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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY " JPRS L/10523 18 ~lay ~982 USSR Re ort p SPACE - CFOUO 2/82) Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVIC~ FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000504060036-1 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agenc~ transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources ~ are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enr~losed in brackets [J are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] - or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was _ processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. ~ The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- - cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATEKIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L~10523 , 18 May 1982 USSR REPORT ~ SPACE (~ouc~ 2/'s 2 ~ CONTENTS MANNED MISSION HIGHLIGHTS 'AIR & COSMOS' on 'Cosmos 1267~ as Precursar of Modular . Vessels .......................................s............... 1 Blagov Comments on Flight of "Salput--6'----'Cosmos~-1267t.......... 4 'AIR & COSMOS' on Training, Mission of Soviet'French Joint Flight 6 'AIlt & COSMOS' on Fu*.ure of French-SaTiiQ~ Flights 9 Space Re~earch on Atn~ospheric-Optical Phenomena k'rom 'Salyut~6' 10 LIFE SCIENCES Comparative Analysis of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic . Radiation: 1. Nervous System 16 SPACE ENGINEERING Technique and Equipment for Radionetric Calibration of ~ 'Fragment' Multispectral Scanning System in Absolute Energy Units 24 SPACE APPLICATIONS Observation of Visible Manifestations of Ocean~Dynamics Prom ~ 'Salyut--6' Orbital Station 36 Method of Integrated Investigations of Ocean and Atmosphere Fr~m Space 42 _ - a- r,zaz - USSR - 21.L S&T FOUO] L'!~D IICCT!'i A i T TCL' l11VT V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Analyais of Data Pron Synchronoua Measurements Made by 'Meteor' Artificial EartT~ Satellite and Sh3ps Near Eastern Shnre of Caspian Sea 52 Experiment in Using Videoinformation From 'Meteor' Satellites To Investigate Oceanic Pheno~mena .............................0 60 Geometric Correction of Scanner Photographa of the Earth's Surface 69 Filming Moonsets From Space a.3 Method of Studying Earth's _ Atmosphere ................................................o... 77 Using Space Photographs To Study and Map Agricultural Utilization of Land 81 Experimental Evaluation of Methods for Automated Interpretation of Agricultural Crops on Basis of Photographs Jbtained With 'Fragment' Multispectral Scanning System 89 Mapping Forests From Space Photographs............�.�.��.������� 94 Space-Based Research for Urban Planning 99 Satellite Imaging for Urban Planning 106 Usizg Materials From Multispectral Scanner Survay To Studp Anthropogenic Effect on t~e Enviro~ent 109 'Intercosmos' Program Meetings on Environmen~tal ~ollution....... 115 SPACE POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION ' International Monitoring From Space..........�...�...���~������� 118 - b - - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY MANNED MISSION HIGSLIGHTS 'AIR & COSMOS' ON 'COSMOS 1267' AS PRECURSOR OF MODULAR VESSELS Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 31 Oct 81 p 39 [Article by Pierre Langereux, special correspondent sent by AIR ET COSMOS to Star City as guest of Soviets] [Text] The Cosmos~-1267 automatic satellite~ which has been moored to the - Salyut--6 orbital station since June 1981~ is the precursor of new modular transport spacecraft that will enable the USSR to build a large new thirda generation orbital station. This ma~or new objective of Soviet astronautics was off icially disclosed on 17 June 1981~ ~uat 2 days before the docking of Cosmos~-1267 with. Salyut-6~ by the Soviet number one in person.l Leonid Brezhnev revealed on that date that "The USSR will be putting into service permanent orbital~scientific complexes whose crews will be renewed:" A little more i~s known today about what Cosmo s~1267 actually is and what the future Soviet orbital stations will be like~ thanks esp2cially to the facts given us at Star City by Gen Vladimir Shatalov, cammander of the - Soviet cosmonauts. Cosmos-~1267 is an experimental satellite of the Cosmos serie~s designed to test new space systems in orbit and to fine--tune assembly metliods for lar~e-- scale space complexes. Cosmos-1267 is not a new piloted craft but a "prototype of a modular transport vessel" that will make it possible to build permanently orbited space stations of a larger size and better equipped than the preserlt Salyut. These future stations will be able to~accammodate three-person crews, thanks to the new three~lace Soyuz T transport vessel. This will make it possible to lodge up to six cosmonauts aboard future Salyuts in cases where a "visiting" crew is sent up in addition to the "main" crew. Cosmos-1267 is a 15-toa vesael~ twice as heavy as the Soyuz T(7 tons) and almost as heavy ae a Salyut atation (19 ~ons}. It viill be able to carry 1~'^See AIR ET COSMOS Nb 852, 866, 867 and 8 75, 1 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY around 8--1G tons of cargo2~ although this characteristic does not appear to have been defined as yet. Devoid of a solar generator, Cosmos--1267 consists mainly of three elements; A propulsion module, a babitation module with iir lock~ and a car go module~ possibly with a recoverable compartment to bring back to earth the products ~anufactured un~er microgravity in future "space-industry workshopa~" as explained by Shatalov. The Cosmos-1267 habitation module resembles that of the Soyu~ T, but the cargo compartment is cylindrical and the propulsion system is different~ as is the docking system. This new transport vess~l can be ~uilt in several variants, with different special-~purpose modules~ according to needs: habitational, microgravity laboratory. astronomy, geophysics~ etc. The habitational module will enable crews to live and work aboard~ but cosmonauts will not be launched aboard this future transport vessel, which will actually be a kind of "Super Progress." _ The present Salyut will be the generative basis of these future large orbital complexes, which ~;r'~11 consist of many habitational modules of the - size of a Salyut statior~. The future third-generation orbital station3~ will be equipped with several docking ports tfiat wil~ accommodate different special--purpose modules. The facilities required for different missions - will be installed in the station and in the special-~purpose modules that can be added one by one as needed. This new concept of a modular orbital station is judged by the Soviet experts to be "more flexible and more economically viable" from the standpoint of a permanent establisiuaent in sF,ace. "The time is not far away when th~ USSR will put such a complex in orbit~" said Soviet cosmonaut Konstantin Feoktistov on 24 June~ adding that "The recent docking of Cosmos-1267 with Salyut--6 was the.prototype of such an actualization." The Sovieta are no~ bullding the facility at Star City to house the flight simulator designed for the new~modular stations. Vladimir Shatalov pointed out that: "This new facility will be in service within 3 to 4 years, by 1984-1985, that is. This means the USSR will be ready by that time to orbit a permanent modular station~ based on the experimence it will have acuqired with Casmos--1267 and its probable successors. This will provide confirma-- tion of the capacity of these orbital complexes for flights of long duration." The mission of Cosmos--1267~ launched on 25 Ap~ral 1981 and moored to Salyut since 19 June~ will terminate in a f ew weeks or a few months 2) See AIR ET COSMOS No 866. 3) The Soviets regard the first five Salyuts as first-generation orbital stations~ and Sal,yut 6 as the f irst second-generation etatton~ capable, that isp of docking two vessels (Soyuz and Progress) simultaneously~ by means of its two docking ports. _ 2 . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFF[CIAL U~E ONLY at the latest. The satellite, which carried no cargo for this test flight, is in fact echeduled to be detaciied prior to tlie possible sending of another "principal crew" to occupy the Salyut-b station, assuming th~ Soviets will decide to send new c-rews~ including the first Franco-~Soviet crew~ aboard Salyut 6. More probably~ iwwever, these crews will use the new Salqut--7 station, and in this case Salyut-~6 will be abandoned. - ~~IGA'~: - A. & C . 1981 9399 CSO: 8119/0700~A 3 FOR OF'F'[CUL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY BLAGOV COI~IENTS ON FLIGHT OF ' SALYUT-~6' COSMOS--1267' Paris AIR & COSMOS in French 28 Nov 81 p 42 IArticle by Pierre Langereux: "Soviet Station 'Salyut-~6' in Orbit Fifty Months"] [Teact] The Soviet orbital station "Salyut~6" has been in orbit more than four years. The station~ which was launched on 29 Septembex 1977~ has completed over 24,~00 revolutions of tIie earth and covered some 10 billion kilometers. "Cosmos-1267"~ which the Soviets term a"heavy satellite"~ bas been docked to - the station since June 1981. "Cosmos--1267" is a precursor of new modular transport vessels which in the future will permit the Soviets to construct large third~-generation orbital stations announced for 1984-~85 (See AIR & COSMOS No 879). "In the future. such complexes composed of satellites of cosnparable mass will be widely used~" yiktor Blagov~ assistant director o~ tite "Salyut" progzam, declared recently to tbe Sov~et Press Agency APN. "Tt is envisaged that specialiaed modules (aetronomy laboratories~ r~mote sensing~ technological, etc.) will be ~oined to them. They will have a weight comparable to that = of the station which will thus became a comfortable space apartment." 'These future third-,generation orbital stations will be more optimised. "The cosmonauts will be able to live in the crew compartmenr, with maximum comfort and work in better conditfons aboard the specialised modules," - explained Blagov. , For the present~ "Salyut'6" remains in orbit with the "Cosmos~1267" satellite docked to one of its ends~ thus forming the largest orbital com~ plex realized to date by the USSR. The orbit of this complex has already - been raised on two occasions by the.engines of "Cosmos--1267". Blagov re- called this fact in announcing that ~the orbit of "S~lyut~-6"~-~-"Cosmos~1~67" - will be corrected once again in the near future. According to the assistant director of the program~ "the tests will require a certain additional amount of time." "The operation of "Salyut~6" has already enablpd the USSR to acquire useful experience in coordinating work in space and on tlte ground~" declared Blagov. He added that "the new operations have led the Soviets to add a 4 , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY third hall to the Flight Control Center for b~tter simultaneous command of several apacecraft." Th3s had been announced to ue at the time of our recent visit to MoacoW (See AIr'. & COSMOS Nos 877-$82~. _ "Experience has shown that operation of a manned orbital station can be extended for three to five qears," said Blagov. "The `Salyut--6' station, conceived for a service period Qf 18 months, hae actually operated for SO months in orbit without ma~or failure._ No serious trouble has been noted apart from the natural deterioration of the solar panels and bat- teries~" declared Blagov. But Blagov acknowledged that "the station owes a large measure of its longevity to the repaire performed o~n board by the cosmonauts. During these four years, 27 coamonauts~ of which 19 were Soviet and 8 citizens of eastern member countries of Intercosmos~ have worked aboard 'Salyut~6' and have performed more than 1~600 scientific and technical experiments." "The cosmonauts live according to Moscow time," explained Blagov~ "with days of work and days of rest~ remaining in permanent contact with the Control Cen~er and with their relatives and friends. But this does not prevent them from overburdened with work at certain times." ~ In the future~ the Soviets are going to remedy this problem "by further developing automation of certain command and function processes." The "Delta" autonomous navigation system tested on "Salyut-~6" already handles a large part of the operations of orientation and stabilization of the station during perfdrmance of experiments. In addition~ Blagov revealed that it is possible to equip the tel~scopes or cameras with a mini-~computer con-- nected with the "Delta" system to program the daily obs~rvations. The crew w~ould have only to monitor the functioning of the systems and inter~ vene only if necessary. - COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 - CSO: 1853/4-P 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 F~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 'AIR & COSMOS' ON TRAINING~ MISSION OF SOVIET FRENCH JOINT FLIGHT Paris AIR ET COSMOS in French 31 Oct 81 pp 37-38 [Article by Pierre I~angereux: "First French Astronaut to Fly at End of June 1982"] [Text] The first French astronaut will flp aboard a Soviet spacecraft about the middle of next year~ between June and August~ most probably toward the end of June 1982. He will be launched together with two So~viets~ aboard a Soyuz T spacecraft which will rendezvous with tiie arbital station in whir,h they will stay for 1 week in orbit at about 250 km above the earth. Tl:e station will be either the Salyut-~6 now in orbit~ or more probably a aew Salyut~7 which is scheduled to be launched at the start ^f 1982. The station will be manned initially bq a"primary crew" who are tentatively scheduled to be launched around February 1982. This crew will consist of two Soviet cosmonauts who will effect a f light of long duration~ but of less than 6 months~ according to Vladimir Shatalov, head of the cosmonauts. The duration of the flight will be set before their degar.ture by officials of the USSR Academy of Sciences, as is custamary~ V. Shatalov disclosed. a But in the case of flights of long duration, it is only after 1 month in orbit that the actual duration of the mission is finally decided~ with a l~ad time of 5 to 10 days approximately. This primary crew will be ~oined near the end of June 1982 by a"visiting crew" consisting of two Soviet cosmonauts and the first French astronaut. At this point and for the first time, there will be five persons aboard a Salyut spacecraft. Until now~ the Soviet Salyut~-6 station I~as been occupied by no more than four persons at any one time. The two k'ranco-~Soviet crews, wt~?o have been in training since 6 September 1981~ are now training at City of the Stars, where we met them at the off icial in- troduction on 19 October organized by the CNES [National Center for Space Studies] and Intercosmos (see AIR ET COSMOS No 878). The "titular crew~" who have been designated as the first to lift off, consists ' of Aviation Commander Yuriy Malyshev, 4[as published]~ flight commander; Engineer Alexandre Ivanchenkov, 41~ flight engineer; and Jean~Loup Chretien, 6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 43, astronaut'experiaenter. We recall that Yu. Malpshev piloted Soyuz T2, the firgt of the new spacecraft to b~ launched with crew, and that A. Ivanchenkov~ pasaenger aboard Soquz 29~ flear aboard Salyut 6 f~r a period of 140 days. The "standby crew," who will replace the titular crew in case of failure of the latter~ consist~ of Col Leonid Rizin, 40~ flight commander; Vladimir Solov'e, 35~ flight engineer; and Patrick Baudry, 35, astronaut- experimenter. L. Kizim took part aboard Soyuz T3 in the new apacecraft's first *'~ree~man flight. V. Solov'e is a new astronaut selected in 1977. Upon graduation in 1970 from the Bauman Advanced Technical School in Moscow~ . , he worked f irst in the Space Studies Bureau Advanced Technicai School in Moscow, he worked f irs~t in the Space Studies Bureau headed bp Academician Sergey Korolev, then returned to the Space Operations Center as a rocket propulsion specialist. He is married and the father of two children. His father was an aeronautical test engineer. The detailed mission plan will be set up tentatively at the end of November 1981. The two Franco-Soviet cre~as will undergo an initial flight-- readiness examination at the end of January 19s2 administered by the Control Committee of the USSR Academy of Sciances. A second exa~mination will take place 1 month before the flight to designate tlie crew to be sent into space. The present riesignation of one as the titular crew and the other as the standby crew nc;*_:vi.thstanding~ the chances of flping of each of the Franco-- Soviet crews are about equal. In case of failure or accident on the part - of one of the members of the titular crew, the entire crew would, in principle. be changed. But~ according to Gen Georgip Beregovop~ commander of City of the Stars, it is entirely~ possible that only one of the members ~ may be replaced. It has already ha~pened once tiiat an entire crew has had to be replaced, and several times that one of the members of a primary crew has had to be, because of illnesa or accident. Thus~ Soviet Cosmonaut Valeriy Ryumin~ holder of the world's space flight record (362 days) had to be sent into space a second time in the place of Valentin Lebedev, who had suffered a knee injury. For the moment, the two Franco-Soviet crews are purauing their practical training wliich began 1 and 1/2 months ago with a 1-~aeek survival exercise in the North Sea off the coast of Feodossia~ to famil3srize themselves with the procedure for a forced landing at sea. Unlike previous Soyuz's, the new Soyuz spacecraft is designed to be able to put dowa on land as well as at sea. The landing point can thus be displaced by some 1,000 km from ~he planned one in ca$e of necessity. The two French astronauts have also taken part in w~z:tghtless-simulation exercises aboard the new IL76 laboratory plane, which enables the effecting of some 15 sim~lations (by way of power dives followed by climbs)~ whereas the previous Tu~104 provided onlp up to five simulations and for shorter durations. During these flights, the astronauts train to move about inside a full-~scale model of the Soyuz T cabin installed in the fuselage of the plane. Furthe:: such flights are scheduled for th~e spring of 1982. 7 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY This training was supplemented by other eaerciaes in survival on land~ - simulating landings in swamps and on lakes~ with recovery by helicopter. The crews will also undergo winter training near Moscow~ and not i~ Siberia as is custrnnary. Actually, the f light of the Franeo-Soviet crew is scheduled to take place in ~ummer and~ theoreticallg, survival tra3ning under mountain or extreme cold conditions is not necessary. Throug~�out their training. the French astronaute are monitored by an appointed military physician, 'Jr Sergey Ponomarev~ a apecialist in the training of astronauts~ who has worked at the City of the Stars over the pgst 11 years. But to date~ the training of the French astronauts has been highly satis- factory. Chretien and Baudry are very good candidates; self-~disciFlined, meticulous, punctual and hard-working, according to the officials of Cit,y of the Stars. Moreover, their qualification as military pilots and their training as test pilots enable them to rapidly assimilate knowledge of the Soyuz T spacecraft and its handling. In principle~ however~ the French astronaut will not be called upon to pilot the Soyuz T; that is the function of the flight com~nander. Nevertheless, in case of difficulties~ each of the passengers abaard the Soyuz T must be capable of ~anually piloting the space- craft, designed, though it is~ to be flown normally 3n the autom~ti~ mode with the help of the on~board computer. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 9238 CSO: 3100/297 ~ 8 , , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544464436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 'AIR & COSMOS' ON FUTURE OF FRENCH-SOVIET FLIG~fS Paris AIR ET COSMOS 3n French 31 Oct 81 p 39 [Article by Pierre Langereux~ special correapondent sent by AIR ET COSMOS - to Star City as guest of Soviets] [Text] French officials are deairous of looking �orward to �urther flights by French coamonauts, following the first one scheduled for mid~-1982 by, in principle. Jean~Loup Chretien. This w~ould provide an opportunity for "backup" cosmonaut Patric Baudry to fly, and above all a means of continuing ' Franco-,Soviet space cooperation at a very interesting lE.wel. The head of - the CNES jNational Center for Space Studies] expressed ~?fficially his - interest in continuing ~oint space flights~ on the occasion of the recent Franco-,Soviet talks held iii Rodez (France) . The Soviet officials have not yet replied otticially to tbis French proposal. It is moreover pr~bable they will not do so prior to completion of tlie first ~oint flight. However~ those with whom we talked during our visit to Moscow are rather favorable to the idea. Gen Georgiy Beregovoy~ commander of Star City, thinks that "The cooperation begun in this domain cannot be - stopped." Professor Eugene Choulgenko, direc~or o~ b3omedic3ne in the Ministry of Public Health, also considers tl~at "future ~oint flights would represent a consolidation of Franco-Soviet cooperation." France can actual~ ly contribute much to the USSR effort, with respect to biomedica3 instru~ mentation for manned space flights. This is already the case with the blood~ echography equipment tha.t is to be used for the first time in space on the occasion of the first Franco-Saviet f light. This equ3Qntent has greatly - impreased Soviet officials~ who would 13ke to use it for further experimental work during flights of long duration. COPYRIGHT: A. & C. 1981 = 9399 CSO: 8119/0700-A ~ 9 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.593:629.198.3 SPACE R~SEARCH ON ATMOSPH~RIC-OPTICAL PHENOMENA FROM 'SALXUT~6' Leningrad ATMOSFERA ZEML~I S"SALYUTA-6" in Russian 1981 (signed to press 25 Mar 81) - pp 2-8, 206-207 CAnnotation, introduction and table of contents from book "Earth's Atmoephere--The View From Salyut-6" by Aleksandr I~anovich Lazarev, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Rovalenok, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Ivanchenkov and Sergey Vazgenovich Avakyan, edited by Z. I. Shtannikova, Gidrometeoizdat, 2300 copies, 208 pages] CText] This book presents the results of re$earch on atmospheric-optical phenomena - accomplished by the main crew of the second expedition on board the Salyut-6 orbital scientific station from June through October 1978. Peculiaritiea of optics research in space are noted. The results of observations of the space and time distribution of night atmosphere emanation and aurora are described. Analysis of the foregoing is presented taking into consideration activity in the sphere of geophysics and so- lar physics. Also presented are the results of observations of such atmospheric- _ optical phenomena as the "mustache effect," mirror reflection of the sun from the earth's atmoaphere, luminescence of zodiacal light, luminescence from the atars, planets and luminous particles. This book is intended for a wide circle of specialisCs in physics of the upper at- mosphere and near-earth space, astrophysics and meteorology. Introduction April 12th 1981 marks the 20th anniversary of the first space flight--the flight of Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin in the spacecraft Vostok. Since that time, many Soviet cosmonauts and cosmonauts of the socialist countries have flown missions on the Vos- tok, Voskhod and Soyuz Soviet manned space vehicles and on the Salyut orbital space ~ stations. Scientific research and experimentation has been conducted on all of the manned space vehicles. Beginning with Yu. A. Gagarin's first flight in space, extremely important studies have been conducted related to the atmosphere and atmospheric-optical phenomena. These include studies of the colored daylight and ~wilight halos, night emissive layers, aurora, silver clouds, glimmering stars and planets in the earth's night ho- rizon, etc. The results of these studies have enabled us to define significantly more precisely our concept of many physical processes and phenomena observed in Che earth's atmosphere. Success is achieved in this regard on almost every flight in 10 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY space--we obtain new data on optical phenomena in the earth's atmosphere. This is related to the fact that a certain set of research conditions arises for each indi- vidual space flight allowing us to study certain or other optical phenomena, and to the fact that the earth's atmosphere itaelf is changing, and, correspondingly, atmos- pheric-optical phenomena. The main crew for the second expedition of the Salyut-6 orbital scientific atation-- USSR pilot-cosmonauts V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov--completed an extensive series of experiments related to the study of the atmosphere and atmospheri~~optical phenomena. This crew was transported to Salyut-6 by the vehicle, launched 15 Jun 1978. It returned to earth 2 Nov 1978 on the Soyuz-31 spacecraft. Two visiting crewa of international composition were transported to Salyut-6 during the flight of this second-expedition main crew. The first visitine international crew--USSR pilot-cosmonaut P. I. Klimuk and pilot- cosmonaut M. Hermashevskiy of the Polish People's Republic--was transported to Sal- yut-6 on the Soyuz-30 spacecraft launched 27 Jun 1978. The crew returned to earth on - this same spacecraft on 5 Jul .1978. The second visiting crew--USSR pilot-cosmonaut V. F. Bykovskiy and GDR pilot-cosmonaut S. Jaehn-~was transported to Salyut-6 on the Soyuz-31 spacecraft launched 27 Aug 1978. It returned to earth 4 Sep 1978 on board the Soyuz-29 spacecraft. The long 140-day flight.of V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov enabled systematic observations of the atmosphere and atmospheric-optical phenomena to be conducted. As a result, success was achieved in ascertaining new natural laws governing certain physical processes and phenomena observed in the earth's atmosphere. The cosmonauts' advance training for prolonged space flight enables them to conduct certain visual observations of atmospheric-optical phenomena from the very first days they are on board--chiefly response to inquiries from earth. At the beginning of a flight, how- ever, emotional factors exert significant influence on one's perception of the sur- rounding environment. Cosmonauts become enraptured at the bright, colorful scenes of daylight and twilight halos, sunrises and sunsets, the beauty of the earth's cloud cover, its surface and oceans, the bright scenes of aurora, silver clouds and night emissive layers. Later on, the cosmonauts gradually become accustomed to the scenes they are observ- ing and focus their attention on certain processes of great significance that play a substantive role in studying the natural environment from space. Undergoing a prolonged space flight, the cosmonauts begin to classify and analyze the phenomena they ob:~erve. Consultation with experts that ta:~es place during periods of communication aids the cosmonauts in executing independently certain experiments of considerable importance in the study of the natural environment. The "Program For Visual Observations From Manned Space Vehicles" developed by A. I. Lazarev for the first expedition provided great assistance in conducting space experiments on board the Salyut-6 orbital atation. USSR pilot-cosmonauts V. A. Dzhanibekov and 0. G. Ma- karov delivered this program to Salyut-6 on 11 Jan 1978. Crews of the Salyut-6 orbital station's second expedition continued the research on - atmospheric-optical phenomena according to this program. They conducted visual ob- servations and photographed emissiona of the night atmosphere, aurora, silver clouds, 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY zodiacal light, rising and setting of the sun, planets and stars, etc. Naturally, most of the experimenta were accomplished by the main crew that spent 140 days in or- bit. The contents of this book are devoted chiefiy to clasaification, analysis and interpretation of the results of theae experimenta. We will make note of a number of intereating experiments conducted by the crews of Salyut-6's second expedition and note the most important results of t~is research. One of the most interesting observations is related to the second emissive layer on the earth's night side. The second emisaive layer was observed for the firat time from outer space by cosmonauts V. G. Lazarev and 0. G. Makarov aboard the Soyuz-12 apacecraft in September 1973. Cosmonauts P. I. Klimuk and V. I. Sevast'yanov contin- ued these observations on board Salyut-4 from May through July 1975. Cosmonauts Yu. V. Romanenko and G. M. Grechko frequently observed the second emissive layer from the Salyut-6 orbital station. They even obtained photographs of the first and second emissive layers of the night atmosphere. Results of the research of Yu. V. Romanenko and G. M. Grechko confirmed the notion that it was possible to observe the second emissive layer continuously in the equatorial zone. The second emissive layer in the equatorial zone was also observed by V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov. In addition, they were the first to observe from space lumi- nescence on a planetary scale from the second emissive layer. Later, based on the results of systematic observations, the cosmonauts turned their attention to the �phenomenon where a planetary-scale outburst of the second emissive tayer turns out to be a precursor of an intense aurora manifeatation. A planetary luminescence of the second emissive layer was often observed as well upon completion of such an aurora. Observations of the second emissive layer have allowed us to corroborate certain well-known geophysical phenomena, and have brought to light new concepts regarding the link between upper atmosphere emissions and activity in the sphere of geophysics and solar physics. A number of interesting results are related to aurora observations. Several of the observations of V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanc~enkov are special in that these cos- monauts were the first to see areas of aurora luminescence from space not only in the region of the aurora oval, but in the middle latitudes and subtropics as well. Some- times Salyut-6 flew over areas of aurora at latitudes of about 25 degrees. Particu- larly interesting were observation reaults with respect to the color vision in areas of aurora luminescence, which enable us to qualitatively evaluate the energy of elec- tron flows whose excitation causes the luminescence. During the course of 49 days of flight, the cosmonauts made systematic, daily observatio~s of the aurora. This cor- roborated the conjecture mentioned earlier as to the possibility of observing aurora from space continuously in the region of the aurora oval. During the mission of Salyut-6's second expedition, information was relayed to the orbital station for the first time with regard to a magnetic storm expected on 25 Sep 1978, along with a request to conduct aurora observazions south of Australia and southeast of Canada. The prediction was entirely justified, and the coamonauta ob- served an aurora measuring three [degree of intensity7. V. V. Kovalenok and A. Ivanchenkov observed the most powerful aurora (a four) on 29 Sen 1978 in parts of the northern and southern hemispheres up to latitudes of about 25 ~iegrees. Observations of the "mustache effect" appeared as somewhat of a surprise--upper-atmos- phere twilight luminescence overhanging the emanation from dense layers of the earth's 12 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY night atmosphere. V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov noticed that this phenome- non can look different. According to the cosmonauts, on certain occasions a single layer was seen; on others--two stretched-out areas of luminescence. Sometimes the phenomenon was not observed at all. These resulte can be expla~ned both by differ- ences in the atructure of the emissive layera and by difference~ in the conditions of obaervation. Unusual resulta were obtained upon obaerving $ilver clouda on the earth's twilight horizon during the initial period of flight from 25. Jun through 5 Jul 1978, when Salyut-6 was in solar orbit. P. I. Klimuk and M. Hermashevskiy, members of a vis- iting international crew, participated in these obaervations. Clearly and constant- ly visible at all latitudes above the atmospheric halo was a thin strip, silver in color, approximately one-fot~_�th the thickness of the first emissive layer. This strip was quite clearly defined (more so than the ordinary silver clouds one ob- serves). In a discussion of these results with V. I. Sevast'yanov, it became appar- ent chat he and P. I. Klimuk had observed this strip at various latitudes during their flight on board the Salyut-4 orbital station in eim~aer of 1975. At the request of A. S. Ivanchenkov, observations of silver clouds were conducted in the summer of 1979 by the main crew of Salyut-6's third expedition. Cosmonauts V. A. Lyakhov and V. V. Ryumin obtained new data on the latitudinal distribution of silver clouds and other dissipating layers in the mesopause. These data define considera- - bly more precisely our concept of the mesopause structure in the lower and equator- ial latitudes. V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov devoted a great deal of attention to observa- tions of cloud cover structure over seas and oceans. They repeatedly observed the generation of cyclones and typhoons, and the formation of families of cyclone dis- turbances. The data from systematic observations of the cloud cover enabled them to _ express certain views on the interrelationship between large-scale cloud cover structure and the structure of sea and ocean currents. The crew of Salyut-6's second expedition is apparently the first to observe from space such atmospheric-optical phenomena as rainbow clouds and gloria. V. F. Bykov- - skiy and S. Jaehn, members of 2, visi~iug international crew~ participated in observing the rainbow clouds. Both of these phenomena arise as a reault of solar radiation interference in clouds made up of ice crystals. ~ As long ago as the occasion of his first flight on the Soyuz-25 apacecraft, V. V. Kovalenok observed the phenomenon of apparent magnification of objects and forma- tions on the ocean surface when'haze appeared. During his Salyut-6 mission, Kova- lenok got the imgression several timea within a short period that he was observing objects and formationa on the earth's aurface through a magnifying glass. A. A. Leonov, V. I. Sevast'yanov and other Soviet cosmanauts also mentioned obaerving earth objects from space as a magnified representation. This phenomenon is linked to peculiarities in the frequency-contrast response of the cosmonauts' system of op- . tics, and to sharp change in the atmosphere's transfer function in certain regions of the globe. Zodiacal light was often observed by P. I. Klimuk and V. I. Sevast'yanov from on board the Salyut-4 station in June and July of 1975--also by G. M. Grechko and 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Yu. V. Romanenko from Salyut-6, January through March 1978. There are significant differences, however, between the observational data from Salyut-4 and Salyut-6. Klimuk and Sevast'yanov could isolate the beam structure in zodiacal light with con- fidence. They estimated that the beam c~n+.rast reached about 10 percent. However, Grechko and Romanenko were unable to find beam structure in zodiacal light. V. V. Kovalenok and A. S. Ivanchenkov al~o conducted observations of zodiacal light. In half of the instances, Kovalenok could distinguish in it a weakly defined beam structure; Ivanchenko could not distinguish one at a11. ~ Differences in these observations of zodiacal light are evidently related to space , and time differences in the distribution of ineteor showers and associations observed at various times of the year, and to variance in the contrast sensitivity of the cosmonauts' system of optics for low brightness levels. . The optics research conducted by the cosmonauts comprises a highly significant por- tion of a broad program for studying our natural envi.ronment from space. Extensive information has already been obtained from space with regard to the atmosphere's diverse properties a~d the earth's surface and ocean areas. Hitherto unknown atmos- pheric-optical phenomena have been discovered, and new data on radiation of the sun, ~ planets, stars and interstellar medium have been recorded. This material is being widely utilized both for accomplishing numerous national economy-oriented tasks and for studying the natural environment. The results of optics research completed by crews of the Salyut-6 orbital station's second expedition are contributing signifi- cantly to the accomplishment of these taeks. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 1. Peculiarities of Optics Research Conducted in Space. 9 1.1. Parameters and criteria for optical instruments and systems. 9 1.2. Transfer functions of the atmosphere and viewport. . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3. Vision in space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 2. Emissive Radiation of the Night and Twilight Atmosphere. 31 2.1. Optical excitation of the upper atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.2. Time and space distribution of emissive radiation�in the night atmosphere ~8~ 2.3. Salyut-6 observations of night atmosphere emissions. . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3. Aurora - . . � � � � � � � � � � � � � ' � ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ~ ' 82 3.1. Time and space distribution and features of the energy spectrum in areas 82 of surora luminescence . � � � � � � � � � ' ' ' ' ' 3.2. Observations of aurora from.the.Voskhod, Soyuz-9 and Soyuz-15 space vehicles and from the Salyut and Salyut-4 orbital stations 105 3.3. Observations of aurora from the Salyut-6 orbital station 3.4. The outlook for aurora-related optics research on manned space vehicles. 133 Chapter 4. Observations of Clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 4.1. Peculiarities in ~bserving and recording the cloud cover from space. 138 4.2. Structural framework of cloud cover over the seas and oceans 140 14 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4.3. Gloria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 4.4. Rainbow clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4.5. Silver clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1S2 Chapter 5. Other Optical Phenomena. . . . . . . . . . . � � � � � � . � . � . . 162 5.1. Luminous particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 5.2. Apparent magnification and gaps in the atmoaphere. . . . . . . . . . . . 172 _ 5.3. Upper-atmosphere twilight emanation that overhangs the earth's horizon . 175 5.4. Zodiacal light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 COPYRIGHT: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981 9768 CSO: 1866/22 ~ 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONL'Y � LIFE SCIENCES UDC 539.104 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: 1. NERVOUS SYSTEM Moscow KOSMICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA in Rusaian Vol 19, No 4, Jul Aug 81 (manuscript received 14 Aug 80) pp 649-653 [Article by V. V. .Antipov, B. I. Davydov and V. S. Tikhonchuk] [Text] Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of non-ionizing nature has in recent years become an ecologically meaningful factor in human~activity, and the field of astro- nautics is, of course, no exception. Hence, one must ~Cegard as normal the new surge of fnterest among the medical people, biologists and engineer-physiciets, during the last few years, in studying the mechanisms of the biological effects of EMR, deter- - mining permissible levels of activity, matters of dosimetry and so on. The last 15 years have witnessed the publication of many exhaustive surveys [1] and ' monographs [2-5] devoted to the generalization and analysis of experimental data on the mechanisms of EMR's biological effects, to matters of standards, to means and measures for protection from radiation etc., and attention has been given primarily to radio-frequency EMft. There has also been a sharp increase in the number of peri- odical items concerned with the problem.~ There are, however, at least two circum- stances which make it advisable to do a comparative analysis of the biological ef- fects of EMR. F irst of all, even in such monographs as the work of Baranski and Czerski [4] the basic literature is comprised of publications up to 1970 only. Secondly, in the analysis of the literature there has been insufficient emphasis on reaction of the critical systema of the organism to EI~t. This series of articles will attempt to analyze the data published up to 1979 on the effects of EMR on the central nervous system, gonads and crystalline lens, and on lethal effects. First,a few general remarks~ In this series of reports we have analyzed only those works in which the parameters of a physical factor have been specified: power den- sity, frequency or wavelength of electromagnetic field, the irradiation conditions, biological object parametera, kind of animal, size of groups, number of tests etc. Works in which no characteristic was specified have not been analyzed. 16 ' ?FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1. Clinical-Phyaiological Studies During the last 20 years clinical-physiological investigations have been conducted - to detect disturbances in functional activity of the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems, and studies have been made of changes in the blood and metabolic indexes and in certain endocrine gland functions in a production environment, which have been called "production experiments". We attempted to evaluate the advantages = and the shortcomings of the "production experiment~~ using the study of the function- al activity of the nervous system as the most informative index of an F.MR "injury" (in accordance with the opinion of many of the authors cited). The effect of EMR on the function of the human central nervous system in a produc- tion environment has been studied by many authors [3-6]. The majority of them note that as production experience increases the frequency of the complaints about state of health increases. According to the data from most of the clinical-physiological surveys, one�gains the impression of an earlier and more pronounced reaction of the nervous system in the case of chronic irradiation [5, 7-9]. Thi~ is manifested subjectively in the furm of constant headache, increased fatig- ability, disturbance and shortening of sleep, heightened irritability, impairment of. memory and ather symptoms. It is easy to discern the polymorphism of the com- plaints and the low recurrence of them in the inveatigafiions of the various authors. In an objective study, vegetative disturbances were observed: tremor of hands and eyelids, heightened tendon reflexes, sweating of palms, inhibited dermographia and hyperhydrosis. According to the data [6], distortions of Shcherbak's reflex and skin temperature asy~?etry were found and paroxysma.l headache was sometimes ob- served, blanching of the skin and adynamia, often terminating in syncopic states with prolonged poor health thereafter. Such disorders were qualified as diencephal- ic. Some of these symptoms were found by other authors also [5, 8]. T he changes in the vegetative nervous system were often accompanied by shifts in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex [5, 6]. The clinical and experimental findings are typically polymorphic. The appearance of bilaterally synchronous slow theta and delta discharges are characteristic for persons with 6 to 10 years' work experience. The changes in the biopotentials are associated with a change in the reactivity and excitability of the nerve cells. Analogous results were obtained by other authors. ~ In the opinion of most of the researchers, the polymorphic change in nervous system functions with a predominance of visceral -vegetative modifications and a vaguely manifested diencephalic syndrome suggests both a direct.and a mediated effect of microwaves on the central nervous system. Some [8, YO] have �ound a correlation between the studied indexes and the intensity of microwave irradiation and durgtion of production experience. One has to view as an important aspect of the study of II~t the phenomena of human adaptation to it. The presence of this phenomeaon.and the effectiveness of the adaptation mechanisms in man are noted in most of the works [10]. Actually, not- withstanding man's protracted contact (over 20 years) with electromagnetic fields, 17 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY cases of serious illness from chronic exposure to low-intensity SHF fields are un- kciown in the scientific literature. A majority of the scientists, moreover, have forn:ed no definite impression as to the need or justification for allotting the illness a separate noso.logical identity [2-5]. - Analysis of production-environment clinical-physiological studies (manned space- ~raft are no exception) is a very difficult task. For quantitative analyais of the bioldogical effects one must consider a number of conditions: availability of exact characteristics of the physical parameters of the factor in question and concomitant factors; establishment of the active factor dosage; selection of a method of analy- sis adequate for the data obtained and determination of the data's reliability; and, finally, making the optimum decision: "hazardous--non-hazardous". Most of the clinical-phyaiological studies, however, do T~ot contain the exact char- acteriatic of the physical parameter in ~question: power density, waveleng~h, ex- posure time. A frequency range (cm, dm, irnn), power range (non-thermal, low intensity, weak, ther- mal) and exposure range (short-term, prolonged, chronic) are usually given. It must be emphasized that final dosimetric evaluation is influenced by a subject's loca- tion, its size, the presence or absence of shielding, the ability of the electro- - magnetic waves to reflect off of nearby objects etc. It can be agreed that any body - situated in an SHF field is going to diatort the field pattern in an almost unpr.e- dictable way [11]. By virtue of this fact, one faces the~impossibility of getting an exact appraisal of the power density under real conditions, or the possibility of using extremely rough data based on theoretical calculations. All of this poses distinct obstacles to the analysis and comparability of the publi.shed results and, in some cases, makes it fundamentally impoesible. The complexity of the resl situ- ation requires a complex method of treating the results for purposes of analysis. 2. Experimental Investigations The effect of EMR on the functional state of the central nervous system was studied on people and monkeys, and on dogs, rabbits, female cats, rats and mice [1-S, 12]. For the purpose of studying human higher nervous activity, visual and motor analy�~ zers, use was made of thermometry, and blind spot and peripheral vision perimetry; variation in the parameters of fihe preciseness of movement, simple and complex reac- tion rates, and the critical frequency at which light flashes tend to run together were evaluated. The results of these investigations can be summarized as follows: In the case of EMR exposure at densities of 0.3-3 mW/cm2 in the meter, dm and cm bands, the findings were infiensified hand tremor [13] and heightened excitability of the dark-adapted eye [14]; the threshald of change in the lability of the retina was found to be 0.3-0.4 mW/cm2 for the cm band a~1d 0.8-1 mW/cm2 for the dm band [15], - with a narrowing of the field of vision at 1 mW/cm2. The method of conditioned reflexes was shown to have a high sensitivitj? in experi- ~ ments with dogs and rabbits: positive conditioned reflexes to food increase and the latent period is shortened. Under repeated exposures to 5 mW/cm2 there was an initial intensification of the reflexes with subsequent normalization. ~his was re- garded as adaptation to the EMR [16]. Rata were found to exhibit at first height- 18 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ened then, later, lowered central nervous systetn excitability, an increase in the latent period of reaction (109 mW/cm2�for 15-30 minutes twice a day), a decline in conditioned reflexes and disturbances in differentiation (400 mW/cm2) [17]. Stimu- lation--by means of electric current--of the preganglionia nerve of the upper cer- vical ganglion in rabbits under 50 mW/cm2 irradiation caused an ele~cation of the nerve temperature and a lessening of the latent reaction period. A study of EEG~s revealed the following general characteristics: intensified syn- chronization (latent period from tenths to hundredths of seconds), long desynchroni- ~ zation (latent period of same duration), mamentary desynchronization (at moment of source activation and deactivation), aftereffects in the form of intensifi.~d desyn- chronization; appearance of epileptoid diecharges [4, 18]. The character of the changes in the electrical activity of the cortex ~.,baerved in association with II~IR is maintained in the case of a disorder of the analyzer centers, hypothalamus, thalamus or a reticular formation; the directivfty of the reactions is maintained when the cortex is isolated from the mesencephalon. The introduction of caffeiTie or adrenalin intensifies convulsive discharges in the EEG. In analqzing the experiments it is first of all necessary to answer tt:e following question: Is it basically possible to employ the method of electroencephalography in studying the biological effects of an SHF field. Unfortunately, this question can be answered neither positively nor negatively at the present time. In the first place, the use of implanted metal electrodes in the EEG method leads to a redistribution of the SHF field and a considerable increase in its intensity [19]. The actual.distortion of the exposure density is so great that it is practically impossible to predict any kind of solid figure for the density. In the second plaee, the implanted electrodes lead to the occurrence of standing waves [20, 2I, 2]. To determine the threshold of central nervous system changes by the EEG method we used the data of Gordon [10}. The following relationships were obtained~for cm and dm waves, respectively: y= 1.33�103�x 2'43 and y= 1.36�102�X-3.39~ Where y is YW/cm2 and x is the exposure time in minutes. ' In the .investigation of biological sensitivity most of the experiments were xun with rabbits and guinea pigs. Studies were made of the�activity o.f cholinesterase, ace- tylcholinestera3e, dehydrogenase, succinic acid and cytochrome oxidase of brain tissues, the blood and other. organs. ~ It was revealed that the degree of cholinesterase reduction is not uniform in dif- ferent parts of the brain: cerebral cortex, subcortex, cerebellar trunk. Changes in tissue cholinesterase are preceded by a reduction in blood cholinesterase. The relationship between the observed effecta and the EMR intensity and duration was clarified. The abaence of any effects at a~l at 1 mW/cm2 and a lowering of activity at .10, 20 and 40 mW/cm2 were revealed. The observed decline in cholinesterase ac- tivity (tissue and blood) is associated by most of the authors with"accumulation of acetylcholine in the organe studied. There is a general conclusion as to the unquestionable involvement of certain en- zymatic aystems of the divisione of the brain under the effect of EMR and the need for research to obtain more reliable resulta [4]. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY On the basis of an analysis of the data in the literature on biochemical indicators the following relationship was obtained: y= 4.33-106�x 1�69, where y is ~W/cm2 and x is exposure time in minutes. An analysis of experimental data on the study of human and animal higher nervbus activity suggests f ixst of all high sensitivity of and variability of functional changes in the central nervous system under the effect of EMR. For example, according to the data of G. F. Plekhanov et al. [22], fluctua- tions in the senaitivity of the central nervous systetn are found in the range of 1010 to 101 ~W/cm2. . . A second, no less.important characteristic is the polymorphicity of observed changes. Practically none of the researchers found that there was no effect in response to EMR. The central nervous system evidently reacted to.EMR as to any other stimulus. A third characteristic is the presence of gradually diminishing changes proportion- ate to the reduction in intensity, duration and recurrence of the irradiafi~ion�ses- sions, evaluated by most of the authors as a manifestation of the organism~s adap- tation. 1'he appearance of phase variations and the increase in changes and symptoms proportionate to the increase of exposure time and experiment duration, leading to the appearance of experimental neuroses, is considered a phenomenon of func- tional cumulation. A fourth characteristic is the caution that is well known to be exercised in evalu- ~ ating the pathological significance of changes which are observed. In the over- whelming majority of the published experimental works there is no evaluation of the degree of risk associated with the~effects in question. All of this mak~s it difficult to analyze the data in the literature, of course. However, if we adhere to the point of view of B. M. Savin, A. G. Subbota and Ye. A. Yermolayev [23, 16] , Z. V. Gordon [10] and others in evaluating the patl~ol,ogical significance of the observed effecta as applied to the cited works, then the follow- relationship can be regarded as the threshold for a hazardous effect as far as chan~e~ in the central nervous system are concerned: y= 9.8�10~�x 2'24, where y is ~W/cm _ and x is the exposure time in minutea In conclusion, it must be pointed out that, notwithstanding the relatively large number of publications in which the reaction of man~s or animal's central nervous system to EMR was studied, there is a need for works v~hich would bring into play the relationship of EMR's effects to power density and exposure time, and to its fre- quency characteristic, and which would employ more adequate procedures ~from~bio- physical r.eactions dt the eell. behavioral reactions of the entire organis~, making it possible to evaluate in evolutionary aspect the pathological significance of the changes being obser.ved. As applied to aeroapace medicine, the problem of the biological action of non-ioniz- ing EMR has to be looked at mostly from the standpoint of the combir.ed action of a variety of factore. There are in tt~e literature works in which the combined effect of microwave EMR and gat~una radiation has been studied [24-26]. However, evaluation of the biological ef~ects in these investigations was made with reference to such indexes as ~urvival rate, body weight dynamics:and the:peripheral blood leukecyte 20 :Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY count, and from certain biochemical tests characterizing the condition of the endo- crine system and others. But the state of the central nervous system under condi- tions of the combined action of EMR and other factors--in particular, this refers to flight factors of the non-radiation k.ind--was no.t studied. Of theoretical and practical interest are investigations of the biological effect of EMR and dynamic factors of flight, the gaseous environment, ENIIt and magnetic fields and so on. More and more data are being publiahed now suggesting that constant magnetic fields are a biologically active envirotunental factor. During space flight, man and biological objects may be in a hypogeomagnetic environ- ment for a long time or may be subjected to the effect of etrong magnetic f ields which are produced on spacecraft by special apparatus for protection from cosmic radiation [27]. This factor may alter the organism's reactivity, in particular, the reactivity of the central nervous system to non-ionizing EMR. One of the immediate tasks of space radiobiology may also be the study of biophysical mechanisms of the interaction of EMR with constant magnetic fields. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Petrov, I. P. and Subbota, A. G., "On.the Effect of SHF Electromagnetic Radia- tion on the Organism," VOY~NNO-MED. ZH., No 2, 1966, p 2. 2. Presman, A. S., "Elektromagnitnoye pole i zhivaya priroda" [The Electromagnetic Field and L iving Nature], Moscow, Nauka, 1968. ~ 3. Petrov, I. P., "Vliyaniye SVCh-izlucheniy na organizm cheloveka i zhivotn~kh" [The Effect of SHF Radiation on the Human and Animal Organism], Moscow, Meditsi- na, I970. ~ ~ 4. Baranski, S. and Czerski P., "Biological Effects of Microwaves," Dowden, Hutchin- son, Ross, Stroudsburg, P a., USA, 1976. 5. Tyagin, N. V., "Klinicheskiye aspekty oblucheniy SVCh-diapazona" [Clinical As- pects of SHF Exposure],�Moscow, Meditsina, 1971. 6. Uspenskaya, N. V., "Dynamic Observations of Workers Under Conditions of Exposure to CM-Band Electromagnetic Waves," VRACHEBNOYE DELO, No 3, 1961, p 124. - 7. Drogichina, E. A. and S adchikova, M. N., "Clinical Syndrome in the Case of Bx- posure to Various RF Bands," GIGIYENA TRUDA I PROFZABOLEVANIY, No l, 1965, p 17. 8. Sadchikova, M. N. and 0 rlova, A. A., "On the Clinical Picture in Chronic Expo- sure to Centimeter Waves," Ibid., No 1, 1960, p 32. 9. Klimkiva-Deutschova, E., "The Effect of Radiation on the Nervous System," ARCH. GEWEBEPATHOL. UND GEWEBEHYG., Vol 16, 1957, p 72. 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 10. Gordon, Z. V., "Voprosy gigiyena truda i biologicheskogo deystviya elektromag~ nitnykh poley sverkhvysokikh chastot" [Problems of Work H}~giene and the Bio- logical Effect of SHF El~.ectramagnetic Fields], Moscow, Meditsina, 1966... 11. Michaelson, S. M., "Human Exposure to .on-ionizing Radiant Energy Potential Hazards and Safety Standards," PROC. IEEE�, Vol 60, No 4, 1972, p 389. 12. Micliaelson, S. M., "Radio-Fr�equency and Microwave Energies, Magnetic and Elec- tric Fields," Found. of Space Hiol. and Med., NASA~,� Washing~ton, ~D~,�:.19.75, p 409.. 13. Pivovarov, M. A., The Effect on Humane of Microwave Irradiation Under Laboratory Conditions," in book "Mediko-biologichesiciye proble~~iy SVCh-izlucheniy" [Medical -Biological Problems of SHF Radiation] ,, Nauka, 1966, pp 130-1l+0. 14. Matuzov, N. I., 'N ariation of Viaual Analyzer Excitability in Persons Exposed to Microwaves," BYUL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 48, No 7, 1959, p 27. 15. Libikh, S. F., "Functional Lability of the Retina," in book "Voprosy biologi-.� cheskogo deystviya sverkhvysokochastotnogo (SVCh) el.ektromagnitnogo polya" [Problems of the Biological Effect of an SHF Electromagnetic Field], Leningrad, Institute of Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diaeases, 1962, pp 30-31. 16. Subbota, A. G., "Criteria for Evaluating Functional Changes in an Organism Ex- posed to Microwaves,~' in book "Printsipy i kriterii otsenki. biologicheskogo . deystviya radiovoln" [Principles`and Criteria for Evaluating the Biological Effect of Radio Waves], Leningrad, Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov, 1973, p 19. ' 17e Gorodetskaya, S. F., "The Effect of an SHF Field and Convection Heat on the Estrual Cycle in Mice," FIZIOL. ZH. AN SSSR, No 10, 1964, p 494. 18. Khalodov, Yu. A., "Vliyaniye elektromagnitnykh i magnitnykh poley na tsentr~al~ nuyu ~?ervnuyu sistemu" [Effect of Electromagnetic and Magnetic Fields on the Cen::ral Nervous System], Moscow, Meditsina, 1966, p 59. 19. Sevast'yanov, V. V., "Principles for Systematizing Investigations: of the Biolo- gical Effect of RF Fields," in book "Printsipy i kriterii otsenki biologichesko- go deystviya radiovoln," Leningrad, Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov, 1973, pp 53-56. 20. Hines, H. and Randall, J., "Poesible Industrial Hazards in the Use of Microwave Radiation," ELECT. ENG., Vol 71, No 10, 1952, p 879. ~ 21. Schliephake, E., "Functional Testing of the Endocrine Glands, the Pituitar~� in Particular, Using Shortwave Stimulation," ELEKTROMEDIZINE, No 2, 1960, p 80. 22. Plekhanov, G. F., "Discrepancy and Error Criteria in Studying the Radiosensi.ti- vity and Radiovulnerability of Living Systems," in book '~Printsipy i kriterii otsenki biologicheskogo deystviya radiovoln," Leningrad, Military Medical Aca- demy imeni S. M. Kirov, 1973, pp 14-16. 22 ~ ,L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544464436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 23. Savin, B. M., Yermolayev, Ye. A. and Subbota, A. G.,~"Printsipy issledovaniya i kriterii otsenki biologicheskogo deystviya.radiovoln',' [Priciplea for Study- . ing and Criteria for Evaluating the Biological Effect af Radio Waves], Lenin-. grad, Military Medical Academy imeni S. M. Kirov, 1973, p 83. 24. Davydov, B. I., Antipov, V. V. and Tikhonchuk, V. S. "Biological Interaction of RF Electromagnetic Waves and Ionizing Radiation," KOSMICHESKIYE ISSLEDOVANI- YA, Vol 12, No 1, 1974, p 129. ~ 25. Antipov, V. V. and Davydov, B. I., ~'The Combined Effect of Flight Factors," Ibid., Vol 15, No 2, 1977, p 286. 26. Davydov, B. I., Antipov, V, V. and Tikhonchuk, V. S., "Time P arameters in Micro- wave Exposure," Ibid., Vol 17, No 1, 1979, p 151. 27. Grigor'yev, Yu. G., "Radiatsionnaya bezopasnost' kosmicheskikh poletov" [Radia- tion Safety of Space Flights], Moscow, Atotnizdat, 1976. COPYRIGHT; Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Kosmich~eskiye issledovaniya", 1981 5454 CSO; 1866/8 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SPACE ENGINEERING UDC 621:396.965 T~CHNIQUE AND EQUIPMENT FOR RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF 'FRAGMENT~ MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING SYSTEM IN ABSOLUTE ENERGY UNITS Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 (manuscript re- ceived 12 Jun 81) pp 79-88 [Article by G.A. Avanesov, A.A. Bogdanov, A.P. Naumov, A.G. Sychev, V.I. Tarnopol'skiy and G.N. Tolstykh, Institute of Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Opticophysical Mcasurements, Moscow] [Text~ In [1-4] the authors show that for t~he representation of the results of re- mote measurements of the Earth's brightness fields made by different surveying sys- tems (SS) operating in the optical band, particularly the "Fragment" multispectral scanning system, the latter should be given spectral energy brightness density (SPEYa) values from the "State Special Standard" [5l. However, the special features of the optical systems in SS's makes their direct comparison with the standard meas- uring equipment (OSI) certified by the "State Standard" impossible: special cali- brating stands are needed for the geometric matching of an SS and an OSI. 'The complex of demands made on calibrating stands,and the specific calibration tech- nique used are stipulated by the following considerations. In order to determine the SPEYa of radiation entering an SS's input, it is necessary to know its sensitivity in each channel: gi (1) S' B(~~) ' where S~ = absolute sensitivity of the j-th channel, for which wavelength ae [6,71 is effective; B(ae) = SPEYa of the radiation taken as the model for observations in naturc; the radiation has surface and angular uniformity; g~ = the SS's output sig- nal in the j-th channel for the model radiation. Let S(a) bc: the SS's relative spectral sensitivity in the channel under discussion; i.t is then the case that ~ ~~B~~~S~~~~d~~ (2) g,= 0 where c= a factor depending on the normalization of the relative spectral sensitiv- ity and the geometric parameters of the SS's optical system. 24 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY When calibrating an SS from a source, the SPEYa of the radiation of which has the form BSt(~), while the geometric parameters are the same as for the mo3e1 radiation, - w~ obtain siqnal g~ St, which can be represented as ~ g~at=~ f Bs~~~~S;(~)d?.. (3) 0 Substituting (2) and (3) into (1), we finally obtain f B~~)S~~~)~ S~ _ st � . (4) B ~ f Bfr s, (a,> aa, 0 - `chus, SS calibration must be done with a source having a known spectral SPEYa dis- tribution and, moreover, the source's radiation must fill (as is the case under op- erational conditions) the space angle of the SS's viewing field. Tt is obvious that ribbon-filament lamps without additional optics do not satisfy thc :;~cond requirement. In order to calibrate the "Fragment" system, therefore, we u5ed a working source consisting of a large-diameter integrating sphere illuminated by haloqen lamps. The source is tested periodically with an OSO; that is, by (in the final account) by the State standard for SPEYa. 1~s follows from [4~, one of the parameters needed in order to determine S� is the S5's relative spectral se~s~~ivity. In order to determine it experimenta~ly, it is _ i~ecessary to have a monochromatic source, the radiation of which fills the SS's in- ~ut pu~il within the limits of its viewing field's space angle. Thus, the calibrating stand must contain three sources and a system for testing two of them on the basis of the third (an OSI). This determined the optical layout and structure of the "Poisk" stand, which was developed especially in order to calibrate the "Fragment" multispectral scanning system and is used at the present time for calibrating SS's (spectroradiometer-brightness meters) with input pupils up to 240 mm in diameter in the 0.25-2.5 Um spectral band. n f~inc:tional diagram of the "Poisk" calibration stand is shown in the figure on the r?ext pagc. It consists of the following assemblies: elongated., diffuse, c:~ntinuous-spectrum emitter 1, monochromatic emitter 2, OSI 3, comparator 4, cali- brated diaphragm 5 and flat rotating mir~or 6. The diff�sc emitter is an integrating sphere 600 mm in diameter. The sphere's inner surface is covered with barium sulfate and is illuminated by four KGM12-100 halogen lam~~s that are distributed uniformly over its external surface. In order to insure ur~iformity of the distribution of the brightness in the plane of the sphere's output openiny, the radiation from the lamps enters it through MS13 milk glass. Investiga- tions showed that the nonuniformity of the brightness in the output opening's plane does not exceed 0.5 percent. - Fc~r the monochromatic emitter we use a system consisting of an SI8-200u ribbon- fil~~ment light-measuring lamp (chosen for its stability) wi~th a stabilized MTKS-35M 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAi, l1SE nNi.Y - -Z~ ~ 1.3 ' ~ I I 2.2 , ' Z.1 .I ~ ~ ~ � 1.4 I - ~ ~ ~ ~ 'J - - ! ? ~ - - - - - � ~ 5 ~ '1 p.7 4.2 4.1 4.f~ ~~3 _ b ' 4.3 ~ ~ ~:,~~6~ ~ y ~ 4.6 I 4.4 , _ _ _ _ y_J Functional diagram of the "Poisk" measuring installation. f~ower unit. The lamp's emissions are broken down into the spectrum by monochromator 2.2. Its exit slit is in the focal plane of spherical collimator mirror 2.3 (the mirror's light diameter is 255 mm and its focal length is 800 mm). Depending on the position of rotating mirror 6, the parallel beam formed by the collimator mirror en- ters either collimator 4 or the instrument being calibrated (in connection with tliis, the diffuse emitter is in position 1'). Standard emitter 3 is an SI10-300u light-measuring lamp that is contained in a water-cooled, lightproof housing. The lamp was first annealed, then selected for stability and uniformity of the channel body's brightness and calibrated in SPEYa units according to the "State Special Standard," so that it is a standard means for making measurements according to the All-Union testing system [5]. Thc~ operatiny modes of the standard lamp and those of the monochromatic and diffuse emitters are controlled by precise measurements of the voltage (with the help of V7-23 voltmeters in the lamp bases) and amount of current in their circuits. The current is determined from the results of ineasurements of the voltage drop in an - K-310 standard resistor with the help of an R361-1 precision potentiometer. In ad- dition to this, the stability of the sources' emissions is monitored with the help of two silicon photoreceivers that are periodically introduced into the appropriate o~,tical channels. The signals from these receivers are measured by a Sh1513 digital voltmeter. Cc-~mparator 4 is used to determine the SPEYa of the diffuse emitter and the relative sF~ectral distribution of the monochromatic emitter's energy by comparing these sources with the OSI's radiation. The comparator consists of spherical mirror 4.1 (]ight ~iiameter = 255 mm, focal length = 1,600 mm), calibrated screen 4.7, flat mir- rors 4.2 and 4.3, modulator 4.4, monochromator 4.5 and photoreceiver block 4.6. rt~otomultipliers of the 28 ELUF15-00 type, which have multislit or oxygen-silver- cesium E~hotocathodes, are used as photoreceivers in the near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared bands of the spectrum to 1.1 um. In the 1.2-2.5 Um band, a 26 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~>hotoresistor of the FS-11AI3 type is used. A special unit consisting of a highly :,table incandescent TRSh-2840 lamp operating on reduced voltage and an FD-24K photo- ~iiod~; is used to monitor the stability of the comparator's sensitivity. The lamp is ~~owered by a BS-21 power unit. The signals corresponding to the emissions of this s~urce are registered simultaneously by the compartor's receiver and the photodiode. ~,ince identical deviations of the parameters of such an interconnected system is not very E~robable, the possible instability of the comparator's receivers can be evalu- ated with a high degree of accuracy. ~'i~e emissions of diffuse illuminator 1 enter the comparator when the flat rotating mirror is in position 6, while those of the monochromatic source do so when the mir- ror is in the same position but the diffuse illuminator is in position 1'. When the _ flat mirror is drawn back into position 6', the OSI's emissions enter the compara- tor. T}~e shape and size of screen 4.7, which is in the path of the light, are chosen so ti~at, on the one hand, mirror 4.2 is in the screen's shadow and, on the other, the bundlc of rays passing through diaphragm 5 is not screened, Thus, the space angle of the shaded part of the beam from the OSI is determined com- ~~letely by the dimensions of screen 4.7, while the geometric parameters of the dif- fu~e emitter's radiation, which passes through the comparator's optical system, do not depend cn the screen since they are formed by diaphragm 5. It is alsa obvious t}iat the screen has no effect on the monochromatic emitter's spectral characterist- LCS. n;; has already been mentioned, the calibration technique is based on the separate ci~~termination of the relative spectral sensitivity of each measuring channel in the instrument being calibrated and the channel's absolute sensitivity to SPEYa on the c~ffective wavelength. Dtirinq ?neasurements, the comparator is considered to be a complex radiation receiv- er, while the measurement of the OSI's emissions is its calibration. The feasibili- ty of sucl~ an approach is determined by the following facts. Because of the bulk of = the flat mirror, moving it from position 6 to position 6' on each wavelength is in- convcnient. Therefore, instrument readings are first made in one position (that is, f~r onc of the sources) and then in the other (for the other source). These series of ineasurements can be separated by a considerable time interval. From this it fol- lows that the parameters of the lamps' emissions and the sensitivity of the compara- tor's receivers must be stable, which is achieved by using highly stable power units, monitoring receivers for the illuminators, and reference sources for the re- ceivers. Tl~u:;, instrument calibration is preceded by calibration of the comparator with re- :;F~~ct to the OSI, determination of the monochromatic illuminator's relative spectral cliaracter.istic, and measurement of the diffuse emitter's SPEYa. 1~uring L-he measurement of the relative spectral distribution of the monochromatic illuminator's energy for each wavelength of the monochromatic radiation, the wave- length in monochromator 4.5 is set so that the receiver's signals are maximal. Since dispersion does not depend on wavelength for a monochromator with a diffrac- tion qrating, while the SPEYa of lamp 2.1 changes only slightly within the limits of 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR (?~FI('IA1. USE ON1.Y the spectral interval delineated by the slits, it can be assumed that the form of tl~e SPEYa's spectral dependence in the plane of the exit slit of monochromator 2.2 differs little from the slit spread function. From this it follows that this de- pendence is identical for different wavelengths set in the monochromator. During duplicate calibration, therefore, the wavelengths set in the scales of mono- cl~romators 2.2 and 4.5 must coincide. For this same reason, during calibration with respect to source 3 and measurement of source 2, the relationship of the values of _ the output signal from each of receivers 4.6 will be proportional to the relation- ship of the absolute values of the SPEYa of the sources being compared, which means it is equal to the ratio of the relative values; that is, g2~~~=g,(~,) ~ , (5) wherc BZ(a), B3(J~) = relative spectral distributions of the energy of the mono- _ ct~romatic illuminator and the OSI, respectively; gk2~ gk3 - output signals of the comparator during irradiation of ~t by the monochromatic illuminator and the OSI, resj>ectively. In practice, however, some difference in the calibration of the monochromators (on the order of 2-3 A) is possible. Therefore, in order to achieve precise coincidence of the maximums of the spectral intervals delineated by the monochromators, scanning is carried out in the comparator's monochromator close to the wavelength set in monochromator 2.2 until the maximum value of the signal from the receiver is ob- tained. Ttie spectral characteristic of the "Poisk" device's monochromatic illuminator, cal- culated in accordance with expression (5), is given in Table 1. TaLle 1. Relative ~pectral Charac~c.ri~ti~ of. Monorhromatic Emitter U7HOCfITP11LHL1~' ~71IOCNTCJ16H6f0 OTHOCISTC1I6H6[C J[:Iittf~~ nn;I111.i 3IId9Pllt111 ;j!Illfl~ AQ~NN 3NA4eHHR A11NHH BO:IH6I ~H:14Ctlfift 3., ?fl(M ~'ITCI90 ~ 64,5 Z,94 Si5~0 2,77 Key: 1. Limits of averaging of relative values of B~1 The different areas were distinguished by four gradations, accordfng to the measured values of B~l (since the amount of initial data for each area was li.mited) and the average values of Cch A were computed for these gradations (here it is necessary to keep in mind the fact that the instrument accuracy alone in the determinations of Cch A is about +15 percent of the measured value). The results of this analysis are presented in Table 3 and Figure 6. 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The reqression equation calculated fr~a these data has the form L'eb w~'a~'~B},~ in connection with which r= 0.96, a=-33.3, b= 7.98 for CiBm < 1.5 mq/J~: r� ~ 0.91, a=-41.2, b= 9.b7 for Ci~ 1.5 mq/R. ~ For identical aqueous medium B~1 values, the points in the qraph (Fiqure 6) with - suspended matter concentration Cism ~ 1.5 mg/1~ have 2iiqher Cch A nalues, which indi- cates the correctness of the chosen methddological approach for prxessing data qathered by space surveying and synchronous seagoinq observations. The calculations that have been made are correct only for the area where the experi- ment was conducted. However, the proposed methodological approach to the analysis of materials fro~ ship and satellite measurements can be used to process the results of analogous experiments. We should also mention here the possibility of usinq the 0.5-0.6 Wa spectral band to detect highly productive regions in the xean, utilizing available satellite information aiid aliowing for the fact that changes in an aquPous mediwn�s B~ values in this band are awre closely related (for open ocean waters) to changes in the concentration of biological elements, s3.nce the presence of particles of inorganic suspended matter in these waters is limited in comparison with coastal waters. Finally, in connection with this it is also necessary to allow for the ef~ect of the atmosphere on the radiation lea~ting the ocean [15,16], althou:Jh for bodies of water that are small in area it can, in most cases, be provisionally assumed to be unifurm and, consequently, all fihe changes in B~ recorded for a given area can be attributed to the distributions of the oceanologi'cal and com~aeraial biological characteris~ics of the aqueous medium. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Moiseyev, P.A., "Biologicheskiye resursy Mirovogo okeana" (Biological Resources of the World Ocean~, Moscow, 1969, 338 pp. 2. "Biologiya okeana" [Biology of the Oceanj, Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Vol 1, 1977, 398 pp. 3. Yerlov, N.G., '~Optika morya" [Optics of the Sea], Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo "Gidrometeoizdat", 1980, 247 pp. 4. Kosarev, A.N., "'Gidrologiya Kaspiyakogo i Aral'skoqo morey" [Hydrology of the Caspian and Aral Seas~, Moscow, Izdatel'stvo MGU [Moscow State Univeraity], 1975, 273 pp. 5. Man'kovskiy, V.I., "The Relationship Between the Depth of Visibility of a White Disk an~i the Radiation Attenuation Factor for Ocean Waters," in "Opticheskiye metody izucheniya okeanov i vnutrennikh vodoyemov" [Optical Methods for Studying Oceans and Inland Water Areas], Novosibirsk, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1979, pp 100- 106. 6. Zhukov, L.A., "Obshchaya okeanologiya" [General Oceanography], Leningrad, Izda- tel'stvo "Gidrometeoizdat", 1976, 376 pp. 58 FOR OFI~'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL IISE ONLY 7. Gurinovich, G.P., Sevchenko, A.N., and Solov'yev, K.N., "Spektroskbpiya khlorofilla i rodstvennykh soyedineniy [Spectroscopy of Chlorophyll and Related Compounds], Minek, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka i Tekhnika", 1968, 520 pp. 8. "Manual of Remote Sensing," Washington, American Society of Photograaanetry, Vol 2, 1975, 1,756 pp. - 9. Pelevin, V.N., "Evaluating the Concentration of Suspended Matter and Chlorophyll in the Sea on the Basis of the Spectrum of Outgoing Radiation as Measured From a Helicopter," OKEANOLOGIYA, Vol 18, No 3, 1978, pp 428-434. 10. Skopintsev, B.A., "On the Coagulation of a Fluvial Discharge's Terrigenous Sus- pended Particles in Sea Water," IZV. AN SSSR. GEOGRAF. I GEOFIZ., Vol 10, No 4, 1946, pp 357-371. 11. Clarke, G.L.,, G.C., and Lorenzen, C.L., "Spectra of Back-Scattered Light . From the Sea, abtained With an Aircraft, as a Measure of Chlorophyll Concentra- . tion," SCIENCE, Vol 167, No 3921, 1970, pp 1119-1121. 12. Szekielda, K.H., "Observations of Suspended Material From Spacecraf~t Altitudes," Hamburg, Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut,.Heft 4, 1974, pp 159-170. 13. Viollier, M., Deschamps, P.Y., and Lecomte, P., "Airborne Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Content Under Cloudy Sky as Applied to the Tropical Waters in the _ Gulf of Guinea;" REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIROI~NT, Vol 7, No 3, 1978, pp 235-248. 14. Koblents-Mishke, O.I., and Vedernikov, V.I., "Primary Production," in "Biologiya okeana" [Bioloqy of the Ocean], M~oscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Vol 2, 1977, pp 183-208. - 15. Malkevich, M.S., "Allowing for the Atmosphere When Studying the Earth's Natural Resources From Space," in "Kosmicheskiye issledovaniya zemnykh resursov" [Space Investigations of the Earth's Resources], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1976, pp 110-130. 16. Burenkov, V.I., Gurevich, I.Ya., Kopelevich, O.V., and Shifrin, K.S., "Briqht- ness Spectra of Outgoing Radiation and Changes in Them as the Observation Alti- tude Changes," in "Opticheskiye metody izucheniya okeanov i vnutrenn3kh vodoyemov", Novosibirsk, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1979, pp 41-5~. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/10 59 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFr~CIAL USE ONLY UDC 551.46.0:629.78 - EXPERIMENT IN USING VIDEOINFO~iMATION FROM 'METEOR' SATELLITES TO INVESTIGATE OCEAN IC PAENIX~IENA Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 (manuscript re- ceived 21 Apr 81) pp 48-57 [Article by A.S. Kaz'min and V.Ye. Sklyarov, Institute of Oceanoloqy imeni P.P. Shirshov, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow~ [Text~ In recent years, the quality of the space information received from satel- ~ lites in the "Meteor" series has improved considerably. The scanning equipment in- stalled in them (MSU-S [multispectral scanning unit with medium resolution]) makes it possible to obtain images in the visible (0.5-0:7 Wn) and near-infrared (0.7-1.1 Um) bands of the spectrum with spatial resolution that is sufficiently high for the solution of a number of problems related to the investigation of the ocean (about 250 m). An analysis of images obtained with the MSU-S scanner in 1980 confirmed the possibility of using such information in the practice of oceanological research. However, limitations related to the observation conditions do not always make it possibls to obtain informative images in the visible band. Our anal~sis of a large number of images obtained with the MSU-S and MSU-M [~?ultispectral scanning unit with low resolution] (with lower spatial resolution) scanners, photographs of the ocean's surface taken by cosmonauts on the "Salyut-6" station, and images and photographs taken from American space vehicles ("Skylab," the "Landsat" ISZ [artificial ~arth satellite]) enabled us to reach the following conclusions: 1. As a rule, the depic- tion in space images of dynamic processes in the ocean (fronts, eddies, current boundaries and meanders, traces of internal waves and so on) takes place under rig- orously defined conditions that are related to sighting angles, Sun height and the hydrometeorological situation. 2. Features of the ocean surface's d~namics are seen most clearly in areas where sunlight is reflected; that is, under conditions of a mirror (or close to it) reflection of solar rays. 3. The effect of "visibility" of dynamic processes is caused by modulation of the high-frequency component of wincl- caused wave action in a field of currents, which creates contrasts in the roughness of the water surface and corresponding contrasts in the field of reflected solar ra- diation registered in photographs and images. Below we discuss specific examples of the investigation of oceanological phenomena in the western part of the Pacific Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea, using images from "Meteor" ISZ's and other types of space information. Eddies in Currents. At the present time, remote methods are beinq used extensively to investigate eddy formations in the ocean, with the primary emphasis being on 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY synoptic eddies and current rings. Images obtained with the help of ISZ's also make it possible to investigate smaller eddies (20-50 km) that exist in current flows near their frontal limits (1]. This type of eddy (only cyclonic ones have been de- tected so far) apparently plays an important role in the formation of the rhermohaline structure of frontal zones~ althougb t~eir atructure and generation mechanism have not yet been atudied tfiorougiil.Y enough. In our opinion, each new case of the discovery of such phenomena deserves attention. The study of the processes of eddy fo.rmation in the regions of the most intensive energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere--particularly in the zone of convergence of the (Oyyasio) and (Kurosio) Currents--is especially important. Re- mote monitoring of the location of ineanders and eddies in this region can create a real basis for predicting heat advection in the northwest part of the Pacific Ocean and, as a consequence, for predicting ice formation in the Sea of Okhotsk and weath- er in the eastern regions of the USSR. - In June 1980, an MSU-S sensor ("Meteor" ~o � I5Z, 0.7-1.1 um band) was used to obtain an ji ~ image of a section of the Pacific Ocean's O.XOMCiOr iO l0 ~ XB surface to the east of the island of Honshu A~~~ ~ in the zone of convergence of the Kurosio r_s� ~ and Oyyasio Currents (Figure 1[not includ- I ~ ~c ie'~ ~ Xe ed] In it are clearly visible two eddy *0 ,l , formations of a cyclonic nature, designated rB in Figure 1 as eddies "A" and "B." The ~ ~e central part of eddy "A" has approximate coordinates of 37.5-38� N.Lat. and 144.5� ",o �s E.Long. The center of eddy "B," which is ~ Figure 2. Thermal structure of the partially obscured by clouds~ is 150-200 km ocean's surface in the zone of con- to the south (36-36.5� N.Lat.) and is lo- vergence of the Kurosio and Oyyasio cated at 144� E.Long. Our experience in Currents, based on data gathered by analyzing space images in the visible band the NOAA-6 ISZ on 5-6 June 1980: of the spectrum enables us to cateqorize TB = warm waters of the Kurosio Cur- these eddy formations as oceanic rather rent; xB = cold waters of the Oyyasio than atmospheric phenomerla. The central Current; solid lines = location of part of eddy "A" is 40-50 km in diameter sharp temperature gradients; dotted and the nucleus of eddy "B" is also about lines = location of weak temperature 50 km in diameter. The diameter of the en- - gradients; A, B= location of cyclon- tire area of water involved in the eddy mo- ic eddies. tion is about SO-100 km for both eddies. Key: 1. Honshu Island Here it is appropriate to point out that images in the visible band of the spectrum reflect the surface manifestations of dynamic processes, whereas infrared data re- cord temperature irregularities on the surface (which are, as a rule, a result of the dynamic processes), so that evaluations of the eddies' parameters on the basis of these two sources do not have to coincide. Moreover, in the ca~e of weak temper- ature gradients or the absence of them, eddy formatio,s (particularly small-scale ones) may possibly not appear in infrared images. iii order to obtain additional information on the location of the frontal limits in the convergence zone of the Kurosio and Oyyasio Currents, we utilized infrared im- ages (in the 10.5-11.5 um band) that were obtained with the NOAA-6 and "Tiros" sat- ellites in the time period under discussion. An analysis of the thermal structure 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of a section of the surface to the east of Honshu Island, based on data qathered by the NOAA-6 ISZ on 5-6 June 1980 (Figure 2), shows that cyclonic eddy "A" is also manifested quite clearly on the infrared image. This is a boundary eddy ("bridge," according to the terminology used in [1]) that is located at the frontal limit fvrmed by a quasistationary, anticyclonic meander of the Kurosio that exists in this area and the Oyyasio's cold waters. Eddy "B" cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of infrared data. Its central part, as follows from a comparison of Fig- ~ ures 1 and 2, is displaced somewhat to the southeast of the frontal limit. Thus, eddy "B" is located directly in the flow of the Kurosio Current, in thermally more homogeneous waters, which may be the cause of its absence in the infrared imaqe. However, the question of whether eddy "B" formed on the frontal limit and was then displ~ced into the Kurosio's flow where it lost its thermal nonunifarmity or formed directly in the current flow remains open. The high quality of the image produced by the MSU-S scanner (Figure 1) makes it possible to establish that there are sub- stantial differences in the structures of eddies "A" and "B" that are presumably re- lated to their different locations relative to the frontal limit. Eddy "A" consists of two separate and clearly distinguishable (by tone) spiral-shaped elements,.with one being curled cylonically relative to the other. The light-colored spiral, which is 2-10 km wide in the eddy's nucleus and then expands fanwise in the area of~the Oyyasio's waters, apparently consists of the Oyyasio's cold waters that have been drawn into eddy-type motion. The dark section of the eddy can be interpreted as warm waters of the Kurosio that have been cut off from the main flow. Eddy "B" is considerably *.nore isotropic in structure, and appears as a.set of spiral, thxeadlike white bands, about 1 km wide, that are curled toward the center. In the image under discussion (Figure 1), the characteristic shape of the cloud cov- er, in the form of thin (1-3 km wide) bands of cumulus clouds, draws attention to itself. A comparison of these strips of cloud the location of the Kurosio's anticyclonic meander (Figure 2) makes it possible to conclude that they formed and are located along the front separating the Kurosio's warm waters (the meander) from the Oyyasio's cold ones. Thus, bands of clouds of this type (which are also seen in other regions) can serve as an additional identifying feature for fronts in the ocean when data in the visible band of the spectrum are being used. At the present time there is evidence that eddy formations such as the ones dis- cussed above are a typical and permanent feature of the zone of convergence of the Kurosio and Oyyasio Currents [2]. In particular, in [2]--based on infrared data from NOAA satellites--it is mentioned that such eddies (friction eddies, as they are called in [2]) are seen very frequently to the east of Capes Inubo, Kurosaki and Erimo, and it is also pointed out that they are frequently situated one behind another as a pair of eddies on one "slope" of a meander. We, however, do not know of any examples of the analysis of this phenomenon utilizing information in the vis- ible band of the spectrum. Local Fronts. Above we discussed an example of the interpretation of space images of the front zone of large oceanic currents. Using remote methods it is also possi- ble to investigate fronts in coastal areas and inland seas. �The infrared images used for this purpose make it possible to obtain detailed pictures of the location of thermal fronts. A successful example of an investigation of this type is the map of thermal fronts and related phenomena in the Mediterranean Sea that was construct- ed in [3] from VHRR radiometer data (ISZ NOAA-5) for a period of 2 years (1977-1979). Fronts of this type can also appear in images in the visible band, since along the 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY front there is usually an accumulation of ~s x n m surface-active films that damp the high- o. Po,aoc frequency components of the wave action, 3rel~caoe which results in the appearance of con- ~ MOPE tl~ ~2 trasts in the roughness and corresponding Irr~e?(3) ~ contrasts in the field of reflected solar radiation. An example of this is the image ~o of the Aegean Sea and the region around the ~ ~ .KP"' � � ' ~ ~ ~ is lands in the Cretan arc that was obtained 4) 's on 26 ~TUne 1980 with an MSU-S scanner ("Meteor" ISZ, 0.5-0.7 um band) (Figure 3 ~ [not included]). A white band stretching � � to the southeast from the eastern end of Crete is quite visible in the pi~:;;ure. It represents the frontal boundary between the as.6 relatively cold waters of the Aegean Sea, . flowing out of the Kasos Strait, and the warmer waters in the central part of the 27 " Mediterranean Sea. ~"he Aegean Sea's colder Figure 4. Hydrological conditions in waters flow into the Levaritine Sea during the area depicted in Figure 3: solid the summer under the influence of the pre- lines = isotherms; arrows = direction vailing northwest ~inds; this shows up of currents; dotted line = average quite clearly in the average multiyear dis- location of front, according to tribution of surface temperature during the infrared data from the "Tiros" ISZ on summer period [4] (Figure 4). As addition- 22-25 June 1980. al information confirming that the observed Key: 1. Aegean Sea phenomenon is a thermal front, we used 2. Rhodes infrared images of this region that were ~ 3. Wind (5 m/s) obtained with the "Tiros" satellite during 4. Crete the period under discussion. The contrast between the colder waters oP ~the Aegean Sea, flowing out of the Kasos Strait, and the warm waters along the southern coast of Crete is quite noticeable. According to "Tiros" data gathered on 22-25 June 1980, the average location of the front was as shown in Figure 4. The existence of a Cretan front during the warm part of the year is also confirmed by the results of work j3J, which ]~as already been mentioned. Observations made on board ships also show that thermal fronts are encountered frequently in the easzern part of the Mediterranean Sea during the summer, and that they have the fol- lowing characteristics: width--2-10 km; temperature gradient--2-5.8� [5j. In the image under discussion (Figure 3), by its structure and contrasts (a narrow, lonq band of white against a dark-gray background) we easily distinguish the front from the bright white elongated spots that are adjacent to it and that~represent the screening effect of the island of Crete (see below). The front is 1-5 km wide and it reaches 80-100 km in length. ' Screening Effect of Islands ("Wind Shadows"). Islands located in the path of a wind current reduce wind velocity and acceleration distance, which leads to the Formation on the leeward side of relatively calm areas with low wind altitudes. The contrasts that appear in the mean-square slope of the ocean surface create contrasts in the field of reflected solar radiation and can be recorded by remote methods. In [6] _ the authors investigate the "wind shadows" of the Antilles Islands (Caribbean Sea) on the basis of c~ata gathered with a VHRR radiometer (NOAA-2 ISZ, 0.6-0.7 um band). _ ~ 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY In the images they observed light-colored bands corresponding to calm areas with a high reflection factor that reach from the leeward si3e of the islands, in the di- rection of the wind flow, to distances of up to 200 km. An analogous phenomenon is seen in images of ~he Aegean Sea (Figures 3 and 5 Lnot included]) obtained with the ~ MSU-S equipment on a"Meteor" satellite. Particularly c3ear "wind shadows" f~om the numerous islands in the Aegean Sea, in the form of bright wide bands elongated in the direction of the wind, appear on the image obtained on 26 June 1980 (Fiqure 3). It should be mentioned here that these zones of relatively quiet surface appear to be brighter than the surrounding background in the central part of the flashing area. On the edges of th~ patch of sunlight, however, they are darker than the background. This effect is quite visible in Figure 5. The phenomenon of a change in the contrast sign of calm sections of the sea's surface relative to the back- ground as the distance from the central part of the flashing zone increases was also noted in [6]. It is necessary to keep in mind the fact that in Figures 3 and 5 only the general direction of the wind is indicated (from meteorological data), whereas the "wind shadows" reflect the local wind field structure, which has considerable spatial variability in a region with such a nonuniform underlying surface. In con- nection with this, noncorrespondence of the directions of "wind shadows" to the pre- vailing wind direction is seen in some cases. Thus, space images such as this make it possible to study the detailed structure of the wind field in contrast to meteor- ological maps, which give only the general direction of wind flows. The wind velo- city during the periods of the surveys was 5-7 m/s. The extent of the zones of the islands' screening effect varies from 20 to 80 km and is apparently related to the height the islands reach above sea l.evel and their width, which is confirmed by the irregular structure of Crete's "wind shadvw" (Figure 3): the longest and most con- - trasting sections correspond to the highest points on the island, while the breaks _ between them are explained by the penetration of wind flows through depressions in the relief. Internal Waves. Visible manifestations of internal waves on the ocean's surface (alternating bands with different degrees of roughness that are seen when winds are weak or moderate) can be caused by two different mechanisms [7.81. the essence of which is periodic modulation of the short-wave component of wind-caused wave action in a field of currents excited by progressive internal waves. Different reflection conditions in the bands create contrasts in the field of reflected solar radiation, which is also the physical basis for the remote registration of internal waves that was carried out successfully by the "Skylab" space laboratory [9], the "Landsat-1" and "Landsat-2" ISZ's [10-12], the DMSP [15] [sic] and airplanes [11]. The results of multispectral surveying from the "Soyuz-22" spacecraft and the "Salyut-6" orbital station, as well as images obtained with the "Meteor" ISZ's, also confirm that, un- der certain conditions, internal waves are observed on the ocean's surface. Data in. the litera*ure and materials available to us show that traces of internal waves are manifested most clearly in areas where there are patches of sunlight, it being the case that the sign of the contrast in the bands relative to the background changes from the center of the patch to its edges. In a number of works, space images have been used to investigate internal waves. We will only point out the most detailed - of these investigations [10-12], in which a number of conclusions are reached about the basic parameters and reasons for the generation of internal waves, observable from space, near the Atlantic coast of the United States, the eastern and western shores of Africa, and the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Information about internal waves that is obtained in space can be used to investi- gate the spatial variability of their parameters. As an example, we analyzed images 64 ' JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/42/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500460036-1 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONGY _ b . o _ c w, 1 � ' ~ ~ ~'i� ~ c.1.i \ � I .~r~j t.\~~ ~ / ; ~ ~ i / f l`\ ~ `o~ ~ I \ / F ~ ~ `~y, ~ i ~ ~ i . / ~ ~ ( ~ ~ / ~ ~ , k ~ / ~ ~1 ~ ~ % 11 y/ ~ ~ 99 / / ~ ~ ~~r ~ ~ / ~ \ / j~/ r~ ~o,,ll~' ~cP ~ ~ ~S ~o ~ i ~igure 6. Traces of internal waves on a section of the open shelf (a) and in the Gulf of Maine (b), based on data gathered by the ERTS-1 ISZ in July 1973 and July 1974, respectively. The location of frontal waves, in packets, is noted. of the traces of internal waves (54 packets) along the eastern coast of ttie United States during the perioc~ 1972-1974, as published in atlas [12]. Z~vo regions are singled out, according co the nature of the rel~.tionship of the traces of internal waves with the mo;~phometric conditions: 1) a section of open shelf from Cape Hat- teras to Cape Cod, with an average bottom slope of 0.001 (in this section almost all - the internal waves propagate in the direction taward the wind and their tracks are parallel to the depth contours (Figure 6a)); 2) the Gulf of Maine, which is a water area with depths of about 200 m, enclosed by slopes with a bottam slope of 0.01-0.02 and separated from the open ocean by the shallow-water Georges and Browns Banks.(the _ basic tidal influx enters the gulf through the narrow Eastern Channel, where a con- siderably more complicated pattern of internal wave orientation is seen (Figure 6b)). The results of calculations (generalized in the table on the next page) indicate that the internal waves in these two areas have substantially different parameters. This example shows that in the future, remote data can be used to find relationships between the parameters of internal waves and the background conditions and to carry out the corresponding zoning of the ocean. The investigations mentioned above are concerned ~rimarily with in~ernal waves in the ocean and boundary seas, the generation of which is related to the interaction between the tidal wave and irregularities in the bottom. Considerably more rarely do we see reports on the regi~tration of traces of internal waves in closed seas, where their origin is not related to tides, but to other (and nonperiodic) causes. In this respect, the image obtaint~: on 1 July 1980 with an MSU-S scanner (Fiqure 5) is of considerable interest. In it we can see a complex pattern of internal wave tracks in the central part of the Mediterranean Sea, in the region of the islands in the Cretan arc. Internal waves were reaorded on images in both bands, but the pat- tern can be seen more clearly in the near-infrared band (0.7-1.1 um). The interpre- tation of the observed phenomena and the hydrometeorological s~tuation are presented in Figure 7. Judging by the curvature of the bands in the area most remote from the islands, we are observing pr~pagation of progressive internal waves from tr.e 65 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY Average Parameters of Internal Waves in an Area of Open Shelf (From Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod) and the Gulf of Maine Parameters Open Shelf From Cape Gulf of Maine ~ Hatteras to Cape Cod Length of Frontal Wave 780 m 1,070 m 350-1,5^0 m 400-2,500 m Average Length of Wave in a Packet 685 m 865 m 350-1,500 m 250-2,000 m Distance Between Packets 16 km 43 km 10-40 km 40-60 km Width of Packet 5 km 6.3 km 2-12 km 2-12 km Note: Upper figures = average value; lower figures = limits of change of the param- eter. . . - - � ze ,9 southeast--the central part of the Me iter- : ; � ~ � � ranean Sea--in the direction of the islands in the Cretan Arc. The absence in this part of the sea of strong tidal currents, 3I'��i1CKOE .1,~II~~~ dS well as the fact that a].arge part of (1) ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ' ' ' ' the observed ~ waves are found abave depths MOPE ~ ~ 2; o~`� J6 of mqre than 2, 000 m, indicates that in ~6 , �a. ~ this case their generation is nat related ~ ~ I ~ I~~ '~a~,, to interaction between the tidal f low and irregularities in the bottom. In contrast ~4 ~�....~E�~., to an ocean shelf, where internal waves are ~ ~i , ~ 1 J~ propag~ted as packets that are 3-5 km wide and 15-30 km apart (the result of periodi- ~ y 'i.;f' cit of the tidal flow) [10-11] (see Figure - .s ~'�i,~r . , ~ ~ y 'q ~ '~I 6a) in this region we do not see separate - ~`~y~~~',fl~l ~ i~ acxets, but a field of internal wave ' ~(~ii 1 , P ~~~~i~ ~11i, tracks up to 250 km wide (from the Rhodes 1\ Strai.t to Kasos Strait) that stretch for _ 100-150 km in the southeasterly direction, 17 7e into the open part of the sea. The waves _ Figure 7. Interpretation of phenomena are 5-6 km long in the area most remote observed on the image obtained on 1 fram the islands; but diminish to 2-2.5 km July 1980 (Figure 5): solid lines = in length as they near the islands, which = location of internal wave tracks; may be related to the lessening of the broken lines = dFpth contours; depths near the islands. The internal points = boundaries of "wind shad- waves are about 3 km long in the Rhodes ows ; 1. [sic] area of disruption of Strait. In the image under discussion we internal waves; arrows = direction of observe an interesting example of a change currents in stxaits. in the form of the tracks of internal waves Key: 1. Aegean Sea acted upon by a surface current moving from 2. Rhodes Kasos Strait into the Levantine Sea, the 3. Karpathos Strait existence of which current is confirmed by 4. Wind (7 m/~) both average multiyear hydrological data - 5. Kasos Strait [4] and meteorological data on the wind's 6. Crete direction.during the period of the survey ~(see Figure 7). In the image (Figure 5) it is c.learly obvious that in the zone of action of the current moving in the direction 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J opposite to that of internal wave propagation the bands are convex and turned toward the direction of the current, in contrast to the rear part of the wave field where the internal waves' tracks are curved in the direction of their propagation; that is, in the direction opposite to that of the current. Along the current's boundary, which can be determined from the boundary of the area of Kasos Island's screening effect (the light-colored band leading away from the island on its leeward side), there is compression of the internal waves' traces; that is, their length is re- duced. In the central part of the Kasos Strait, where the countertlow is maximal, the bands lose their orderly structure and it can be assumed that this is an area of dissipation of the internal waves. - Conclusions. 1. In a number of examples that are also of independent interest, we have demonstrated the possibility of the successful utilization of images in the - visible and near-infrared bands of the spectrum, as obtained with th~ help of ISZ's of the "Meteor" series, in oceanological research. 2. The high spatia~ resolution of the M5U-S equipment makes it possible, in a number of cases, to obtain more de- tailed information about the structure of dynamic formations in the ocean than can be derived from infrared data. 3. In order to increase the effectiveness of the utilization of videoinformation from the "Meteor" ISZ's in oceanological practice, the choice of orbits and the planning of the surveys should be done in such a manner as to cover sections of the sea's surface with patches of sunlight as frequently as possible (and this is fully realizable). In order to record surface manifestations of dynamic processes in the ocean that appear in these patches, channels in the spectral band from 0.6 to 1 Um are the most effective. When surveying outside a patch of sunlight, the choice of the optimum bands depends to a considerable degree on the specific problem and requires special consideration. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Sklyarov, V.Ye., and Fedorov, K.N., "Three-Dimensional St~ucture of the Gulf Stream's Frontal Zone, as Determined From Synchronous Ship and 5atellite Data," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 3, 1980, pp 5-13. 2. Bulatov, N.V., "Eddy Structure of a Sub-Arctic Front in the Northwestern Part of the Pacific Ocean," UCH, ZAP. LGU. SER. GEOGR. NAUK, No 27, 1980, pp 61-72. 3. Philippe, Michele, "Fronts th~rmiques en M~deterrane~ d'apr~s les donn~es du radiomeytre du satellite NOAA5 (Septembre 1977-Fevrier 1979)," C. R. ACAD. SCI. PARIS, Series B, No 291, 1980, pp 43-46. 4. Ovchinnikov, I.M., et al., "Gidrologiya Sredizemnogo morya" [Hydrology of the Mediterranean Sea], edited by V.A. Burkov, Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo "Gidrometeoizdat", 1976, 376 pp. 5. Levine, E.R., and White, W.B., "Thermal Frontal Zones in the Eastern Mediterrane- an Sea," J. GEOPHYS. RES., Vol 77, No 6, 1972, pp 1081-1086. 6. Strong, A.E., DeRycke, R.J., and Stumpf, H.G., "Extensive Areas of Reduced Waves Leeward of the Lesser Antilles," GEOPHYS. RES. LETT., Vol 1, No 1, 1974, pp 47-49. 7. Ewiny, G., "Slicks, Surface Films and Internal Waves," J. MAR. RES., Vol 9, 1950, p 161. 67 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544464436-1 FOR OFFICIAII. USE ONLY 8. Gargett, A.E., and Hughes, B.A., "On the Interaction of Surface and Internal Waves," J. FLUID MECIi., Vol 52, No 1, 1972, pp 179-191. 9. Diets, R.S., "The Oceans From the Skylab-4," SEA FRONTIERS, Vol 20, No 6, 1974, pp 359-363. - 10. Apel, J.R., et al., "Observations of Oceanic Internal Waves From the Earth Re- sources Technology Sateilite," J. GEOPHYS. RES., Vol 80, No 6, 1975, pp 865-881. 11. Apel, J.R., et al., "A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data," REMOTE SENS. ENVIRbN., Vol 5, 1976, pp 125-135. 12. Sawyer, C., and Apel, J.R., "Satellite Images of Internal Wave Signatures," Miami, Florida, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., 1976. 13. Fett, R., and Rabe, K., "Satellite Observation of Internal Wave Refraction in the South China Sea," GEOPHYS. RES. LETT., Vol 4, No 5, 1977, pp 189-191. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 - CSO: 1866/36 _ 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 528.727 GEOMETRIC CORRECTION OF SCANNER PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE EARTFI'S SURFACE - Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEI~II+I IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 4, Jul-Aug 81 (manuscript re- ceived 31 Jul 80) pp 96-103 [Article by V.I. I~izhnichenko] [Text] Space television systems installed in artificial Earth satellites produce multispectral photographs of the Earth's surface that make it possible to solve a number of important national econo~nic problems related to the study of natural re- sources, it being the case that systems of the scanning ty,pe are some of the most promising ones [1]. The solution of these problems at the level required by modern consumers is possible only if there is a subs~antial improvement in the accuracy characteristics of space photoqraphs, particularly their geometric accuracy.~ How- ever, a nwnber of factors that affect different parts of a system [2] prevent this, which res~ilts in the necessity of special ground processing of these photoqraphs ~ith the help of analog or d~gital co~nputer facilities. The digital processing of space photographs [3] is beinq done on an ever broader scale because of its inherent flexibility and high accuracy. In order to solve the problems that have been formulated, a high degree of practicality in obtaining, pro- cessing and recording the video information photographically is another extremely - impoxtant condition. Therefore, the problem of developing special geometric correc- tion algorithms that would be optimal from the viewpoint of minimum time consumption has acquired a particular deqree of urgency. Such algorithms realize the recalcula- tion of the coordi.nates of ar~ image's elements on the basis of special mathematical expressions, with subsequent (or more vomplex processing) of the bright- ness codes. Temporal optimization is possible primarily tlirough simplification of the mathematical expressions for recalculatinq the coordinates. 21a~o approaches are possible in this mat.ter. The first of them is widely used in the United States [3], the FRG [4] and other countries to proaess "Landsat" system photographs, and consists of a polynomial approximation (usually of no higher than the fifth order) of the expressions mentioned above. T'he pc~lynomials' coefficients are found on the basis of processing the results of the measurement of the locations of�identified objects (reference points). In order to look for and identify refer- ences points it is necessary to have special templates and precision optico- mechanical devices. The time expended on searching for and identifying reference points in a photograph depends to a considerable degree on the qualifications of the people doing it. For these reasons, processing of the photographs on an operational. basis may not be achievable. . 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The second approach consists of constructing a mathematical model of the scanner survey that takes into consideration only the effect of the weiqhtiest distortinq factors. ~ven in the case of simplified models ([4-6], for example), however, the set of equations of motion of the scanning and recording beams gives inexplicit re- lationships for recalculating coordinates, which'leads to the necessity of looking for a solution iteratively, with the help of a computer [6]. Substantial time con- sumption, which can have a neqative effect on the operational nature of the process- ing, is possible in connection with this approach. However, within the framework of the second approach it is possi.ble to construct a special type of survey model in which the distorting factors that have been distin- quished are small, which is typical of the existing and more promisinq systems for studying natural resources. The author of [2] proposes such a model that makes it possible to find L�he desired~relationships, in explicit form, as an exponential ser- ies expansion with respect to small distorting factors and subsequent truncation of . the series. He also demonstrates that a linear approximation is frequently suffi- cient for existing and prospective systems. The explicit nature of the relation- ships that are obtained eliminates the need for the utilization of iterative meth- ods, which sares substantial am~ounts of time. Further saving of time is possible if the proposed technique is used only to calculate the nodal points of .some rectangu- lar network, while the intermediate coordinates are obtained with the help of alga- rithms of the bilinear interpolation type as the photographs are being processed. In this article, on the basis of an apF~roximate solution of ths system of equations for the special scariner survey model mentioned above, we have derived expressions for recalculating the coordinates of an image's elements �or a scanner with plane scanning. These expressions were used to calculate the coordinate networks for no- dal points that are needed in the proc~ssing of photographs with the help of the correction algorithm explained in [6], and are oriented toward the storage of the information about an interpreted photograph on a magnetic disk, which makes it pos- sible to realize two-dimensional correction of distortions. Further, there is a de- scription of the processing of two photographs of the Earth obtained by one of the "Meteor"-series satellites in 1977 and 1978, as well as an analysis of the i.mprove- ment in the accuracy characteristics of the photographs that has been achieved. Expressions for Converting Image Element Line and Column Numbers. As was pointed out above, in [2] the author presents a geometric model of a scanner survey. The equations of motion presented for the sca~ning and photograph3.c recording beams were solved in a linear approximation of relatively s~nall distorting factors of a deter- ministic and random nature, for the purpose of finding the dependences of the dis- torted qeocentric coordinates a~ and as measured in a photograph~,..on the true coordinates, as read from the ox~ axis of the orbital system of coordinates ox0~'OZO (Figure 1). which is fixed at the moment t~-of scanning of the middle of some line that is assumed to be central, as it applies to:the problem of evaluating geometric distortions. The pole formed at the intersection of the ox~ axis and the Earth's surface is assumed to be the center of the frame. Coordinates a and s are conven- ient for the purposes of this discussion, since (for example) for photographs cov- ering an area of 600 x 600 km they do not exceed a value of 0.047 in radian measure, regardless of their dependence on the geographic latitude. However, these equations can also be solved in a linear approximation and relative to the scanner coordi- nates: the scanning angle also read from the ox~ axis, and the time interval ~t between the middle of the current line and the moment t~ (Ot = t- t~), depending 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE UNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY on the corresponding parameters of the photographic recorder: = angle of rota- tion of the recorder's drum, flt' = interval of time between the recording of the current line and the moment t~ of the recording of the central line (At' = t' - t~). This results in the obtaining of relationships that can be used to recalculate the coordinates of an image's elements for the purpose of compensating for geometric distortions. ~ y~ . i ~I ~ ~ ~ ~ I . I a I y ~n , , - ~~:~Ir u r ~ y. zo - ~ ~ ~ I ~~i ~ ' ~ � ~ ' . Figure 1. General geometry of scanner surveying. We will assume that for surveying we are using a scanner with plane scanning, the incident beam vector a of which (Figure 1) has the components (cos 0- sin in the orbital system of coordinates ox~y~z0 (we will assume the scanner's intrinsic distorting factors to be equal to zero). Further assuming that the recording is done with a drum-type photographic recorder, we obtain the interrelationship of the photograph's coordinates x,y and the photorecorder's coordinates and ~t' in the form ~ , - x ~v'dt'~ y'�P W ~ , (1) b where p= radius of the drum; wd, urb = angular velocities of rotation of the drum and the scanning beam, respectively; v' = rate of drum feed along the axis. As a standard, we will use an oblique, cylindrical, equidistant projection oriented along the satellite's orbit. The formulas for this projection can be represented in the fonn xm'wYRar~, !/�~oa', (2) where RD = average radius of curvature of the reference ellipsoid in the center of the frame; Mm = a coefficient reflecting the main scale of the photograph. From (1) and (2) we obtain the interrelationship between coordinates a',R' and (n' is an additional dimensionless variable) in the form P~d , , y~~t~ ~1~ , a ' ~*Rou1b ~ ~ aMwRo m~R� ~ (3 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY By making use of the surveying model equations from [2l and the method for their ap- proximate solution relative to small distorting factors that is explained there, it is possible to find functions ~(a, R) and r1(a, 6) = vAt (rt = anqular position of the satellite relative to the center of the frame). Ocnitting the quite cumbersome intermediate computations, we obtain sin a k sin a---- Op e.' - l + - sin g=arctg Ck-cos a/ k'-2k cos a+1 p 2 ~ k cos a-1 -e (cos (u-cu) ain (u-c~) ) ] +~_2k cos a+1 x X [ (~S~- sin i cos (u+~) -6t sin (u+~), ~ v. " (4) k-cos a ! e ` ~~~-2e~cos(u-c~)+ cosa ~e+ v ~J - -tga ~1 OS2-~v .~l [cos i- i - - - - - - -sin i tg a sin (u+~) ]+Di tg a cos (u-i-a)-Au, where ea = eccentricity of the reference ellipsoid; w~ = angular rate of rotation of the Earth; geographic latitude for the center of the frame; k= p/R~; p, u, w, e, i, S2 = standard orbital parameters for the center of the �rame; ~p, ~u, Ai, ASZ = their corresponding measurement errors; Y, 9, Y, A, = bank, pitch and yaw angles of the orientation system; v=~u(1 - e2)3/p3 = average motion of the satel- lite; u = gravitational constant. When there are no distortions, the equalities a= a' and S= B' must be fulfilled. Then, having replaced a' and R' in :(3):with a and R and substituting the obtained expressions into (4) , we obtain the required functions , rt' ) and n(~' . r1' 'Phese coordinates are easily converted into line and column numbers of elements of the original (n and m) and processed (n' and m') images as m~m.+ e ~~~~O~,n~Os)~ n~n.+ 1 +1(m'et,n'ss), (5) e, where A1 = vT/(k - 1) = value of the desired angular resolution that provides equal- ity of the resulting photograph's scales along the x and y axes; A2 = vT = angle of displacement of the satellite during line frequency period T; n~, m~ = coordinates ~f the center of the frame in element numbers; angular resolution of the scan- ner. � Thus, when (4) is taken into consideration, expressions (5; give explicit relation- ships for converting the coordinates of an imaqe's elements during the geometric correction process. Geometric Correction of Photographs of the Earth. As our initial material we used the central fragments of photographs taket~.~t different times from a"Meteor" satel- lite: with a low-resolution scanner on orbit 984 and a medium-resolution scanner on orbit 5,094. The photographs depict the Caucasus and the island of Kyushyu (Japan), respectively. The latter is shown in Figure 2[omitted]. 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY on the days of the surveys, there were available orbital data in a relative equator- ial system of coordinates at moment t0 of the beginning of the first orbit on the ascending node on the given days. Tuning data on the scanners, which proved to be analogous to some bank (Y~) and pitch (8p) angles, were also available. Reference objects were identified in the oriqinal photographs and the corresponding geographic coordinates were determined. The number of points turned out to be 14 and 12, respectively, for each photograph. The photographs were then encoded in an image input-output unit and entered, ~ element by element (with 100-~un resolution) in special files in a computer disk mem- ory in the form of masses of image elements measuring 2,048 lines by 1,020 columns. The fragments that were entered depicted segments of the Earth's surface measuring 1,781 x 830 and 514 x 237 km for each photograph. By taking into consideration the terms of the second-order expansion with respect to parameter wa/v ti 0.073, which is the weightiest of all the distorting factors, it can be shown that the accuracy of the linear approximation in expressions (4) for both photographs is less than a sin- gle element. After this, both photographs were depicted on a graphic display in half-tone form so that the size of each element was 1 x 1 mm. This made it possible to review and make measurements on the photograph with single-element accuracy. First, temporal correlation of the centers of the frames with coordinates n~ _ = 1,024, m~ = 510 was carried out. In order to accomplish this, on the graphic im- ages we determined the line numbers corresponding to the beginning of the minute marks formed by the on-board timer during the scanner's return motion, as well as the dimensions of these marks and the width (in elements) of the frames. These - measurements made it possible to d~termine the equivalent angular resolution ~ and line frequency period T of the scanner for each photograph (these parameters are not equal to the scanner's true resolution and period, since the image was obtained from a photograph). Knowing them and the on-board timer's correction factors for Moscow time, which turned out to be 0.3 and 10 s, respectively, the times of passage of the centers of the frames were established and the sidereal time was determined from an astronomical yearbook. Further, standard techniques were used to calculate the or- bital parameters and azimuth which, together with the date and Moscow time of passage of the center of the frame, sidereal time, tuning data and the equivalent values of ~ and T are presented in Table 1. Coordinates x and y of the reference points in the graphic images were then measured. In view of the comparatively low operating speed of the computer that was used, pre- cise formulas (5) (with due consideration for (4)) were used to calculate.only the nodal points of the curvilinear coordinate networks corresponding to the origi- nal photograph: the coordinates oP the intermediate points were computed with the help of bilinear interpolation during the ac~tual processinq of the photographs (see below). Ttie result of these calculations was two special files on a disk that con- tained the x and y coordinates of the nodal points. The dimensions of the cells An' and ~m' (for lines and columns) of the rectangular network corresponding to the im- age that had been processed were selected on the basis of the condition of smallness of distortions caused by the replacement of segments of the aurves forming the sides of the network's ce11s with segments of straight lines becaus~ of the effect of the bilinear interpolation algorithm during the processing of the photographs. A second condition was that the curvilinear network not go beyond the boundaries of the ori- ginal frame. The values of An' and ~m', as well as the corresponding quantities of nodal points with respect to frame (N) and line (M) are also given in Table 1. 73 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 1. Initial Data for Processing of Photographs I~y~ME'~Y I C1YINON 1 CIIMMON Z CNMMON 1 C1INMON Y ~ 1 Jjara cbe~- 4.1X.1977 r. ~ 9.VI.i9T8 r. Q, 269,66 95~!! ' xa 4dtg;._ 8,~2�l0-= 2,00�i0'= 3seapaoe 22 a. 52 w. 0,09 s i7 a. 08 Y. 02.ia s. T,s. l,Z88�!0-' 3,665�!0-' ~ spe~cA (4) 7, d~~ ~-"r 3,3~f~i0-' 3.3f�!0'' t~ OOA.OS~t.14,53s OOs.46Y.05.2is. 9,de.�'~ -4,98�!0-' 4,33�ia'' P, K~ ~oos ~~oai e?~~ at !oo ~ 4,~si�io-~ ~,~u�~o-~ em~ ~a t, d 97,92 97,86 N 20 ZO u,d~~ 44,79 3l,97 ' A( i2 ' i0 w, l48,85 i,98 JI/~ 8 885 !99 . 2 508 986 v, i/ i,0759�!0-' i,077i�i0-' C, deq -li,06 -9,22 Key: ~ . 1. Parameters 3. Date of survey 2. Photoqraph No . 4. Sidereal time Finally, the actual processing of the photographs for the purpose of geometric cor- rection according to the alqorithm described in [7] was carried out; the result of the processing of the photograph in Figure 2 is ahown in Figure 3[omitted]. After the processing was completed, graphic images were again produced and the coordinates of the reference points were measured. On the basis of knowledge of the equivalent line frequency period for each photograph and the satellite's average motion v, co- efficients Mm were found for the obtained photographs wi~h the formula 11/,,,=vTR, � 40'. ~6~ The correspondinq results are also presented in Table 1. The effectiveness of the proposed photograph correction algorithm was evalua.ted in . the form of the ratio of the line,.angle and area measurement errors befnre process- ing to the corresponding indicatora after processing. As these errors we took, re- spectively, the values a~a I~" ~ I, a,-IAa-~I, 8as (�~'1_.._s s` I ~ c~) where R~, A~, S~ = lengths of sides, angles and areas of triangles on the photograph with vertices at reference points; ke, Ae, Se = the same characteristics for spheri- cal triangles on the Earth's surface. Averaged indicators (6) were computed for all possible pairs (during the measurement of lengths) and triplets (during angle and area measurements) of reference points, except for angles greater than 160�. The results of the calculations made before and after the processing of the photographs are given in Table 2(in the table, a tilde indicates the values of the distortions - occurrinq in the process,ed photographs, while M(...) designates an averaqing o,pera- tion) . It is now appropriate to look into the methodological errors and then awve on to an analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed method for calculating coordinate net-. works and then correcting photographs. The errors in bilinear interpolation, as calculated on the basis of the data for the values of ~n', Am', N and M presented in Table l, proved to be less than one-third of an element for all the photographs; that is, they can be ignored. A detailed analysis of the mea~n-square errors caused 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500060036-1 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY Table 2. Evaluations of Distcrtions of Lengths, Angles and Areae Measured on Photographs Before and After Proceseing Scxa�tsaae 1io 06 a6arx~ ~'I ~~~K i Cencot S c~a~-aocae o pa os�~ y M(~A), 'Xi 4 543 6~064 M(8A), i,658 2,l80 M(~r), 2,923 4,760 (8~ i,~ii 0~878 M(aQ), �r~ l2.683 !l,3i0 A!(da), 3,287 5~7i8 IIorpe~aoc:a ~cetoAa; y~E4~ 0,39 0,37 Key : 1. Distortion before processing 3. Photograph No . ' 2. Distortion after processing 4. Method error, $ by the total effect of the plotting of the reference points (pinholes), the extrapo- lation of the geographic coordinates.and.the discretization of the photograph, ~ yielded figures of 0.49 and 0.47 percent for the two photographs. Multiplication by the figure 2/~ ti 0.8 enables us to make the transition to the mathematical expec- tations of criteria (6) if we assume that the total errors are distributed according to a law that is close to normal. The data obtained in this manner are presented, as method errors, in Table 2. Errors in area measurements will be approximately equal to the data obtained, while angle measurement errors will apparently be negli- qibly small. . Considering the data in Table 2 and the methodological errors presented above, it is possible to draw the following conclusions in, for example, the aase of ineasurements of lengths. For the first photoqraph, this error was able to be reduced to about 1.6 percent, and since the methodological error here is approximately 0.4 percent, the residual error should be attributed to errors i.n the operation of the satel- ' lite's spatial orientation system that were not allowed for. The values obtained for the residual errors remaining after the processing of the photographs meet the demands made of m~dern cartographic technology. A visual com- parison of the photographs before and after proce~sing with a map of the correspond- ing scale also shows that processed photographs correspond better to cartographic data than unprocessed ones. All of what has been said makes it possible to conclude that it is possible to use the proposed methods for calculating coordinate networks and processing photographs, f~r trie purpose of correcting them geometrically, to solve problems concerning the mapping of the Easth's surface, as well as a number of problems that arise during the study of natural resources. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Selivanov, A.S., Chemodanov, V.P., Suvorov, B.A., Narayeva, M.K., Sinel'nikova, I.F., Bondarenko, R.S., and Sereq3n, V.I., "Opticomechanical Scanners for~Obser- vation of the Earth," TEItHNIKA KINO I TELEVIDENIYA, ICo 6, 1978, pp 17-21. 75 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500464436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2. IQiizhnichenko, V.I., "Technique for Evaluatinq the Accuracy Characteristics of Scanner-Type Television Systeme," GEODEZIYA I KARTOGRAFIYA, No 11, 1979, pp 28-32. 3. Bernstein, "Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data," IBM JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Vol 20, No 1, 1976, pp 40-57. 4. Schur, w., "Digitale Entzerrung multispectraler Bilder," BILDMESSUNG UND LUFZBILDWESEN, Vdl 44, No 5, 1976, pp 202-208. 5. Bocharov, V.P., and Sazhin, S.M., "Correction of Geometric Distortions of Space Video Information by Digital Methods," TR. GOSNITS IPR, No 8, 1980, pp.8-16. 6. Kadnichanskiy, S.A., "Photogr~araetric Processing of Orbital Television Fanoramas, Using Reference Points," TR. TSNIIGAIK [Central Scientific Research Institute of . Geodesy, Aerial Surveying and Cartography], No 222, 1979, pp 59-50. 7. Tyuflin, Yu.S., Kadnichanskiy, S.A., and IQiizhnichenko, V.I., "Analytical Trans- formations of Orbital Television Panoramas Into a Cartographic Projection," GEODEZIYA I KARTOGRAFIYA, No 4, 1979, pp 51-57. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/10 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . UDC 535.36:528.7 FILMING MOONSETS FROM SPACE AS METHOD OF STUDYING F.,ARTH~S ATMOSPHERE Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZENII,,I IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 (manuscript re- ceived 5 Feb 81) pp 58-62 [Article by A.S. Gurvich, V. Kan, L.I. Popovl, V.V. Ryuminl and S.A. Savchenko, In- stitute of Physics of the Atmosphere and Institute of Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow] [Text] When the Sun and the Moon are observed through the Earth's atmosphere, re- fraction leads to both smooth compression of the images of these heavenly bodies and - small-scale deformation of the images' shapes. Light refraction measurements can be used to determine the atmosphere's parameters. Small-scale deformations of the shape of the Sun's image, in the form of steps, were first observ~d from space by the crew of the first expedition in the "Salyut-6" or- bital scientific station (Yu.V. Romanenko and G.M. Grechko). They took separate photog.:aphs of the Sun near the horizon that were used to make approximate calcula- tions of the vertical structure of the temperature field in the Earth's atmosphere [1J. It should be mentioned here that such steps have not yet been mentioned in the observations of American astronauts, as follows from the most recent publications on this question [2]. In [3] the authors present only theorQtical.calcu~ations for the standard model of the atmosphere and proposes a method for determining the altitude of the tropopause according to the characteristic break as a function of the angle of refraction. For the purpose of further investigating the Earth's atmosphere from the viewpoint of light refraction, the crew of the lengthy fourth expedition in the "Salyut-6" station filmed risings and settings of the Sun and Moon,,thus making it possible to derive the altitudinal pattern of the angle of refraction and investigate in.detail the dynamics of the typical small-scale deformations of the shapes of these heavenly bodies. The filming was done with long-focus lenses at a rate of 24 frames per sec- ond. In this article we present a brief preliminary analysis of three series.of films of the Moon, two of which were made on 29 June and one on 25 August 1980. The dependence of the magnitude of oblateness x on frame number N for the survey series made on 29 June 1980 is shown in Figure 1. Here K. = dl/d2, where dl is the - vertical and d2 the horizontal diameter of the Moon's visible disk. The altitude of lUSSR Pilot-Cosmonaut. 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE O1VI_.~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY x _ the perigee of the light ray from the Moon's center corresponding to the most oblate image (k = 0.30) is approximately 6 ~ km (here and henceforth, altitudes are - correlated with values of x calculated for ~ _ the standard model of the atmosphere). Z For the two series under discussion, the angle between the sighting line and the - plane of the orbit was 22-25�. The origin of reading of the frames was chosen arbi- trarily, with curves 1 and 2 being super- >00 Z00 3/!D 400 500 600 N imposed according to the maximum values of ~ Figure 1. Dependence of oblateness on Y by displacement along the x axis. Dur- trame number for observations made on ing Series 2, the Moon's disk passed 29 June 1980: 1. Series 1; 2. Series through a cloud layer about 1}.ai thick, at 2, an altitude of 13 km, as iti was setting. The discontinuities in curve 2 correspond to the passaqe of the Moon's upper and lower edges through the cloud, when its oblateness could not be measured. From Figure 1 it is obvious that smooth compression of the Moon's visible disk as it sinks is accompanied by wavelike perturbations of small amplitude that are apparent- ly related to the effects of horizontally layered irregularities in the density of the air. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that these undulatory perturba- tions correspond approximately to the same frames in which irregularities in density are manifested clearly as deformations (steps) in the shape of the Moon's image. From Figure 1 it is also obvious that although in their upper sections the depend- ences have approximately the same type of diminution, curves 1 and 2 differ substan- tially in their lower parts, which corresponds to the passage of the Moon's disk through the cloud for Series 2. T~is is related to the fact that both above and be- low the cloud there are temperature gradients differing from those that are observed. at the same altitude under cloudless conditions. _ In Figure 2[not included] we see as an example eight frames that were filmed as part of Series 1. Since only the shape and defor~ation of the Moon's outline are important for quantitative processing, the originals of the moving picture film were copied on contrast film of the "Mikrat-300" type and the photographs were also - printed on contrast paper. The photographs in Figure 2 were obtained from sequen- tial frames of the film, separated by a time interval of one-third second; that is, � from every eighth frame. The oblateness value for the first frame is x= 0.67, while for the last it is K= 0.57s the altitude of the ray's perigee changed from 20 to 18 km, respectively. In the lower part of each photograph, deformations in the form of steps are clearly visible on the right and left sides of the outline, it be- ing the case that the hoxizontal dimensfons of the irregularities that caused these deformations are many times greater than the v~rtical ones and exceed the visible size of the Moon's disk. The outline deformations in the upper left part of each photograph are not related to the perturbations caused by diffraction, but are con- nected with the darkening of the lunar seas located there, which was intensified - during the process of increasing the contrast. The series of photographs in Figure 2 gives us a graphic picture of the dynamics of the development of the deformations in the Moon's visible disk; that is, of the magnitude and nature of the change in oblateness and the size, shape, location and asymmetry of the step-shaped 78 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544464436-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL'Y - - deformations, the~change in them as they move across the Moon's disk and so on. Figure 3 depicts the evolution of the lower ~ edge of the Moon's visible image. The out- Z lines are redrawn from the series of photo- . graphs presented in Figure 2. The outline S of the Moon's lower edge designated by the 6 numbEr 1 is deformed by steps located on ? ` its left and right sides. The shape and B location of these steps indicates that they were caused by the same horizontally lay- ered irregularity. On the next outline (2), in addition to this irregularity-- Figure 3. Evolution of deformations which has moved upward on the Moon's disk-- of the lower edge of the Moon's out- there begins to be manifested the effect of line (numbering of the outlines cor- the next (and lower) irregularity: the responds to the numbering of the im- disk's lower edge is severely deformed and ages in Figure 2). flattened. In outline 3 this new irregu- larity appears in the fozm of thick, step- type deformations and, in addition, the lower edge of the Moon's disk bulges outward slightly. On outline 3 and further in the series, the disturban~ces of the Moon's image caused by the effect of this irregularity are indicated in the figure rows. In addition, beqinning with outline 5, the effect of the next irregu~arity appears: in outline 5, the Moon's lower edge is deformed and flattened and deforma- tions in the form of steps appear in the following outlines. It is also obvious that this irregularity is substantially weaker than the preceding ones and that its effect on the Moon's visible 3isk is correspondingly less significant. The slight asymmetry of the outline deformations on the riqht and left sides indicates that the irregularities have a horizontal structure. Let us mention here that filming of the Sun and Moon from orbit is of substantial assistance in determining the horizonial - structure of irregularities, since it produces horizontal "profiles" of the atmos- phere; that is, the angle between the sighting line and the plane of the orbit is about n/2. Figurc: 4[not included] is a sequential series of images of the Moon, takeri from moving picture film on which one of the settings of the Moon observed on 25 August 1980 was recorded. This series is noticeable for the fact that in it is depicted the dynamics of the development of an interesting phenomenon: refractive disruption of the Moon's image, The altitude of the perigee of the ray from the lower edge is 14 km. Refractive disruptions are caused by areas with such severe density pertur- bations that the dependence of the apparent zenith angle on the true one becomes am- biquous. 7n this case, the lower edge of the disk is depicted three times as the result of this ambiguity. Refractive disruptions of the images of heavenly bodies wc~re also observed by preceding crews in the "Salyut-6" station, although until now - such observa~ions were represented only by single photographs, whereas filming has enabled us to register the er~tire process of the development of these severe refrac- tion deformations with high temporal resolution. - In order to emphasize the typical details of the process, for Figure 4 we selected frames separated by different time intervals: between photographs 1 and 2, the in- - terval is one-third of a second; between 2 and 3--one-half second; between 3 and 7-- 79 F~R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY one twenty-fourth of a second each (that is, these frames are successive ones); be- tween 7 and 8--one-sixth of a second. Photographs 1 and 2 show the beginning of the process: it is obvious that in addition to deformation of the Moon's disk in the form of steps having a complicated shape, the lower edge of the Moon in photograph 2 in comparison with 1 is flattened noticeably, which is caused by the effect of non- uniformity of the air's density. In photographs 3-7 this nonuniformity is manifest- ed in the form of severe deformations, which are a refraction image of the lower part of the Moon's visible disk. A~th~ugh the refractive disruption is barely _ noticeable in photograph 3, as the visible rays sink into the disturbed layer of air, an ever more significant part of the Moon is seen below the line of the refrac- tive disruption. In photograph 7 the line of the disruption is very weak, whereas in photograph 8 the refractive disruption has disappeared and be converted into a step with sharp edges, with the step being deeper and sharper on the right side. - This asymmetry, which is related'to the horizontal nonuniformity of the disturbed - layer of air, is also manifested in preceding photographs 5, 6 and 7 in the non- identity of the right and left edges of the refraction-affected part of the Moon's image. When the time during which the refractive disruption was observed and the rate of subsidence of the visible ray are known, it is possible to evaluate the thickness ~ of the layer with the anomalous density pattern; for the case depicted in Figure 4, 250 m. The hypothesis of the existence of such thin layers was ad- vanced in [4] on the basis of observations of flickerings of stars and planets. In conclusion let us mention that, as the derived data indicate, filming of sun- and moonset~ with long-focus lenses is a new and promising method for making a quantita- tive study of the structure of refraction distortions. Filming makes it possible to obser~e the uninterrupted pattern of the chaz~sge in oblateness, which can further be used to study variations in the vertical profiles of air density and temperature. In connection with this, the rather high temporal and (consequently) spatial resolu- tion of the irregularities makes it possible to distinguish and identify deforma- tions of the outlines of heavenly bodies caused by disturbances in density after eliminating the random errors in individual frames. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Grechko, G.M., Gurvich, A.S., Romanenko, Yu.V., Savchenko, S.A., and Sokolovskiy, S.V., "Vertical Structure of the Temperature Field in the Atmosphere, Based on Observations of Refraction From the 'Salyut-6' Orbital Station," DOKL. AN SSSR, Vol 248, No 4, 1979, pp 828-831. 2. ~arriot, O.K., "Visual Observation From Space," J. OPT. SOC. AMER., Vol 69, No 8, 1979, pp 1064-1067. - 3. Shuerman, D.W., Giovane, F., and Greenberg, J.M., "Stellar Refraction: A Tool to Monitor the Height of the Tropopause From Space," J. APPL. METEOROLOGY, Vol 14, No 6, 1975, pp 1182-1186. 4. Grechko, G.M., Gurvich, A.S., and Romanenko, Yu.V., "Structure of Density Irreg- ularities in the Stratosphere, Based on Observations From the 'Salyut-6' Orbital Station," IZV. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ATM. I OKEANA, Vol 16, No 4, 1980, pp 339-344. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 CSO: 1866/36 80 FUR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 528.946 USING SPACE PHOTOGRAPHS TO STUDY AND MAP AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION OF LAND Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 28 Apr 81) pp 103-110 [Article by L.F. Yanvareva, Department of Geography, Moscow State University imeni M.V. Lomonosov] [Text] The study of the agricultural utilization of land occupies a central posi- tion in economic and geographic investigations of agriculture. It is essentially a multiaspect problem, but in the end its goal is to reveal the interrelationships be- tween natural conditions and systems for carrying out agricultural work and to de- termine the confinement of different types of agricultural utilization of land to different natural types of soil and local economic conditions [1J. Such a study of land utilization gives a scientific basis for the suitable territorial organization of agriculture. Until now, the original materials for studying land use were large- and medium-scale land management cartographic materials, data from field investigations of separate key farms, statistical materials on individual agricultural enterprises, and com- plexes of natural maps. The collection and processing of such detailed materials _ for large territorial units is extremely difficult. In this respect, the use of materials gathered by space surveys offers new opportu- nities. Space surveys mot only give a quite detailed image of the land surface over an extensive area, but also make it easier to study the confinement of separate - types of agricultural utilization to natural types of soils, since they can be in- terpreted in the topographical, geomorphological, soil and geobotanical aspects at the same time. In this article we discuss the possibility of using multizonal scanner photographs taken in space by the "Fragment" ~ystem, on a scale of 1:500,000, for these purposes. _ The photographs ~ncompass a region located inside two geographical zone--foresc- steppe and steppe--that change from the former to the latter from north to south. A large portion of the ~hotograph is occupied by the Kalachskaya upland, which is fragmented severely by a system of gullies and ravines. In the narthwest, at the edge of the photograph, lies part of the Khopersko-Buzulukskaya accumulation plain. On the southern edge, along the right bank of the Don River, stretches the Donetskaya ridge, which is also severely dissected by an erosion network. 81 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY Practically all of the watershed area and slopes have been tilled (Figure 1[not in- cluded]). The gully and ravine network more or less cuts into a unified arable mass, creating an erosion figure in the land's territorial structure. From a com- parison of the space photograph with a topographical map it is obvious that as re- cently as the 1960's, the very highest sections of the Kalachskaya upland were not being tilled. The grassy virgin steppes were used as pastures and for haymaking. Now, only the natural meadowl~nds along the gullies and ravines remain untilled. Their agricultural value is not great. A considerable part of the gullies and ra- vines in the upper reaches have been reforested or planted with bushes in order to prevent the development of water erosion. This shows up quite well on photographs in the orange band (a = 0.6-0.7 Um), as an abrupt darkening of the tone of the upper reaches of a ravine or gully. The valleys of the large Don and Khoper Rivers (and their flood plains and ter- races), which are clearly visible on photographs taken in any band, make up a com- plex mosaic of different types of land: open and bush-covered meadows, underbrush, blocks of forest. On the high right original bank of the Don, which is dissected severely by ravines and gullies, the agricultural lands are fragment and represented by small, isolated sections that are impossible to distinguish on a space photograph. The extensive left bank terraces of the Don and its tributary the Peskovatki are al- _ so occupied by a complicated complex of lands. In this area, grassy steppes used to alternate with sections of sand. A large part of the terrace is now occupied by pine forests that were primarily planted by man. The remaining steppe pastures are severely broken up. Through of�ice interpretation of small-scale photographs taken by the "Fragment" system, this territorial structure of the lands in the region makes it possible to compile small-scale land maps (Figure) with the help of topographic and. forestation _ maFs. The delimitation of tilled fields and the discrimination of the natural meadowlands along the gullies and ravines is the first and most complicated stage in the process of interpreting the land types. A comparison of the space photograph with a topographic map of about the san:e scale showed that almost all of the ravine and gully network shown on the map can also be - seen in the space photograph. However, from the photographs it is impossible to ~ distinguish ravines from gullies and defiles and thus distinguish the lands anc3 nat- ural meadowlands that are confined to the ravines and gullies and are not used in , agriculture. Plowed lands can be distinguished most reliably from a complex of multizonal photo- graphs that were taken at the same time. Both summer (July) and autumn (October) photographs were used in the interpreting process. Tr~e boundary of the tilled land along the brows of large gullies and ravines is seen most clearly in summer photographs in the near-in~rared band (a = 0.8-1.1 um), where the network of gullies and ravines has a lightened, whitish tint (Figure 3a [not in- cluded]). However, small gullies blend in with the plowed land background. They are more clearly c]istinguishable in an autumn ghotograph taken in the same band, ~ where the autumn-plowed fields are distinguished from the gray gully network by their dark, almost black tone (Figure 3b). 82 ~'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , 1% _ � . "i-�~ ~ ` v ~ , - ~ ~ Y _ ~ ~ ~ `/~1 ~ � 1 ~ \ . I . ~ ~ ` , ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ - \ ~ ` .'T~ � , ~ ~ e ` 'Y t--.. ~ . � . " ~ ; ~ ~ 'ys,~ ` ~ �~ti � % ~ �~ve . ~?rl . i ` 1 J ' ~ ; ~ + _r ` ~ \ � , ~ / ~ ' , 11 ~ ` . o \ \ ~M... ~ \ ~ e� / ~ ~yi~, f ; .o ...i . . ~ 1 ~ j\ ( ~ ~;n~ ~ ; 1~ :~~~)'Y ' ~ ~ ~ . ` ~ . o o ; `M.. . ' Cr' � ? ~ : ~ / ~ ~ , .,7 ` ~ op ~ \ � o ~ ~ \ ` ~ ` ~ . e e ~ ~ e e 0 0 , :~~~o , ~ e o 0 0 ~ , a ~ � e ~ .:o;_.�o 0 0 , o ~ o~: o � o~ o 0 0 ~o 0 � o~� : o�. � o o � , o � o � a~ ' ~ a 0 0� � o, o 0 0,::. ,.::~:;~�o 0 0 0 : o , , ~ ' o .i~.;o o , _ o o~ o 0 0, ve o, o o e ~ o~ o , 0 0 ~ o , o , o . u n~ e~'~'~ I o 0 0~ S 6~~ ~8 Figure 2. Fragment of land map compiled on the basis of space photographs taken by the "Fragment" system. Lands: la. tilled land; lb. eroded _ tilled land; 2. pastures and hay-producing areas; 3. pastures and hay- producing areas along ravines and gullies (a. open, b. covered with under- brush); 4. flooded hay-producin~ areas; 5. forest. Composite lands: 6. forests along river flood plains combined with open and brush-covered ra- vines; 7. plowed land combined with natural meadowlands and land not used in agriculture. Unused lands: 8. sands. The reliability with which the outlines of plowed land~ are distinguished depends largely on the size of the fields, the clearness af the boundaries between them, and the rectilinearity of their shape. The larger and more rectilinear a field is, the easier it is to distinguish from other types of land. This is why plowed lands can be distinguished most clearly in plains-type steppe regions. The sizeC of the fietds in the photoqraph ranqe from 50-100 to 300-400 ha. Small fields covered with grain plant stubble that are adjacent to or dissected by gullies are difficult to identify, and following the boundary of the plowed land is quite difficult. The observed lack of clarity and the washed-out nature of the boundaries of the tilled lands along the sands of the Don's terraces indicates that the fields have been eroded. 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The formation of the pattern of the cutting of the fields depends on a number of factors. The density of the dissection of the relief affects it decisively. On the Kalachskaya upland, the cutting of the fields is irregular: being oriented in dif- - ferent directions, they form a complicated mosaic. Placement of fields at right an- gles to slopes, with the formation of more or less domelike structures, is typical of the highest part of the Kalachskaya upland. The pattern of fields on the Khopersko-Buzulukskaya plain is distinguished by a high degree of orderliness. The - rectangular fields stret~h from the northeast to the southwest and form a rectiline- ar structure that resembles a chessboard. Here the boundaries of the tilled land are distinguished most clearly and reliably. ~ The network of administrative and farm boundaries has a definite effect on the for- mation of the field pattern. In the photograph there are boundaries of three oblasts (Voronezhskaya, Rostovskaya and Volgogradskaya) and a number of administra- tive regions. They can all be traced quite well, either on the basis of the differ- ently oriented cutting of the fields or by the change in the shape of the fields and their elongation along ~he boundaries. The boundaries of the agricultural enter- prises--kolkhozes and sovkhozes--can be interpreted just as easily. Rayon or oblast land utilization plans are used in the identification of the administrative and farm - boundaries. The definition of the boundaries between fields used in the crop rotation system af- fects the separation of the plowed land from other types. It depends on the diver- sity of the crops in the planted areas, the proportions of different groups of crops in the crop rotation system, and the special features of their phenological develop- ment. In some cases, the sharpness of the fields' boundaries can also depend on the lithological composition of the surface deposits. As has already b~en mentioned, in comparison with the watershed areas the river val- leys are notable for the high degree of complexity of the structure of their lands. The resolution of the photographs taken with the "Fragment" system does not make it possible to differentiate the lands in the valley complexes. Further enlargement of the photographs' scale or the use of synthesized color images does not produce a positive effect in the identification of the valley land structures. In the summer orange-band photograph, from the structure of the image it was possible to distin- guish open meadows from brush-covered ones and underbrush only on the Don's broad flood plain. Forests are identified in the photographs with confidence because of their darker tone. In the valley of the Khoper and along the right bank of the Don it is possible to distinguish only combinations of lands, although the boundaries of these combinations can be traced very reliably in any area in the summer photo- graphs. The formulation of a plan for identifying lands and determining the boundaries of their outlines is possible only by analyzing all the zonal images for both periods. De$pite the impossibility of obtaining detailed information about the location of the different types of lands (particularly for the valley complexes), space photo- graphs have substantial advantages for studying the confinement of certain types of agricultural usage to natural types of soils. The features of the territory's or- ganization as a function of the relief and the degree of its ruggedness are mani- fested quite clearly in them. 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The interpretation of space photographs offers us qreat opportunities when studying forms of agriculture as complex methods for the agricultural utilization of land. The territory in the photograph is a typical grain-growing region with a large per- centage of grain plantings for the production of marketable grain. Grain growing is combined with the raising of livestock for meat and milk. The insignificant per- centage of natural fodder resources in the overall land pattern indicates that the livestock fodder base rests on field fodder production. Only on the flood plains in the Don and IQZOper valleys do the flooded meadows have any aqricultural value. The basic indicator of the arable land utilization system on individual farms is the proportion of the groups of crops (cultivated, uncultivated, perennial and annual grasses) that play different roles in crop rotation, as well as fallow and planted pairs of fields. The relationship among these groups of crops makes it possible to obtain an idea of types of crop rotation being used. .SJ : � - - - ~ � ~ y l 1~I:~� �r ~ ~ ~ 1 .~ry~. 4' ~ �`~-I~�~�'~~~~/ . , ~ ~ M.~ ,.l 4 v',i � ~ 2~� ` � ' ~'~.~in �JI'. ~ . . ' . %v . 11 ~ ~ J~v i ' \ ' '1~ : . . . . . . y~.' � ~t~~. .h. n ~ .~~ii. ` ~ ' n n n ~ ~ ~ � ~ 0 0 n n n~ ' y o 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~~io o, `~o 0 0 ~ ~ ~o 0 0 0 0 ~ i�. _ J o 0 0\ o 0 0 0 0 0 ^ ' 0 0 0 ~ ~ 2 ~~3 n~ ~~f 4 'o� ~f ---6 -�-7 Figure 4. Fragment of land utilization map. Agricultural crops: 1. cul- tivated (sunflowers and corn); 2. uncultivated (winter and spring grains and others); 3. fallow fields. Natural meadowlands: 4a. steppe-type, on river terraces; 4b. along gullies and ravines; 5. State forest reserve lands; 6. kolkhoz arid savkhoz land utilization boundaries; 7, boundaries of administrative regions. _ The analysis and interpretation of the photographs make it possible to obtain such information. In the photographs we first determine the boundaries of the agricul- tural enterprises (the kolkhozes and sovkhozes) in order to determine the relation- ships of the groups of crops on specific farms. Of course, the proportions of the different groups of crops in the planted area of a farm do not give a precise pic- ture of the role of the crops in specific crop rotation plans, but are still a quite reliabl.e indicator that make it possible to form an opinion about the forms of agri- cultare in use. When stu~ying forms of agriculture covering large areas, general- ized statistical statistical data on administrative rayons and even oblasts are nor- mally used. A space photograph makes it possible to obtain the required information not only for farms covering considerable areas, but also to see the location of dif- ferent groups of crops on farms; that is, to come closer to a study of the crop 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY rotation methods actually in use (Figure 4). From an enlarged, synthesized space photograph it is easy to extract infoYmation about agricultural crops; in it it is comparatively easy to distinguish, quite simply, groups of crops, the identification of which on the basis of zonal black-and-white photographs is a complicated proce- dure. ~ \ - - ~ - _ , : - . - 6 ~ ~ \ c ..f � \ d~ \ \e \ f, _ _ Anp eae Mari AroNe Nbni Asa m C~rm~~ OKmAdp~ Hosdpe (1) (2) ~3~ (4) ~5~ ~6~ 7~ 8 ~ ~ L--~ 2 . ~ ~ s 6 y~ 9 o~ 1p f! ~ 12 Figure 5. Diagrams of phenological development of agricultural cxops: a. winter wheat; b. spring wheat; c. winter rye; d. spring barley; e. corn; f. sunflowers. Stages in organogenesis: 1. seed; 2. sprouting; 3..ti11- ering; 4. leaf-tube formation; 5. heading and flowering; 6. tasseling of panicle; 7. milky ripeness; 8. waxy ripeness; 9. formation of sunflower racemes; 10. brawning of sunflower calathide; 11. [omitted]; 12. recom- ~ mended surveying dates. Key: ~ ' 1. April 5. Auqust 2. May 6. September 3. June 7. October 4. July 8. November In the synthesized photograph taken on 30 July, three types of fields can be distin- guished: fields covered with uncultivated grain crops, both winter and spring vari- eties (gray-blue color); cultivated crops (.sunflowers and corn--orange in color); plowed fields (dark blue color). The division of crops into cultivated and un- cultivated proved to be possible because of the different dates of onset of the ba- sic stages of these two groups of crops' phenological developmentl. The diagrams that were constructed to show the passage of the agricultural crops through differ- ent phenophases and stages of organogenesis (on the basis of average multiyear data and data for the year of the survey) indicated that the spring and winter grains (winter wheat and rye, spring barley) in the snuthern part of the area surveyed had reached full ripeness and were already harvested (Figure 5). The cultivated crops were in different stages of vegetation: the sunflowers were in the flowering stage and the corn in the panicle-tasseling stage. The plowed fields were open and fallow and were ready for the planting of winter crops. In the autumn photograph, taken on 10 October, they are differentiated from the autumn-plowed fields, since the winter grains planted ir. them had already reached the tillering stage. However, from neither the summer nor autumn photographs is it possible to obtain an idea about the location and percentage of winter crops :~.n the crop rotation system. 1Data on the location of crops on key farms, gathered by M.A. Shepel', were used in the identification of the crops. 86 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For this purpose it is better to use photographs taken in the spring, in the period when the sprouts of the spring crops have not yet appeared and the winter ones have reached the tillering stage. The necessary surveying dates for different regions can be determined on the basis of diagrams of the vegetative development of agricultural crops that are constructed from average annual data, with corrections for the meteoroloqical conditions of the specific year. In the end, the analysis of photographs taken at different times makes it possible tc~ c'.~~termine the proportions of crops in planted areas and the percentage of fallow ~ fi~?..iri, thus producing information about the utilization of tilled lands and types of -:=~op rotation systems. In the area under discussion, for example, "grain-fallow- cultivated" crop rotation is the one primarily used, with a large percentage of win-. ter and spring uncultivated grains. The study of forms of agriculture provides for the investigation of the agricultural technology and land reclamation methods used, as well as the systems of ineasures for preventing wind and water erosion, the use of fertilizers and so on. Normally, when using space photographs to determine the complex of antierosion measures being used in dry steppe regions, we have at our disposal an entire system of external indica- tors: the presence of forest belts to protect fields, strip siting of agricultural crops and fallow fields, a significant percentage of perennial and annual grasses in the crop rotation, specific strip-type cutting of fields across the direction of the prevailing winds [2]. The study of a system of antierosion measures with space photographs is more diffi- cult. The following agrotechnical measures do not appear in space photographs: contour plowing, working of the soil without plowing, the banking or furrowing of autumn-plowed fields and other forms of antierosion working of fields ai~ed at re- ducing the washing away of soil from level fields. The same thing can also be said of hydraulic engineering measures: the building of terrace walls on slopes and the erection of channeling structures. As has already been said, space photographs tak- en with the "Fragment" system have been used to identify water-control forest plant- ings on the edges of ravines and gullies, but we have not succeeded in identifying field-shielding windbreaks in them. It is neCessary to mention here that in the laying out of fields, too little atten- tion is given to the susceptibility of soils to water erosion, despite its signifi- cant development in the region under discussion. The thorough study of the agricultural utilization of land with the help of space photographs must be based on field investigations of key types of farms, the choice of which can be made on the basis of preliminary interpretation of the photographs. In the end, the use of space photographs to study the agricultural utilization of land should facilitate the "geographication" of territorial economic and geographic research and the compilation of maps reflecting the interrelationship of natural conditions and the contemporary agricultural utilization of land. The exNerience gained in analyzing space photographs taken with the "Fragment" sys- - tem has demonstrated their suitability for compiling and revising small-scale land 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J utilization maps, types of territorial organization, and forms of agriculture in the steppe and forest-steppe zones. The study of the agricultural utilization of land in all its aspects requires the uee of photographs taken at different times. Despite their insufficiently hiqh res- olution, therefore, space photographs taken with the "Fragment" system have acquired particular value for agricultural interpretation. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Rakitnikov, A.N., "Geografiya sel'skogo khozyaystva" [Agricultural Geography], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Mysl 1970, 341 pp. 2. "Issledovaniye prirodnoy sredy kosmicheskimi sredstvami. Geografiya. Metody kosmicheskoy fotos"yemki. T. 4, razdel 'Sel'skoye khozyaystvo [Investigating the Environment With Space Facilities. Geography. Space Photosurveying Methods. Volume 4, "Agriculture" Section], Moscow, VINITI [AI1-Union Institute of Scien- tific and Technical Information], 1975, pp 57-67. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 � CSO: 1866/35 , 88 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 " FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY UDC 681.3:518 EXPERIMENTAL EVA7~IJATION OF METHODS FOR AUTOMATED INTERPRETATION OF AGRICULTURAL - CROPS ON BASIS OF PHOTOGRAPHS OBTAINED WITH 'FRAGMENT' MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING SYSTF2~I Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 (manuscript re- ceived 28 Apr 81) pp 89-92 [Article by I.A. Labutina and I.K. Lur'ye, Department of Geography, Moscow State University imeni M.V. Lomonosov] [Text] At the present time no one doubts the urgency of the problem of automatinq the interpretation of aerial and space photographs. A large number of scientific publications devoted to this question have appeared recently. The results presented in them do not yet make it possible to talk about the automatic processing of data received from artificial Earth satellites. Experience has shown that it is neces- - sary to have the participation of an interpretative specialist in the process of in- ~ terpreting images with a computer;and that the photograph processing system must be interactive. Although the number of available methods for interpreting aerial and _ space photographs is quite large, it is difficult to give preference to any one of them. The choice of the method depends on the quality of the surveying materials, the demands on the computer that emanate from the desired accuracy of the results, and the type of prior information about the surveyed objects. The purpose of this - article is to compare the most widely used automated interpretation methods on the basi~ of the results obtained. For our experi.ments in automated interpretation, we selected a photograph of the territory of the Don and Khoper Rivers' interfluve that was obtained with the "Fragment" multispectral scanning system on 30 July 1980. We used a four-band image that was recorded on magnetic tape and subjected to radiom~tric correction. The area depicted in the photographed is almost completely farmed. Despite some ~light differences in agricultural practices in Voronezhskaya, Volgogradskaya and Rostovskaya Oblasts, parts of which are seen in the photograph, in general the main features of the structure of the planted areas are similar: typically, winter and sprinq grain crops--wheat and barley--predominate. Part of the planted areas are ~ occupied by cultivated crops, the main ones of which are sunflowers and corn. Ma- - terialsl on the distribution of agricultural crops by crop rotation fields (and their status) were gathered in the fall of 1980 in an area encompassing the 1The materials were gathered by N.A. Shepel' and L.A. Kovrizhnykh. 89 FOR OFFICIAL U3E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000504060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY territory of two sovkhozes in Veshenskiy Rayon, Rostovskaya Oblast. These materi- als, as well as Hydrometeorological Service data on the phenological phases of crops were used as standards in the evaluation of the results of autamated processing that had as its purpose the identification of the composition, by type, of agricultural crops. we also used spectral and color synthesized photograpgs on a 1:500,000 saale and the results of visual interpretation. A fragment of the photograph i?teasuring 512 x 300 elements, which contained about 100 ~ agricultural fields (including 38 fields in the standard section) was subjected to automated processing. The fragment was first processed on a Ye5 [Unified System of Electronic Computers] EVM-1022 at MGU's [Moscow State University imeni M.V. Lomonosov] NIVTs [probably Scientific Research Computer Center] by a program devel- oped in the Laboratory of Aerospace Methods, Cartography Section, Department of Geography, MGU. It was assumed that there was no prior information about the nature of the distribution of probabilities inside the classes of objects and that the only digital recordings on magnetic tape were used as the initial data. The program realizes a cluster analysis algorithm and is based on a single element-by-element survey of all the assigned lines in the photograph. By analyzing the distances between the elements in the photograph in a multidimensional space (in this case its dimensionality is four)~and comparing them with a previously given - threshold value, the program forms cluaters that are identified as homogeneous for- mations. In connection with this, the centers of the c3usters are defined as the average values of the spectral characteristics of the elements in them and the intracluster dispersions and the distances between the centers of the different clustera are determi.ned. The values of the boundaries of the objects for each line in the photograph are plotted in a special table (if the object is not an isolated _ element). Using an alphanumeric printer, the computer produces a classification map in which each cluater is designated by its own alphanumeric symbol. This classifi- cation map is compared with data gathered on the ground or a visualized image, and the standard fields are identified. In the experiment being described, the identi- fication of the fields was made quite easy because of the presence in the photograph � fragment being investigated of i.mages of fallow fields; that is, fields with exposed soil. They can be grouped into one cluater very easily because of, in the first place, the substantial difference between their brightness in all surveying bands and the brightness of cultivated fields and, in the second, the relatively high uni- formity of their spectral characteristics. Confident identification of fields on ~ the classification map was also facilitated by the fact that their boundaries coulci - be seen clearly in almost all cases. An analysis of the results revealed the following. Fields planted with grain crops, the harvesting of which had already been completed by the time ~f the survey, were easily combined into a single cluster. Fields planted with corn and sunflowers and that had a greenish appearance at the moment of surveyinq could not be distinguished with sufficient confidence. The plantings of these crops in each field was, as a rule, nut uniform, as a result of which it was not possible to obtain more or less homogeneous salient features on the classification map even when different threshold values were used. The plantings of these crops were characterized only by their own set of clusters, in which they were combined, since on the classification map the fields corresponding to these crops were designated by two or three symbols of over- lapping clusters, although almost everywhere a single predominant symbol could be distinguished. During the fi._~ stage of classification, therefore, it turned out to be possible to obtain information about the centers (the average values of the 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY spectral characteristics) of all the clusters of interest to us; that is, the stan- dard fields planted with different crops. In the second stage, we set a desired number of cluaters and gave several threshold characteristics for combining or separating clustera� As our initial data we used the values of the centers of the clusters (the average values of the spectral char- acteristics of homogeneous formations) that had been obtained during the first stage of the cluster analysis program's utilization. In an iterative fashion, this pro- gram compares the centers in question with standard values. The clusters are com- bined if the distances between their centers are less than the given threshold value and separated if the intracluster dispersion for any spectral component is greater than the given threshold value. In connection with this, new cluster coordinates are formed. Such a sequence of procedures has quite substantial advantages: the first stage is quite simple to realize and rapid in execution (in the sense of computer time re- quired) and makes it possible to reduce the quantity of initial information signifi- cantly: instead of the characteristics of the 512 x 300 elements of the original photograph, after the first stage we have only characteristics on the order of 60 cluster centers. The second stage is more c~mplicated to reali~~, but this complex- ity is offset by the small amount of information to be processed. As a result of this automated interpretation method, the reliability of the classification of the agricultural crops was evaluated at 80 percent. The same photograph f ragment underwent processing in an automated complex in the ONP [expansion unknown] of the USSR Academy of Sciences' Institute of Space Researchl. Two programs were used: classification by minimum distance and a program that real- izes the method of maximum likelihood. In order for these programs to function, it was necessary to obtain the values of the vectors of the average values of the stan- dard fields' spectral characteristics and the values of the covariance matrices. The following procedures were realized for this purpose. The standard fields were identified visually on a display screen and representative sections inside them, measuring 5 x 5 elements, were distinguished. The vectors of the average brightness. values for each spectral channel and the covariance matrices were computed for each such section. The minimum-distance classification program was set up to sort the original photograph into five classes: fallow fields (bare soil), winter wheat and barley (stubble), corn and sunflowers. The results of the classification were: 1) the fallow fields were distinguished very clearly (as with the preceding method, they served as the basis for identifying fields on the classification map); 2) - plantings of corn and sunflowers were combined into a singte class, in connection with which on the fields planted with corn, the symbols representing the class were arranged compactly, almost without spots, while in the sunflower fields there were individual spots combined with designations of unclassified objects; 3) a class con- - taining natural meadowlands along gullies and ravines wa~ distinguished. Thus, we distinguished three of the five classes of fields that can be identified quite con- fidently during visual interpretation of spectral photographs and that correspond to the three basic colors in a synthesized color photograph because of the fact that they characteristic entirely different states of agricultural fields: plowed soil, vegetative growth and grain stubble after harvesting. 1The ~hotograph processing programs were developed by V.A. Krasilcov and V.A. Shamis. 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500460036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The maximum-likelihood method is considered to be a much more accurate but also more laborious autanated interpretation method. It presupposes that the distribution of probabilities for each class of objects is normal. In order to relate each element in the photograph to some class with the maximum likelihood, a Gaussian decision rule is used. In connection with this, it is necessary to know the number of dis- tinguishable classes of objects, the vector of the average values for each class, and the elements of the covariance matrix. The first classification variant with this program, when the spectral characterist- ics of arbitrarily selected fields planted with the crops named above were given as the centers, yielded the same results as the classification with the minimum- distance determination program. In order to distinguish between fields planted with sunflowers and corn, an attempt was made to distinguish 13 classes corresponding to standard fields with crops in different states. Thus, the characteristics of fields with dense and sparse plantings were used. The experiment proved to be unsuccess- ful: there was a confusion of classes and only one--the fallow fields--could be distinguished clearly. The next attempt to separate corn and s~inflower plan~ings proceeded as follows. The average values of of the characteristics of two fields planted with each of these crops were introduced into the maximum-likelihood program as the centers instead of the characteristics of a single, arbitrarily chosen field. In connection with this it was assumed that the covariance matrices for these fields are quite similar, so they were not recomputed. The result proved to be positive: corn and sunflower plantings were separated into two classes. True, some fields were relegated immedi- ately to two clusters (that is, they were represented by a combination of desiqna- tions of both crops), but in almost all cases it was possible to determine the pre- dominant class. All six fields planted in corn that appeared in the fragment that was processed were combined confidently into a single class, while of the five planted with sunflowers, only one could not be placed confidently in one class or another. This experiment confirmed our supposition that when using classification programs with instruction, it is not possible to assign the spectral characteristic of a sin- gle field as the center of a class, since fields with a single crop that belong to a single class can have significant differences in spectral characteristics. The use of the average value of the characteristics of several fields defines the boundaries of a class more accurately. This experiment in interpretation shows that in addition to objects that differ tan- gibly in all bands (or most of them), objects differing from each other by an insig- nificant value in only nne band are encountered very frequently (particularly among agricultural crops). During visual interpretation such cases are usually detected. The introduction of a weighting factor in the spectral characteristics of such ob- jects in a single band would ma}:e it possible to separate them during automated in- terpretation. These experiments shawed that the methods used yield quite similar results, at least for small fragments of photographs. The choice of inethod is affected by the subjec- _ tive attitude of the user. For large volumes of information it is advisable to use , the least laborious and fastest automated interpretation methods, with mandatory participation of an interpretative specialist in the initial stages of the work. 92 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064436-1 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY It is reasonable to conduct the business of thematic processing in several stages. The first step, even at the stage of adjusting and instructing the automated satel- lite informatinn processing systems, should consist of a preliminary visual or photometric (depending on the required degree of accuracy) interpretation of the photographs in separate representative sections, which makes it possible to obtain - prior information about the advisable number of classes and special features of the image of an object being identified .in spectral photographs. COPYRIGHT: Izciatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli i2 kosmosa",.1981 11746 CSO: 1866j 36 93 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 528.946 MAPPING FORESTS FROM SPACE PHOTOGRAPHS Moscow TSSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manuscript re- ceived 28 Apr 81) pp 111-116 (Article by T.V.. Kotova, V.I. Kravtsova and P..K. Makarevich, Department of Geography, Moscow State Jniversity imeni M. V. Lomonasov] [Text] One of the northern regions of the European part of the USSR was used as the example during an investigation of the possibility of studying and mapping forests . on the basis of photographs obtained with the experimental "Fragment" system. The analysis of the pictures of forest crrowth was conducted in the Aerospace Methods Laboratory, Car~ography Faculty, and the Problems Laboratory of Integrated Cartogra- . phy and Atlases, Department of Geography, MGU [Moscow State Universi.ty] imeni M.V. Lomonosov. Previous experience in working with multizonal space photographs had shown that scanner photographs from the "Landsat" satellite, taken in 4 spectral bands with 80-m resolution, were suitable for mapping types of forest growth and distinguishing coniferous, broad-leaved and mixed forests, but could not be used to distinguish forests differing in valuation characteristics. That conclusion was reached by Canadian specialists [1]. Very promising, from the viewpoint of mapping forests, proved to be the multizonal photographs obtained with the MKF-6 camera, in which it was possible to distinguish forests not only on the basis of tree type, but also ac- cording to several valuation characteristics [2-4]. It is a matter of interest to determine the place in the system of space surveying materials of the photographs obtained with the "Fragment" equipment. For our analysis of the forest growth pictures, we used photographs taken in the or- ange (0.6-0.7 Um), red (0.7-0.8 u'~n) and near-infrared (0.8-1.1 um) bands on 30 July 1980; the work was done with prints on a 1:500,000 scale. The photograph that was analyzed (Figure 1[not included]) encompasses the upper reaches of the Severnaya Dvina River in the area of confluence of its righthand tributary, the Vychegdy River, with the Malaya Severnaya Dvina River. This region is located at the junction of the boundaxies of~three oblasts: Arkhangel'skaya, Vologodskaya anu Kirovskaya. _ This area is a slightly hilly plain dissected by river valleys. The black bands of the channels of the Malaya Severnaya.Dvina, Vychega, Yug and Luza Rivers, fringed - with light-colored sandbars and shallows, are clearly visible in the photographs in 94 " FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064436-1 FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY the red (0.7-0.8 Um) and near-inPrared (0.8-1.1 um) bands. On the flood plains of - the larger rivers (Malaya Severnaya Dvina, Vychegda) we can see ancient lakes and ' river-terrace meadows. Another characteristic is the presence of bogs and boggy sections on the high terraces~ the crest-and-hollow relief of which is emphasized by vegetation of different types. - A large part of this territory is forested. This is quite obvious in the orange- band (0.6-0.7 um) photograph, where the unforested sections are represented by a light-gray tone, while the forested areas are indicated by gray and dark-gray tones. - The area of the survey belongs to the subzone of midtaiga f.orests and podsolic and boggy soils. 2'he virgin forests are primarily coniferous (pine and spruce) and hav~: a dark tone in the photographs taken in the red and near-infrared bands. In this reyion, the birch and birch-aspen forests--represented in these bands by a light- gray tone--are secondary. The degree of agricultural development of this area is comparatively low. The ara- ble land is concentrated near the rivers; together with the flood-plain meadows, which are the primary fodder base for milk-cattle raising, they form a light-colored "frame" for the valleys in the orange band. In the orange-band photographs, a bright, light-colored tone represents the large cities: Kotlas at the confluence of the Malaya Severnaya Dvina and the Vychegda, Velikiy Ustyug on t~e left bank of the Malaya Severnaya Dvina, Koryazhma on the left bank of the Vychegda, Luza on the same river's right bank. The light-colored line of a broad clearing extends along the Vychegda. Light-colored rectangular cuttings--indicative of the industrial use of woos--against the dark background of the forests are visible in the orange-band photograph. Sawmills and woodworking and cellulose-paper industry enterprises using this raw material base are operating in Kotlas and Velikiy Ustyug. Further inten- sive utilization of the forests is indicated by the replacement of coniferous trees with broad-leaf varie~ies over a considerable part of the territory. With the help of other sources of information about this region, we succeeded in detecting boggi- ness in some of the cuttings. ~ 6e3necHbie photographs taken in different spectral 07 ~ meppumop~r}~ bands give information on different fea- AucmBeHNaie tures of the structure of the vegetative 0,4 I ~ I _ necQ ~2) cover arxd should be used to solve various 0,6 ~ L CM~eCQ f 3~ problems . 0,8 -�~I XBnuHaie~ 4~ The boundaries of unforested areas, both 1,0 neca along the river valleys (flood plain mead- 0.6 0,7 0,8 >>~,NKM ows , bogs , agricultural lands , settled Figure 2. Curves of spectral image of areas) and in the interfluvial spaces (cut- different types of forest growth in tings, bogs that have formed in cuttings) photographs obtained with the "Frag- are quite visible in the orange-band photo- ment" multizonal scanning system. graph. From these photographs it is possi- Key: 1. Unforested territories ble to distinguish unforested sections 2. Broad-leaf forests among forest masses (primarily the outlines 3. Mixed forests of cuttings); the mir~imum size for these 4. Coniferous forests sections is on the order of 2 mm2 for a photograph with a scale of 1:500,OU0 (or 0.5 km2 in actuality). In orange-band photographs, differentiation of tones inside forest masses is very weak. Forest boundaries are more clearly distinguished in 95 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY photographs taken in the red and near-infrared bands: unforested territories do not have such a light image tone as in the orange band, but the forest areas are differ- entiated very clearly by their image tone. A comparison of the photcgraphs with topographic and forest maps shows that the differences in phototone are caused by changes in the types of trees in the forests. On the basis of a comparison of a - photograph with forest maps of Arkhangel'skaya (a scale of 1:2,000,000), Kirovskaya. ~ (1:1,250,000) and Vologodskaya (1:1,250,000~ Obl~sts an.d a geobo~anical map of the Non-Black-Earth Zone of the RSFSR (1:1,500,000), we ha~ve established identification features of forests with different types of compositions and characteristic changes in the density of the image phototone for transitions ~rom one surveying zone to another; that is, the spectral image of the objects to be identified that are of in- terest to us. Tize curves of the basic objects' spectral images are presented in Figure 2. They were obtained by visual measurements of the image's density on posi- tive prints of the photographs, using a standard scale of densitiss, and character- ize the image of these objects not in general, but only for the prints we used. The spectral image curves give a visual picture of the change in the image density of the basic objECts to be identified in the zonal photographs. Z'hey confirm that in the orange-band photographs, unforested territories have a brighter image (in comparison with other objects). Therefore, it is easiest to use these photographs to delineate the boundaries of forests, but distinguishing types of trees in them is impossible, since forests of different typ~s are characterized by image 3ensity val� ues that are very close to each other in Lhis band. In the photographG taken in the re3 band, there is an increase in the brightness of the image of broad-leaf forests, which makes it possibie to distinguish the outlines of coniferous, mixed and broad- - leaf i~=ests, the differences in the image density of which are L~D = 0.2. In photo- graphs taken in the near-infrared band, these differences are aven greater:. conif- erous forests show up as a dark-gray, almnst black, tone = 1.0), mixed forests as a g~ay tone (D = 0.6), and broad-leaf ones as light gr:.y (D = 0.2); the differences in image density of ~D = 0.4 insure reliable~discrimination of these types of for- ests. In connection with this, however, unforesLed territories show up as a light~ gray tone that is the same as the tone for broad-leaf forests. The combined use of muit.iband photographs makes it possible to identify ali of the required set of ob- jects. In connection with this, it is possible to recommend a definite, most advis- able sequence for the utilization of multiband photagraphs during the identificatien process. In the first stage, orange-band photographs are used to identify farest boundaries and differentiate betwe~n forested and unforested areas. Then, the photographs taken in the near-infrared band are usPd to differentiate them into coniferous, mixed and broad-leaf forests. After this sensible breakdown of the ob- jects, red-band photographs--which have the best resolution--are used to correct the pattern of their outlines. The results of the identification of forest growth with space photographs are de- picted in Figure 3. The system of forests shown in it was compared with previously published forest and geobotanical maps of about the same sca?e, such as the "Geo- botanical Map of the Non-Black-Earth Zone of the RSFSR," which has a scale of 1:1,500y000. In comparison with this map, the interpretation with the photographs does not yield any additional information. On the contrary: the published map, for example, identifies spruce and pine plantings that cannot be distinguished in the space photographs. However, the detail of the delineation of outlines on the map compiled from the space photographs is considerably better; they are accurately lo- calized and are tied in quite well with the pattern of other natural elements (river - - 96 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � - - - - _ _ _ _ - ~ . - , - - - - , _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , � , , � ~ ~ ~ ~ : . e : : _ ~ .~Q : . 9~ .i:: _ ~J ~J ~d ~J ~S II 7 ~f ~9 Figure 2. Identification of forests in the area of the upper reaches of the Severanaya Dvina, as compiled from space photographs. Forests: 1. coniferous (spruce, pine); 2. mixed (spruce, pine, birch, aspen); 3. broad leaf (birch, aspen). Unforested areas: 4. bogs along river val- leys; 5. boggy areas on cutting sites; 6. cuttings; 7. flood-plain mead- ows; 8. settled and agricultural lands; 9. urban areas. 97 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY valleys and so forth). This indicates that there is a possibility of improving the degree of detail in. medium-scale forest maps by using materials from multispectral ~ scanner space surveying. Thus, photographs obtained with the "Fragment" multispectral scanninq system .;an be used for small- and medium-scale mapping of forests. Hawever, although they can be of assistance in obtaining a detailed and 5ecyra~:~ie~~ly eo-rx-ect pa~teY'n-s~f--a~.t~-- lines, they do not provide the total content of such maps and much additional mater- ial must be used to complement them. Using them to compare forest maps with a de- tailed description of�-~he` types of trees present and valuation indicators is, un- fortunately, impossible. BIBLIOGRAPHY _ 1. "Manual of Remote Sensing," Washington, Vols 1 and 2, 1976, 2144 pp. 2. Kamyshan, O.L., and Kravtsova, V.I., "Mapping Northern- and Mid-Taiga Forests, Using Central Yakutiya as an Example," in "Kosmicheskiye s"yemka i tematicheskoye kartografirovaniye. Geograficheskiye rezul'taty mnogozonai'nykh kosmicheskikh eksperimentov" [Space Surveying and '~hematic Cartography: Geographic Results of Multispectral Space Experiments], M~scow, Izdatel'stvo MGU, 1980, pp 85-96. 3. Kotova, T.V., and Garanina, I.N., "A Study of Mountain-Taiga Forests and Their ~ Anthropogenic Dynamics for the Purpose of Sn~all-Scale Cartography, Using the Pre- Baykal Area as an Example," ibid., pp 96-105. 4. Sukhikh, V.I., and Sinitsyna, S.G., editors, "Aerokosmicheskiye metody v okhrane prirody i v lesnom khozyaystve" (Aerospace Methods in Environmer.tal Conservation and Forest Management], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Lesnaya promyshlennost', 1970, 288 PP� COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 - 11746 CSO: 1866/35 ~ ~ 98 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY WC 711.528.7:629.78 " SPACE-BASED RESEARCH FOR URBAN PLANNING Leningrad KOSMICSESKIYE ISSLEDOVANIYA DLYA GRADOSTROITEL'STVA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 30 Mar 81) pp 6, 9-13, 176 (Annotation, introduction and table o� contents ~ro~ book "Space-Based Research for Urban Planning , by A. Alekseqev, A. Bogdanov, G. Van}rushin, G. GFechko, D. Grnchiar, Yu. Zonov, I. Ivanav, V. Kaznacheyev, :L. Kvitkovich, A: Lishevsl~iy~ R. Lobachev, A. Melua, S. Mityagin, V. Modev, V. Mordyuk, A. Peshkov, A. Porubski, M. Reykhshteyn, N. Selivanov, Ya. Feranets, and V. Shidlovskiy, Stroyizdat (Lenin- grad Division), 3000 copies, 176 pages] [Text] This book surveys the resul,ts ot inves*igation of the Earth's natural resources from space over the twenCy-year period of manned space flight. Progress in and prospects for use of satellite imagery in regional and urban planning and investigation of environmental quality in the socialist nations are considered. Scientists and specialists from Bulgaria, Ghe GDR, Poland, the USSR, and Czechoslo- vakia, the participant nations in the Intercostnas nrogram, were involved in its pre- paration. The book is intended for scientif ic workers and personnel involved in land c~se planning and environmental protection. Introduction The Soviet space program is directed primarily at solution of pressing "terrestrial" preblems, i.e., at seeking ways for effective utilization of the results of space experimentation for peaceful purposes, including solution of the most important scientific-techx~ical and economic problems confronting the USSR and the socialist nations. , ' A certair. amount of experience has already been amassed in the use of space tech- nology to stu~y the Earth's natural resources and monitor ecological processes, for radio and television, and fc- meteorology and navigation. A new scientiiic disci- pline, space ecology, is rapidly evolving. � The past few decades have b~een characterized by si.gni~icant scientific and design achievements in the field~of urban and regional planning. In the Soviet Union, the territorial scale of the urbanization of new lands is rapidly expanding, pa~- , ticularly in the North, 5iberia, and the Fa~ East. Interlinked systems of popu- lation centers are being created and cities are growing to cover extensive ar~as. ~ 99 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064036-1 FOR OFFICIAi. USE ONLY The vigorously developing urbanization in the USSR and its sistez socialist nations required that rapid decisions be made in the field of the regulation of urban _ growth and environmental protection and that changes be made in methods for gather- ing and processing in�orm~tion on t~ie rapidly shi�ting status of various urban subsystems, local and regional settlem~nt systema, and the areas occupied by major industrial facilities. - The 1970's in the Soviet Union were marked by a switch to planning forecasts made - at the regional level. Thus, the GeneraL Plan for Settlement of the USSR and the General Plan for Development of Health Resorts, Recreation Areas, Touriam, and Natu- ral Parks in the USSR were the first documents in .the world to reflect the broad ~ opporzunities aftorded by the socialist system for solution of pressing problems of urban planning and environmental protection on the scale of a aation as vast as the USSR. These general plans are serving as the foundation for compilation of regional planning documents for. the major ecanomic regions and Union republics, various district planning ptogzams, and general city plans. Multipurpose terri.torial analysis during different stages of the planning process - requires the creation and introduction ef new technical methods and tools. This has generated an urgent need �or rhe development af automated systems for manage- ment of large urban-planning operations and organizatic~n of a continuous dynamic planning process that will quickly react to the changing external situation. Space-based studies have opened up totally. new opportunities for gathering infor- mation and making design decisions in urban and regional planning and landacape - architecture (Table 1). Unique archives of space imagery of the Earth's surface, including images sent to Earth by the participants in experiments carried out under the Intercosmos program, are being created. Utilization of this ima~ery is having an enormous economic etfect. For example, imaging of 5.5 million km o� Che Soviet Union by cosmonauts P.I. Klimuk and V.I. Sevast'yanov from the long-lived orbital station Salyut-4 produced a savings of 50 million What advantages are provided by the introduction of space imagery into the plan- ning of cities and major territorial syatems? First of all, the planner is able to examine all of a very large area simultane- ously, something that was previousl.y impossible. The space photographs used for this-purpose graphically show the environment o� the region to be studied and provide a clear picture of the distribution of features with respect to height - as well as area. Secondly, in contrast to traditional topographic maps, space images give an "instan- taneous" representation of featurea that m~ore accurately and comprehenaively re- flects the properties of territorial systema during a given period. In planning any major territorial system, especially in regiona that are sparsely settled and on which little research has been done (e,g., Tyumen' District), it is often neces- sary to employ topographic maps from which a signi�icant proportion of current in- fArmation has been omitted as a consequence of the slow rate at which such mapg are updated on the basis of the results of ground surveys. ~ 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-40850R040500064036-1 FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY Table 1 Some Economic Sectozs in Which Space Imagery is T3til,ized in the USSR (from Published Data) Organization Probl,ems Being Solved or to Be S_olved by Use of Space Imagery. State Committee �or Urban Planning Provision of a technical-economic--feurc~ati~r------- for the disposition and territorial expan- sion of popul.atian centers ~ Zoning of territorie~s with respect to favor- ability of conditiono for diEferent types of functional utilization Mc.nitoring of the dynamica of population cen- t~rs and settlement systems . Analysis of landscape and recreational con.di- t ions , Study�of environmental conditions i~ the vici- nity of large population centers Ministry of Geology Large- and small-scale geological mapping Identification of areas promising in terms of mineral prospecting State Committee on Forestry Mapping of forests Prediction of fire danger in forests and of the con~equencea of forest tires State Committee on Hydrometeoro- Meteorological research and weather forecasting logy and Monitoring of the Study of environmental conditions (apace moni- _ Environment toring) Hydrological studies Ministry of Transport Construction Siting of roada, subetantiation of the dis- position.of traneport facilities Monitoring ot the statue of transportation net- works and transport equipment Miniatry of Agriculture Forecasting of harvests Study of land reaources Planning of conservation measures Main Administration for Geodesy Compilation of di�ferent types of maps and and Cartography charts Ministry of Public Health Study of public health in relation to expo- sure to environmsntal pol.lution 101 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' Tabls 1 continued , Academy of Sciences o� the USSR Study of the Earth`s natural resources from - ' apace Devel,opmeat of technical toola and methods for study of natural resources Ministry of Culture Archeological ~esearch Miniptry of Education Study of geography and earth science Ministry of Higher and Midlevel Study of certain scientitic diaciplines Specialized Education The advantages of apa~e imagery are also indisputable from the standpoint of re- flection of the current etatua of the Earth'e surface, partiCUlarly if one takea into consideration the rapidity with which information can be gathe~ed, ita novel _ character, and the savings over, e.g., serial photography (Table 2). Thirdly, the organization within the overall framework of space-based research of rrgular imaging cycles for definit~ regions makes it possible to diacern trends in the evolution of anthropogenic and natural Landscapes and to determiae the extent to which changes in the environment have a dynamic character. The most interesting prospects are for use of space photographs in the nlanning of cities and large territorial complexes that include settlemex~t systems, areas of intensive industrialization, recreational tacil.itiea, tourist attractions, and natural parks and reserves. It is actually poseible to establish the precise _ boundaries of cities and~metrop~litan areas, the structure of open spaces and built-u~ areas, degree of ~orestation, the extent to which man has altered the - environment, air and water quality (including the extent of polluted areas), etc. � By using epace imagery, architectural planners can see the three-dimensional struc- ture of the landscape viewed from above rathe~ than two-dimenaional images o� ~he contour lines for cities and �orests. For example, even when photogr~phs are taken ~ on a scale of 1:300,000-1:S00,000, the problem of providing a variety of landscape features in laying out tourist routea over large areas can be more easily and quick- - ly solved. It would be naive to assume that the problem o� introducing space imagery into urban planning is limited to the uae of images of a specific region. The analysis of - information gathered from space and its employment for purposes of planning are directed at solution of a wide variety of complicated research and organizational ~ problems. There are many vague and disguted aspecta of the organization of this activity at both the urban-planning and multipurpose levels. It is therefore neces- sary to conduct a great deal of devel,opment work on ecientific methodology and to draw up experimental plans based on the uae of new information sources, which will make it possible to devise a methodology �or use of apace imagery in various sec- tors of the economy. 102 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY M ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ H �D ~ ~ a~i i ~ i ~ i i i i i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~o a .'�1 r�1 ~ ~ G ~ ~ L+ ~ ~o a0 u H cg0 ~ O ~ ~ 1+ ^ ^u1N++~0 ONu1^-~ I 1 1 1 O . ~ ~ ~ H ' !a J.1 �rl ~ b Cl w ta ~ Q H N 3~~i ~ d .rl . �rl C'+ U '-.1 �r-I �ri o b w~~0 0 o~r�, a~, a~ a ~ ~ . O~~d ~O G1 I G~ N v 1 n t~ a1 ^ 1 1 1 O i.~ �rl �ri 'b H~ H � 31 3a P"1 +�1.+ o; O ~ d o d d . ~ ~ ~ - o ~ v ~ w ~ ~1 b ^ N M ~ ~ ~ � � r+ '~j-1 ~l '-i Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O~ ~ ~ W 41 C) 1J u` O~ rl H ~al ~7 Q ~ 'b cC w ~ I ~ w N iA ~ m�`~ u a~ o o = ~ o�'i oa~o~~~ i oo i iy~ ~ i i i=i i i o ~ ,o~o ~ o o ^ w ~ 1J N N ~ ~ ~ f0 0~ ~ ~ O~ O 00000 00000 O Ou10 ~--1 F+ w o 00000 00000 o a~-o a a rl y~+ G! O ONNO^' ONNN-~ O '1 i a ~ A ~ 0d c~ ~ Ui w w ~ W a~o O fl ~/1 u~'1 ~ O ~'~1 ~ o a w�~ o c~v ~ ~ y ~ y~ ao w ~ W ~ Cl i~ ~Q i.l W a�~~-1 N~--~ D 4'? v o 3.~c ~ w~c ~ a~ o O .,c �a O H ~ ~o v ~ w a~ ~ a o 00 �.a m o .a a,+ ~ o i? a.~ W oo a . H ~ �r0 t0 A m�rl cC ~'Lt O~I.i 1+ c~ 0~ a~ a? oo H o 3 ~ a? o~�~+ fl r+ +e ~ ae o u, m q v, o u p u ~d u co ao a~ ~~c .a 3 04 N�*~ ~d N va co ~ ~ ~ cd af o ao ao ~ ~ d H OD O c1~ 0! W i~ O G~ ~ L Gl ~.G .C Q O N.-1 i.~ d~ 'O O ~ U Q H U~ 3~+ O W H~�~ ~ ~*a U�rl 'C p W ~ d) O'd ~ cd ,a 1+ ~ G) f~e O'L7 �~-1 . 1-~ O m �rl ~1 R) f~" �'i W'O iJ r-1 ~r" N i~ i~ JJ .G ii W'.1 f0 rl f~ W w~~ U~~0 �.-1 ~d O U 6 U G! G q~ O�.~1 v~ R~ a~0 W ~ N~ N W �rl b0 O+~ CI cd a? �rl N O CJ 'd a0 C) �rl 00 O aD r1 m u u~ m~ m~-+ w~o ~ a? ao ~ cs oo . a~'i ~ o af a�~ s~ ~ ao ~ s+ 3 r+ o D, A a o 0o a~ ~ v a+ ao ~ i 3 3 3 co co af a~ s+ a�~ b�~+ d a+ w m q a+ a,+ co ~ a~ ao a? o 0 0++ u oo ao o a+~ ~ s+ 3 ~ ocd~+�~ uaaao +~a~ 0 6~ p4 mH v)3 ~O~ Hv~cAV)H ~ tllt/~ 'Z ~K ~lt 103 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table 2 Effect Anticipated or Obtained �rom Uae o~ Space Imagery (from Published Data) Area of application or p~oblem Annual effect, million~ solv~e_d ~by use of ~pace_imagery ~gounda sterling World agriculture and forestry 2-2.4 - World geography Up to 2 World geology and mineral resources Up to 24 World hydrology and water resources Up to 4 World oceanugraphy ~ Up to 36 At the research level, urban-planning criteria intended for evaluation of territory at different plan~i-~e ecalea must bQ clearly defined and it ie necessary to estab- lish the feasibility of extracting new information at differe.nt scales from apace photographs, together with their degree of detail and their reliabi2ity. Scienti- fic research must be greatly expanded in the area of space-based methods for urban- planning studies, considering th~em both separately from and in combination with traditional ground-survey and aesial-photographic techniques (Table 3). At the organizational level, the proper place for space-based urban-planning atudies in the overall structure of space experiments must be determined. It is especially important to concentrate all, work on ecientific methodology in this area under the - State Committee for Construction Affairs, in order to devise a atandard methodology, ~ ensure a high scientific-technical level for research, and provide an opportunity for creation of a data bank in which all analysie and application processea are automated. It would obviously be expedient to provide far the training of quali- . ~ fied specialiats to work at urban-planning instituteo. The material above doea not cover all aspects of space-based research on urban planning, but it does reflect the divereity of the problems involved and the need for solution of a number of interdisciplinary problems and for technical and method- ological (particularly programming) innovations. All these factors are evident in the structure of the present book, whic~ considers both the.goals of urban planning and the most important technical and organization aspects of th~ subject. This book is the first international publication on space research for urban and regional planning; it was prepared in cooperation with apacialists from the social- ist na~ions. Ita contenta are divided into sectione intended to provide the reader with general scientific information on the technology and methods of space imaging of Earth and on interpretation methods aud sections containing data characterizing - the potential applicaticns of space imagery at the theoretical level. In our opinion, thia sort of organization most cloBely corresponde to the task at hand, i.e., that of familiarizing the reader with a new acientific-technical �ield and of demonatrating the feasibi].ity of incorporating the achievements of cosmo- nautics into planning practice. _ 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Contents Page r'OIeWOId.~���~~��~~~.~~~~.~~~~~~~��~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r~~i~~i~~~~ii��?~r~~i~~~~~~~~i��7 Introduction..��..~~.��~~.~~�~.~~~�~~~~~~~~~..i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.�~r~i~~~~~~i~~~.r~.9 Chapter 1. Technology and Methods �o~ Study of Earth from Space ................14 Chapter 2. Analysis of Space Inages for Urban Planning .........................58 Chapter 3. Ways to Use Space Images in Devel,oping Se~ttlement Syatema and Regional Pl.ana..~~.~~~..~~�~~~.~~r~~~~~~~i~~~~~.~~.�~~~~~.~~..~.~...80 Chapter 4. Opportunitiea for Investigationa of Cities from Space Images.......126 - Chapter 5. Use of Space Images in Investigating Environmental Quality.........146 Bibliography ...................................................................174 COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat. Leningrads;~oye otdeleniye. 1981 2478 ~ CSO: 1866/31 � '~j 105 FC1R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i~ ' . UDC 711:528.7 629.78 SATELLITE IMAGING FOR URBAII PLANNING, Moscow KOSMICHESKAYA. S"YEMKA DLYA GRADOSTROITEL'STVA in Russian 1981 (signed to press 7 May 81) pp 2-5, 159 [Ann~tation, i.ntroduction and table of contents from book "Satellite Imaging for Urban Planning", by Sergey Ivanovich Krest'yashin, Arkadiy Ivanovich Melua and Tamara Nikolayevna Chistyakova, Stroyizdat, 2000 copies, 160 pages] � [Text] This book examines various aspects of the gathering of reliable and com- prehensive information for urban planning by means of satellite technology. Plan- ning requirements with respect to the informational content of satellite images and the principles of their interpretation are discussed. There are examples of the re- sults of satellite-image analyses that reveal features of the terrestrial landscape, urban and regional development, and air and water quality. The use of satellite photographs in urban planning is shown to be cost-effective. This book is intended for architects and specialists working in the f ield of urban planning. It includes 16 tables, 57 illustrations, and a bibliography of 134 items. Introduction The resolution entitled "Basic Directions to be Taken by the Economic and 5ocial Development of the USSR During 1981-1985 and over.the Period Through 1990" provides for further study and utilization of space in order to promote further progress in science, technology, and the national economy. This extremely importar~t state docu- ment reflects a concern with a new field of technology and science whose effective- ness has been proven within a very short period of time. It was~only about 25 years ago that the first artificial earth satellite was launched � from the LSSR. Two years later, the~first v.~Hicles carrying photographic equipment were sent into space. At the time, many sciei~tists denied the expedience of using satellite imagery of Earth for national-economic purposes. Satellite photography of Earth is today an effective method for territorial studies and the most important area of the space program. Hundreds of organizations use satellite images for solution of various scientific, planning, and industrial prob- lems. Satellite imaging has revealed new mineral deposits, promising fisheries, etc. Nevertheless, many specialists still cannot see see the prospects afforded by satel- lite photographs for their particular field, have a skeptical attitude toward the use of satellite images in planning, and deny Chat populated areas and transporta- tion networks can be studied from space. 106 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The present book is intended to familiarize urban planners with the information- gathering capabilities of satellite imagery. Numerous examples are presented to show that the size of an feature visible in an image depends on the photographic technicai conditions specified by the user. A planning problem of definite scale ~ should be matched by photographs having a specific field of view and resolution (referring to the resolution of photographs of a given locality, which is deter- - mined by the minimum size of the features visible in the image). Thus, photographs with a resolution of 20-50 m are suitable for regional planning, while the appro- priate resolution for suburban areas is 10-20 m and that for general urban planning is less than 10 m. Here one can see two material advantages of satellite imaging, which can be carried out on different scales and with different resolutions. First of all, the less stringent resolution requirements imposed on imagery by a small planning scale produce a considerable savings of time and money. Secondly, a pro- gressive reduction in the resolution of photographs (from several meters to hundreds of ineters) leads to progressive generalization of the image, i.e., discrimination - of the features that are significant at the scale in use, which tnakes it possible to improve territorial studies. The appearance of the first satellite photographs - resulted in modification of the boundaries of the natural regions of the natural regions of the North American continent, which had for decades been considered immutable; supplemental investigations carried out on the ground confirmed the validity of the conclusions drawn from the satellite images. There are many examples of the redrawing of maps after analysis of satellite photographs. Photo- graphic maps with an information content substantially greater than that of ordi- nary maps have been compiled from satellite images (a satellite-photographic map of the Aral-Caspian region has been published in the USSR). If the unit of informa- tion is assumed to be the smallest territorial area within whose image there is no change in information flow, it is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater for a satellite photograph than for a map of similar scale. Al1 the features in a satellite image are seen at the same level of generalization and in terms of a uniform field of view, which is especially important in seeking relationships and interdependences among natural features. Satellite imaging has made it gossible to carry out systematic investigations of dynamic phenomena, rapid telemetric data transmission, etc~ The use o~ satellite images requires development of inethods that take into account the scale and nature of the problem to be solved. The authors are convinced that satellite photographs should be a standard reference ~ aid and form of documentation for all planners and scientific workers concerned with _ settlement patterns and regional and urban planning. This book was based on research conducted by the Leningrad Scientific-Research and Planning Institute for Compilati~n of General Plans and Programs for Urban Develop- ment. The results of work carried out by many Soviet and foreign organizations have been utilized in considering individual problems; the bibliography lists the appro- - pri.ate publications. The au~hors wish to thank Prof. V.N. Belousov, who reviewed the book and whose ad- vice conrributed to its improvement during all stages of its preparation. 107 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Chapter I was written by S.I. Krest'yashin (Sections 1 and 3 jointly with T.N. Chis- tyakuva), the introduction, Chapters II and III, and the conclusions were written by A.I. Melua, and Chapter IV was wr.itten by T.N. Chistyakova. Contents Page , Introduction .......................................................................3 Chapter I. Role of satellite imaging in urban-planning studies ....................6 1. Initial territorial data ......:..............................................6 - 2. Informational capabilities of satellite images ..............................12 3. Rough mapping from satellite images .........................................27 Chapter II. Technical and environmental conditions for satellite imaging.........32 1. Technical conditions for satellite imaging ..................................32 2. Environmental conditions for satellite imaging ..............................40 Chapter III. Territorial-planning analysis of satellite images ...................50 1. General problems of satellite-image interpretation...........~ ..............50 2. Plant cover .................................................................67 3. Hydrologye ................................................~..................75 4. Geology .....................................................................87 5. Population centers ..........................................................94 6. Roads ......................................................................101 7. Individual structures ......................................................105 8. Land use ...................................................................106 9. Environmental quality ......................................................113 10. Composite territorial evaluation ...........................................127 Chapter IV. Technical-economic effectiveness of use of satellite images.........139 . 1. General economic problems of applied space research ........................139 ~ 2. Principles for calculation of cost-effectiveness of satellite photography in urban planning ..........................................................142 Conclusions .............................................150 _ Bibliography .....................................................................153 _ COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1981 2478 ~ CSO: 1866/30 108 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 528.946 - USING MATERIALS FROM MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER SURVEY TO STUDY ANTHROPOGENIC P.FFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct 81 (manu~cript re- ceived 28 Apr 81) pp 117-123 [Article by V.I. Kravtsova and I.S. Nizkaya, Departtnent of Geography, Moscow State University imeni M.V. Lomonosov] [Text] Th~ goals of rational utilization of nature and protection of the environ- mcnt require the development of mobile methods for monitoring the anthropogenic ef- fect on the environment, among which space monitoring is becoming the method of pri- mary importance [1-3]. The main space monitoring tool may be good-resolution multi- spectral scanner surveying, which provides for both operational and long-term track- ing of the effect on the environment of human actions. In this connection, it is important to analyze the possibilities of using photographs obtained with the help of the "Fragment" system in order to study the anthropogenic effect on the environ- mcnt. Zn order to analyze the possibility of studying the anthropogenic effect on the en- vironment, we selected regions lying outside the main agricultural zone that differ sharply in both their natural conditions and the nature of their economic develop- ment. The two areas selected were the taiga regions in the northern section of the European part of the USSR and desert areas in Central Asia (the central part of the Ustyurt Plateau), fc~r which we analyzed the anthropogenic effect on forest growth and ~~esert landscapes, respectively. In orcier to study the anthropogenic effect on forest growth, we used a photograph tt~at dei.,icts part of the territory of three oblasts: Arkhangel'skaya, Vologodskaya and Kirovskaya (Figure 1[not included];. Rich forest resources are concentrated in this arca and are being exploited industrially by enterprises in the cities of Kotlas, Sol'vychegodsk, Koryazhma, Veliki Ustyug and Luza. Pl~otoqraphs of this area are interesting in that they depict quite well the results of economic development. Cities, agricultural lands and broad clearing are visible as li.ght-colored spots. These are elements of the anthropogenic effect that are re- l~ted to the development of the territory. An anthropogenic effect of a negative nature .is manifested here primarily in the destruction of forest growth and the dis- - ru~tion or alteration of the type of trees to be found. . Indirect indicators can be _ used to determine changes in the soil cover (bog formation on cutting sites). These feature:~ of the anthropogenic effect, as identified in the photograph, are depicted in Figur~ 2. 109 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ , ~ o ~ _ e e The interpretation was based on photographs _ , t~ken in three bands : orange (0.6-0. 7 um) , - -t - ~e� o � ~ � red (0.7-0.8 um) and near infrared (0.8-1.1 ~ ` um). Different spectral photographs were ~ ~ =~-D " � " ~ ~ ~ � also used to identify various obje~ts. 'Phe ~~~;1 ~ " � v� � reason for this was the different informa- ~;'.0 8 � tion content of the images of the territory 4(~~- Jn ~i ~ ~ c~ o 0 , e in the three bands named above. For in- ~~l''~ ~j~~ ~ stance, for the detection of sections where , r a ~ e , ` ~ the anthropogenic effect shows up ~he ` / � � brightest, the orange-band photograph ~ �.f;. o � proved to be optimal. Unforested territor- , o / . g ~ ~Jl~ , ~ ies (of various origins and being used for Z d~~ o ~o �-y~ g-;~ various purposes) show up in it quite i~ o c l e a r l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i g h t t o n e. For .1, Q , , ~ , r f~- ~ee~ `o j~~, 6~ example, in this photograph it is easy to ~�~l ~o~ identify the unforested sections that are . ; , , ~ y- , ' '~,6~ urban areas located along the rivers , since ~ ~ - ~ ~9i~'; ~ ~ ~ ' ' a o ~ they show up as bright-colored spots with i~ o o a~ irregular shapes. Settled and agricultural ` � � ~ ~ lands (without any further bz�eakdown) are o, , ~ gq ~ also quite visible in the photograph. � B�~ Their light-colored outlines, in the form � ~ � �ea B � ~ , ~ � of bands with broken boundaries, stretch ` oY'~~Y~ , o~ o~ , o ~ along the valleys of the large rivers, as , well as along small valley in the forest " masses that show up as a dark-gray tone. ~.^i3, ~l Q]e ~s ~6 groad clearings are distinguished quite ~/,~F ~9 [~r~ clearly, although fragmentarily in places. L 'T._.J ~----~~f - ur Figure 2. Diagram of the anthropo- Another type of human effect on the forest genic effect on the forest growth growth and the soil cover appears as the near the city of Kotlas. I. Destruc- result of the systematic reduction of co- tion of forest growth as the result niferous forests for industrial purposes. anthropogenic action (unforested sec- Cuttings are identified in orange-band tions): 1. near urban construction; photographs. As a rule, they are light- 2. near settled and agricultural colored spots of small size (no more than lands; 3-5. along broad clearings; 6. 4-5 mm2 in photograph with a scale of cuttings; 7. boggy cuttings. II. 1:500,000), with rectilinear boundaries, Change in composition of forest that are located primarily along rivers and growth as the result of anthropogenic near populated points. acl-ivity: 8. total replacement of native coniferous forests by broad- We can also point out another, no less im- leaf forests; 9. partial replacement portant, feature: the cuttings are located of native coniferous forests by primarily in places where coniferous trees mixed forests. III. Other designa- grow, because spruce is the most highly tions: 10. forests; 11. flood-plain valued tree in the cellulose and paper in- meadows; 12. bogs. dustry. Therefore, as additional material for identifying cuttings it is advisable to use tl~c r.ed-band photograph, in which it is possible to differentiate forests ac- cording to the types of trees in them. In the photograp~. taken in thi.s band, conif- ~~rous forests are represented by a dark tone. The orange-band photograph can be 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY u~~ed to distinguish such anthropogenic formations as boggy cuttings, but only if ad- ~9itional cartographic sources are available. This is on aspect of man's effect on nature in this region. An~ther type of effect is manifested as a change in the composition of the northern Furopean coniferous forests as a result of their many years of use as a valuable _ source of wood. These changes are expressed either as a partial replacement of the native coniferous forests by mixed ones or as a total replacement by broad-leaf for- ests. These changes show up best in photographs taken in the red and near-infrared bands. Mixed forests appear as gray areals with a characteristic grainy image structure and separate dark impregnations. This is caused by the combination of co- niferous and broad-leaf trees, which gives the picture a unique character because of the alternation of dark and lighter spots that frequently have the rectilinear shape of overgrown cuttings. These formations are located in the center of the photo- yraph, near the populated points, as well as along the right bank of the Severnaya Dvina River. The broad-leaf forest masses are represented by a light-gray tone and are located, as a rule, near the settled and agricultural lands. Thc results of the interpretation give us grounds for reaching the conclusion that it is necessary to institute a complex of ineasures for the purpose of restoring the coniferous forests in this region. They also make it possible to judge the huge scales of the anthropogenic effect on the forest growth and its utilization. In this region, for example, only about 30-40 percent of the forest areas are still - virgin forest composed of the valuable con.ifers; 40-50 percent of the forests have been affected by partial replacement of tl.le coniferous forests with mixed ones; in 15-20 percent of the area, they have been completely replaced. It is important to call attention to the fact that improper economic activity creates conditions that lower the ability of the forests to resist the unfavorable factors of the anthropo- yenic effect. For instance, excessive and unfounded reduction of a forest ].eads to thc~ formation of bogs on cutting sites. About 50 percent of the cuttings existing here are boggy. in order to avoid such negative consequences of economic activity, it is necessary - to develop measures for the rational utilization of forest resources, as well as to carry out a complex of reclamation projects to renew and restore our timber re- sources (particularly the coniferous types). Thc anttiropogenic effect on the soil and plant cover in the deserts on the Ustyurt l~lateau was studied with the help of a photograph showing the central part of the ~,latcau within the boundaries of the western part of the tTzbek SSR (the Karakal~~akskaya ASSR) and the eastern part of Mangyshlakskaya Oblast in the Kazakh sSR (F'i~ure.3 [not included]). Topographically, the flat or gently sloping plateau is a].oamy desert with a complex of boyalycheno-biyurgunovaya [translation unknown] - v~~~ctation on the grayish-brown desert soils. Karst formation processes are highly developcd in this area, it being the case that the entire plateau is mottled with l~~aching funnels and sinkholes. They show up as dark points about 1 mm in diameter. wormwood and grasses (primarily feather grass) grow densely in the sinkholes. On thc Plat:eau there are also shallow (up to 5 m deep) but very wide (up to several ki.lometers) and flat "urpa" [translation unknown] depressions. For them the charac- tcristic vegetation is the bright green ittsegeka [translation u:.icnown) bush, which iu~narts a dark tone to the image of these depressions in the photograph. This sys- t~m of depressions stretches from the northwest to the southeast. Between the 111 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500064036-1 F'OR OFF'ICIAL [JSE ONLY Figure 4. Diagram of anthropogenic effect on desert ?andscapes, as compiled from a ~ space photograph. I. Disturbance of soil ~ ~~~f and vegetative cover as the result of in- ~r Y~,;'; dustrial activity and pasturing around pop- ' ulated points : 1. total aestruction of ,f;� \ f:;.;::;.,. ~ vegetative cover and serious soil defla- a tion; 2. partial destruction of vegetative ~ ~ ' cover and significant soil deflation; 3. ~ disturbance of vegetative cover and insig- ~ ~ ~~1 nificant soil deflation. II. Disturbance 1~ ~ of soil and vegetative cover around wells j~ ~ ~ as th~ result of pasturing and trampling by I/ 1~1 ~ cattle : 4. complete destruct~ion; 5. par- j~ 1~1 tial destruction. III. Disturbance of soil . ~ ~ and vegetative cover as the result of con- 1 ~ ~ t struction and operation of a large trans- , ~ ~ portation line: 6. total destruction of r ~ vegetative cover and serious soil defla- 1 tion; 7. partial destruction of vegetative cover and significant soil deflation; 8. ~ \ ~ disturbance of vegetative cover and insig- ~ ~ nificant soil deflation. IV. Disturbance - \ ? of soil and vegetative cover as the result ~ . ~ j of the movement of transport vehicles and ~ ~ ~ cattle alang roads and cattle trails: 9. _ ~ ~ ~ total destruction of soil and vegetative 0 f0 20 90 40 30HM cover as the result of cattle movement ~ ~ ' ' ' ' along cattle trails; 10. partial destruc- 1 f 2 3 d ~~5 tion of soil and vegetative cover as the ~~~~~~8 � result of movement of transport vehicles along dirt roads. V. 11. 12. Disturbance p.'~~Z of soil and vegetative cover as the result ~ of geological surveying work and other types of activities. hollows there are weakly delineated elevations (up to 2 m), which are the so-called "bozyngeny" [translation unknown], where the gypsum horizon lies directly on the surface; it is precisely this that causes the light tone of their image in the photograph. Salt bottoms and takyr soil located in depressions in the relief ap- ~car in the form of white and light-gray spots with clearcut boundaries. ttntil recently, the desert regions of Central Asia and Kazakhstan were little devel- oped and almost untouched by economic activities. The section depicted in the ~hotogra~~h is interesting because in recent years the desert landscapes have been altered considerably as the result of anthropogenic effects on nature [4]. These changes are related to the searches for and development of useful mineral deposits (gas and oil deposits have been discovered); the construction of the Bukhara-Center gas pipeline, the Kungrad-Chardzhou railway line, highways and new settl~ments serv- ing these transport lines; the increased anthropogenic load on the region that is connected to this. Intensive development of this part of the plateau is also lead- ing to consequences that are manifested mainly as disturbances (of various 112 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY origins) of the soil and vegetative cover. The degree of their manifestation and the nature of their distribution are depicted in space photographs that have been interpreted, and are shown in a map that has been compiled and is presented in Fig- ure 4. , - In the upper part of the photograph, the large light-gray spot that in places has a white tone with unclear boundaries calls attention to itself. This section, which stretches from northwest to southeast, reaches 40 km in length and 15 km in width. In its center, near a railway station, is the sett~.ement of Karakalpakiya. As a re- sult of the construction and utilization of all these objects, as well as the move- _ ment of transport and the pasturing of cattle around the settlement, there have been substantial disruptions of the soil and vegetative cover: destruction of the sparse vegetation, such as it is, and related deflation of the soil, the *.hickness of which does not exceed 15-20 cm. Deflation takes place in the direction of thE prevailing winds, from the northeast to the southwest. In the photdgraph it is easy to see the nature and degree of disturbance of the soil and vegetative cover, which is~maxima~ near the populated polnt and the transportation line, then decreases gradually as the distance from them increases. The light image tone in the center of the section indicates the exposure of light-colored carbonaceous rocks. Determination of the overall limits and the degree of the effect on the soil and vegetative cover is eas- icr when photogra~hs taken in two surveying bands--red and near infrared--are used. A number of r.oads converqe on the settlement from the south. The dirt roads' image is characterized by curvilinearity. As a result of the use of the strip along the sides of the roads for the movement of transport, the soil and vegetative cover has been disturbed near them. The roads appear in the photographs, which have 80-m res- olution, in the form of noticeable light-colored strips. On both sides of the image of the main transport road, temporary roads--traces of the movement of specialized transport along the geolagical profiles during the conduct of geological surveying work--appear as rectilinear, parallel light-colored strips. Even a single passage results in disturbance of the vegetative cover and, as is obvious from the image of these profiles, is accompanied by soil deflation and is preserved in the landscape for a long time. 7'hc deserts on the Ustyurt Plateau are used as a fodder base for livestock (Karakul shee~ and milk and wool production by free-running sheep). During the spring, sum- mcr and autumn period, there is active pasturing of cattle. Numerous wells have been dug in places where the ground-water lenses occur at a shallow depth. As a re- sult of their systematic use, extensive areas with disturbed soil and vegetative cover have formed around them. The intensity of the disturbance around the wells varies. In place, the soil and vegetative cover has been completely destroyed near a well. These sections appear in the photographs as white, sun-shaped spots with rays of roads and tracks leading away from them. As the distance from the.wells in- creases, the extent of the unfavorable effect on the landscape decreases, and there i:~ a corresponding weakening of the light-colored tone's intensity. The pattern of tlle image of the pasturing areas has a number of characteristic features: it is as if the light-colored spots around the wells and the cattle stands have been strung onto the light-colored lines of the roads. Thus, the interpretation of scanner-type space photographs makes it possible to de- t~ct some anthropogenic effects on the desert's natural landscape--primarily on the soil and vegetative cover--and establish their origin, nature and extent, as well as 113 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY compile appropriate maps of the anthropogenic effect on the landscape that can be used to develop recommendations for the rational utilization and protection of na- ture. T1~~ work that has been done demonstrates that multispectral scanner photographs vb- tained with the "Fragment" system can be used to detect a quite extensive range of anthropogenic effects on the landscapes of different natural zones. Using addition- al materials, with the photographs it is possible to establish the origin, nature and degree of these changes, compile special thematic maps, and develop the neces- sary recommendations for the rational utilization of natural resources and the pre- ~ vention of unfavorable consequences of intense anthropogenic activities. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ryabchikov, A.M., and Sayko, T.A., "Study of the Anthropogenic Effect on the En- vironment," in "Issledovaniye prirodnoy sredy kosmicheskimi sredstvami. T. 4. Geografiya. Metody kosmicheskoy fotos"yemki" [Investigating the Environment With Space Facilities. Volume 4. Geography. Space Photosurveying Methods], Moscow, VINITI [All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information], 1975, pp 80-83. 2. Burov, V.P., Glushko, Ye.V., and Yermakov, Yu.G., "Standardization of the Images o= Anthropogenic Formations and~Complexes in Space Photographs," in "Kosmiches;~aya s"yemka i tematicheskoye kartografirovaniye. Geograficheskoye . rezul'taty mnogozonal'nykh kosmicheskikh eksperimentov" [Space Surveying and The- matic Cartography: Geographic Results of Multispectral Space Experiments], Moscow, Izdatel'stvo MGU [Moscow State University imeni M.V. Lomonosov], 1980, pp 247-257. 3. Glushko, Ye.V., "Experiment in Calibrating aai Anthropogenic Change in the Envi- ronment With the Help of Space Photographs," ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 4, 1980, pp 35-39. 4. Viktorov, A.S., "On Some Possible Causes of the Complexity of the Ustyurt Pla- teau," ZEMLEVEDENIYE, Vol 12, 1977, pp 179-183. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Issledovaniye Zemli iz kosmosa", 1981 11746 . CSO: 1866/35 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY UDC 061.3:50^.3:629.78 'INTERCOSMOS' PROGRAM MEETINGS ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Moscow ISSLEDOVANI'!E ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA in Russian No 4, Jul-Aug 81 pp 122-124 [Article by I.M. Gal'perin] [Text] The first coordinatir?g meeting on the subject "Utilization of Aerospace In- formation t~ Determine and Monitor Environmental Pollution" was held in Bratislava in October 1980. The national coordinators of Hungary, the German Democratic ~ Republic, Poland, the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic participated in tl~e meeting. The international coordinator in this matter is Yozef Kvitkovich, the deputy director of the Slovakian Academy of Sciences' Institute of GeoRraphy. The particular importance and urgency of the matter of pollution was emphasized dur- ~ ing the discussion and it was discovered that the participants had different con- cepts of the most dangerous pollutants, as a result of which it was not possible to develop a common international program for scientific research in this matter. Those present at the meeting turned to the Soviet delegation with a request for the preparation of a plan for an international program of scientific rESearch in thi.s field. A second meeting of these national coordinators was held in Moscow in March 1981. ~ Those present discussed and adopted an international program of scientific research for 1981-1985, the plan of which was prepared by workers at the Laboratory for Anthropogenic Monitoring and the Institute of Water Problems of the USSR Academy of Sciences. This program provides for the development of inethods of obtaining and processing in- formation about anthropogenic pollutants and the determination of their effects on the environment, including ecological changes of an anthropogenic origin. The investigation and determination of types of pollutants must be Conducted in the atmosphere, on land and in water areas, seas and oceans. By 1985 we should have techniques for the remote determination of anthropogenic pollutants and the detec- tion of their effects. . ~ A meeting of coordinators concerned with the subject "Development of Methods for In- vestigating and Monitoring Water Resources and Their Pollution With the Help of Aerospace Information" was held in Budapest in March of this year. The internation- al coordination of work in this subject is the responsibility of (Goda Laslo), di- rector of the Hungarian Hydrological Institute. 115 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500060036-1 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Rci>r~sentatives of five countries--Hungary, Poland, Romania, the USSR ai~d the C~SR,~oho reported on the work that had been done in 1980--at[ended the