellites--Telecom 1's--that will ~e launched in July and October 1983 respec- tively by Eurc~pean Ariane 3 rockets and placed in geostationary orbi.t at 7 and 10 degrees West to cover ~urope, Africa, the MiddLe East, the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ucean, and part of the Indian Ocean. These satellites are built by ~ MATRA ~Mechanics, Aviation and Traction Company~ with the participation of numer- ous firms, including Thomson-CSF for the telecommunications payload invol- ving the two 7.25-8.40.Hz military transponders, the TOP Cprogressive wave tube~ amplifiers of which will be furnished by the American firm Ford Aerospace. The SYRACJSE ne.twork will provide the Armed Forces with telephone and telegraph circuits that are, secure and protected against jamming. This space telecommunications system will be "supplementary" to the military HF network and "justifies the effort being made by the Navy to improve the reTiabil,ity, security - and resistance to jamming of its HF circuits," Captain Ract-Madoux explains. According to this high-ranking officer of the SYRACUSE pr.ogram, the ground seg- ment,developed under the aegis of the DGA ~General Delegation for Weaponry~, the General Staff ~f the Army and that of the Navy, will include: --Three earth stations situated near Brest, near Paris and Southern Fr~nce. Two of these three stations will be on Navy bases and will be manned by Navy person- nel; the third will be on a Ground Forces base; 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500050022-7 NUK Uf~Nll.'IAL U5~ VNLY � --Some 10 mobile stations designed especially for use by the Navy for fpreign actions and to strengthen the OMIT ~Military Interforces Communications Organiza- tion~; --Some 10 naval stations which, taking into account their cost and to optimize their use, will be transportable from one ship to another; some 15 large ships - will be equipped to accommodate these stations. By way of one o� the two Telecom 1 military transponders, the ships will be able to establish up to three simultaneous links with the metropolitan earth stations. These links, which will be encrypted and protected against jamming, will be operated mainly as slow- and high-speed telegraph circuits and CHS ~high-grade- encryption~ telephone circuits. SYRACIIS~ will be the first mili~ary telecommunications satellite facility to becorne operational in France. Succe.~sor to SYRACUS~ - Considering the limited service life (7 years) oL- Telecom 1 satellites, the Armed rorces have already begun thinking about the space system that is to succee~ these satellites come 1990. According to Captain Rack-Madoux, this could be: ~ --Either a mixed civil and military satellite--a solution that, attractive though it .is from the c~st stand~oint, poses two major problems: A limited a:id very likely insuf-fici~nt capacity if the network is to be opened to other users; and a spot on the orbit that will be very difficult to provide, since the more diEferent frequency bands a satellite covers, the more complex its positioning becomes. It must in effect be dis~.anced at the same time from other military as well as other commercial satellites. This problem, already a difficuTt one for Telecom 1, is ~ ].ikely to be an impossible one in 1990 considering the larye number of satellites that will be launched between now and then. --Or a satellite exclusively for governmental and military use, which would make it posaible to extend the network to many users and, by the use of other frequency band:;, to resolve the problems of station congestion and hence to consider air- craft and submarine links. But--the author concludes--while this solution is attractive, the question is: will the Arm~d Forces be capable of undertaking such a space program while con- tinuiny their effort to improve telecommunications links that use conventional frec~uency bands? COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 9238 CSO: 5500/2111 . ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 FRANCE ARIANE ELICITS COLOMBIAN INTEREST, COMPETES WITH NASA Paris VALEURS ACTUELLES in French 28 Dec 81-3 Jun 82 pp 28-29 ~Article by Francois Lebrette: "The Clients of Ariane"~ ~Excerpts~ Space is smaller than it would seem to be. It offers only 90 spots - to geostationary satellites--those li.nks that more and more will be replacing ~ earth-based cables for telecommunications--although present plans call for the launching of over 200 of them during the next 10 years. "Basically," says Mr Klaus Iferland, assistant director of the Arianespace com- pany, "all that is necessary is to increase the frequenoies used in order to obtain a severalfold increase in the number of usable channels." This German engineer, who 10 years ago worked on the Europa rocket, now works on the technical aspects and the marketing of the Ariane launcher. In a French barely marked by a slight accent, he explained to me: "Actually, the problem will not be really acute except where direct television satellites are concerned. Each country is goinq to want to brim over into the other countries so as to increase its audience. And it is not yet certain that the receiving antennas will be sufficiently selective. Thc issue has been brought now to the fore and in an unexpected way, by a country one would not have expected to do so: Colombia. Straddling the equator as it does, this country has decided to "nationalize" the space region directly over it. - The United States, the first to use the American zone of the equatorial orbit, has obviously refused to to this intent on the part of Bogota. And with arguments that are not without substantial weight. To begin with, says the United States, there is a difference between outer space and adjacent space. Furthermore, it is unacceptable that the geostationary orbit be conFiscated by the only countries situated on the equator, thus constituting a kind of orbit OPEC consisting of Zaire, the Maldives, Indonesia and Gabon. Above all, the Colombian claim is inconsistent from a technical standpoint. Once or twice a month, a satellite is subjected to an eclipse: The sun no longer feeds its photoelectric panels. Since it would be too costly to carry heavy batteries 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 ru~c urri~'rwt, u~r, u~Lr aboard the satellite, the spacecraft is shifted, in these cases, a.`few degrees . westward of the receiving country, to reduce these "outages" to just a few r.ours during the night. In other words, if Co2ombia wanted to put up satellites, it would have to "shift" them over above its neighbor: Ecuador! rhe concern of the third-worZd countries, however, is understandable. They too will be needing satelli~es, and even more so ~han the industrialized countries. Thus, Indonesia has ordered from the United its own geostationary satel- lite, which since last spring has k.~een praviding telephone communications among the largest of the country's 4,000 is7.ands. To interconnect them by means of conventional cable facilities would have been very much more expensive. In countries lacking hasic infrastructures, the most viable solution is the satel- lite. Provided there is room on the equat~rial orbit, In this context, those able to launch satellites can dici:ate the law. Dut they can be counted on the fingers of one.hand. Japan, with its small. "N" rocket can place 250 kg in geostatiionary orbit. But zt is still i.n the t.esting stage, and tests so far tiave not been conclusive. It appears that China is doing double quick time as regards the launching of its "I~ong March" rocke~o but the launching is not expected to take place for at least another year. F~riane launched the first satellite dedicated to maritime links--Marecs 1--on 20 December. And it is still Ariane that will place Marecs 2 in orbit in April. But for the firsL- timc~, the Soviets have offered to launch a foreign satellite: The international organization Inmarsat's satellite scheduled to be orbited in 1983 or 1984. Apart from this exception, competition in the international satellite-launching market is reduced to tv~o rivals: Europe witPi its Ariane, and the Unized States. - The term "competil-ion" is actually not very exact: With ~nly two in the market, they cannot {ceep up with the world demand. Mr Iferland explains: "NASA cannot fill a11 requests, because of constraints with regard to launching dates, which must often be very exact. Ariane derives the benefit frQm this situation. Neve.rtheless, the Americans are not welcoming with enthusiasm the arrival of the Europeans in a market that has been their monopoly since the launching of Early Birc! (weighing scarcely 40 kg) in 1965. The fact that Ariane is competing with NASA for its own damestic clientele does not make them any happier. The Arianespace company and the ESA ~European Space Agenex~ have in hand 22 firm orders fur launchings, including particularly those of five American satellites: one for Western Union, two for the GT~ Corporation, two for Sou~.hern Pacific _ Cornmunications. Moreover, the Furopeans have gained the Arabic clientele. The 14th Ariane rocket will carry up the first Arabsat in February 1984. In sum, the international organizati.ons, long dominated by the Amexicans, are beginning to deal witti the European organization: Thi.s is already the case with the Marecs launchings and will also be the case with Intelsat. S FOIi OIFFIC'KAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 Arianespace aiso has bookings on 16 reservations, each one covered by a paid-in !~inder of $1.00,000. Amcng its potential clients are: Brazil, Australia, again Arabsat, and Colombia for two Satcol's. "The controversy between Washington and Bogota on the ownership of space has beeri beneficial to us," says Mr Iferland laughingly. Each launching represents 1 milliom hours of work for the firm that is chosen. Five contracts a year guarantee close to 4,000 jobs: The economic interest is _ obvious. This explains the decision by the Europeans to build, at Kourou, a second launching platform for Ariane. It will cost 600 million L-rancs and will be ready by the end of 1984. By that year, Kourou 1 will have reached saturation ' wi.*h six launchings (versus three planned for 1982~. The Americans are reacting by preparing a second launching platform for their Thor-Delta rockets; this instaliation could become operational next year. The delays experienced by the Shuttle had already led NASA to resume building its - Thor and Atlas-Centaur rockets, on which it had been marking time. Even the coming into be~ng of the Shuttle does not worry the Europeans, Today,. a launching by Ar.iane costs 20 percent less than with a Thor--Delta. But the price of a launching by the Shutt~e will be r,alf that by the European rocket. "Actually," Mr Tferland thinks he is correct in saying, "for the Americans this represents a price to which they are bound owing to a se.rious underestimation of the cost of the Shuttle, and which will be valid only until September 1985." Beyond that guaranteed ~eriod, 1~ASA will therefore have to revise its price. Will it then be cheaper than Ariane? Designed to return to earth, the Shuttle cannot go too �ar out into space; it cannot attain th~a height of the transfer orbit from which a satellite reaches its final orbit under its own power. To orbit geo- stationary satellites, the Shuttle must therefore carry as a supplement the equi- valent of the third stage of the Ariane rocket. This presents a very complex and cost'ly problem. In any case, the I~ericans, over the next 10 years, will have only four shuttles. By 1985, the Europcans will be able to put into orbit weights of 4 tons with l~riane 4(versus less than 2 tons with today's Ariane}. The choice between the two vehic.les wi11 undoubtedly depend upon price, but also upon diplomatic con- siderztions. And it is still. not certain that these two launchers will then be enough to satisfy the demand. COPYizICHT: 19$1 "Valeurs Actuelles� 9399 CSO: 5500/2109 ~ FOR OFFICIAL LJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02149: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500050022-7 - 1~'UI~ UF~'i('SAL iJ~~ UNI~Y FRANCE - r1ATRA T'0 BUILD NEW FACILITIES, ENTER DBS MARKET Paris ATR ET COSMOS in F~ench 6 P1ar 87_ pp 39-41 [Article by Pierre Langereux: "MATRA (M~chanics, Aviation and Traction Co] Is I'aking On tt?e Direct-TV-SatelliteG Market"] [Text] As 1982, marking the 20th anniversary of ~TRA's entry into space, be- gins, Noel Mignot, director of the company's space sector, has reason. The turnover of MATRA-Space has doubled in 1 year, from Fr. 382 million in 1980 to Fr 702 million in 1981, while its personnel gre~a from 645 to 854 persons, with an average age of 32, the lowest in the company. I~urr.hermore, the will soon reach 950 employees (51 per.cent of them engin- eers and cadres), and they will number more than 1,000 next year--half at Veli- zy, near Paris, and half at Toulouse, where PIATRA has just placed in service its new Palays space center., which represents an investment of Fr 190 million. r1ATit~1 thus has Europe's biggest space center for construction and integration of satellites. With its 25,000 mL of covered surface area, including 2,200 m2 in clean rooms, it will malce it possible to i.ntegrate 5 satellites simultane- otisl.y and caill be able to accomodate the biggest satellites of the 1990's--both those of the Shuttle kind and the ftiture European Ariane 5 rocket. - Outloolc .ior Evolul-.ion of P4ATRA-Space's Ti.irnover by 5ector from 1981 to 1986 1981 1.986 Millions Millions Growth Turnover of Francs % of francs % % _ 'I'elecommunications 244 34.7 35U 18.4 43 Observarion of Earth 215 30.6 ~20 42.2 281 5ci.ence