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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 - FOR O~F[CIAL USE QNLY JPRS U10604 21 JuNE 1982 - Trc~;r~slatidn - WE SER11E THE HOMELaND AND THE CAUSE OF COMMUiVISM BY MAR SU DIMITRIY FEDOROVICH USTINOV Fg~$ FOREIGN BROADCA~T INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 NOTE JPRS publications contain informstion primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or ~Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a b*ief, indicate how the original information was processed. WherQ no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated ar~ enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Qther unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents o; this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or a~.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI~ATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ~ JPR~ L/i0604 , 21 ~une 1982 ~ . ` WE SERVE THE HO~ELAND AND YHE CAUSE OF COMMUNISM i ~ MoScow SLUZHIM RODINE, DELU KOMMI~NIZMA in Russian 198c2 (sign~d to press 15 Feb 82) pp 1-127 [Book "We Serve the Homeland and the Cau3e of Com~ti~nism," by Mar SU Dimitriy Fedo~ovich ilstinov, Vo~enizdat, 1a0,000 copies, 127 pages; published in the series: "Impleme~ting the Decision~ of the 26th CPSU Congress"; passages en~losed in alantlines printed ' in boldface; slantline-enclosed passages printed in italics indicated by [it.]; slantline-enclosed pa~sages highlighted by use of double-spaced words marked by [d~] ] ~ _j CONTENTS -i Introduction 1 Chapter One. In the Name of Communism and Peace on Earth 3 - 1. The USSR ~'ang~iard of Social Progress, Bulwark of International Security 3 . 2. Important Point on the Road to Communism ~�5 - 3. Leading Force of r_he�Soviet Society 23 ~ Chapter Two. Concern of the Party, Concern of the Entire People 30 1. Defense of the Achievements of Soc~!alism An Obje~tive Necessity 30 i 2. The Natiorwide Character of Defense of tbe Socieliet Homeland 36 ' 3. CPSU Guidance Basic Foundation of Soviet Militar~ ~rgaxtiza- tional Development 39 - Chapter Three. Guarding Peaceful Labor 45 ~ 1. Armed Forces of the Socialist State of All the Peop~.e 45 2. Apace With Scientific and Advances 50 3. Shoulder to Shoulder With the Brother Armies 55 , i - a - ~ ~II - USSR ~ 4 Z~'OUO] f ~ FOR OFFiCIA,L USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Chapter Four. Summit of Military Skill 60 1. Toward New Hei~hts of Combat Readiaesa 60 2. The Decisive Force Man ~ 64 3. Increasing Effectiveness of Control 68 . Chapter Five. High Quality of Training and Indoctrination 13 1. Study in a Proper Manner 73 _ 2. Lofty Mission of the Officer 79 3. By the Entire Force of P~rty Influence 85 Conclusion 91 , [Text] This book discusses how the Soviet people, under the guidance of the CPSU, are implementing the grandiose plans for building communism, the struggle for peace and security of peoples specified at the 26th CPSU Congress. The author reveals the totally popular character of defense of the socialist homeland, the principal tasks and directions of further in~crease in the combat readiness of tihe USSR Armed Forces, which are reliably guarding the peac2ful, productive labor of the Soviet peaple. This book is intended for a broad readership. - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500070054-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTRODUCTION . TY~e USSR Armed Forces, just as the entire S~viet peo~~e, live and work undex� the - beneficial. influence of the ideas of the 2fth CPSU Congress. Peraistent, pur- poseful work is being pPrformed in subunit~, units, on naval ships, and ir. all - military collectives on carrying out the cougress designs and on unswerving im- - provement of training and increasing the combat readin~ss of troops and naval - forces. The 26th CPSU Congress became an important landmark in the heroic history of the Leninist Party and Soviet people, in the history of the warld socialist system, the national liberation and international Communist and worker movement. It signified a new and higher point in the forward movement of the Soviet homeland toward co~unism, illuminated with the light of col.lecti~re wisdom the prospects , cf fnrther cumprehensive development of our mature socialist society, and speci�ied ways to preserve and strengthen world peace. The congress convincingly demonstrated that our party is worthily carrying out ita leadership and guiding role in society and is proceeding on a faithful Leninist course, in close unity with the p~ople. The program of building communism which was el?h~rated a~ the 26th CPSU Congress was concretized at the November (1981) CPSU ~entral Cemmittee Plenum and formally stated in ~he USSR laws an state ec�~nomic and social development plans for 15~2 and for the llth Five-Year Plan, adopted at the Sixth Session o.`_ the - USSR ~upreme Soviet, lOth Convocation. EverytYiing specified in these plans exFresses the root, vital interests of the people. Persistently implementing tt?em, Soviet citizens are displaying a high degree of vigilance toward the aggressive intrigues of imperialism. Through the f ault of militant U.S. and NATO circles, which have adopCed a policy of und:r- mining d~tente and toward achieving military supericrity [prevoskhods*_va] over the USSR and the Warsaw Pact, the international situation became sharply ag- gravated toward the begir~ning of the 1980's. Faced by a military threat proceed- in~ from imperialismD the Soviet Union is compelled to strengthen its defense capability and to mal.ntain its Armed Forces in a continu us state of combat readiness. - Army and navy personnel clearly understand the high degree of responsi.bility placed upon them by the p~rty and people. They are tirelessly working to master 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500070054-4 F~1R OFFICIAL U~E ONLY their potent comUat equipment azd weapon~, are improving their field, air and sea proficiency, their moral-political conditioning, are endeavoring to carry out combat training missions in an exemplary manner, and are strengthening organization and discipline. Their active participation in socialist competi- tion constitutes a vivid expression of the patriotism of Soviet servicemen. Ti~e high praise was given to the Armed Forces by ~PSU Central Committee General Secretary Mar SlJ Comrade L. I. Breznnev, chairman of the P~esidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet and chairman of the USSR Deiense Council, at the 26th CPSU Congress, i.s inspiring servicemen to achieve new successes in combat and political training and in their daily performance of duty. Together with the entire people, army and navy per.sonnel are campaigning to achieve an un- swerving increase in the might and ~lory of their hom~land. Solidly ranked behind the Communist Party and its Leninist Central Conunitt~e, Soviet servicemen are carrying out their patriotic and internationalist duty with honor. They are worthily continuing the heroic traditions of the older generations, are vigilantly guarding the peaceful labor of the p~ople and the great socialist achievemen~s, and are faithfully serving the homeland and the cause of com- munism. 2 fOR OF'FIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I i Chapter One. IN THE NAME OF COMMUNISM AND PEACE ON EARTH I 1. The USSR -~�Vanguard of So~~al Progresa, Bulwark of International Se::urity From its very first foreign-po~.icy action Lenin's E eace Decree to the Peace Program for the 1980's, adopted at the 26th CPSU Congrese, the Soviet State han been unswervingly dedicated to the cause of peace, freedom and ' security of peoples. "Our struggle to strengthen peace and deepen international d~tente," stated Comrade L. I. Brezhnev in the Central Committee Accountability ~ Report to the 26st CPSU Congrzss, "is first and for.emost a struggle .to guarantee ! for the Soviet peo~le requisite external conditions for accompliehing the tasks ` of construction which face them. With this we are also resolving ~ prob.lem of i a truly worldwide nature, for today there is no more vital, m~re important ~ question for any people than the preservation of peace, than securement of the ~ very firat right of each and every individual the right to life."1 ~ ; The present international situation is marked by an aggravation of the contest i between two currents in world politics. The Soviet Union and the other na-- tions of the socialist co~nunity are consistently and firmly pursuing a policy i of holding the arms racA in check, strengthening peace and d~tent~, and ' defending the sovereign rights and freedom of peoples. Standing opposed to this i policy is the policy of the United State~ and its accomplices, aimed at under- ' mining d~tente, at escalating the arms race, and at crushing the libe~ation struggle of peoplea. This conte:~t is distinguished by extraordinary intensity. Aggreseive U.S. and NATO circies are seeking at all costs to disrupt the present military- strategic balance and to gain military superiority over the USSR and the Warsaw ; Pact. They are attempti~g ta ~,lace the socialiet countries in a state of siege [osadnoye polozheniye] and to push bacic the foxces of natlonal and social liberation. Taking the path of political adventurism, the U.S. Administration is more and ' more frequently resor~ing to an openly warmongering lexicon. High U.S. of- ficials assert, with a cyniea? disregard of the fate of peoples, that "there ; are things which are more importr.~*_;t than peace" and that so-~alled "limited" nuclear war is entirely permissit.le and that victory can be won in such a war. It is more and more loudly being c?.aimed Xhat the leaciing NATO power "should Ue the strongest in the world," and statements are being made thr~~ the United 3 -I i ~ FOR OEFICIAL USE QNLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I States and its partners should intensively arm, and thus exert constant pres- sure on the Soviet Union and the other socislist countries. - Tlie administration in Washington is a:ttempting to place in doubt all positive advances which were achieved jointl~~ in the area of So-aiet-American reiations in the 1970's. Those people who are invested with government authority in one of the world's largest powers the United States as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted, are much more anxious ~o talk "not about d~tente but rather about con- frontation, not about peacefta:l, mutually beneficial cooperation but about utilization of trade for military-strategic purpo~es, not about agreements on - the basis of equality and equal security [ravenstva i odinakovoy bezopasnosti] but about dictate from a position of military superiority, not about elimina- tion of focal points of conflict through ~oint efforts, but about creatir~g more and more new military bases, about building up one's military presence in ~ various regions of ttie world, not about holding the arms race in check, but about 'additional arming' [dovooruzhenii], not about limiting or banning various weapons, but about building additianal new, even more destructive means of mass annihilation of human lives."2 ' In addition, they are not only talking about such a policy but are putting it in- to practice. The Strategic Arms L imitation Treaty (SALT II) which was signed in the summer of 1979 has not yet gone into eftect. The United States, followed by certain other Western powers, is impeding the process of reaching an agreement at the Vienna talks on mutual limitation of forces and arms in Central Europe. Washington has unilaterally refused to discuss question pertaining to limiting military activities in the Indian Ocean and on~limiting the sale and delivery of conventional weapons. It is making every effort to avoid entering into talks on total and universal banning of nuclear weapons testing. The United States has not yet ratified the treaties on limiting underground testing of nuclear weapons and on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes, treaties which were signed several years ago. The treaty limiting antimissile defense systems, . which has been in effect since 1972, is being undermined. All this is nothing other than disdain for the peace-seeking aspirations of all peoples and outright opposition to d~tente. But there is no reasonable alterna- tive tc d~tente. This fact is clearly undQrstood by those political leaders in the West to whom a sober-minded approach to the ob~ective realities of today's world is not alien. Broad segments of the population in the capitalist countries are also becoming increasingly more ~ieeply aware of this. An anti-war, anti- missile movement has been launched in a number of Western European NATO countries as w~ll as in the United States itself an unambiguous response to the dan- gerous militarist policy of the leaders of this bloc. The campaign for d~tente and for improvement of the international political climaze is an extremely complex and difficult business, which demands enormous staying power and firmness, purposefulness and tenacity. "Whoever thought," stated V. I. Lenin, "that i~ is easy to achieve peace, that it suffices merely to mention peace and the bourgeoisie will hand it to us on a platter, is a~rery naive individual."3 4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR nFFIC1AL USE ONLY An '.ncreasingly deeper understanding by the maeses of the vital necessity of res~craining aggressive imperialist forces and of the irreversible nature of the cata~strophic consequences to which nuclear war can lead if these forces suc- i ceed in unleashing such a war is impelling millions of people throughout the ~ world to become actively involved in settling the root questions of world ~ politics and, of course, the principal� most hurning question of how to preaerve peace. Our country is making an enormous contribution toward preventing war. By its high-principled and constructive approach to international affairs, by its will- ingness for mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries on a basis of equality, and by its consistency and firmness in pursuing a peace-seeking - policy, the Soviet Union has won from the peoples of the world enormous prestige and gratitude. All peop3e of good will see the Soviet Union as the tried and proven vanguard of social progress of mankind and an invincible bulwark of inter- national security and peace. ' The USSR proceeds from the po~itio:t that prese~ving and strengthening peace is inseparable from holding the arms race in check. It has done and is continuing to do everything it can to lessen the threat of another world war. The foreign- policy program advanced at the 26th CPSU Cangress has become an important normalizing, stabilizing and motive force in world politics. It contains an extensive group of peace-seeking proposals. These include a deepening of measures to build confidence in the military area and broadening of the area of their application; immediate continuation of Soviet-American strategic arms - limitation and reduction talks; establishment of a moratorium on the deployment in Europe of new medium-range nuclear missile weapons by the NATO countries and the USSR, plus other proposals. ~ The Communist Party and the Soviet Government are working persistently to im- pl~~ment this program. Urgent implementation of its provisions is becoming particularly vital in connection with the unceasing growth of aggressiveness on the part of imperialism and intensification of militarist preparations by the United States and NP_T0. The Appeal of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics "To the Parliaments and Peoples of the World" has evoked enthusiastic response in every corner of the world. This appeal em- phasiaes:/"Securement of peace has been, is now, and will continue to be the highest goal of the foreign policy of the Soviet State..../ "In our nuclear age dialogue and negotiations are needed by all to an equal degree, ~ust as everybudy needs peace, security, and confidence in the future."4 Caution and careFul consideration in foreign-policy steps, hone~t and at the same time bold efforts in the name of international security and peace are demanded in the present-day situation more than at any time in the past. All Soviet peace initiatives are fully in conformity with these demands. They are grounded on the principle of equality and equal security of all parties and are permeated with the endeavor to overcome the aggravation in international relations and to proceed further along the road of deepening d~tente and to take concrete, practical steps to resolve the problem of limiting the arms race. The USSR proceeds from the position that there is no area of disarmament and no category of arms on which an agreement could not be reached. 5 j FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OEFICIAL USF ONLY The endeavor on the part of the Soviet Union to hold the arms race in check and to prevent a nuclear catastrophe was once again convincingly affirmed at the 36th Session of the UN General Assembly, which adopted a number of most pertinent resolutions on documents submitted by the USSR. A central place among them is occupied by ~he UN General Assembly Declaration on Prevention of a Nuclear Catastm~phe. It was adopted by the overwhelming majority of participants in the session, in spite of attempts by th~ iJnited States and other NATO countries, which voted against the reso.lutions, to place in doubt the need for such a declaration. It formally states that those nations. and government leaders who are first to resort to employment of nuclear weapons would be committing the gravest crime against mankind. , An overwhelming majority of votes also supported another Soviet proposal to conclude a treaty prohibiting the deployment in space of weapons of any kind. For the first time in the history of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted a resolution, submitted by the GDR on behalf of all the brother socialist countries, condemning the manufacture of neutron weapons. Adoption by the international community of documents on disarmament, many of which are based on ideas advanced by the Soviet Union, has become one more ~on- vincing demonstration of the fact that the highly principled, peace-seeking policy of the USSR, defined by the 26th CPSU Congress and expressed in the Peace Program for the 1980's, enjoys the approval and support of the majority of the world's nations. The visit to the FRG by CPSU Central Committee General Secretary Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, which took place in November 1981, was an important political action in practical implementation of the Soviet Peace Program. The new Soviet proposals advanced during this visit constitute a constructive program for curtailing nuclear arms in Europe. It proceeds from a most important principle the grinciple of equality and equal security of all parties and is appraised by the progressive interna- tional community as a new and weighty contribution by the USSR to the cause of peace and the security of peoples. Comrade L. I. Brezhnev's visit to the FRG is of special significance for the en- tire aggregate of relations between East and West at the present complex stage of world development. One of the main conclusions which follows from the Soviet- West German talks is that nations, independent of their social system or par- ticipation in various military alliances, should make every effort to continue working jointly for the sake of strengthening peace and restoring a climate of d~tente and confidence. And it is important that this be a reference point for the practical policies of all nations. The Soviet Union intends to seek positive results at the Soviet-American talks being held in Geneva on nuclear arms limitation in Europe. It is also in favor of the earliest possible resumption of talks between the USSR and the United States on strategic arms limitation, while preserving all positive ad- vances which have already been achieved in this area. The USSR believes that the proposals made in 1978-1981 by the socialist countries participating in the talks greatly help ovtrcome the impasse at the Vienna talks on mutual reduction of forces and arms in Central Europe. 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Soviet Union is marching shoulder to shoulder with the other /socialist ~ countries/ in its consistent and firm struggle to hold the arms race in check, for disarmament, ;~eace and security of peoples. "The greatest good for all - manl�:ind is the fact that the unified might of the socialist countries and their vigorous policy in def ense of peace restrain the aggressive aspiratians of the imperialists and create a decisive barrier in the path of unleashing a nuclear missile world war by the aggressors," stated Comrade L. I. Brezhnev. "This result of the ~licy of the socialist nations benef its all mankind. "5 Just, equal, truly fraternal relations bind the USSR with the natione of the _ socialist community with Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, the German Democratic Repub?ic, Cuba, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. The so- cialist community has become the mightiest association of peoples in the his- tory of the world. No other association can compare with it in rate of economic growth, in scale and significance of social tasks being accomplished, or in ir.fluence on world development. The CPSU and the Soviet State are tirelessly concerned with strengthening the unity, expanding and improving the comprehensive cooperation among the brother nations and are doing everything to strengthen the international position of the socialist community and to build up joint efforts in the campaign for peace and social progress. CPSU Central Committee General Secretary Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, is making an outst~nding contribution to this work, toward innovative development of revolutionary theory and practice of building a new society. Cooperation among the socialist countries rests on faithfulness to Marxism- Leninism, socialist internationalism, ?.nd a commonality of root interests and goals. Internationalism is one of the main sources of the strength of social- ism. It is a most important condition in the successful development of each of the brother countries and the sure advance of our entire community. Such is the dialectic of building and defending the new society. The mutual relations of- the brother peoples and nations are permeated by ain- cerity, the deepest trust, and a spirit of genuine equality, friendship and comradeship. The USSR Constitution proclaims fr~.endship, cooperatio:~, and mutual assistance with the socialist countries to be the cornerstone of Soviet fureign policy. The constitutions of the majority of brother nations also stre5s the ideas of friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union. Communist and worker parties comprise the guiding and organizing force o~ the socialist community. A fundamental unity of views on all ma~or problems of socioeconomic development, international politics, and coordinated, harmonious eEforts in accom~lishiug the tasks of building socialism and communism con- scitute a result of their continuous interaction. In recen~t years the brother countries have been compelled to conduct this building process in increasingly complex international conditions. The world economic situation has worsened. The process of d~tente has been impeded throu~h the efforts of imperialist reaction and its stooges. The United States and NATO are escalating the arms race. The ideological struggle in the world 7 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY arena is becoming aggravated. Reactionary forces are stepping up their at- tempts to undermine the international solidarity of the socialist nations and to shattsr the foundations of socialism from within. ~ They were counting particularly heavily on events in the Polish People's Republic, seeking to destroy the socialist system in this country, to restore a bourgeois order in Poland, to detach Poland from the socialist community, and thus to attempt to alter the results of World War II and postwar development. Relying on the worker class and on the suppo~t of all Poland's patriotic forces, Poland's duly constituted authorities organized and led the resistance tu counterrevolution. The situation in Poland is gradually stabilizing. Polish Communists and all genuine Polish patriots have the full support of the - brother peoples and nations in this effort. The life-giving bonds which link the nations of the socialist community are in- dissoluble. Strengthening of these ties and close interaction in building and defending the new society are ft~lly in conformity both with the national and in- ternational interests of the brother peoples. Today, when the reactionary forces of imperialism and their accomplices have undertaken a massive assault against d~tente, peace and the rights of peoples, unity of actions by the socialist countries in defense of these great values and in accqmplishing the tasks of building is more important than ever before. Such a unity is a guarantee of success in the contest against imperialism and reaction and a guarantee of fuller utilization of the advantages of the so- cialist economic system and the capabilities discovered by advances in sci- ence and technology. Steady strengthening of the unity of the socialist countries is promoted by their constantly deepening /political cooperation [ds]/ and development of the entire system of bilateral and multilateral relations of the brother parties and nations, including the Warsaw Pact Organization. The activities of this specifically defensive organization, and particularly its Political Consultative Committee, have an enormous role to play in European affairs, in international ~ affairs as a whote, and in the campaign for peace, preservation and strengthen- ing of d~tente, and the campaign to lower the levels of military confrontation in Europe and other regions of the world. The initiatives advanced at the Political Consultative Committee meetings in Bucharest, Moscow and Warsaw con- stituted an important contribution toward strengthening peace and international security. Political cooperation among the socialist countries is a living, creative process. It is constantly being enriched and taking nn iiew, fruitful forms. A most im- portant place in political cooperation is occupied by regular contacts among the leaders of the brother parties and nations. A special role in such practical contacts is played by friendly get-togethers and talks in the Crimea. The most important tasks pertaining to development of cooperation among the socialist nations ~re discussed during these meetings, and further steps toward strengthening peace and international security are coordinated. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY A large contribution toward deepening p~litical cooperation among the brother parties and nations is made by regular exchange of party-government delegations, meetings of Central Committee secretaries for international affairs and matters of ideological and party-organizational work, and expanding contacts between party organizations at all levels from republics, krays and oblasts to rayons aud large enterprises. Contacts between government agencies, public _ organizations, and production collectives are also successfully developing. /Economic cooperation [dsJ/ among the socialist nations also promotes the - building of a new society, a guarantee of the security of the brother nations, preservati.on and strengthening of peace. Opening wide the door to realization of the advantages of the socialist mode of production within the framework of the socialist community, it ensures dynamic and stable development of the brother countries. Indicative in this regard are the more than 30 years of ac- tivity of the Council for Economic Niutual Assistance. In the period 197.5-1980 growth in the level of industrial output of the CEMA member nations was more than triple the world average. And their rate of growth of national income, which has increased by two-thirds in the last c:ecade, was almost double that of the developed capitalist countries. Steady growth of production, acceleration of scientific and technical advances and, on this basis, a constant growth of national prosperity are provided by - socialist economic integration. It is encompassing more and moYc new domains, is assuming an increasingly rapid pace, and is being embodied in implementation of long-range specific-purpose programs. The successes of joint labor are attested by the construction of such major projects as the "Soyuz" [Alliance] natural gas pipeline, the "Mir" [Peace] power system, the Ust-Ilimsk Pulp and Paper Plant, the Erdenet Mining and Concentrating Combine in Mongolia, nickel plants in Cuba, and many other construction projects. The "Interkosmos" program has become a vivid symbol of the fruitful friendship and cooperation among the brother peoples and nations. A1l that has been accomplished by the socialist countries in economic development and in raisi~ng people's living standards comprises an entire era, as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev stressed. New proposals on further developmeat of economic cooperation among the social- ist nations, advar.ced at r.he 26th CPSU Congress, are being sequentially im- plemented. These proposals have received enthusiastic support in the brother countries. the aim is to turn the comingtwo five-year plans into a period of intensive prod~~ction and scientific-technical cooperation among the socialist nations and to supplement coordination of their plans with coo~dination of over- all economic policy. Bringing the structures of economic mechanisms claser to- gettier, development of direct linlcs between ministries, associations and enter- prises taking part in co-production, the establishment of joint firms, plus others, const~_t~_ite important problems of economic cooperation. Resolution of these problems should promote coinprehensive deepening of interaction among the economies of the socialist countries, improvement of its efficiency, and further unification of our efforts and resources. , Deepening cooperation in the economy, science and technology is promoting satisfaction of the needs of all the brother nations, growth of the economic and defense might of the socialist community, and is expanding the capabilities of genuine socialiam to hold in check international forces of reaction and aggression. 9 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � A most important component of the joint struggle by the socialist countries for peace and social progress is coordination of their efforts in the /area of ideological work [ds]/. The commonality of our communist philosophical outlook and faithfulness to Marxism-Laninism that all-conquering teaching under tives banner of which all revolutionary forces of the present day are uniting g this work enormous effectiveness. Recent years have been marked by a sharp activation of imperialist propaganda and intensif ication of hostile anti-Soviet, antisocialist campaigns, aimed at slandering~socialism and distorting everything taking place in the socialist countries. Such propaganda and such campaigns have been elevated in the United States and certain other countries to the rank of state policy and have been transformed into unbridled psychological warfare. Particularly important in these conditions are aggressiveness and purposeful- ness of ideological and all political indoctrina~~^n work with people, and efficient cooperation among the mass information agencies of the socii~sSfirm countries. the truth of genuine socialism, its great humane nature, adherence to peace and, together with this, convincing, objective exposure of the incurable flaws and evils of the capitalist system and the reactionary, aggressive nature of imperialism constitute a powerful weapon in the struggle against our class enemies. /Cooperation in the area of strengthening defense [ds]/ is o� the greatest im- portance for successfully guaranteeing the secur3.ty of each of the brother countries and the entire socialist community as a whole. "We," stated Comrade L. I,.Brezhnev, "d~vote unabating attention to this task. This appliewhichsis and foremost to relations with the member nations of the Warsaw Pact, . a powerf ul instrument of political and defense cooperation o:E the socialist nations."6 - The multifaceted cooperation between the Soviet Union and the nea~onsA tireless socialist community is expanding and growing stronger year by y joint search is being conducted for ways to achieve the best possible combina- tion of national and common interests and efficient accomplishment of the grandiose tasks of building socialism and communism. Permeated by a spirit of socialist internationalism, the friendship of the brother countries is becoming increasingly deeper and more fruitful. The world of socialism has made into a reality relations between nations which are truly relations between peoples, relations in which millions and millions of people directly participate. This is a fundamental achievement of socialism and represents a great service by socialism to mankind. Relations are also constantly developing between the USSR and those socialist countries which are not members of the Warsaw Pact or the Council for Economic Mutual Assistance. The friendship between the Soviet Union and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has deep roots. Soviet-Yugoslav cooperation is advancing in many areas. The USSR expresses inalterable solidarity with the struggle of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for peaceful, democratic unif ication of the homeland without outside interference. Our country seeks to deepen and enrich and its relations with the DPRK. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFi'ICIAL L Faithfulness to socialist internatiunalism, equal, mutually beneficial coapera- , tion and mutual assistance are giving a powerful acceleration to the development of the socialist countries and are leading not simply to en inez'eese but to e , multiplication of their forces in the struggle to bu3.ld a new society, for peace and social prograss. This conclusion is confirmed by the wealth of practical revolutionary e~perience of the contemporary world. Objective reality also graphically shows the result of departure from the firm foundations of Marxism- ' Leninism and distortion of the principles of socialism and its essen~2 in domestic and foreign policy. The experience of socioeconomic development of , the PRC during the last two decades can serve as a severe lesson of this type. Time has fully confirmed the correctness of the appraisals which our party made of Maoism and its petit-bourgeois, nationalist essence. The present Chinese leaders, as was indicated at the Sixth Plenum of the Central Committee o� the CPC, held in June 1981, continue to view Maoism as the foundation of the ideology and poZicies of the CPC. A number of anti-Soviet points have been confirmed in PRC policy in the international arena. It is focused on a struggle against the USSR, on aggravation of the international situation, and on increasingly more common cau,e with the most aggressive imperialist circles. As regardsthe Soviet Union, it consistently advocates normalization of relations with the PRC and unswervingly pursues a policy of peace and good-neighbor rela- tions. This policy is both in the interests of world peace and in the genuine interests of the Chinese people, for whom the Soviet people unfailingly have feelings of respect and friendship. The USSR and the other nations of the so:.ialist community are constantly con- cerned with consolidation of a11 antiimperialist, progressive forces in the ~ struggle for peace and social progress. They devote paramount attention to the ~ development of mutually beneficial economic and scientific-technical coopera- tion with /countries which have become liberated from colonial oppression,/ particularly with nations of socialist orientation, countries which have chosen the road of socialist development. These countries have in the nations of the socialist community reliable and true friends and natural allies in the stru~gle aaainst imperialism, for national independence, for peace and social progress. Cooperation between the USSR ar.3 liberated nations encompasses various domains politics and the economy, interparty rel.ations and defense, culture ~ and tourist travel, and training of indigenous cadres. In recent years the Soviet Union has concluded treaties of friendship and cooperation with Angola, Lthiopia, Mozambique, Afghanistan, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and the People's Republic of the Congo. One of the first such treaties was signed with India in. 1971. The USSR trades with more than 80 nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin Amer~ca. Trade volume with these countries has more than tripled in the last decade and is continuing to grow. Attempting at any cost to impede development of the revolutionary process and to isolate the liberated countries from the Soviet Union and the entire so- cialist community, iuiperialism resorts to crude pressure, blackmail, ai~d ou~- right political sabotage. Cynically flouting the rights and aspirations of 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY _ peopies, it seeks to portray their liberation struggle as a manifestation of "international terrorism" and to represent as involvement in terrorism the assistance the socialist countries render to liberation movements. By means of this lie, the Washington administration figur~es to crush national liberation moVements by encouraging domestic counterrevolution in liberated countries and by external aggression. This is not a new technique. And the aim which it pursues is quite obvious. It consists in restoring imperialism's lost international position, in restoring to it the role of arbiter of the destiny of peoples, and to place an obstacle in the path of progressive reforms throughout the world. Imperialism views as the main obstacle on the road toward achieving this a3m the socialist community and its assistance to liberated countries. Hence attempts to distort and slander this assistance. - Respecting the sacred right of peoples to determine their own fate, the Soviet Union and the other socialist nations do not interfere in the interr~al affairs of liberated countries and do not seek any advantages whatsoever far them- selves. The assistance and support of the socialist community help achieve socioeconomic and cultural reforms in liberated countries, preserva- tion of their sovereignty, and strengthening of their independence in the face of the feeble neocolonialist intrigues of 3.mperialism. Assistance in strengthening defense capability, which the USSR and the other brother na- tions give liberated countries at their request, also pursues this ~oal. The Soviet Union always has opposed and continues to oppose the export of revolution. But we also cannot accept and never will accept export of counter- revolution. We hold this high-principled position. Our attitude toward the events pertaining to Afghanistan is also grounded on this position. Imperialism attempted to export counterrevolution to this country. This situation forced the government of Afghanistan to request assistance from the USSR. And such - assistance was given to Afghanistan. It was highly praised by Babrak Karmal, general secretary of the Central Committee of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan and chairman of the Revolutionary Council of the Democratic Republic of Afgtianistan, noting that "if heroic Afghanistan had not been given assistance by the great Soviet Union, a revylu~ionary, �ree, independent and nonaligned Afghanistan would not exist toda This statement clearly shows the great hypocrisy of attempts by imperialist propaganda to represent the temporary entry into Af ghanistan of a limited Soviet military contingent as "intervention." This s~Ep is in full conf~rmity with the UN Charter. Its vital necessity and timeliness were reaffirmed by the cynical acknowledgement made in 1981 by the U.S. President that the bands en- tering Afghan territory from without ~are being armed by the United States of America and that Washington's military assistance to these bands will continue in an increasing magnitude. ~ As for the question of withdrawal of the limited contingent of Soviet troops from the DRA, this question can be resolved on the basis of a political settlement of the Afghanistan situation in conformity with the program ad- vancad by the government of the DRA on 14 May 1980 and on 24 August 1981. The 12 FOR (.~FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500474450-4 EOR OFFItIAL USE ONLY ~ USSR is prepared to withdraw its troops on agreement with the Afghan Government. For this to come to pass, there must be a completa: cessation of sending - revolutionary bands into Afghanistan, and there must be relisble guarantees ' that there will not be renewed intervention. The Soviet Union has already ~ demonstrated its faithfulness to its word, in June 1980, by withdrak*ing from the I DRA, on agreement with the Afghan GovernmEnt, those Soviet military units ; the presence of which was no langer necessary. Thia became possible as a ' consequence first and foremost of serious defeats inflicted on the counter- revolutionary bands sent [zasylayemykh; also translates as "infiltrated"] into ~ that country. ~ Thanks to the international assistance of the Soviet Union rendered to the -f Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, the plans of imperialist and other reactionary circles to destroy the achievements of the April Revolution in that country failed. The policy of the People's D emocratic P arty and the government , of the DRA is in conformity with the national interests of Afghanistan, streng~hens the power of the people, and is ~eading to sequential stabiliza- ti_on of the situation in this republic. I Comrade L. I. Brezhnev once again emphasized the firmness of the interna- tionalist position of the USSR in his acceptance speech when awarded the. ~ highest decoration of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan the Order of the Sun of Freedom. "...Just as the Soviet Union has assisted the Afghan people in defending their revolutionary achievements," he stated, "our country is also prepared to help Afghanistan in the future to ensure a just political settlement in the interests of international peace and stability."8 The Soviet Union views as legitimate and just to the highest degree the aspira- tion of young nations to defend their acquired freedom and independence and to defend their territorial integrity against the intrigues of imperialism. This aspiration is embodied in particular in the activities of the Organization of African Unity and the Organization of Solidarity of the Peoples of Asia and Africa. They play an important role in uniting the efforts of the peoples of these continents in the struggle against neocolonialism, hegemonism and racism, for preserving and strengthening peace. The antiimperialist activity of other political and economic organizations and associations of liberated countries - is also growing. The nonalignment (neprisoyedineniyaJ movement has been and continues to be an ~ important factor in international relations. Emerging more than two decades ' ago, today it unites approximately 100 nations of diff erent continents with a population of more than one-and-a-half billion. The USSR and nonaligned nations occupy common or close positions on many root problems of the present day. Development of friendship and comprehensive co- operation withthese nations has been and continues to be a fundamental policy of the USSR. Such cooperation objectively promotes the cause of strengthening peace and social progress. /The world Communist and worker movement/ constitutes a mighty force of the antiimperialist front. It has grown to an even greater extent in recent years. 13 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 ~ � FOR OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY Its influence has expanded. The political vanguard of the international worker class Communist and worker parties has also grown stronger. Today such - parties are active inof4additional te standshundredsnoftthousandseofapeopleg the minds and hearts throughout the world. The CPSU, which is one of the detachments of the world Communist move- ment, is fighting persistently for unity and cohesion of the brother parties and is working purposefully on further expansion and deepening of comprehen- sive cooperation with them on a foundation of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism. Continuous contacts and mutual exchange of information help ~:he Comanunists of all countries in their daily work. The common struggle of the brother parties againof therworldeCommunistimovementyand increaseiin its peace is fostering unity prestige. Normalization of the international.political ood willconstheutartaofWn tions process, which presuppoaes meeting efforts, g p with opposing social systems, and their mutual confidence [doveriye; also translates ae "trust"]. Obviously there can be no trust without reciprocity and equality, ~ust as there can be no genuine internatio ifl ascComradeiLholt equal s~curity for all parties. It can be ensured on~y Brezhnev noted, "all parties treat building a firm peace as a common task."9 Such is objective reality. The CPSU forms and implements its policy toward the /capitalist nations/ taking this reality into account. The main thing in this policy is an organic combination of the principles of peaceku~essivesintrigues mutually beneficial cooperation and a firm rebuff to the a g of imperialism. Recent years have been marked by a considerable onentstofnpeaceful coexistence tions, particularly in the United States, of opp and of improving relations with the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries. This has been dictated by further aggravation of th~ general crisis of capitalism, by deepening of the antagonistic conflicts within the bourgeois society, and by an increase in the interimperialist struggle for markets and sources of raw materials and energy. Military-industrial com- plexes are exerting increasing influence on all realms of life in the im- perialist nations and on their foreign policy. Herein lie the causes of the present aggravation of the international situation, and from here emanates the growing threat to the cause of peace and social progress. Reactionary im- pPrialist circles, particularly the United States, are counting not on develop- ment of cooperationi ntoft8trengtht proclaimed by Washingtonerstanding, but on the so called'~osit History attests to the fact that such hopes in regarfor~ourselveset And todaye always proven false. We are capable of etanding up we have at our disposal, more than at any time i,n the past, everything needed for this. This is why the only possible real platform for relations between the nations of the socialist and capitalist systems is talks based on the prin- ciple of equality and equal security, peaceful coexist~:nce, and mutually beneficial cooperation. 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFI('IA ~ Qur country has always supported~and continues to support development of rela- tions with the Western countries relations of equality grounded on mutual -1 respect and confidence and on consideration of mutual interests. The CPSU and ' tl~e Soviet State realistically the fact that the ~ituation in today's world depends in large measure on the status of,Soviet-Am�rican mutual rela- ~ tions and sincerely seek to have normal relations ~aith tb.e United States. 5tirh an approach is in the interests of the peopleB of both countries and of the entire world. The USSR inalterably adheres to this approach. ' During the years of d~tente considerable experience has been amassed in the area of cooperation among nations w~th differing aocial systems, including the USSR and the United States. Utilizing this experience, proceeding honestly _ and constructively, seeking to achieve a~ust resolution of international problems with the atd of negotiations the Soviet Union views this as a manifestation of genuine pol itical wisdom and responsibility, both to the people of one's own country and to all mankind. The USSR consistently advocates that the positive process begur. in 1975 by the Helsinki Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe should continue i without interruption and become deeper, and that the principles and provisions of the Final Act adopted at that conference should be strictly ob- served. The USSR and the entire socialist community view the Madrid meeting of representatives of participating nations in the All-European Conference precisely from this standpoint. Reaching an agreement to convene a European conf erence on confidence-building measures, European security and disartnament would be in conformity with the fundamental demands of cooperation. Peaceful cooperation be~ween countries of differing social systems on the I European continent is continuing in spite of efforts by the enemies of ~ d'etente. This applies both to political contacts and to economic, ecientific- ; technical and culturai relations. f The policy which the Soviet Union is pursuing in the international arena is a firm, policy of development of cooperation, preservation and strengthening of peace. Our dedication to the cause of peace is steadfast. It proceeds from the nature of socialism. Peace is dear to the Soviet people. We need it in order to accomplish tasks of building. Tirelessly strengthening the economic aiid defense might of the socialist homeland and its international prestige, Soviet citizens are maintaining a high degree of political vigilance and readiness to defend the grear. ~~hievementa of socialism, the cause of peace an3 social progress. Under the guidance of the party of Lenin, they are cenfidently striding along the road of October toward communism. 2. Important Paint on the Road to Communism Socialism exerts its principal i~nfluence on world development by its successes in the economic domain. It is precisely in the realm of the economy and economic policy that we find the decisive front in the com~etition between socialism and capitalis-~. As was stressed at the 26th CPSU Congress, the foundation for accompiishing social tasks and strengthening the nation's 15 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/42/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R400500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY defense capability, and the foundation of a vigorous foreign policy is being constructed precisely here. It is precisely here uthere t~e requisite precondi- tions for successful movement toward communiam by the Soviet society are being created. The Soviet economy has today oone far in its development. The productive resourees of our society are mightier than at any time in the past. The - scientific and technological revolution, changing the countenance of many in- dustrial processes and entire industriea, is auccessfully advancing and at an 3ncreasing pace. Soviet science occupies a leadiazg position in the major fields of knowledge. Our country's economic power is ensuring a dynamic forward movement in all areas of building the ~aaterial and technological foundation of communism and is reliably guaranteeing the comprehensive advance of society. Fullest and most efficient utilization of the capabilities and advantages of the socialist economic system is being achieved thanks to the consistent im- plementation of Leninist economic policy by the CPSU. The party views guidance of the nation's economy as the heart of its multifaceted activities. The meaning and centent of these activities are defined by an inalterable program demand Af the CPSU everything in the name of man, everything for the good of man. This is the party's general line of policy. The decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress constituted innovative development of this policy line. The - November (1981) CPSU Central Committee Plenum concentrated the attention of party and people on the most urgent questions of economic development. In his brilliant speech at the Plenum, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev comprehenaively demon- strated the great political, organizational and econowic work accomplished since the 26th CPSU Congress and noted the increased labor and political ac- tiveness of the masses. He profoundly revealed ways to achieve further im- plementation of the cqngress decisions and presented a detailed description, a political and social evaluation of the plan for the second year and the en- tire llth Five-Year Pl~sn as a whole. The most important features of the five-year plan include the following: in- tensification of thE social thrust of economic development, enhancement of the role of intensive factors and efficiency of societal production in forming a stable rate of economic growth and improvement in the structure of the economy, and an increase in the end results of economic activity which advances more rapidly than expenditures on achieving the results. The party and people are faced with large and complex tasks. Speaking about - this, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev expressed confidence that they will be accom- plished. "We have everything needed for successful performance: highly- developed productive resources, sociopolitical and moral unity of.the Soviet people, a precise strategy of movement forwar.d, embodied in the congress decisions," noted Comrade L. I. Brezhnev. "It is now up to the entire party to raise evenlh~igher the level of organizational work in the area of economic development. The Soviet people, under party guidance, are working with inspiration in all areas of building communism. Our national wealth is steadily increasing. The - people's prosperity is growing, as is our country's production and 16 FOR ON FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ scientific-technical potential. The soci~~political and ideological unity of the people, the allian~.e of the worker c~ass, peasantry ar..d intelligentsia, and the friendship of all nationalities and ethnic groups in the USSR are growing s*.ronger. Socialist democracy is deepening. The defense capability of the ' state is increasing. The Soviet Nation is advancing confidently in all areas of b uilding the material and technological foundation of communism. ~ In conformity with this economic strategy, the party is concentrating the efforts of Soviet citizens on achieving a transition to /intensification,/ in- creasing production efficiency and improving work quality, maximally utilizing - the advantages of the socialist economic system, scientific and technological : advances, the vast economic capabilities and reserves, and achieving all-out economy in all types of resources. Fulfillment of these demands comprises a basis for accomplishing the main task of the current five-year plan securement of further growth in the proeperity of the Soviet people. It also includes creation of increasingly more favorable ~onditions for comprehensive development of the indiv~idual, for highly productive labor, for strengthening the health and improving rest and recreation for Soviet citizens, and development of education, science and culture in short, everything which comprises our socialist way of life. Implementation of the large 3nd diversified program for increasing the people's prosperity is possible only on the basis of dynamic and stable development of - material production. As we know, /an increase in national income/ is a synthesizing indicator of such development. It wi11 grow by 18 percent in the - llth Five-Year Plan, and at least 40 percent by 1990, according to calculations. - Acceleration of scientific and technological progress, improvement in the ~ structure of the economy and distribution of productive resources, improvement in planning and management, and booeting of the level of economic administra- tion are subordinated entirely to achieving the goals of economic strategy aud successful accomplishment of the task of intensification of societal production and securement of higher economic performance results with ~allec' expenditurea of resources. The party organically links a shift of the economy toward efficiency and quality with work to improve all branches of production on the basis of /ac- celeration of scientific and technological progress/ and extensive utilization of advances in science and technology. We are talking about technical re- tooling of. production, building and universal adoption of fundamentally new ' equipment and materials, and application of high-productivity energy and materials-economizing technologies. In the current five-year plan the rate of equipment renewal is being accelerated by approximately 50 percent. New, advanced industrial processes are being aggressively adopted, and the power-worker ratio is increasing. Product quality is al~o improving. Presently more than 85,000 industrial products are manufactured with the state Seal of Quality. This is three times more than at , the beginning of the lOth Five-Year Plan. 17 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The efficiency of science is increasing, and its ties production are deepen- ing. In addition to elaboration of theoretical problems, it is concentrating its efforts to an ever. increasing degree on solving key economic problems and un discoveries capable of introducing truly revolutionary changes in production. Discoveries in the area of nuclear power engineering, space and laser tech- nology, electronics and chemistry, and in other areas of science and tech- nology possess great potential. And it is very important that less time be required to reach practical incorporation of the results of scientific dis- coveries and that the path of i~ventions and innovator solutions to the factories, fields and livestock units not be blocked by sluggishneas, routinism, bureaucratic delays and red tap~e. Implementation of scientific and technological advances generates great social eff ect in addition to economic effect proper. It fosters the elimination of the considerable differencea between intellectual and physical labor, enhance- ment of the role of creative functions in productive activity, improvement of working conditions, and protection of the envir~nment. /An increase in labor productivity/ is of key significance for intensification of the economy and a steady increase in its efficiency. The main factor of economic growth is to be found precisely here. Labor productivity throughout the nation's economy ~ust be increased sufficiently, noted Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, "that in this country it not be lower but higher than in the most developed capitalist countries. The socialist system gives us every possibility ~ to accomplish this. It is only a matter of being able to utilize these capabilities correctly, to learn to manage efficiently and thriftily."11 Ninety percent of national income growth is to be obtained in the llth Five- Year Plan through increasing labor productivity. Successful accomplishment of this task presupposes all-out acceieration of total mechanization and automa- tion of production, adoption of the brigade form of organization of labor, ~ and a gradual reduction in the percentage share of low-skilled, manual, and particularly heavy physi~31 labor. An important role is played by increasing production at existing enterprises, with a s*able or even decreasing number of employees. Growth in labor productivity is incanceivable without a high degree - of organization, discipline, and responsibilit~ iiz each and every section, in every production team, and at every work station. Intensification of the economy imposes high demands both on the entire economy and on each sector. The party devotes particular attention to stable, balanced /growth of heavy industry./ More and more new large enterprises are coming on- stream. The Sayan-Shushenskiy Hydroelectric Power Station, the Cherno~yl', Kursk, and Armenian nuclear power stations, the Zaporozh'ye and Uglegorsk GRES's [State Regional Electric Power Plant], Europe's largest, the Atommash Plant, the Lisichansk and Pavlodar oil refineries, meat-packing combines in Lipetsk and Zhitomir, the Main Kakhovka Canal, plus many other facilities came on-line in the last five-year plan. The family of in~ustrial giants was ~oined by KamAZ jthe Kama Truck Plant] in the f irst year of the llth Five-Year Plan. Designed output was reached ahead of schedule at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Station, and new generator units were brought on-line at a number of other large electric powex etationa. Total length of track on the "construction 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY project of the century" the Baikal-Amur Mainline went past the 2200 kilo- meter mark in 1981. ' Territorial-production complexes are developing briskly in ; the European part of the RSFSR, in the Urals, Siberia, in the Far East, in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. The establishment and development of an entire cotli- plex of branches as well as servicing facilities are a characteristic feature of the present stage of their formation. The following facts give a graphic picture of the level presently reached by Soviet industry. Soviet industry produces more than three times as mucl~. per capita than the world average. Total USSR industrial output volume comprises one-fifth of world production. This is approximately as much as is produced by all the countries of Western Europe combined, yet the total population of these countries exceeds by one-third that of the Soviet Union. The USSR is now the world leader in production of oil and steel, cement and mineral fertilizers, road diesel and electric locomotives, plus many other important products. Concentrating the efforts of the Soviet people on resolving the most pressing economic problems and on correcting bottlenecks and disproportions which still exist in the economy, the party focuses paramount attention on the /fuel-energy complex [dsJ/. The task of improving its structure has been placed on the agenda. It is necessary to reduce the percentage share of oil as a fuel, to ' replace it with natural gas and coal, to speed up the development of nuclear ~ power, and to continue the search for fundamentally new energy sources. The ! llth Five-Year Plan is the first stage in carrying out the USSR energy program drawn up at the initiative of Comrade L. I. Brezhnev. Components of this program include the USSR iJnified Power System, which presently encompasses an area with a population in excess of 220 million, as well as thia country's Unified Gas Supply System. They are steadily growing and improving. In the /metallurgical industry [ds]/ there is consietently being implemented a policy of radical improvement in the quality of inetal and metal products simultaneously with production growth, increase in output of efficient metal products, reduction of losses and waste, and decrease in expenditure of inetal per unit of end product. Production of substitutes is expanding. Their em- ployment in place of traditional materials generates considerable economic ef- fect. The employment of 1 million tons of pipe made of polymer materials, for example, can replace 5 million tons of steel pipe. Savings in capital tn- vestment will amount to 1.7 billi~n rubles, with savings of approximately 0.7 billion rublea in pipeline construction. A transition by the economy to an intensive emphasis is directly dependent on the development of /machine building [da]/, for it is machin~ building which provides renewal of fixed assets and technical retooling of various areas of the nation's economy. It opens the door to everything new and advanced created by scientif ic and engineering thought. And the more rapidly these new innovations are put into production and embodied in hlghly efficient, reliable machines, instruments, and production lines, the more successfully the problems of improving the efficiency of the economy are resolved. 19 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500474450-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Securement of a rapid rate of growth of the base branches of industry leads to increased manufacture of those products which determine technological progress. At the same time ::his creates a solid foundation for increasing the manufacture of consumer durables. The party views improving supply of consumer durables to the public as a pr~:~ary task. Much has been done to accompltsh this task in the first year of the llth Five-Year Plan. For the current five-year plan as a whole, manufacture of such goods will increase by 180 billion rubles over the preceding five-year ~ perioa.. Thia is more than their entire output volume in 1980. The product mix is expanding and b eing updated, the quality of consumer goods is improving, and the sale of new, stylish, as well as inexpensive high=quality goods is increasing. The work performed by trade enterprises, public food services and personal services enterprises, as well as the entire service industry is further expanding and improving. Work on a vast scale aimed at ensuring interlinked, balanced development of those branches forming the /unified agroindustrial complex/ is continuing in - this country. Almost one-third of all capital investment in the nation's economy is being funneled i~ this complex. A large portion of these funds is earmarked directly for boosting agr~cul.tural production and transforming agricul- ture into a highly developed sector of the socialist economy. Successful ac- complishment of this task depends in large measure on how wisely the allocated funds are utilized. Each and every hectare of land, each and every ruble in- vested, each and every ton of fertilizer should produce maximum return. Present party agrarian policy: the foundation of which was laid down by the deci- sions of the March (1965) CPSU Central Committee Plenum, constitutes a con- tinuation and innovative development of V. I. Lenin's teaching on the agrarian question in new historical conditions in conditions of a mature socialist society. Its sequential implementation ensures comprehensive, dynamic development and a steady improvement in the eff iciency of all sectors of the economy, and is leading to an increasingly fuller satisfaction of the public's demand for high-quality foo3stuffs and industry's demands for raw materials. Accomplishment of the tasks facing agriculture is fostered by continuous strengthening of its production potential and further development of such specialized branches as rural construction, land reclamation and water conservation, machine building for bivestock raising and feed production, and the microbiological industry. Economic and technological links bezween the village and industry are expanding. The scientific potential of agriculture is steadily growing. Work is continuing on transforming the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR into a region of highly productive crop farming and live- stock raising. Attainment by our agriculture of those performance levels targeted by the 26th CPSU Congress will foster solution to such a serious problem as im- proving supply of foodstuffs to the public. "The food problem both at the administrative and at the political level," stressed Comrade L. I. Brezhnev at the November (1981) CPSU Central Committee Plenum, "is the central problem 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICfAL USE ONLY ' of the entire five-year plan. A high rate of agricultural production con- stitutes the basis for solving it."12 i The aim of the comprehensive food progra~ is to unite efforts within agricul- - ture proper and in those branches of industry which serve agricultu're, and to subordinate the work of all these branches to a common end ob~ective to meet this country's food requirements. This program is being drawn up pur- suant to a de,:ision of the 26th CPSU Congress and will be included in the llth Five-Year Plan. Fuller utilization of local food resources as well as the capabilities of subsidiary farm operations is called upon to play an im- ' portant role in providing the population with food supplies. Growth of this country's economic potential is determined to an enormous degree by the state of /capital construction./ Improvemen,t of its efficiency - presupposes a concentration uf efforts in the main areas, on completion-tar- geted projects, particularly those capable of generating the greatest production growth. To design and build rapidly and at the same time with quality, economically, and at a contemporary technological level this is a demand of the present stage of development of society. The overall pace of our forward movament depends in large measure on fulfillment of this demand and on how things move ahead in construction. Development and improvement of the branches of the production infrastructure is of considerable significance in intensif ication of the economy. The party specified the tasks of improving the performance of /transportation,/ ; particularly rail transport. Organization of transport hauls is steadily im- proving, and measures are being taken to ensure eff icient utilization of rolling stock and to reduce idle time for freight cars, trucks, and vessels. Considerable savings are being achieved in this regard by adoption of the experience amassed by the Leningrad Transportation Center and the railroaders ~ of Moscow and L'vovskaya Oblast. Accomplishment of tasks advanced by the 26th CPSU Congress pertaining to building new rail lines, increasing the technical equipment of existing ~ railroads, and ensuring precise coordination of all components of the transportation system is proceeding at an increasing pace. Further improve- ~ ment of the job being done by transportation and improvement of its links other sectors of the economy wi11 be accomplished on the basis of a long- range combined prngram drawn up in conformity with the Basic Directions of Economic and Social Develapment of the USSR in 1981-1985 and the Period up to 1990. Achievement of excellent economic results depends in large measure on the level of /direction of the economy, planning and management./ Discussing the tasks of improving direction of the economy, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev .emphasized that they must be carried out "taking into account the experience and creative initiative of our people, considering the best available in the experience of the brother socialist countries as well as developed capitalist . nations."13 21 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAY. USE ONLY Questions pertaining to guiding the economy are not simply economic but also political, party questions. Necessary for resolving them are mobilization of the productive potential of our entire society and fullest elucidation and utilization of existing possibilities. In recent years a broad aggregate of - measures have been carried out to improve the economic mechanism. The sys- tem of planning and management is increasingly being aimed at improving work - efficiency and quality and at achieving excellent esnd economic results. Con- siderable work is being done to adopt new forms and methods of planning, new appraisals of the activities of work forces, and to increase the effectiveness of economic levers and incentives. A most important condition for implementing the party guideline calling for improving the efficiency of societaZ production and work quality as a pivotal economic task consists in steady growth of the social activeness of the masses and their involved, active participation in the affairs of state and society. Development and universal adoption of a flawlessl,y operating system of in~ centives, both moral and material, which would impel people to work with maximum output and constantly to improve product quality,are assuming ever increasing significance thereby. The civic awa.reneas of all Soviet citizens, their attitude toward labor and property, their discipline and knowledgeability on the job, in their daily activities. and in societal af- fairs should be raised to a new and higher level. In the final analysis it is this which determines the today and tomorrow of every Soviet citizen and our entire society. With a growth in the scale and complexity of production, any manifestations of mismanagement, dishonesty, careless indifference, and all failures to achieve established plans and targets inflict.increasingly greater damage. Suffice it to recall how great the price of work time is today. Every minute more than 2.4 million kilowatt hours of electricity, almost 300 tons of steel, 1400 tons of coal, approximately 800,000 cubic meters of natural gas, and a vast quantity of other products are produced in this country. Wasting a single minute meane irrevocably losing the results of the aggregate daily labor of approximately 200,000 workers. - There is occurring a constant increase in the significance of fuller and more efficient utilization of fixed productive assets, increased return on invested capital, and economical expenditure of raw materials, fuel, energy, metal, cement, and other materials. A most resolute rebuff should be given to any and all encroachments on public property. All means and methods must be utilized in order to close firmly all opportunit~:es for parasitism, bribery, profiteering, and for other non-labor income. The economy should be tconomLesl. '.1'hie conclusion was affirmed at the 25th CPSU Congress as one of the most important principles of the party's economic strategy at the present stage of development of our society. Concrete ways to solve problems connected with increasing return on invested capital, maximum ~ equipment work-loading, and reduction of energy, fuel, raw and other materials losses to a minimum were specif ied in a June (1981) decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers. It specifies a system of ineasures aimed at radical improvement of all work pertaining to economy and efficient 22 ~ ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY utilization of resources. Strict observance of economy measures is the common concern of our entire people. Soviet citizens approach the solving of problems facing the c~untry in a stewardly, involved and responsible manner. Socialist competition is the most vivid manifestation of an approach and of patriotism on the part of the , working masses. More than 100 million persons participate in socialist com- petition, seeking to achieve successful implementation of the decisions of the 2~th CPSU Congress under the slogan "Work Efficiently and With Excellent Quality!" Initiatives aimed at achieving economy of material and labor resources and at turning out high-quality products have become widespread. A characteristic feature of socialist competition is its close link ~aith the scientific and technological revolution. It is becoming increasingly more concentr.ated around the problem of end results and the moral aspects of con- structive, productive labor and development of the individual. The working person, his welfare and happiness occupy the center of the party's plans and the center of the entire life of our developed socialist so- ciety. In the final analysis everything targeted to be accomplished in the llth Five-Year Plan is subordinated to a single aim /a further rise in the welfare of the people./ Real per capita income has doubled just in the last three five-year periods. All aspe~ts of the lives of working people are encom- passed by major social measures. Implementation of some of the targeted measures began in the first year of the current five-year plan. State as- sistance to families with children is increasing, and pension support and coverage is improving. The financial situation of 4.5 million families with , many children has improved and 14 million pensioners have received an increase in their pensions since the 26th CPSU Congress. Wages of persons working in the coal industry have increased. The material benefits which our country's people receive from public consump- tion funds are constantly increasing. Each year from 10 to 11 million Soviet citizens move into new housing. The network of kindergartens, schools, hospitals, clubhouses, libraries, cinemas, sanatorium-health resort and sports facilities is expanding. Soviet citizens understand well that comprehensive development of this country, successful solving of pressing economic problems, as well as further improve- ment in living conditions can be achieved only through their own labor. They vie~a the party's plans as their own vital concern and are working with initia- tive and innovation in all areas of building communism,.increasing the economic and dafense might of the socialist homeland. 3. Leading rorce of the Soviet Society Soviet citizens inseparably link our country's heroic past, glorious present, - and bright future with the Communist Party and with its wise leadership. Workers of city and vil?age and members of the Armed Forces pour out their souls and direct their deepest feelings to the party: They see the party as the mind, honor and conscience of our era. 23 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The CPSU constructs all its revolutionary-transforming activities on the basis of eternally living, constantly evolving Marxist-Leninist teaching. All the - finest things which exist in the Soviet people are embodied in the party its fighting revolutionary spirit, its inexhaustible productive energy, in- duetriousness and wisdom. "Communists are truly the unbending core of our society, its living soul," stated Comri~e L. I. Brezhnev. "They are truly the revolutionary vanguard of the people. The Communist Party, which is the guiding and directing force of the Soviet society, is developing and growing strong together with it. Six-and-a-half decades ago, in March 1917, its ranks totaled 24,000 Communists. The struggle of the worker class for victory in the Great October Socialist Revolution was led by a 350,OOa-man army of Leninist-Bolsheviks. Today the ranks of the CPSU contain almost 18 million Communists, of like mind and like action. More than half of them work directly in the domain of material production the decisive are a of societal affairs. Approximately 1.5 million primary and shop party ~ organizations and party groups are ~onducting active daily work among the masses. Constituting the nucleus of the political system of the Soviet society, governmental and public organizations, the CPSU exercises comprehensive politi- cal leadership over governmental and public organizations and the productive - activities of the entire people. The party directs the activities of govern- - mental and public agencies and organizations through Communists working in them, and secures coordination of the efforts of all components of the politi- cal system and economic mechanism in building coumiunism. - Almost a million deputy-Communists are working in soviets of people's deputies. They use their prestige and experience to ensure that every session of a soviet and every meeting of the permanent commission is transformed into a genuine council of people, into a collective search for the most correct decisions. The Soviet trade unions are a reliable support of the party among the masses and a powerful means of development of socialist democracy. Many forms of democratic participation by working people in production management, accelera- tion of sciinationalntaskshhavegbeen bornrthroughdthecingenuityg ofctheumasses. and indoctr ~ The CPSU performs its lofty role of vanguard of the Soviet people in full con- formity with the Fundamental Law of our nation. It states that all party or- ganizations operate within the framework of the USSR Constitution. The party never has taken and does not take the place of other organizations. On the contrary, it always seeks to ensure that governmental and economic agencies as well as public organizations work with ma.ximum eff iciency and carry out their assigned tasks with initiative and innovativeness. A/Leninist style/ a scientific, innovative style, to which subjectivism is alien, from which complacency is excluded, and which opposes all manifesta- tions of bureaucracy and formalism is inherent in a1.1 CPSU guiding and directing activities. The multifaceted activities of the CPSU Central Com- mittee and Central Committee Politburo this truly f ighting headquarters of 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFlCIA1, IJSE ONLY ~ the party is a model of the Leninist atyle of leadership. "It is precisely , here," noted the 26th CPSU Congreas, "that the collective intelligence of tbe party is accumulated and party policy, which expresses the interests 15 all of Soviet society, o~ a11 Communiats and perty unaffiliated, is formed." ~ ' The purposeful, highly orgar.ized nature of the work of the Politburo, the Central Committee, and the entire party is determined to an enormous degree by the fact that for more than 17 years now Comrade L. I. Brezhnev has headed the Central Committee. Our country, the brother socialist countries, and millions of people of good will throughout the world extensively celebrated the glorious 75th birthday of Comrade L. I. Brezhnev. Expressing the thoughts and ' feelings of our country's Communists and the entire Soviet people, the CPSU Central Committee, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, and the USSR Council of Ministers noted the outstanding and meritorious services of Com- rade L. I. Brezhnev. He is making an enormous, truly inestimable contribution to the struggle for the prosperity of our great homeland, the strengthening of its economic and defense might, and for the triumph of the ideas of communism, peace and social progress of mankind. Award to Comrade L. I. Brezhnev of the Order of Lenin and a fourth Hero of the Soviet Union Gold Star, as well as the highest decorations of a number of other countries constituted a moving acknowledgement of these meritorious services. An outstanding party and government leader, a faithful follower of the great cause of Lenin, and acknowledged leader of the revolutionary forces of the present day, Comrade L. I, Brezhnev enjoys the boundless respect and love of the people. With his enormous capacNity for work, political perspicacity, his ability to maintain his composure and remain calm in the most critical i situations, his benevolence, his attention and sensitivity toward others, Com- ~ rade L. I. Brezhnev creates a healthy moral-political atmosphere within the ~ party and within our country. Such an atmosphere promotes growth in ttie so- i cial activeness of the masses, their initiative and innovativeness, a flourishing of talents, of which there is an immense wealth in our people, as V. I. Lenin stated. This enables the party successfully to accomplish the most complex tasks and effectively to carry out the great mission of leading force of society. The great wealth of experience of our country and the brother socialist countries convinciiigly affirms tl?at /leadership by the Communist Party is an essential and decisive condition for successfully building and defending the new society./ It is not surprising that imperialist reaction and its servitors are willing to expend any effort and resources in their attempts to undermine and discredit the leadership role of Ma.rxist-Leninist parties in the socialist countries and to disparage the significance of this role. The purpose of these attempts is to weaken and shatter the very political founda- tion of sociaJ.ism and to destroy the revolutionary achievements of the work- ing people. Soviet citizens and the peoples of the brother socialist countries off er a resolute and firm rebuff to the intrigues of our class enemies and steadfastly follow their Communist vanguard. i A most important mechanism of development of the socialist society is a steady growth in the leadership role of the party. This pattern is of a universal ~ 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY nature. Expansion of the scale and increase in the complexity of tasks being accomplished and intensif ication of the activeness of all components of the political system of the socialist society demand a steady rise in the level of organizational and political indoctrination work among the masses. And only the Communist Party a political organization which is armed by Marxist- Leninist theory can encompass the entire aggregate of internal and ex- ternal conditions of societal development, secure effective guidance of the activities of the working people, elaborate a correct policy, and organize its practical implementation. The CPSU is strong becsuse of its monolithic unity with the people~. It is strong, as V. I. Lenin noted, due to its ability to establish contact, to draw ~ closer, and to H certain degree to merge with the worker wasses. Herein lies an inexhaustible source of vitality of CPSU policy. The party has gained the limitless trust ~nd love ci the people through its selfless service to the people. The prestige of the CPSU is enormous an3 indisputable. The great masses have become convinced through their own experience that the party is , leading them along the only correct road. Of course the role of leading and guiding force of society does not come automatically. As Comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted, it "is earned, achieved in the course of constant, ceaseless struggle for the interests of the working people. And this role is consolidated by the fact that the party is con- stantly deepening its links with the masses and lives by their needs and con- cerns."16 The indissoluble unity of party and people is a priceless possession of our society. Forged out and tempered by decades of revolutionary struggle and inspired productive labor, standing up with honor under the most diff icult tests of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, /the unity of party and people forms a solid foundation of the monolithic ideological- political, so- cial and international solidarity of the Soviet society./ Communist ideology forms the basis of the /ideological-political cohesion [ds]/ of our society. It arms Soviet citizens with knowledge of the laws and _ prospects of societal development. Communist ideals, standards and prin- ciples, transforming into convictions, determine a person's attitude toward civic duty, the line of one's daily conduct, and find concrete expression in an indissoluble unity of word and deed, a vigorous life position, moral in- te~rity and purity. Co~unist conviction is a true compass which enables one cor.rectly to gain one's bearings in any situation, even the most complex and acut~.e, to discern the class essence and thrust of the intrigues of a hostile ideology, and to stop them firmly and resolutely. The party has always viewed and continues to view as a program goal the forming of a new man, a determining trait of the spiritual countenance of whom is Com- munist conviction. It is proceeding toward this goal on a broad front, utilizing all the capabilities of the mature socialist society and the entire rich arsenal of organizational, political and indoctrinational means. 26 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500074450-4 - FOR UFF[CIAL USE ONLY i I ; A most i.mportant place in the businese of indoctrinating Soviet citizens ia occupied by the study of Marxist-Leninist theory, which has become a mass process in conditions of developed socialism. Almost 23 million persons are presently enrolled in study just within the party education system. The practice of holding unified political days has been adopted everywhere. Tire- Zessly seeking to raise the level of party education, the CPSU seeks to ensctr~ that it teaches peop~e, to quote.V. I. Lenin, "to act as communism in fact demands."17 I An enormous role in forming social consciousness and in further strengthening ! the ideological-political solidarity of Soviet citizens is played by the mass information media. Their effective utilization promotes an improvement in the _ level of knowledge, erudition, and intellectual aspirations of the Soviet citizen. , The /social solidarity [ds]/ of the Soviet society is becoming stronger on the f irm foundation of socioeconomic transformations and under the determining influence of Marxist-Leninist ideology and party policy; the process of . ! sequential drawing together of all classes and social groups and further ~ strengthening of their indissoluble union is deepening. Appraising the ex- perience of development of the Soviet society in the last decades, Comrade L, I. Brezhnev advanced at the 26th CPSU Congress the thesis that "the development of a classless structure of society will take place primarily with- in the historical framework of mature socialism."18 ~ Implementation of the socioeconomic and cultural development plans specif ied by the party is leading to a steady increase in the social homogeneity of our society. In our country the worker class, the kolkhoz peasantry, and the i people's intelligentsia are united by common interests and ideals, and by i relations of collectivism, comradely cooperation and mutual assistance. The ; social cohesion of the Soviet society is becoming increas~ngly strengthened ~ as there occurs a rise in the level of education, culture, and occupational training of the broadest segment of the working people. An enormous role in this is played by the gradual transformation of agricultural labor into a variety of industrial labor, the effacing of social diff erences between work= ing people of the industrial and agrarian sectors of the economy, and by ' equalizing the differences in material, cultural and living standards between city and village. The advance along the road to communism is accompanied by strengthening of the /international solidarity [ds]/ of our society. The mighty brotherhood of more than 100 nationalities and ethnic groups, united six decades ago in an indivisible union of a socialist sCate the USSR is filled with in- exhaustible vital forces. Their source is the Leninist nationalities policy of the CPSU. Increasing the material and spiritual potential of each republic, and at the same time maximally utilizing it for the harmonious development of the entire country, the Soviet people have attained truly historic achieve- ments under the guidance of the party. The most substantial changes in the economic, social and spiritual affairs of the Soviet society and in the - life of all the peoples of this country, as well as the profound democracy of our multinational state are expressed in the new USSR Constitution and the new constitutions of the union republics. 27 ; ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tt?e party views as its sacred duty indoctrination of working people in a spirit of Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, and a proud feeling of belonging to the great indivisible Soviet homeland. The ex- perience of building a new society and its armed defense as well as a great we~lth of revolutionary practical experience convincingly affirm that it is impossible to be a patriot without being an internationalist, and on the other hand as well, it is impossible to be an internationalist without being a patriot of the socialist homeland. The unity of root interests, tasks of _ building, and the h3storic~l destiny of all the Soviet peoples makes our so- ciety even more cohesive and powerful. In elaborating a course of policy and general prospects of building com- munism, the party constantly studies and fully takes into account the in- terests of all classes and social groups, all nationalities and ethnic ~ groups in the USSR. It unites revolutionary theory with daily practical ac- tivities and is supported by the high degree of social activeness and political innovativeness of the masses. This defines the genuinely popular character of the organizing and guiding activities of the CPSU. Embodying, as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted, the collective intelligence of the finest sons and daughters of a great people, the party scientifically e~cpresses in its policy that which the people realize, that which conforms b~ the greatest degree to the requirements of this country's socioeconomic development and its dynamic forward movement along the road toward com~unism. Precisely such comprehensive substantiation, political insight and realism characterize the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress. Working hard to im- plement them, the Soviet people display enormous political and labor active- nesa. The co~on cause of building com~unism and common concern for strengthening the economic and defense might Qf the homeland and the position ~ of world socialism, for ensuring ~eace and international security unite Soviet citizene even more strongly behind the Connnunist Party. The uncon- querable strength of the CPSU lies in its indissoluble unity the people. The mighty, all-conquering strength of the Soviet people 13es in a unity with the party and in its wise leadership. FOOTNOTES l. "Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS" [Proceedings of the 26th CPSU Congress], - Moscow, 1981, pp 4-5. 2. PRAVDA, 3 Nov 1981. 3. V. I. Lenin, "Poln. Sobr. Soch." [Complete WorksJ, Vol 35, page 116. 4. PRAVDA, 24 June 1981. 5. L. I. Brezhnev, "Leninskim kursom: rechi i stat'i" [Following a Leninist Course: Speeches and Articles], Moscow, 1973, Vol 2, page 588. 6. Ibid., page 124. 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 ~ ~ 7. "Privetstviya XXVI-omu s"yezdu KPSS ot kommunisticheskikh, rabochil~h, i ~ natsional'no-demokraticheskikh i sotsialisticheskikh partiy" [Messages of ! Greeting to the 26th CPSU Congress from Communist, Worker, National j Democratic and Socialist Parties~, Moscow, 1981, page 307. ~ _ 8. PRAVDA, 17 Dec 1981. 9. YRAVDA, 3 Nov 1981. 10. L. I. Brezhnev, "Rech' na plenume Tsentral'nogo Komiteta KPSS 16 noyabrya ; 1981 go~a: postanovleniya plenuma TsK KPSS" [Speech at the 16 November -I 1981 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee: CPSU Central Committee Plenum i Decree], Moscow, 1981, page 12. 11. PRAVDA, 20 Dec 1981. ' 12. Brezhnev, "Rech'...," op. cit., page 4. ~ 13. PRAVDA, 20 Dec 1981. 14. "Materialy...," op. cit., page 218. ' 15. Ibid., page 69. 16. Ibid., pp 218-219. ~ 17. Lenin, op. cit., ~TOl 41, page 302. 18. "Materialy...," op. cit., page 53. I ~ i ~ 29 i ; FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chapter Two. CONCERN OF THE PARTY, CONCERN OF THE ENTIRE PEOPLE 1. Defense of the ~lchievements of Socialiam An Ob3ective Necessity Concentrating their efforts on two interrelated areas building communism _ and strengthening peace, the CPSU and the Soviet people are devoting unabated attention to ensuring the nation's security and reliable defenae of socialiet achievemente. Defense af the revolutionary achievements of the working people is an ob~ective necessity. "Any revolution," stated V. I. Lenin, "is worth something only if it is able to defend itself...."1 As long as there continues to be a threat ta the achievements of socialism we must, noted Vladimir I1'ich, accompany our steps toward peace by increasing our military preparednese,�we must be alert, and assiduously preserve the defense capability of our country and our Red Army.2 The Communiat Party has inalterably been guided by these instructions of Lenin and continues to be guided by them at all stages in the development oflehof Soviet State. It organized, led and ensured the victory of the strugg the young Red Army against the hordes of foreign mil3.tary intervention and domestic counterrevolution, which were attempting to atrangle the socialist revolution in its cradle. It worked persistently to strengthen the combat power of the Soviet Armed Forces in the 1920's and 1930's, when imperialist reaction engaged in massive preparations for new aggreasion against the USSR. It was the organizer and inspirer of the world-historic victory of the Soviet people and their Armed Forces in the Great Patriotic War. The heroic history of our socialist homeland graphically confirms the im- mutable truth that there ia no force in the world capable of shaking socialism and defeating a people which perceived itself to be the country's master and which views the defense of our country as its own vital concern. The lesaons which the Soviet people taught repeatedly to aggressors who dared encroach upon our land went for naught. Fanciers of military adventures and - imperialist reactionary circles refused to abandon. their insane plans to crueh socialism by force of arnis. Such plans were made in the United States at the end of the 1940's and in the 1950's. They were counting on a successful sneak 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500474450-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i attack on the USSR with the employment of nuclear weapons. It was only the great combat power of the Soviet Armed Forces and the development of our own nuclear weapons in this country in response to U.S. blackmail which restrained the United States from aggression. ' But calculations of achieving military superiority over us and thus giving them a free hand to implement a global policy of dictate and brigandage continue to entice militant tmper ialist forces. These forces see the Soviet Union and the other nations of the socialist community as the main obstacle in the path of reestablishing the international position lost by imperialism. They are seek- ing at all costs to hinder the strengthening of genuine socialism, to weaken and crush the national liberation struggle of peoples and the world Communist and worker movement. Adventurism and willingness to gamble away the vital interests of mankind for - the sake of their own narrow, selfish aims are today being increasingly more glaringly revealed in the policy of imperialism. "The situation ras never been so serious," noted Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, "since the end of World War II."3 In whatever part of the world reactionary regimes, imposed upon peoples, begin to split apart, the forces of imperialism, particularly U.S. imperialism, are dispatched to that area without delay, in order to consolidate by fire and ~ sword an "order" which is to the liking of the monopoly bourgeoisie and to defend the "vital in terests" of those circles which profit on the exploitation of other countries and peoples and on plundering their national weal~th. One of the clearest manifestations of /intensification of the aggressiveness of imp~rialism/ is the unprecedented /growth of its military preparations Military expenditures of the United States and the other NATO nations are in- creasing year by year. In the United States, for example, they totaled 225 billion dollars in 1982, while they exceed 263 billion dollars in the draft budget for 1983. In the coming five years (to 1986) U.S. militarist appropria- tions wi11 reach the sum of 1.5 trillion dollars, that is, an amount which in current prices will exceed by sixfold U.S. military expenditures during all of World War II. These appropriations are intended, as U.S. leaders state, to maintain. "the most powerful and most flexible armed forces" and to achieve military superiority over the Soviet Union and the other socialist countriea. The United States has announced a new, unprecedented program of building up its strategic nuclear f orces. Deployment of the next generation of nuclear and conventional weapons is proceeding at an accelerated pace. New mass deatruc- tion weapons are being developed, including chemical and bacteriological. Manufacture of neutron weapons has begun, adoption of which into the U.S. arsenal is leading to the creation of a new and sophisticated mode of un- leashing nuclear war. Following in the wake o� aggressive U.S. policy, U.S. NATO partners are also accelerating their military preparations: Great Britain, the FRG, and other countries. For example, the direct military expenditures of all NATO member nations increased from 104 billion dollars in 1970 to 254 billion in 1980. These expenditures have exceeded 1.6 trillion dollars over the last 10 yeare and are continuing to rise. 31 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Large quantitiea of new tanks, aircraft, artillery and other weapons systems are being delivered to the troops. NATO strategic stockpiles are being in- - creased, and intensive measures are being taken to increase the bloc's mobilization capabilities and to improve its infrastructure. The numerical etrength of NATO Joint Forces in Europe exceeds 3 million men. The armies - of the nations of this bloc total almost 5 million men. Particularly dangerous to the cause of peace is the plan for nuclear missile "additional arming" of NATO, which specifies the additional deployment in Western Europe of approximately 600 new U.S. meditmn-range missiles [raket sredney dal'nosti]. If this plan were to be implemented, NATO would obtain a 50 percent advantage over the USSR in~delivery vehicles and approximately a 100 percent advantage in nuclear warheads. Thie would upset not only the existing balance in Europe but also the balance of USSR and U.S. strategic forces, and a qualitatively new military-strategic situation would arise. The fact is that strategic targets in the USSR constitute targets for U.S. mis- siles, and these missiles can be utilized as firat-strike weapons. There would arise a~serious threat to the security of the USSR and its allies. Naturally the Soviet Union cannot remain indifferent to such a prospect. The Soviet Union, as was quite explicitly stressed at the 26th CPSU Congress, will not permit a change in the existing parity of forces to the advantage of the United States and NATO. Our position on this matter is clear and unambiguous. It is. grounded on strict observance of the principle of equality and equal security of both parties. This principle is a meaningful platfoxm for resolving all problems connected with military confrontation in Europe. NATO, however, is constantly drawing up and implementing new large-scale plans for modernization of armies, contrary to this principle. The offensive potential of the army of the FRG is growing particularly intensively, primarily through a sharp increase in number of tanks. The Bundeswehr has become the maia NATO striking force in Europe. A buildup of West Gertnan naval forces, including submarines, is proceeding at an accelerated pace. The FRG has been virtually turned into an arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons. Such a large quantity of these weapons has been deployed on the territory of the FRG that thPir de:isity is greater than in any ~ther part of the world. A11 this attests by no means to a love of peace on the part of NATO, as is claimed in the West. Growth in the aggressiveness of imperialism is also expressed in /increased ac- tiveness of its bloc strategy [dsj/. There ia being revealed increasingly more distinctly a tendency toward expansion of the functions and realm of actions of NATO. Exercises and maneuvers conducted in NATO are essentially rehearsals for unleashing and conducting a war against the Soviet Union and the other nations of the socialist community. In addition to exiating imperialist military-political alliances, the United States is attempting to establish new ones, in particular the Pacific Associa- - tion, the South Atlantic, Near Eastern, and other military blocs. Ignoring the lessons of its own history, the United States is encouraging the rebirth of Japanese militarism. Playing up to Washington, Japan's imperialist forces are 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500470050-4 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I ~ intensifying military preparations, in violation of that country's constitution. The campaign which they are mounting around territorial claims against the USSR is of an openly hostile, anti-Soviet character. At the same time Tokyo, ~ within the franework of the Japanese-American "security treaty," is expanding ~ its participation in U.S. military-strategic efforts in the area of East Asia and the Pac if ic . ~ Beijing is performing the role of active accomplice of the most militant im- perialist forces. It is intensifying attempts to bring the United States and ~ NATO into a clash with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact and is conducting i subversive, aggressive actions against neighboring countries, particularly ~ against Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea. I The invasion of socialist Vietnam by Chinese troops in February-March 1979 revealed the true countenance of the Bei~ing rulers and revealed the full depths of the danger presented by their aggressive, adventuristic policy. ' China's acts of provocation against the SRV and its threats against Laos and Kampuchea are continuing. Beijing is participating as Washington's ~ assistant in the undeclared war against Af ghanisCan. ! Figuring on exploiting for their own interests the hostility on the part of i the Beijing leadership toward the Soviet Union and the entire socialist com- I munity, the United States, a number of other NATO countries and Japan are expanding military-political relations with China. Particularly dangerous is i the decision by the U.S. Government to sell modern weapons, including of- i fensive weapons, to Beijing. A strategic alliance between U.S. imperialism and Beijing hegemonism is being forged behind the backs of the Chinese and American peoples. ~ I A sinister growth of aggressiveness by imperialism is also traced in U.S. ef- forts to /expand and improve its network of military bases and military : facilities, particularly ~hose deployed around the USSR and the other socialist countries [ds]/. Washington is displaying feverish activity in the Near and Middle East. Military bases are being built in Israel and Egypt, in Oman and Saudi Arabia, while old bases on Bahrein, in Kenya and Somalia are being - renovated. In Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula the United States is build- ing storage facilities for stockpiling tanks, artillery and other heavy equipment designated for the "rapid deployment forces." The backbone of these forces in the region would be U.S. troops to be stationed in the Sinai pur- ~ suant to a U.S.-Israeli-Egyptian deal calling for so-called "multinational forces to maintain peace on the Sinai Peninsula." Under the pretext of - protecting U.S. "vital interests" in the Mediterranean, large contingents of U.S. troops have been concentrated here. And there are two U.S. carrier ' groups virtually on permanent station in the Indian Ocean. Pakistan is , gradually being turned into the Pentagon's main bridgehead in Southwestern ' Asia. The United States is essentially endeavoring to consolidate its military presence throughout the world. At the present time the total number of U.S. military bases and facilities exceeds 1500, situated on the territory of 32 countries. All these are bridgeheads for aggression,.on which are concentrated ~ 33 i ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY more than half a million U.S. military personnel. From these bases U.S. im- perialism threatens the security of peoples. The threat to peoples emanating from U.S. military bases and facilities -is " particularly great because the United States is furnishing the forces stationed there not only with the most modern conventional weapons and combat equipmet~t but with nuclear weapons as well. For example, there are more than 7000 nuclear warheads at U.S. military bases in Western Europe; there are approx- imately 1500 nuclear warheads in the Pacific zone, plus an additional more than 7000 on board the warships and tenders of the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific fleets. The danger is also heightened by the fact that U.S. military bases are virtual- ly beyond the control of local authorities, while the nuclear weapons deployed there can be utilized without the knowledge or consent of these authorities. This situation not only flouts the sovereignty of the nations in question but also turns them into nuclear hostiges of the United States. ~ U.S. imperialism is undertaking intensive efforts to /expand focal areas of tension and to ignite armed conflicts [ds]/. Washington is the inspiring force behind and is also essentially a direct accomplice to escalation of aggressive actions by Israel.~ It is heating up the explosively dangerous situation in the Near East, is guiding the expansionist policy of the Israeli aggr~ssors, - and is giving them every possible support within the framework of so-called "strategic cooperation.'~ The scale of the threat with which the Ne~ir Eastern focal area of tension is fraught goes far beyond the boundaries of 1:his region in connection with the fact that Israel possesses a nuclear potential, which Washington claims to be an "uncontrolled element." This means that an armed conflict in this region could escalate into a nuclear conflice. The United States is interfering in the internal affairs of sovereign nations in practically every part of the world. It is strongly engaged in equipping the bands which are making incursions into the DRA. The South African racists are engaged in brigandage with direct U.S. complicity. Intrigues by U.S. im- . perialism in Latin America are continuing. Antipopular,tyrannical regimes are being maintained by U.S. money and weapons in E1 Salvador and Chile. Washin~ton is spending funds lavishly to step up the struggle against na- tional liberation movements in this region. At the same time it is exerting steadily increasing military pressure on socialist Cuba. Employing absolutely groundless pretexts, the United States is escalating tension around the Island of Freedom and is outright threatening it with "punitive actions." The United States is crudely meddling in the internal affairs of socialist Poland. � Recently the United States has been increasingly more extensively employing the methods of international terrorism and has been undertaking attempts to revive the "big stick" policy which has been re~ected by peoples, only now in a nuclear version. In conformity with this policy the 200,000-man "rapid deployment forces" are being formed, and various comhat equiPoints"ibothding nuclear weapons, are being prepositioned to "forward basing p Western Europe as well as in Asia and Africa. U.S. Government spokesmen make no secret of the fact that the United States is preparing for the employment of nuclear weapons in local wars. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500474450-4 ~ FOR OFf ICIAL USE ONLX i i Intensification of the aggressiveness of U.S. imperialism is manifested in the ; most concentrated form in imperialism's /military-strategic conceptions [ds]/. ~ Clearly expressed in the "new nuclear strategy" proclaimed by Washington is " the fact that the Ur.ited States is ccunting primarily on a"preemptive," sneak ~ nuClear attack on the Soviet Union and the other nations of the socialist coffi- j munity. There is a great deal of talk across the ocean [i.e., ~.n the United i States] about the permissibility of a so-called "limited" nuclear war and ~ the possibility of winning such a war, "having in a state of readiness a ~ guaranteed destruction potential." They seek to instill 3n the population of I the Western countries the idea of the acceptability of employing nuclear weapons and to dull the people's vigilance. There can be no "limited" nuclear war. This, as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev stressed at the 26th CPSU Congress, is an outright attempt to deceive peoples. If U.S. imperialism unleashe~ a nuclear war, in Europe, for example, such a war would at the very outset lead to irreplaceable losses and the most disastrous consequences for the countries situated there and to the an- nihilatian of entire peoples and their civilization which has been in existence for many centuries. In addition, it would inevitably and irreversibly as- sume a worldwide character. This is why the calculations of those who hope to ignite a nuclear fire and limit it to the territory of the European con- , tinent, while themselves remaining at a safe distance from the flame, to make their allies the target of a devastating response strike, are both cynical and illusory. Comrade L. I. Brezhnev emphasizes that "only a person who has decided to commit suicide could initiate a nuclear war in the hopes of winning it. No matt~r how much power the attacker possesses, no matter what mode ~ of initiating nuclear war he selects~ he will not achieve his objective. Retaliation will inevitably follow." In addition to elaboration of various versions of initiation and conduct of ; nuclear war, Washington specifies the possibility of a"protracted conven- tional war" in various parts of the world. Such a war, as the Pentagon strategists e n visage it, by no means excludes the possibility of a nuclear j war, but on the contrary serves as a kind of supplement to it.. Top U.S. miZi- tary off icials have stated time and again that the United States should be prepared for the initiation and simultaneous conduct of large and so-called "smalJ_" wars in various parts of the world. The Pentagon, for example, is ~ ma:cing plans for the conduct of a"small" war in the Persian Gulf region, ' specif-ying the employment both of conventional and nuclear weapons. ~ The content, character and thrust of the aggressive ideas and actions of im- i perialism, particuZarly U.S. imperialism, show that imperialism, in pursuing ~ its glabal aims, is in fact undermining d~tente and aggravating tension and confrontation. Fanciers of military adventures should not forget that the ; Soviet Union has adequate resources and means at its disposal to defend its vital interests against any and all encroachments. If it becomes necessary, the Soviet people, as Comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted, "will find the capabiity i ~ to ~~ndertake any efforts and to do everything necessary to ensure reliable defense of their country."5 The Soviet Union proceeds from the position that the basis for strengthening i peace is retention of the already existing parity, gradual lessening of I ~ 35 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500074450-4 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - military confrontation, reduction of armed forces and arms, while guaranteeing - equal security to all parties. It is insanity to figure on victory in the - arms race, and even in a nuclear war. And it is a dangerous madness. We do not seek military superiority over the West. We seek only reliable - security. And an approximate equality and parity is sufficient in order to guarantee this security. This is the inalterable approach of the USSR to this question. And the threadbare myth of a"Soviet military threat," which al- legedly is forcing the West to engage in an intensive effort to arm itself, is utilized by imperialist propaganda as a smoke screen to conceal the aggressive aspirations of the United States and NATO. This has been convincing- - ly demonstrated, for example, in a book entitled "Otkuda iskhodit ugroza miru" [Whence Comes the Threat to Peace], published in this country at the beginning of 1982. The myth of a"Soviet military threat" has been disseminated by those who prof it on the arms race, for massive ideological preparation for . aggression, in order to deceive the world community and to cool down th~ op- position by world public opinion against the militarist plans of the United States and NATO. A 1:igh degree of vlgi'.:~:1Ce toward the intrigues of the forces of international reaction and aggression is particularly essential today. These forces pos- sess powerful modern orfensive weapons, enormous economic, scientific-tech- nological and military potential, and considerable manpower and natural resources. Their aggressive preparations and their wild military-strategic ideas and plans present a genuine threat to world peace. The Soviet Union and the other nations of the socialist community place in op- position to this threat a policy of a firm and consistent struggle for peace and the security of peoples, for social progress, and continuous readiness effectively to repulse any aggression. They are doing everything possible to ensure peaceful conditions for building a new society and reliably to defend the achievements of socialism on earth. This is objectively in conformity with th~ root interests both of the Soviet people, the peoples of other socialist nations, and of all mankind. 2. The Nationwide Character of Defense of the Socialist Homeland Defense of the socialist homeland is of a genuinely natiorrwide character in its content, goals and tasks. V. I. Lenin saw an inseparable link between defense of the socialist state and the root, vital interests of the broad worker masses as an inexhaustible source of the strength of the new system and the might of the army of a new, socialist type. "Never," he stated, "will defeat come to that people in which the majority of workers and peasants have perceived, felt and seen that they are defending their own, Soviet rule rule by the working people, that they~are defending that cause the victory of which will guarantee to them and their children the opportunity to enjoy all the benefits of culture and all things created by man's labor."6 All the multifaceted activities o~ the Communist Party and the Soviet State pertaining to guaranteeing the security of the USSR, its allies and friends are constructed on the firm foundation of Leninist teaching on defense of the socialist homeland. Guided by this teaching, the CPSU is innovatively develop- ing it applicable to concrete historical conditions. 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 I~()R ()1~1~1('IA1, IIfiF, nN1.Y ~ `I'he nationwide character of defense of the socialist homeland is manifested es- pecially fully in time of war, when the masses rise up to repulse aggression and rout the enemy. The actions of combat troops on the battle front and strenuous labor Uy working people on the home front to furnish the army with ; everything it :ieeds merge into a single mighty stream of struggle by the en- tire people to achieve victory. ! At the dawn of Soviet rule, in the incredibly complex and difficult conditions of foreign military intervention and civil war, the worker class and the broad masses of our country's working people, guided by the Bolshevik Party, ' showed the most serious attitude, as V. I. Lenin noted, toward def~ense of the Soviet Republic and unparalleled, truly great heroism. Assessing the results of this struggle, Vladimir Il'ich stressed: "...We drew an unprecedently ~ large mass of people into a conscientious attitude toward the war and into a.c- tive assistance of the war effort.... This was the basic reason why we ul- rimately defeated a powerful adversary."~ The Great Patriotic War constituted the mast vivid embodiment of the totally ~national character of tha defense of socialism. Our entire vast country became transformed into a unified military camp ranked solidly behind the Communist Party organizer and inspirer of the selfless struggle by the Soviet people on the battle front and on the home front. Soviet servicemen, receiving the undivided support of the people, courageously and skillfully smashed the hated foe. Their staunchness, self-sacrifice and courage in- ' fused new energy into those who were working wholeheartedly on the home front for the war effoxt, providing tha Armed Forces with everything they needed to ~ defeat the enemy. This was a patriotic feat unparalleled in history. i I Uur victories in wars against imperialist aggressors with their large armies, ~ furnished T~Tith weapons and combat equipment which were the latest hardware at ' those times, demonstrated to the entire world the might and invincibility of the socialist societal and governmental system and the indisputable advantages of the socialist over the capitalist military organization. A world war _ today, if imperialism succeeds in unleashing such a war, will be an incom- ~ parably more severe test of the army and people than ever before in the past, ~ and will be accoinpanied by an unprecedented exertion of all this country's ~ i~~aterial and spritual resources. deman~ advance and comprehensive - preparation of the socialist state and the entire people to repel aggression. 'The Soviet people understand this well. For them there is nothing more dear . than f.reedom, independence and happiness for their native land, They are devoting their labor, energy, and talents to the job of increasing its wealth and fame. They view its defense as their own vital concern. Precisely for this r.eason t}ie defense might of the socialist nation is invincible. V. I. Lenin's statement that it is impossible to wage a modern war against imperi.alism without serious economic preparations is more valid today than ever before.$ The Communist Party and the Soviet State, organizing and guiding the productive activity of the toiler masses, concentrate their main effort on economic development, the highest aim of which is to achieve a ; steady improvement in the people's living standards. At the same time they 37 ~ ~ i FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFlCIAL USE ONLY - devote unabating attention to strengthening national defense and do everything necessary to achieve fu11 satisfaction of its requirements. Successful accomplishment of defense tasks, which are constantly becoming more complex, is ensured by the powerful economic and scientific-technological poten- tial which has been created in our country. Further developing and increasing this potential, Soviet citizens are achieving through their selfless labor a steady rise in living standards and a steady strengthening of the /material foundations/ of this country's defense capability and Armed Forces combat power. Whatever area of buildir.g co~unism in which a Soviet citizen works, he con- tributes his share toward strengthening the might of the homeland and in one way or another participates in accomplishing the tasks connected with defense of the socialist homeland. Worker and kolkhoz farmer, engineer and technician, scientist and designer each and every citizen of the Soviet Union sees his own personal interests ~nd destiny in inseparable unity with the interests and destiny of the homeland. All defense measures of the party and state rest on the unanimous support, on the inexhaustible initiative and productivity of the Soviet people. The totally popular character of defense of the socialist homeland also finds expression in steady strengthening of the /sociopolitical foundations/ of the nation's defense capability and Armed Forces combat power. This is a logical result of the coalescence of the root interests and close cooperation on the part of all classes and social groups, all our country's nationalities and ethnic groups in a great cause the building of commiunism and defense of the socialist homeland. The entire Soviet people a new historical com- - munity of people today comprise the social foundation of the army and navy. Defense of the socialist homeland is d~fined by our Constitution as the - sa~red duty of each and every citizen of the USSR. And Soviet citizens are carrying out this duty with dignity and honor. In conformity with the USSR Law on Universal Military Service Obligation, they are serving in the ranks of the Armed Forces, thus taking direct part in accomplishing the tasks of defending the socialist homeland. The workers of this country's cities and villages are actively participating in civil defense measures. The family, the - school, work forces, trade unions, and other public organizations are making their contribution to the cause of defense of the socialist homeland. Lenin Komsomol plays an enormous role in instilling excellent moral-political qualities in Soviet youth and in Armed Forces personnel. Its role is par- ticularly important since young people comprise three-fourths of Armed Forces personnel. Under the guidance of Communists, Komsomol organizations par- ticipate daily in indoctrination of politically active servicemen who possess knowledge of military affairs, who are totally dedicated to the party and people, and who are ready at all times to defend the Soviet homeland. USSR DOSAAF performs considerable mass-defense work. More than one-third of - conscripts receive good training in its training organizations and study oc- cupational specialties needed both for the Armed Forces and for the nation's ~ 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500070050-4 ~ -I ~ economy. DOSAAF is correctly called a preparatory classroom of that great ' school of life which consists of service in the ranks of the Armed Forces. ~ Further deepening of the totally popular character of defense of the socialist homeland is fostered by continuous strengthening of the /spiritual foundations/ of this country's defense capability and the combat power of the Armed Forces. ~ Developed socialism ensures particularly favorable conditions for growth of the ideological maturity, expansion of the political outlook, and improvement ~ in the overall level of culture and social activeness of Soviet citizens, in- , cluding army and navy personnel. `Phe Soviet society, as was noted at the 26th CPSU Congress, is a society of people of labor. Productive labor of initiative is increasingly being ' transformed into a primary necessity of life for every Soviet citizen. Military ~ labor also provides wide opportunity for initiative. Our servicemen are work- ing persistently to raise their ideological level, are mastering modern weapons and combat equipment, are becoming physically conditioned, and seek to achieve full and high-quality accomplishment of training schedules and curricula, as ! well as all tasks which the party and people assign the Armed Forces. ~ Tt-ie monolithic sociopolitical and ideological unity of the Soviet people gives the Armed Forces invincible strength and constantly nourishes their unswerving ~ dedication to the party, to the homeland, and to the high ideals of communism. ~ An indissoluble community of interests, goals and ideals, a coalescence of patriotic and internationalist accomplishments of the workers of city and ~ village and fighting men of the army and navy serve as a guarantee of ~ further growth of the fighting strength and combat readiness of the Soviet i Armed Forces and a guarantee of reliable defense of the achievements of so- ! cialisui and peace. ' 3. CPSU Guidance Basic Foundation of Soviet Military Organizational Development Concern by all the people for strengthening national defense, improving the ~ Armed Forces, and securing peaceful conditions for building communism is i eYpressed in the policy of the Communist Party and in its daily guidance of military organizational development. The party elaborates military, including military-technical, policy and military doctrine, guides the daily life and ~ activities of the army and navy, and directs the development of Soviet military ~ science and art of warfare, training and indoctrination of military cadres and all personnel, and work aimed at increasing the combat readiness of the Armed Forces, at development of their internationalist ties with the armies of the brother socialist nations, and strengthening of the f ighting alliance. ' The party organizes and directs military organizational development in a close unity and interlink with accomplishment of political, economic, social, and ideological tasks. V. I. Lenin pointed to the exceptional importance of this i interrelationship. He stressed that the organizational development of our ! army was able to lead to successful results only because it was carried out in a spirit of the overall building of a Soviet society.9 ~ 39 f ( ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY f t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500070054-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The thesis of the party's leadership role in strengthening the nation's defense capability, in development and improvement of the military org~niza- tion of the socialist society was formulated on the initiative of V. I. Lenin in a party Central Committee decree dated 25 December 1918. "....The policy of the war ministry, just as that of all other government agencies an~d establish- ments," the decree stated, "is conducted on the precise foundatioi~ of the general directives issued by the party in the person of its Central Committee and under its immediate supervision."10 This thesis was formally stated in the CPSU Program, where it was stressed that "Comnunist Party guidance of the Armed Forces and strengthening of the role and influence of party organiza- tions in the army and navylionstitutes the fundamental basis of military or- ganizational development. Party guidance of military organizational development encompasses all areas in- volving strengthening this country's defense capability and increasing the combat readiness of the Armed Forces. /Elaboration of military policy/ is th~ most important of these. This process is based on continuous, comprehensive analysis, objective appraisal and correct consideration of the world military- political situation, the specific features and trends of this country's socio- economic development. V. I. Lenin pointed to the enormous importance of con- crete analysis of a concrete situation.12 Soviet military policy is a component part of all policy of the party and state. A high degree of policy effectiveness is achieved through unity of political, economic, and military leadership. It is permeated by the ideas of Leninist teaching on def ense of the socialist homeland, by a spirit of proletarian, socialist internationalism, and is inseparably linked with con- sistent implementation by the CPSU of a peace-seeking course of policy in the international arena. Fidelity to the cause of peace and peaceful coexistence with other countries,"11noted Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, "is determined by the _ very character of our society. Precisely for this reason there are no ad- vocates of war, aggression, and adventurism in policy in this country, nor will there be such advocates."13 The just goals of our peace-seeking course of policy in the international arena is also reflected in /Soviet military doctrine./ Its content covers the tasks of defending socialist achievements, the peaceful labor of the Soviet people, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the USSR, and the security of our friends and allies. Comrade L. I. Brezhnev stated this with extreme clarity in ~ an interview for the magazine DER SPIEGEL. "The Soviet Union," he stressed, "threatens nobody and has no intent ion of attacking anybody. Our military doctrine is also of a defensive nature. It excludes pre14ntive [preventivnyye] wars and the concept of 'first strike' [pervogo udara]. Attempting to distort the essence of Soviet military doctrine, Western politicians and strategists ascribe expansionist features to it. The malevolence of such assertions is obvious. The thrust of military doctrine depends entirely on the class nature of the state and its policies. Aggressive, expansionist aims are alien to the Soviet socialist state. Its foreign policy is a policy of peace, friendship and cooperation among The defensive thrust of Soviet military doctrine also proceeds inalterably from it. a 40 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFi'IC'IAL USE UNLY ~ I The USSR always has been and remains an opponent of the concepts of the so- I Y called "first disa~~ning strike" [pervogo obe2oruzhivayuehchego udara], , "limired" nuclear war, just as any other nuclear war, and similar.concepts. Uur country's efforts are aimed at preventing both a first and any other strike, at preventing nuclear F~ar, at eliminating the very threat of occur- rence of such a war. ; /Daily organizational work/ occupies a most important place in Communist Party t activities pertaining to guiding military organizational development. It encom- ' passes questions pertaining to development and strengthening of the material and spiritual foundations oF the defense capability of the Soviet State and in- i creasing the fighting power and combat readiness of its Armed Forces. The ~ CPSU directs the work of government agencies, public.organizations and of- ~ ficials connect~d with ensuring this country's security and strengthening its defense capability. It guides the training, Correct selection and placement of command, political and engineer-technician cadres in the army and navy and ! mcbilizes all personnel for capable utilizstion of the material-technical f_oundation of the Armed Forces and allocated resources in the interests of a ~ steady increase in combat readiness. I , The party devotes constant attention to improving party-political work in the army and navy and to comprehensive indoctrination of Soviet servicemen. It demands of military cadres thorough study of the experience of the Great ' Patriotic War and innovative assimilation of this experience. Further com- prehensive development of cooperation in the area of defense with the brother socialist co~intries is an ob~ect of unrelenting CPSU concern. ! /The importance of party direction of military organizational development is ' steadily increasing/ in present-day conditions. This is dictated by a number of factors. ~ The primary point here is the /increasing complexity of tasks [ds]/ connected ~ with organizing defense of the socialist homeland in an era of nuclear and attier mass destruction weapons. "...The nature of modern weapons," em- - phasizes Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, "has become such that if they are put into play, the future of all mankind would be the stakes of the game."15 Never i before has the task of preventing war, restraining aggressors, and preserving ' peace been so acute. And never before has the CPSU as ruling party had such enormous responsibilitq for ensuring our country's security, for guaranteeing - conditions of peace for building communism, and for defense of the achievements ' of socialism and peace. Enhancement of the role of party direction of military organizational develop- ment is also caused by /qualitative changes taking place in the status of the nrmed Porces and military affairs as a whole [ds]/. In conditions of rapid development of science and technology, more and more new tasks are arising pertain to technical equipment of the army and navy, and consequently ~o the development, manufacture, delivery and deployment of modern weapons. ~ 'i't~is in turn demands elaboration of new forms znd modes of military operations, i continuous improvement in the organizational structure of the Armed Forces and the system of training, as well as development of military scientific thought. ~ ~ 41 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY And the party, as the guiding and directing force of society, organizes accom- plishment of these tasks, enlisting the requisite manpower and resources. Enhancement of the role of party direction of military organizational develop- ment has also been evoked by the increased significance of the ~moral-political factor [ds]/ in war. A contemporary war, especially a nuc}.ear missile war, if the imperialists unleash such a war, will radically alter the people's entire tenor of life and will be accompanied by psychological stresses of unprecedented magnitude. The enormous scope, ferocity and acuteness of military operations will demand of Armed Forces personnel and of the entire people the greatest physical and moral exertion. In these conditions the Communist Party, as always, will constitute that cementing and mobilizing force which forms the foundation of the unbending staunchness of the masses and their will to defeat the aggressor decisively. By its consistent, purposeful ideological and political indoctrination work, the party continuously forms in Soviet citizens excellent moral-political qualities, the willingness and capability to surmount the immense burde~ and deprivat~ans of war and fully to carry out their duty to defend the socialist homeland. The role of party direction of military organizational development is also in- creasing as a consequence of broadening of the /internationalist tasks [ds]/ of the Soviet State and its Armed Forces pertaining to defense of the achievements of ~socialism. The magnitude of these tasks and the scale of work pertaining to coordinating with the other nations of the socialist community joint eco- nomic, political and military efforts have increased substantially and are con- tinuing to grow. Increasing attention is demanded by questions connected with elaboration of common views on the character of today's war, the modes of its conduct, on the organizational principles of armed forces organizational development and improvement, and on the content, forms and methods of training and indoctrinating personnel. A most important role in successfully resolving all these and many other questions is played by our party`s vast revolutionary experience and great international prestige, as well as its consistent Leninist internationalist position, which enjoys the approval and support of all brother parties. - Exercising daily supervision of the process of strengthening this country's defense, army and n3vy daily life and activities, the CPSU takes all these factors into account and continuously improves its political, theoretical, and organizational work. There is no element or area in military organiza- tional development in which is not felt the constant beneficial influence of the party, its Central Committee, the Central Committee Politburo, and CPSU Central Committee General Secretary Mar SU Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet and chairman of the USSR Defense Council. Lenin's ideas on defense of the socialist homeland receive further innovative development and practical embodiment,and current problems of mili- tary organizational development receive thorough and detailed elaboration in his writings and speeches, in his exceptionally fr~.tful activities in the area of leading the party and nation. L. I. Brezhnev is making a large contribution toward development of teaching on the leadership role of the Communist Party, including in the ar�ea of defense, ~ 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500474450-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ? I -4. ~ ~ in conditions where genuine socialism has emerged beyond the-framework of a single country and a fundamentally new correlation of class forces has been created in the world arena. "Experience indicates," emphasizes Comrade I L. I. Brezhnev, "that the victory of a socialist system in a given country ~ can in teday's conditions be v iewed as final a n d the restoration of capitalism can be considered out of the question only if the Communist Party, as the guiding force of society, firmly impl.ements Marxist-Leninist policy in development of all the domains of societal affairs; only if the party tireless- j ly strengthens national defense and defense of the country's revolutionary achievements, if it retains and instills among the people vigilance toward the class enemy and implacability toward bourgeois ideology; only if the principle of socialist internationalism is faithfully observed and the unity and ~ fraternal solidarity with the other socialist countries are strengtfiened."16 ~ The outstanding victories of the Soviet Armed Forces over th~e enemies of tlie socialist homeland and today's qualitative state of the army 2nd nsvy gra~hical- ly and persuasively confirm the decisive significance of CPSU guidan~ce over military organizational develo pment. This wise guidance is a reliable guarantee of the invincible defense might of the Suviet Union, a continuous high state of ~ Armed Forces fighting efficiency and combat readiness. ~ 1 FOOTNOTES ~ 1. V. I. Lenin, "Poln. Sobr. Soch." [Complete Works], Vol 37, page 122. 2. Ib id., Vol 40, page 248; Vol 44, page 300. ! 3. PRAVDA, 4 February 1982. ~ 4. PRAVDA, 21 October 1981. ~ i 5. PRAVDA, 3 November 1981. 6. Lenin, op. cit., Vol 38, page 315. I 7. Ibid., Vol 42, page 140. 8. Ibid., Vol 35, page 390. _ 9. Ibid., Vol 40, pp 76-77. 10. "KPSS o Vooruzhennykh Silakh Sovetskogo Soyuza: dokumenty 1917-1981" [The CPSU on the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union: Documents, 1917-1981], Moscow, 1981, page 42. 11. "Programma Kommunistiches koy partii Sovetskogo Soyuza" [Program of the i Communist Party of the Sov iet Union], Moscow, 197~i, page 11Z. 12. Lenin, op. cit., Vol 41, page 146. _f , 43 ~ ; FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 NOR ONNI('IA1. U~E ONI.Y 1 13. E'RAVDA, 20 December 1981. 14. PRAVDA, 3 Novemher 1981 15. PRAVDA, 24 June 1981. 16. L. I. Brezhnev, "Leninskim kursom" [Following a Leninist Course], Vol 2, pp 329-330. 44 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 i FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ i II i ~ , i f ~ Chapter Three. GUARDING PEACEFUL LABOR ' 1. Armed Forces of the Socialist State of All the People ~ ~ Our Armed Forces have a glorious, truly heroic biography. It was created bq all the generations of defenders of the socialist homeland from the Aed ~ Guard of 1917 to our servicemen of the 1980's. And to whatever page in this ; biography we turn, each vividly attests to the steadfast dedication on the + part of Soviet fighting men to the people, the homeland, and to the great ' cause of the party the cause of communism. I In the unparalleled ordeals of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, in selfless military labor in wartime and in time of peace, the Armed Forces have ' honorably justified their mission which consists, to quote V. I. Lenin, in ~ "guarding the achievements of the revolution, our people s rule... the entire new, truly democratic system against all enemies...."1 In this lofty mission is to be found the root, fundamental difference between ( the Soviet Armed Forces and the armies of exploiter states, which are anti- popular in their class essence and political function. The apologists of im- perialism attempt to present bourgeois armies as supraclass agencies, which ; allegedly stand "beyond politics" and serve "the entire nation." V. I. Lenin called such claims vulgar, hypocritical, lying doctrine. This doctrine is i especially convenient for concealing the attempt on the part of the monopoly ' bourgeoisie to use the army as its obedient instrument for achieving anti- i popular, aggressive aims. ~ In contrast to the bourgeois army, which by virtue of ite class nature and function is separated from the people and is in opposition to the Worker ~ masses, the armed forces of the socialist state are an integral part of the people, sharing a common life, common concerns and interests. Their develop- ~ ment and improvement take place in a cotmnon channel with the development and improvement of the entire system of socialist societal relations. ; In the course of building a new society in our country, improving socialist ; democracy and organization of the state, the Sovie[ Armed Forces were ; transformed from an agency of a state of dictatorship of the proletariat into an agency of a state of all the people. The need for the Soviet Armed Forces is dictated by the existence of a military danger emanating from imperialist i i j 45 ! I ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY circles, while military might is directed exclusively toward defending against aggressors the peaceful, productive labor of the Soviet people and the great socialist achievements. Our Armed Forces are carrying out their great mission shoulder to shoulder with the armies of the other nations of the socialist community. In conditions of a sharp aggravation of the international situation, the role and responsibility of the Soviet Armed Forces for guaranteeing the security of the USSR, our friends and allies, and preserving world peace are greater than ever before. The increased aggressiveness of imperialism and increased mili- tary preparations by the United States and NATO, directed against the USSR and the other socialist countries, demand that the Soviet Armed Forces be main- tained in a high state of combat readiness st'~d thdt theit' technical equipment, organizational structure, forms and methods of training, instruc- tion and indoctrination of servicemen be improved. The present stage of development of the Armed Forces is marked by a further im- provement of qualitative indices in personnel mastery of weapons and combat equipment, by a steady improvement in field, air and sea proficiency, and by strengthening of organization and discipline. The combat teamwork of combined units, units, and warships is improving. Excellent sociopolitical features characteristic of the Soviet Armed Forces, particularly /firm sociopolitical cohesion/, are expressed in the daily practical activities and patriotic deeds of servicemen. All Soviet servicemen from private to marehal are representatives of our society's amicable classes and social groups. They are united by a community of social-class interests, a scientific, materialist ideology, and Communist morality. The beautiful word "comrade," without which intercourse between Soviet citizens wearing shoulderboards would be inconceivable, serves as an embodiment of the fighting unity of the men of our Armed Forces. More than 90 percent of officers, warrant officers, noncommiseioned officers, and en- listed personnel are Communists or Komsomol members. All Soviet servicemen see one another as loyal fighting comrades, performing shoulder to shoulder the sacred duty of defending the socialist homeland. - The deepening process of development of a classless structure of our developed socialist society gives particular firmness to military collectives. Logically reflected in development of the Armed Forces, it fills military discipline with vital force, ensures great effectiveness of the principle of one-man command, and fosters achievement of coordination and unity of will and actions on the part of all personnel in the interests of effective accomplishment of the tasks facing the army and navy. The commander's order is perceived by sub- ordinates as a co~iunh:.u s~f the homeland: Precis~e and unquestioning execution af an order is fully in conformity with the inner convictions of servicemen. The solid sociopolitical unity of Soviet servicemen determines their con- scientious attitude toward patriotic and internationalist duty and serves as one of the inexaustible sources of selfless execution of any and all missions on the battlefield, even the most difficult. 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL U~ E OVLY I t ~ uur Armed l~orces are today, just as the party foresaw at its 8th Congress, "an ~ army /of all the people [it.J/ [obshchenarodnoy; also translates as "totally popular" or "nationwide"] in the true aense of the word.. ."2 T?~ds is exp~eseed in ~ their social-class and ethnic structure, in a vital, undivided unity with the f people. Performance by the Armed Forces of their assigned tasks pertaining to ~ deFending the socialist homeland is an essential and important element of the ' nationwide cauae oY building communism. ; Direct participation by military personnel in the political, societal and economic activities of the people is also assuming increasingly more diversi- fied forms. Military personnel are elected to party and soviet bodies and carry out their duties in a worthy manner. Representatives of the Armed ~ Forces are doing a fine job in public organizations and unions of creative artists. ; Considerable housing and large numbers of bu:ildings used for social and cul- tural-services facilities are erected by military construction workers. A num- � ber of important projects for the economy have been constructed ~,tith their participation, and they have helped build thousands of kilometers of hard- I surface roads. Railway troops are involved in construction of a number of ' rail lines and are working in the eastern section of the Baikal-Amur Mainline. E Soviet military personnel make an active contribution toward harvesting our y nation's crops and performing other tasks for the nation's economy. i ` They play an important role in our country's sports activities. Just in the most recent winter and summer Olympics, army and navy athletes, competing as members of USSR national teams, have won 45 gold, 47 silver, and 29 bronze ~ medals. lliversified patron relationships between work forces and military units con- ~ stitute stirring evidence of the close unity between people and army. Mut8a1 ; visits, performing arts get-togethers, reports on labor achievements and ful- , fillment of socialist pledges, joint recreation evenings, exchange of amateur talent concerts, plus other measures have firmly become a part o~f ; their daily practical activities. I ~ Maneuvers and exercises conducted in the Armed Forces become vivid demonstra- tions of the close unity between the people and the army. The "Zapad-81" [WeSt-81] exercise, for example, was accompanied by numerous manifestations of ' affection and respect on the part of Soviet workers toward their ~armed detenders. Everywhere the troops and naval forces performed, the public ; };reeted them with great cordiality and warmth and surrounded them with concern and attention. i Such an outstanding feature of the Soviet Armed Forces as the /fraternal I ~riendship among servicemen of different nationalities/ is also becoming in- c.rcasingly more conspicuous in conditions of developed socialism. The sons of erativnogo iskusstva] is expanding. New principles of conduct of combat U~)eC:1C10I1S~ connected with improvement of military equipment, are advancing to tt~e f~orefront in operational art. Substantial qualitative changes are also taking place in /tactics [ds]/. New weapons are making it possible to achieve reliable delivery of fire on the enemy, permit continuity of attack, the 54 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500070050-4 ~ FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY i ~ c~lement of surprise and swiftness of attack, continuous combination of fire ' r by all personnel. The ideological conditioning of servicemen is becoming ~tr~n~;er, their combat expertise is increasing, and the combat readiness of the army and navy is steadily growing. 'L. Lofty Mission of the Officer The diEf.icult and responsible labor of the Soviet officer labor for the sake c,f the freedom and happiness of Soviet citizens, for the sake of a bright future for rhe Soviet people, and for the sake of peace and life on earth is resl~ec~ed and honored in this country by the entire pPople. The man of a new, socialist system, flesh and blood of the people, their loyal and devoted son, tf~c Soviet off.icer has been nurtured and indoctrinated by the party in a _ s~~irit of unswerving dedication to the cause of communism and the principles of ~~r~letarian, socialist internationalism. The officer's mission is to ensure - reliable defense of the socialist homeland. He dedicates all his energy, knowledge and talent to this lofty mission.. - ; 79 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . Tr.e Soviet officer has a fine pedigree. Its sources are to be found in that flaming time when the Soviet Republic, which had just gained victory, was forced to defend its freedom in a savage struggle against domestic and external counterrevolution. In that time, one day in the difficult year 1919, V. I. Lenin addressed future Red Army commanders and predicted r_hat Red officers, whose origins are in the people, "will enjoy prestige among the soldiers and will be able to strengthen socialism in our army. Such an army will be in- vincible."S The great truth of Lenin's prediction has been convincingly affirmed by history. Soviet officers carried their lofty name with honor through numerous engage- ments and battles. The names of the first Soviet military leaders, commanders and political workers S. M. Budennyy, K. Ye. Voroshilov, S. M. Kirov, V. V. Kuybyshev, M. N. Tukhachevskiy, M. V. Frunze and many other heroes, who - laid down the foundation of new, socialist fighting traditions traditions of selfless, dedicated service to the Soviet homeland are inscribed with gold letters in the heroic chronicle of the Soviet Armed Forces. These outstanding traditions were contin.ued and augmented during the years of the Great Patriotic War. The exploits of N. Gastello and A. Mares'yev, A. Pokryshkin and I. Kozhedub, I. Panfilov and L. Dovator, plus thousands of other combat veteran officers and general officers became bright symbols of an un- bending strength of spirit, will to win, and combat skill. A weighty contribu- tion toward increasing our combat traditions and to the treasure house of the Soviet art of warfare was made by a new pleiad of party-indoctrinated military ?:.aders and commanders G. K. Zhukov, A. M. Vasilevskiy, I. Kh. Bagramyan, I. F. Vatunin, L. A. Govorov, A. G. Golovko, A. I. Yeremenko, I. S. Konev, N. G. Kuznetsov, R. Ya. Malinovskiy, K. A. Meretskov, K. S. Moskalenko, F. S. Oktyabr'skiy, I. Ye. Petrov, K. K. Rokossovskiy, F. I. Tolbukhin, I. D. Chernyakhovskiy, V. I. Chuykov, plus many others. Hundreds of thousands of officers, general officers and flag officers were awarded USSR medals and decorations for~their great military expertise, courage, staunchness and heroism, while more than 6000 of these were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. 'foday as well, in peacetime, Soviet offices are worthily carrying the baton of heroism, glozy, and selfless dedication to their patr~.otic and internationalist duty. Soviet citizens and the peoples of the brother socialist nations hold sacred the memory of young pilots of an air unit of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, officers B. Kapustin and Yu. Yanov, who sacrificed their own lives to guide their falling aircraft away from densely-populated residential t~lock5. Lt A. Kiselev displayed self-control and composure at a moment of mortal danger. In saving the lives of his men, he lost both hands. Today this young off icer once again is on active duty in the Armed Forces, enrolled at a service academy. Capt Tech Serv N. Kuznetsov did not retreat in the face of death, saving a grainfield from going up in flames. Sr Lt V. Goncharenko died = rescuing people from a fire. Army and navy officers display examples of heroism, courage, and valor also in performance of their daily duties and training. Many of them have been aw~rded combat decorations, while the finest tiave been awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. 80 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ON~,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY ~ 1 The succession oF generations which is characteristic of our socialist system and the Soviet way of life gives the Armed Forces officer corps special ' solidarity and increases its spiritual potential. Each new generation of com- manders, political workers, engineers and technicians takes all the finest elements from its predecessors, relies on their experience and know-how and, ~ thanks to this, achieves further improvement in proficiency and increased com- ! bat readiness of troops and naval forces. ~ It is a great honor to be an officer in the Soviet Armed Forces. At the same ~ time this i~s also an enormous responsiblity. The people entrust their sons to ~ tlie officer. During their term of active duty in the army or navy, young I people experience a fine school of life under the immediate supervision of f commanders and political workPr.s, become spiritually and physically condi- tioned, and acquire political, military-technical knowledge and requisite skills. The development and maturing of a serviceman depend to a decisive degree on the knowledge, professional and pedagogic expertise as well as the personal example of the officer. : ']'he principal focal area of the complex and diversified professional acti~~ity of the officer is securement of a high level of combat readiness of troop~~ + and naval forces. This demands of him constant composure and the ability to _ ~ subordinate personal needs and interests to the interests of the military " service. It would be no exaggeration to state that an officer's life com- prises daily, genuine, practical heroism, the highest degree of good ~ citizenship, patriotism and internationalism in action. The enormnus importance and exceptional responsibility of the job entrusted to j the officer by the party and people impose high demands on his moral-political, professional and job-related qualities. The Soviet officer is a person who is totally dedicated to the Communist Party and his people ar.d who possesses ~ proFound knowledge of Marxism-Leninism, a broad political outlook, and great I general knowledgeability. He is a person who possesses comprehensive professional training, excellent moral-fighting qualities, and who possesses consummate knowledge of the co~abat capabilities of the various weapons, the ~ t~chniques and medes of their combat employment. He is a military leader, who skillfully relies on the collective in his work, who employs modern methods of training and indoctr.inating his men, and who is capable of organizing their labor and leading them to great feats. Conmiunist ideological content comprises the foundation of the excellent moral- political and proFessional qualities of the Soviet officer. His firmness and _ co~isistency in implementing party policy, his conscientious attitude toward milicary duty, and his demandingness on himself and others are based on it. It determines the oL-ficer's spiritual countenance, his feelings and will, and pcrmeates all his actions and deeds. The Soviet officer is distinguished by inner composure, faithfulness to his word, the ability in all situations to maintain self-control and composure, readiness and the capability to execute ordcrs precisely and promptly. It is not mere happenstance that we link with = the countenance of the officer our ideas about strong will, flawless organiza- _ ~ion and discipline, and an initiative-filled and innovative approach to the ' job. ~11. these qualities of the officer beneficially influence his 8]_ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY subordinates and the military collective, and help achieve excellent results in training and indoctrination work. The heroic history of our Armed Forces a:?d daily army and navy realities show the enormous, truly inestimable importance of the officer's personal example in performance of military duC; for successful accomplishment of com- bat missions, personnel training and indoctrination tasks, and strengthening of military discipline. Without this there is not and cannot be genuine officer authority, and consequently genuine success in an officer's work. In general terms, no position per se brings authority and respect. The authority of a position is by no means synonymous with the authority of the person who occupies it. And whoever thinks that authority will be automatical- ly guaranteed to him together with appointment to a given position is profoundly in error. There is an apt saying that it is not the position which embellishes the man but rather the man who embellishes the position. This is why it is important constantly to think about how one can justify through one's labor, organization of one's job, and achievement of concrete results in increasing the combst readiness of the subunit, unit, and warship the trust one has been given and one's conformity with one's position. Only in this manner is it possible to earn genuine authority. But earning authority does not end things. It must continuously be reinforced by deeds, and not only deeds connected with performance of duty. There are many facets to the authority of the leader which assume special importance in the conditions of the Armed Forces. An officer is emulated by his subordinates: in battle during time of war, and during time of peace in training, per- formance of duty, and volunteer work, as well as during off-duty hours. This is why an officer~ businesslike efficiency, moral purity, modesty, solicitous and comradely attitude toward his men, and the ability to gain their affection are of enormous significance both for the moral climate in a military collective and for the success of all an officer's activities. Constant living contacts with his subordinates help an officer find the right path to their hearts. And he who possesses a soldier's heart possesses the secret of victory. Perhaps nothing does greater harm t o an officer's authority than discrepancy ~ between his words and deeds and departure from ethical standards. Rudeness, conceit, and opinionated self-c~nfidence are just as much antipodes of authority as cowardice, indecision, and attempts to play up to one's subordi- nates. Genuine respect does not tolerate excessive familiarity. It is es- sentially no less insulting than haughtiness. Equable, comradely relations with one's subordinates do not exclude unwavering observance of all the demands of subordin~.tion. At the same time they assume a deep mutual understanding. No matter how erudite, talented and hard-working an officer may be, without r.E~linnce on his subordinates, without the ability to guide their will, energy and knowledge toward achieving common success, he will never be able to head l~is unit, not technically but in actual fact, or effectively lead his men. "The leader-Communist," wrote V. I. Lenin, "should prove his right to leader- - titiip Uy the fact and only by the fact that he /finds [it.]/ for himself /many [it.]/, and ever more assistants... that he /knows how [it.]/ to help /them _ [it.J/ work, to advance /them [it.]/, to show and take into consideration /their [it.J/ experience."6 82 - ` FOR OFFICIAL USC ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFiC1AL USE ONLY ` Such an ability presupposes, in addition to all else, the competency of a ~ leader. Soviet officers are highly educated individuals, possessing extensive professional training. tts roundations are laid down at military educational ~ institutions, and these are reliable, solid foundations. But the main school ~ tor every individual is the school of practical activity, the school of life itself. And in order to keep up with its demands, an officer must work tireless- ly, day after day, replenishing his store of political, scientific, military ~ and specialized knowledge, improving his skills and working with an eye to the ~ future. Unfortunately one still encounters certain officers who stop in their ideological and professional growth and are content with the store of knowl- ' edge they have already ucquired. And they rationalize this with claims of being busy and lacking ogportunities for independent study on a systematic ~ basis. I ~ W11at can be said in this regard? Indeed, as a rule an officer does not have very much time available for independent study. Therefore he must efficiently utilize his tim2, learn to pinpoint the main, most important thin~ in his work that which primarily determines the effectiveness of the training and indoctrination process and the quality of performance of the tasks facing the , subun~_t, unit, or warship. It is no less important to master the ability to - plan wurk with precision, to organize it, and correctly to distribute time ~ and resources. Scientific organization of labor begins precisely with this. ; Correct organization of the activities of officer personnel should combine well-conceived individual planning of the workday with the most efficient ; distriUution of time across the entire vast spectrum of duties performed by them on a daily basis, on the scale of the subunit, unit, warship, head- c{uarters, or establishment. This is particularly essential because continuously { more complex tasks must be accomplished in the shortest possible time and, con- ~ sequently, efficient utilization of the time and energy of officers directly determines not only an im~rovement in the level of their own training but, and to no less a degree, the efFectiveness and quality of training and indoctrina- tion of personnel. Close oversight in trivial matters, superiors doing the work for subordinates, and elements of unnecessary duplication and over- cautiousness, which are still encountered at times, have nothing in common with correct organization of Iabor. - it is not easy to learn correctly to organize one's own labor and that of one's subordinates. Military educational institutions should play a quite appreciable role in resolving this problem. They should lay down the Foundation of a liigh degree of personal organization of an officer and focus ~ l~im on an initiative-filled, innovative approach to the task and persistent ef.Fort to acid to and refresh his knowle3ge. Senior commanders, political r~~;encies, party and Komsomol organizations are called upon to work tirelessly ' ~n strengthening and development of such qualities throughout an officer's en- tire term of service. But the main condition for an officer's successful ac- rivities and continuous growth is tireless work to improve himself, purposeful and cantinuous improvement of his own knowledge and skills. t~or inc{uiring, aggressive officers of initiative, extensive opportunities for self-improvement and mastery of the summit of military and specialized i ~ ; 83 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500470050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � knowledge are opened up by alert duty, exercises, flight activities and naval cruises, training drills and clas~es, in the process of which one studies and solves in a new way many problems pertaining to mastering operation and maintenance of weapons and combat equipment as well as organization of training and indoctrination work. One can state with complete confidence that only that officer who throughout his entire term of service studies persistently, im- proves his knowledge and skills, and innovatively applies them in his daily activities is capable of ineeting the demands of the time and achieves success in training and indoctrination of subordinates and leading his subunit, unit, or warship. Officers' work results depend directly on their skilled utilization of the enormous influence of party and Komsomol organizations in the interests of successfully accomplishing the tasks of combat and political training and strengthening discipline. Commar?ders of subunits, units, and naval ships who are CPSU members, comprising the majority of our couunand cadres, rely in their work on the party organizations and direct their activities toward successful accomplishment of combat missions, combat and political training schedules, and strengthening of military discipline. Commanders who are not members of the CPSU should also, in accomplishing these tasks, work in the closest relationship with party organizations, rely on them, and utilize in every pos- sible way the experience of Communists and the strength of the party ac- ti.vists. Guiding the activi*ies of party organizatians and relying on them, commanders give a personal example of active participation in the life and affairs of the party organization, foster the develonment of criticism and self-criticism, listen to the advice and suggestions of party members, support their initiative, make use of their experience, and constantly seek to ensure that the party organization constitutes in actual fact the cementing, mobilizing force of the military collective. Tlie ability to obtain support from the party organization and guide its ac- tivities does not come to an officer automatically. Experience and political maturity are needed for this. This is why concern for the development of ofticers, especially young officers, and concrete, purposeful, daily work by commanders, political agencies and party organizations to instill in them a degree of personal responsibility for flawless performance of their duties are so important. Naturally each officer has his own specific duties and his own, to a certain ~egree individual style of activity. Nor could it be any different, for there does not exist any uniform recipe of actions for every case. But there are demands which are common for all. These include first and foremost mastery of a Leninist work style, a responsible attitude toward one's duties, in- dtistriousness and modesty, high-mindedness, unity of word and deed, demanding- ness and at the same time sensitivity toward others, toward their needs and aspirations. Soviet officers work persistently to master modern methods of leadership and work constantly to improve the effectiveness and quality of their work. They 84 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 , FOR UFFIC[AL USE ONLY ~ mobilize army and navy personnel to implement the decisions of the 26th CPSU rongress and direct the military labor of personnel, at successful accomplishment of combat and political training curricula and schedules, so- i cialist pledges, and the tasks assigned by the party and people to the Armed Forces. ~ ' Being individuals with a strong sense of duty, with outstanding ideological- ~ political, professional and moral qualities, Soviet officers, just as all Armed ~ Forces personnel, are closely united behind the Communist Party and its Central , Committee. They dedicate their energy,knowledge and experience to the cause of ~ unswerving increase in the fighting strength and combat readiness of the Armed Forces and strengthening of the defense capability of the homeland. i I 3. By the Entire Force of Party Influence ~ Comrade L. I. Brezhnev called pa rty-political work a powerf ul weapon of our army. , "The force of this weapon," he emphasized, "has been tested in the flame of battle. It continues today to f righten our enemies."~ ~ Permeated by Leninist ideas about defense of the socialist homeland, party- ; political work, with its characteristic means and methods, mobilizes service- ~ men for flawless performance of their patriotic and internationalist duty and ` for successful accomplishment of the tasks facing the Armed Forces. It exer- ? cises a deep influence on the consciousness and �eelings of personnel, unites military collectives, andfosters an improvement in the level of control of troops and naval forces. It a most ~mportant place in implementation ; of the indoctrinational role of the Armed Forces. ~ `Phe signif icance of party-political work in the army and navy is steadily growing. This is connected with the increasing complexity of the tasks of Armed Forces training and comb at readiness and with the sociopolitical and military-technical Features of contemporary war, which imposes greater demands ~ ttian ever before on the moral-political and psychological conditioning of p~rsonnel. Tlie forms and metliods of party-political work are improving year by year. Ic is being conducted taking into account the specific features of the various categories of personnel and in an organic link with the concrete tasks of ehe troops and naval forces as well as the conditions in which servicemen Live and work. /Concentration of the coordinated efforts of commanders, politi- cal agencies, party and Komsomol organizations on the decisive areas of party- political work,/ which proc:eed f rom the demands of the 26th CPSU Congress, the C1'SU Central Committee decree entitled "On Further Improvement of Ideological and I'olitical-Indoctrination Work" dated 26 April 1979, plus other party documents, promotes increased effectiveness of party-political work. Porming a scientif.ic ideological outlook in servicemen, indoctrination of ~u~al dedication to the cause of tlie party and Communist ideals, socialist ~~atriotism and internationalism have been and continue to be the main areas of ~~arty-political work in the army and navy. Resting on the firm foundation of Marxist-Leninist teac::~:~g, this work is called upon to arm personnel, utilizing rill. its forms and methods, with a deep and clear understanding of the laws and : 85 ; FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500074450-4 FOR OF FIC(AL USE ONLY prospects of societal development. Well-argued propaganda of the enormous advantages and achievements of socialism and the socialist way of life com- prises one more most important area of party-political work. It should also aggressively and convincingly expose the reactionary, antipopular essence of imperialism and its domestic and foreign policy, the anti-Soviet thr ust of its military preparations, and form in personnel a high degree of political vigilance and a clear understanding of their responsiblity for reliable defense of the achievements of socialism and preserving world peace. Indoctrination of servicemen in the revolutionary, fighting and labor tradi- tions of the Communist Party, the Soviet people, and our Armed Forces consti- tutes the combat sector of party-politi~al work. It is impossible to ima~ine today's army and navy life without continuous vital contacts between personnel and veterans of the party and the Armed Forces, with Heroes of the Soviet Union and heroes of socialist labor, and with veterans of the Civil W3r and the Creat Patriotic War. Words spoken by veterans persons who constitute living embodiment of the legendary fame of the Armed Forces exert enormous influence on the minds and hearts of young servicemen. The activities of veterans both those who continue to serve in the army or navy and those working in various areas of the building of communism, as well as those who are today enjoying a deserved rest require constant attention and support on the part of commanders, political agencies, Armed Forces party and Komsomol _ organizations. An important indoctrinational role is played by combat glory evenings organized in subunits, units, and on naval ships, excursions to the museuu~s of military units and combined units, the holding of classes in these museu~, and visits to sites of historic battles and engagements. As a rule all these meausres, which are distinguished by a strong emotional eff ect, are transformed into - genuine lessons of courage, staunchness, and faithfulness to patriotic and in- ternationalist duty. A large, very important and needed job is being done by those commanders and political workers who seek to ensure that every man becomes quite familiar with the fighting history of his regiment, ship, or com- Uined unit and feels pride in the fact that he has the honor to serve under a combat banner covered with heroic glory and is aware of his own personal responsibility for worthy continuation of and adding to the military valor of older generations. Our Armed Forces are correctly called a school of patriotism and socialist in- ternationalism. Every army and navy collective constitutes an amicable, unified fighting family, in which serve representatives of the Soviet Union's various nationalities and ethnic groups. The spiritual ties which bind them are strong and indissoluble. The fighting friendship of Soviet servicemen with the men of the armies of the brother socialist nations is also permeated by a spirit of internationalism. Cenuine patriots and internationalists, the men of the USSR Armed Forces, just as all Soviet citizens, display class solidarity with the world Communist and worker movement and with fighters for social and national liberation. They well understand that the military labor of the servicemen of the Soviet Nation is labor for the sake of peace and the social progress of mankind. 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FUR OF~'ICIAL USE ONLY i All areas of party-political work are inseparably interlinked, supplement and enrich one another. And they all should be focused on achieving end results ~ which would maximally promote steady improvement in the training of troops and ~ naval forces, strengthening of personnel discipline and organization, and increased Armed Forces combat readiness. ~ ' Lt is quite obvious that party-political work cannot be effective if it is con- ducted in separation from the daily life and activities of troops and naval . forces. Its effectiveness depends directly on /the pertinence of the content ~ and conformity of the work forms and methods to the educational and overall � cultural level of personnel./ Our time is a time of an enormously increased ( scale and complexity of tasks being performed by the Soviet people. It is ~ also a time of an extremely acute ideological contest between socialism and i caPitalism. And it is very important not to ignore in party-political work ; so-called difficult problems which sometimes arise and to answer them in a ' prompt and timely manner, for if we do not respond to such questions, as was ~ stressed at the 26th CPSU Congress by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, "our country's ' Coes will attempt to utilize this to slander socialism."$ Of course it is not easy to discuss sensitive subjects. A high degree of competence is required, as well as the ability to reveal the class essence of ~ phenomena and facts and persuasively to expose lies, disinformation, and ! forged evidence. It is not mere happenstance that the ideological front is called the front of struggle for people's minds and hearts. And every com- ; mander, political worker and officer should possess a consummate mastery of the i art of attacking and winning on this front. To instill in personnel class self-awareness, implacability toward views and ways which are alien to us, and ' to fortiiy by every means the active life position of the citizen-soldier, patriot and internationalist is the honorable and responsible task of all those who carry into the masses the ideas of the party, who explain its policy, who organize and conduct party-political work. I - The effectiveness of party-political work also depends to an enormous degree on ~ tiow fully it takes into account /new trends and specific features in the ~ development of military affairs and changes in the qualitative state of troops ~ and naval forces./ One must constantly bear in mind those moral, psychological ! and physical ordeals which personnel may encounter in a contemporary war, and ~~o~iclu c~ party-political work in such a manner that it actively helps in- crease the iighting, ideological, and moral staunchness of personnel. The main indicator of a serviceman's ability to overcome all difficulties and privations ~ for the sake of accompli.shing the combat mission is his practical actions and ~ concrete deeds in complex circumstances. One must proceed from this in planning and organizing party-politica]_ work and in evaluating its state and results. 'I'l~e wealth of experience of our Armed Forces attests to the fact that party- political work is more f.ruitful when it has a stronger link with combat t~~'ain- : ing of. troops and naval forces. Today an increasingly important place in party-political work is occupied by questions connected with mastery by per- :;onnel of modern weapons and combat equipment, improving the quality of combat traiiiing, increasin~ the return on each training hour and ea~:.h training class, , and by achieving savings in funds and resources. ~ ! ~ ' 87 ~ i FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY An immutable rule of party-political work is /continuity./ Ar?y Pauses whatso- ever are intolerable, and its vigorousness should be directly proportional to the complexity of the situation and the tasks being performed. Activeness of party-political work is measured not by the number of planned and conducted measures. The determining criterion here is the force of the continuous, ef- fective party influence on all aspects of the daily life and activities of servicemen. The art of attaining such influence was revealed with impressive depth and con- vincingness in Comrade L. I. Brezhnev's book "Malaya Zemlya." Discussing the experience of party-political work in a combat situation, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev notes: "Flowery speeches and auditoriums were not needed, but rather frank, man- to-man and, I would say, heartfelt talks. I took part in most of the party meetings held in the combat combined units and units, and i frequently simply got together and talked with the men. Usually I was able to find a common tongue with the soldiers and sailors, although I did not use any special tech- niques for this. Whether it was a serious~discussion or a joking conversaokenthe I tried to conduct myself in a simple and equable manner. And I always sp the truth, however unpleasant it might be. I should note that there were some officers who tried to represent themselves as a hail-fellow-~aell-met. Naturally the men immediately sensed the phoniness of this deliberate familiarity, and from that moment on they would no longer be frank and open. "The majority of our political section people, political instructors, Komsomol organizers, and agitators succeeded in finding the right approach and enjoyed authority among the men, and the important thing was that the men knew that at a difficult moment that person who was appealing to them to hold fast would be alongside them, would remain with them, and would lead them forward with weapon in hand. The fact is that our chief weapon was the impassioned party word bolstered by deed personal example in combat. This is why the political workers became the soul of the Armed Forces."9 One can state without exaggeration that this excerpt from "Malaya Zemlya" offers a graphic picture of the standurd of genuinely effective party-political work and of. what qualities must be possessed by those persons wha conduct it among tlie masses. 'ihe natural /closeness of commanders, political workers, and all officers to tlie enlisted men,/ which has its source in the socialist nature of our Armed i~orces, enables them to become quite familiar with the aspirations, needs, in- terests, strong points and deficiencies of subordinates. And experienced of- f.icers know how important it is not to limit themselves to the framework of military service alone. Of enormous importance for successfully forming the requisite moral-political and fighting qualities in personnel is a careful study of the life of one's subordinates prior to entering the army. Consider- able indoctrinational effect in this regard is obtained by stable contacts by commanders, political workers, party and Komsomol organizations with the men's parents, schools, and the work forces at the enterprises, sovkhozes and kolkhozes, and establishments from which the young men entered the army or navy. Constituting one of the elements of the indissoluble unity between our army and the people, these contacts make it possible to ensure succession in 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i F tl?~: indoctrination of a young man and to obtain support from all the finest elemeuts in him for forming and shaping the person of the defender of the so- cialist homeland. Profound and comprehensive knowledge by the officer of his subordinates and the ability, to quote V. I. Lenin, to earn their boundless trust by a comrade- ly relationship and solicitous concern for meeting their needs are essential conditions for effective party influence on personnel. Only by knowing people and by relying on living contacts with them, on their trust and support, can ; one acliieve a high state of personnel morale and inspire them to perform self- less military labor and achieve flawless performance of military duty. ` Obviously without knowledge of people's individual peculiarities, proclivities, . and interests, their place and role in the collective, party-political~work cannot be correctly planned. Closely coordinated with the tasks performed by personnel, it introduces a political element into the organization and content ~ oF combat training, into the development of socialist competition, and into ; the campaign for a steady improvement in combat readiness. /Party organizations/ constitute the political nucleus and cementing force of j military collectives in our Armed Forces. their activeness and aggressiveness determine to an enornious degree the results of party-political work. Ideologi- cal and activity by Communists, their living word, and an ~ example of flawless performance of military duties are effective factors of ; party influence on the soldier masses. s Communists have marched in the front ranks of servicemen from the very beginning ~ uf existence of our Armed Forces. They are always to be found where the going is most difficult and where success is forged. To be at the forefront is the ~ sule privilege of a person who carries a party card by his heart. Pointing to ~tiis f~act, the Fighth Con~ress of the Russian Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) emphasized that belonging to a Communist party cell does not give a soldier any - special rights but merely imposes upon him the obligation to be the most self- less SI1CI cuurageous fighting man. ~ Army and navy Communists are unswervingly faithful to this lofty obligation. ! Just as in ~he past, today as well they display examples of flawless performance ~ ~t party and m~litary duty, tireless improvement of ideological conditioning and I~rufessional e~:pertise, opposition to complacency, support of mar8halling unused ~ reserve poten~ial and capabilities, as well as unswerving increase in the vi~;ilance and combat readiness of troops and naval forces. /Komsomol organizations/ are reliable and faithful assistants of Armed Forces ~~a~-ty or~;anizatiuns. Tliey make a worthy contribution to the development of young servicemen who enter the army and navy direct from factory machines, from , kolktioz fields, and from the schoolroom. And the activeness and aggressiveness of Komsomol organizations of subunits, units, and warships determine to a con- ~ s.iderable degree whether young servicemen feel from their very first steps in ; the service the support of the collective and whether they develop a firm faith iti success and the endeavor to continue and build upon the a.chievements of ~lieir predecessors. ~ 89 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Initially raw recruits naturally encounter many difficulties. They do not im- mediately become accustomed to the rigorous army and navy life, the intensive rhythm of military labor, and the high demands of military service. The over- whelming majority of soldiers rapidly overcome these difticulties. But it also sometimes happens that many things fail to work out smoothly for a new conscript. It is important here to encourage a person in a timely manner and, if necessary, to correct him, to keep him from stumbling, to help him assume a worthy place in the glorious ranks of armed defenders of the socialist home- land. Party-political work in the Soviet Army and Navy actively promotes successful accomplishment of all the tasks facing them. Its effectiveness and the steady strengthening of party influence on ~Gpects of the life and activities of personnel are attested by the persistent sti~~tggle by servicemen to achieve excellent, stable performance indices in training and service, complete achievement of socialist pledges, and for further improvement in Armed Forces combat readiness. FOOTNOT~S l. V. I. Lenin, "Poln. Sobr. Soch." [Complete Works], Vol 36, page 366. 2. Ib id., Vol 51, page 50. 3. PRAVDA, 16 September 1981. 4. L. I. Brezhnev, "Leninskim kursom" [Following a Leninist Course], Vol 2, page 206. 5. Lenin, op. cit., Vol 37, page 200. 6. Ibid., Vol 42, page 325. 7. Brezhnev, op. cit., Vol 2, page 51. 8. "Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS" [Proceedings of the 26th CPSU Congress], page 75. 9. L. I. Brezhnev, "Na strazhe mira i sotsializma" [Guarding Peace and Socialism], page 560. 90 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500070050-4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ? t{ i ~ ' CONCLUSION i ~ ~ Under the guidance of their tested and proven fighting vanguard the Leninist ~ Communist Party the SoviEt people are consistently and tirelessly implement- ~ ing the histocic guidelines of the 26th CPSU Congress. Engaging in shock-work i labor in all areas of building counnunism, they are increasing the economic and defense might of the homeland. Day by day the international position of the ~ Soviet Union is growing stronger, as is the beneficial influence of its inal- terably peace-seeking, firm foreign policy. ~ The USSR Armed Forces are reliably guarding the peaceful labor of the Soviet j people, the great achievements of socialism, and world peace. They comprise an ~ organic part of the developed socialist society and are inseparably linked with the worker masses. Embodied in their countenance are the finest traits of our ~ people. Soviet servicemen possess a high degree of ideological conditioning, ~ a consummate mastery of the potent weapons and combat equipment, and are f honorably carrying out their duty. ~ '1't~e defense capability of the USSR and the combat readiness of our Armed Forces ~ are at the level of today's demands. This is a result of consistent and un- ' swerving implementation of the course of policy of the CPSU and the Soviet State, in which are inseparably merged tasks of construction and defense, a ~ love of peace, and constant readiness to offer a decisive rebuff to an , aggressor. Continuing this Leninist course of policy, the 26th CPSU Congress j adopted an extensive program of further building of communism and demonstrated tt~e unswerving reso].ve of the Communist Party and Soviet people to defend peace. A serious threat to peace proceeds from aggressive imperialist and other reactionary circles. They are attempting to impede at all costs the objective course of the progressive development of mankind. Under the phony pretext of ~ " military threat," militant U.S. and NATO circles are escalating mil.itarist preparations with the aim of disrupting the present world military- ~ ~trate~;ic balance and achieving the unattainable military superiority over f llu~ USSI~ and the Warsaw Pact. They are encouraging focal points of tension in v