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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ JPRS L/ 10658 ~ 15 July 1982 . USSR Re ort p SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY CFOUO 3/82) , ~~IS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 NOTE .T�RS publications contain information primarily ~rom �~~reign newspapers, perlodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from forefgn-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources ~ are transcribed or reprinted, with the orig~nal phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, e~iitorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each ~tem, or following the ' last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered ph~netically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as app~opriate in context. Other unattributed par~enthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within ~.tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J~RS L/10658 15 July 198~ . USSR REPORT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOQY POLICY (FOUO 3/82) CONTENTS Finan~ing S&T Programs (P. Sedlov, T. Sletava; VOPROSY EKONCI~iIKI,Mar 82) 1 Effectiveness of S&T Programe Reflected in Econaaar - (V. Fel~zenbaum, et al.; VOPROSY EKONQ~IIKI~ Apr 82) 13 Overcoming Obatacles in Research-Produation Cyole (Yu. S. Lipatovs L. V. Denieenko; VESTNIK AKADF~III NAIIK SSSR, Mar 82) 26 Legal Regulation of Scientific Workere Improves Rssearoh Qual.ity ( L. F. Petrenko; VESTNIK AKADII~III NI~TJK SSSR, Jan 82 32 Soviets Actively Participate in Interriatior~ ~Man and Bioephere~ , Program (V. Ye.� Sokolo~v, G. V. Nizhnik; VEST~iIK AKADII~III NAUK SSSR~ Apr 82) 39 ~ Academiea of Soience and Rspublic W2~a Tc ~Stren~hen Tiee (VFSTIJIK AKADII~IIII NAUK SSSR~ Dec 81) 48 New Edition of ~Multilateral Coope~ation of tk~e Academies of . Sciences of the Socialist' Is~u~d � ~ (S: Q~. Kara~Iurza; YESTNIK AKAD~III ~AIIK SSSR, Apr 82)...... 53 S&T Policy Being F~nphaeized in CII~IA Countri~e (G. Vlaakin, et al; VOPROSY II{ONQ~SIK~, Dec 81) 5a New Acadenr~ of SciAncea Members PrAfiles (VFSTNIK AKAD~III NAUK SSSR, Apr 82) 72 P - a- jSII - USSR - 21o SiT FOUO] FOR 0[+'~[~iAI, U~ pNI~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500480032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FINANCING SbT PROGRAMS . Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIKI in Russian No 3, Mar 82 pp 13-22 [Article by P. Sedlov and T. Sletova: "Financing Scientif ic and Technical Programs"] [Text] Scientific and technical programs are a specific form of intersector planning and control of scientific and technical progress. They are formulated for the resolution of such complicated problems which require the involvement of a large number of scientific organizations and enterprises of various sectors, the concentration of scientific forces, material and financial resources. The creation of effective systems for controlling programs was acknowledged by the 26th CPSU Congress as one of the primary tasks. The systems for con- trolling them should be organically entered into the economic mechanism. The complexity of solving this problem is that on the one hand, it is necessary to strengthen the centralized basis for solving the intersector and inter- re~ional problems in order to concentrate resources on solving the most important of them, and on the other hand, broader development of cost accounting. The economic mechanism for controlling intersector programs can be effective if it stipulates equal economic conditions for all links which are participating in the implementation of the "science-production- application" cycle. The system of controlling scientif ic and technical progress and its component, - the financing system, still do not permit complete realization of the advan- ta~;es of the program-target method since they are primarily oriented on the sector pr~nciple of control. Planning and control are organieally separated into different stages of a unified scientific-produc*_ion cycle which is encompassed by comprehensive programs. In particular, the GI~NT [State Committee for Science and Technology] coordinates the NIOKR [~cientific research and experimental design work] and plans financial resources for the fulfillment of this work by programs. Planning of the production st~i~e which is assoeia~ed with the develapment and introduction of new equip- ment, incli,ding ttie preparation and development of production facilities, is , the function of the USSR Gosplan. Rapid control of scientific and technical programs has been decentralized. The main ministries and organizations which are responsible for the ful- fillment of the program as a whole, practically do not have lever.~ for 1 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540080032-3 HOR OFFIC'IA1. l1SE ONLY influencing the co-executors beyondthe limits of their sector. They do not have ac~thority, do not have a control apparatus for solving questions of financing and material-technical support for the entire set of interdependent ~ sectors and industries covered t~ the programs. Consequently, the chief ministry is not capable of overcoming the disagreements which go beyonlthe framework of sector planning, financing, and material and technical support by using their own forces. All the interdepartmental disagreements are placed at the level of the USSR Gosplan and the GKNT which overloads their resolution of these questions. They could be and should be solved rapidly at the level of program supervision. T}ie experience of realizing integrated scientific and technical programs, sector, intersector and regional in the 9th and lOth Five-Year Plans indi- cated their profitability. Among the 208 intersector scientific anri technical programs developed under the supervision of the GKNT, a number of progr~ms have been successfully fulfilled for the development of the country's fuel and energy base which stipulated the creation and development of series production of units of 1.ncreased unit output, production of compact engines with power of 8,000-10,000 hp, more advanced energy consuming equipment and technology, accelerated development of atomic machine construction, etc. As a res~ilt of fulfilling these programs, the indicators for conservation of consumed resources and the qua~ity characteristics of the created samples were considerably improved as compared to the 'uase. For example, the metal consumption of boiler units created from one of them ;aas reduced by 40% , the periods for installing the equipment were cut in half, the capital outlay:~ wete decreased by 30%,etc. Work has been intensive on the~program of creating and usfng in production automatic manipulators with program control (robots). The Kovrovskiy mechanical plant was the iirst to broadiy introd.~ice industrial robots. Now ro~ots are operating there of the models "Tsiklon-3B," "Universal-15M," \ "Universal-S" in the stamp;ng, machining and other industries. As a result of their use~ labor productivity rose an average of 3-fold, and at individual uperations using robots, S-6-fold. The labor intensity of ~rocessing the parts diminished on the average by 43%. ~ 'Phe development of a nuinber of programs indicates the successful cooperation ~ uF academic science and production. For example, in order to solve tasks c~f intensive development of the economy of Siberia, the Siberian department ' c~f the USSR Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the sector institutes nncl rroduction is reaiizing a long-term ir.tegrated pro~ram "Siberia" which inclucles 35 tar~et ~~rograms to investi~ate and use the fuel and energy and mii~c~r~~i-raw material resaurces, develop the territorial-prod~~ction complexes, ;ind create the equipment and technolog; with regard for the climnte conditions of ~ppl.ication. 'rhe Ural scientific center of the USSR Acade:ny of Sciences hr~;ids up the long-term target integrated program "Intensification of Indus- trial Production of the Urais." The implementation in the Latvian SSR of a regional integrated program for mechanizin~ manual and heavy labor in industry. in transportation and in other se~::tors made it possible to con- , clitionally release about 16,000 workers engaged in manual labor. Accorciing C~ t=tie scientific and technical programs developed in the lOth Five-Year Pl~n, ,ihc~ut 1900 new types of machines, equipment and instruments, and over 100~ :~clv~nced production processes were made. Analysis of the realizatior? of 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 ROR OFFICIAL USE ONLY some of them made it possible to reveal a number of shortcomings and diffi- culties governed both by economic and organizational reasons. We will examine them~in the example of one of these programs. A~cording to the integrated program for the creation of automated control systems for production processes, units~and industries headed by the Ministry of Instrument Making , 292 types of new electronic computers, devices and instruments were developed and introduced into production. For the develop- ment and organization of series production of sets of technical and program resources SM3, SM4 of the international system of small computers (SM EVM), the collective of developers of the program was awarded the State Prize for scienCe and technology in 1981. About half of the complexes obtained by the national economy have been supplied to~the machine construction sectors for control of production processes, automation of design aperations and control of the complexes of inetal-working equipment; 22% in the sector of the extracting and processing industry for control of pro~uction processes; 14% of. the complexes are being used for control of experiments in the sphere of science. The use of SM3 and SM4 complexes for automation of the planning of new items permitted a 2-2.5-fold acceleration of this labor- intensive process. A large Economic effect is yielded by the use of the system of small computers in the preparation of controlling programs for machines with numerical pro- gram control. These programs were previously prepared on large computers whose cost is considerably higher than the scr.all computer system. The transition to the system of small computers reduced the periods for compiling the control- ling programs several times and signi�i~antly diminished the outlays for their development. However the scales of production of small computer systems does not meet the national economy's demand for them. What is preventing the rapid increase in vol~mes of production of minicomptlters? The fulfillment of the aforementioned program, like others, was associated with a number of difficulties due to various reasotYS, including departmental barriers, incomplete order for finan- cing and material-technical supply. The Ministry of Instrument Making which is responsible for the program as a whole did not always succeed in concluding a contract in time with the co-executors for including in their plans of individual assi~nments.of ttie program and the allocation of the appropriate resources. Great efforts were required to arrange the orders for development and series production of the developed models at the enterprises and produc- tion associations which sp~~cialize in the production of computer equipment. Tlie chief developer could not, by by-passin~ the sector sections of the USSR Gos~~tan, correct the plans of loading thP production facilities of the manu- facturers so that produ~tion was guaranteed of the programmed product in the schedules set in the approval of the program. The course of its ful- fill.ment was also affected by the circumstance that neither the financial su~,~c~rt, nor the material incentive of the executors took into consideration tl~e Ceatures of pro~ram and interdepartmental inCeraction. In total complexity, about 40 percent of the work to create and introduce experimental and experimental-industrial samples stipulated by the scientific and technical programs of the GKNT was removed or transferred to other periods hecause the assignments of the programs for construction, installation and 3 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500480032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY shipments of set-forming items and equipment were not always agreed upon by periods, or were not included in the sector plans for capital ~onstruction, production and material-technical supply of the correspondir~ executors. For rx~~mple, the pro~ram f~r creation of chemical resources for the urotection of plants stipulated the start-up of eight industries at the enterprises of the Ministry of Chemical Machine Construction. Beca~~se of the urttimely finan- cing or insufficient volumes of it, the lack of aspecific organization that w~is responsible for the start-up of the facilities, and for other reasons, the periods for the start-up of three industries was shifted to 1979 and 1980, and the others to the llth Five-Year Plan. The order for financing work for new equipment that was active in the se~tors was used without any changes for financing the scientific and technical programs. Eac}~ ministry which participates in the fulfillment of program work used for financing the work stipulated in the program capital which was mainly intended for ensuring the scientific-technical development of the in-hous~ production base of the sector and updating of the manufactured product, as well as for financing work on intersector programs. This order generally does not create interest in rapid and high-quality fulfillment of the intersector work, since the diversion of resources of each ministry (department) for these purposes can contradict the primary interests of sector development. 'rl~e urcler for listing the resources for financing programs and calculation of their spending are also incomplete. The capital allocated for financing work on programs are listed on the calculated account of the organization-executor and are depersonalized in the total sum of income. This impairs the calcula- tion of their target use for program needs. Undercalculation of the specific nature of interser_tor division of labor, departmental separation of the execu- tors, the large number of sources for financing work for new equipment, and the lack of the necessary correlation between the assignments of the program and the plans for production and capital investments contradicted the require- ments of the target control of scientific and technical programs, and essentially became a drag an their broad and effective application. In evaluating the important role of scientific and technical programs in acce?_erating scientific and technical progress, it should be noted that they do not completely reflect the requirement of directivity for the achievements of science and Cechnology to final national economic results. In the ma3ority of tl~em. for example, there was no stipulation of assignments for series ~~rod~~ction and the use of innovations. The programs for the creation of new m,~c~liines. equipment and itlstruments ~enerally ended with the fabrication and t~~stin~; of the m.zin sr~mple or the manufacture of an adjustment series, the ?irst batch of a produ~~t with the use of the new technological process. Con- s~~uently, at best they stipulated the initial development of the created c~qui~~ment, but did not plan its broad applicztion. 'fhe ~~u~~stion of the need to include completing stages of s~ries production into the scientif.ic and technical programs an~ the use of new equipment has been r~ised many times in the economic press. In the last five-year plan, individual elements were worked out for a program-ta*_-~et method of planning ~Sc~~~, for example, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences L. C:~~c~vskiy, "Stren~lhening the Orientation of Plans and Stimuli at Highly Effi- cient New F.q~iipment (VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No S, 1977); D. Bobryshev, V. Pokrovskiy "Control of Scientific-Technical Development" (VOPROSY 1:K~NOMIKI, No 12, 1977) ancl others. ~ . 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .~n~l c~~ntrol at inter5ector .ind sector levels. The accumulated experience w:~s generalized, and in the decree adopted by the CPSU Central Committee and ~ the USSR Council of Ministers "On Improving Planning and Intensification of the Effect of the Economic Mechanism on Improving the Efficiency of Preduction and Quality of Work" measures were stipulated for the development of the system of programs, inclusion in them of assignments for organization of series production of new equipment and introduction of the leading technology. The inclusion into the target scientific-technical programs of the completing stages of series production of new equipment and the introduction of techno- logy makes it necessary to create an efficient organizational-economic mechanism of control which meets the requirements of intensifying scientif ic and technical activity and orientation of all the economic links on high final results. It is apparently necessary to raise the status of the agencies of pro~ram control and ~ive the main organizations the right to independently eliminate the current intersector discrepancies for each program. The creation of a mechanism for planned control of intersector programs is impossible without the solution of such an important problem as their financing. The time has come to centralize and regulate the financial planning at higher and middle levels of control. Financing of scientific-technical programs must, in our opinion, be implemented on an indepenent plan which will distribute and calculate the resources. It is very important that the unified integrated plan define from the very begin- ning the financial resources for the entire cycle of work covered by the programs, and dlstribu~ted at the stages of work, for scientific research, experimental design, technical preparatiori of production, development, etc. This distribution must be supplemented with efficient monitoring and calcula- - tion of the target spending of capital. It is also important to eliminate the multiplicity of sources and multiple-stage nature of distribution of finances. The financing system must be aimed at timely provision of capital to the planned volumes of work and it_s rapid concentration on the most strained sections. Therefore, financing of work done on intersector scientific-technical programs should be done with regard for the main principles of program-tarnet method, as well as the active statutes on the order for using state budget resources, r.redit, resources of the unified fund for development of science and tech- noto~y and other sources of financing work on new equipment at enterprises, associations.and organizations. The founding principles for this system, in our opinion, should be the ~ollow- ing. First, the functions of financial control of programs should be centra- lized on higher c~nd middle levels, and more precisely delimit according to levels of contral the responsibility of the managers of financial resources. It is expedient to provide for more active participation of the agencies of the USSR Ministry of Finances in selecting the forms of financing and control- the financial resources. Secondly, financing of problems, topics and 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY workl must be target. Thirdly, there should be guarantee o~ flexible comhi- n~tion of the perc�entl~e f.inancing from resources of the ministries, depart- m~,nts wliicl~ are intcrested in the results of the irograms,and resources of tl~e stlte budget and credit allocated for fulfillment of definite work. Fourthly, it is important to regulate the processes of formulating financial plans, establish control and calculation of the speading of resource~ from � the active sources of financing work on the new equipment, having ouara?~teed in this case the priority of allocating resources for programs from all sources. The system for financing integrated scientific-technical programs constructed with regard for the stated principles, in our opinion~ wi11 permit target and timely financing of the work planned according to the programs, scientific research. experimental design, fabrication of experimental and experimental- industrial sampl~s and units, test stands, development of experimental samples in production, technical preparation of production for series manufacture of products, including work on reconstruction and expansion of production facilities. The introduction for all ministries and departments participating in Cinancing the corresponding programs on percentage principles. o~ a unified order for deductions of financial resnurces and their primary allocation from t}~e corresponding sources will create definite guarantees for the fulfillment af assignments on schedule. In this case it becomes possible in limits of the e:tiaral limit allocated for the program to distribute beforehand the financial resources according to stages of work, to implement a t~alanced correlation of financial resources with material--technical supply of the work. rapidly correct the distribution of resources in limits of the estimated cost and use the reserve (if it is stipulated) with regard for actual fulfillment of the work. Finally, expansian of the use of credit, giving the main organizations the right to dispose of the capital allocated for the program (and if necessary to involve enterprises and organizations of different departments in the work on economic contracts) will create an effi- cient mechanism of control over the programs based on a new progressive system of payment for completely finished work which has been handed over to the customer. Es4~e~�ial attention should be concentrated on the executive (mana~inq and stimu- ln~in~;) [~~nctions of the control .~gencies �or intersector pro~rams. Depending ~~n tlic~ sr~~le of work, its spatial and temporal Uoundaries, various solutions r~~ tf~is ~~rohlem are possible. In those cases where the functions of rapid rontroi are placed on the main organization, its authority should be expanded Cc~r disposin~ of the c~ipital allocated for the needs of the program and setting up control over the fulEillment of work and stimulation of the groups of exe- cutur5. For rapi~l control of large-scale programs, special intersector _ a~;enc~ies may be set up. In eacti specific case it is necessary to regulate the ~1'hr usr oC the system of tar~et or problem planning for orders .znd the corres- ~~oncling Einancin~ of the sector scientific-technical organizations made it pos~- sihlc~ to regulate the intraministry thematic planning, and abandon some tradi- tiun;~l~ Uut not very promising trends in research and concentrate scientific- trchnical r.esources on problems important for the sector and national economy. - In ~~cidition to accelerated introduction of innovations into production, an important,result of this system was the improvement in use of speicalists in scientific an~ technical organizations. ~ 6 FOR OFRICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR UFFICIAL USE ONLY the economic and legal status of the control agency , determine the nature of its interrelationships with the higher planning agencies, with the linear-staff and funcational subdivisions of the organizations who are participating in the work on the programs. In order to improve the order for financing scientific and technical programs it is first expedient to formulate an ~nterrelated system of plans for finan- cing them which includes state, sector and financial plans for specific programs. It should be correlated to the entire system of plans, having pinpointed the trends for using the active sources of financing work for new equipment in the sectors and at the enterprises. This does not require a basic review of the rights and functions ofthe apparatus for the sector systems of control of scientific-technical progress and the significant changes in the organization of forms of interaction of several sectors in the realization of ~ inteRrated programs. The formation of a system of plans for f inancing scientific and technical programs is dictated by the expanded use of program-target method for solving the most important and large-scale problems, and increasing the volume of allocations for development of programs. In addition, the sp~tial and tempo- ral boundaries for realization of the programs rise, there is an increase in the number of co-executors. All of this requires a more precise control and calculation of the allocated resources at all levels of control. In other words, the time has come to strengthen the functions of the centralized plannin~ and control in solving large-scale intersector problems. The state plan for financing scientific-technical programs should be compiled for the five-year plan based on calculations of the estimated cost of work l~resented by the main ministries and departments responsible for tt~e fulf ill- ment of specific programs. Its structure can approximately be the following. In the first section of the plan "Volume of Financing Intersector Scientific- Technical Programs by Sectors" it is expedient to reflect the volumes of financial resources allocated for each sector for the fulfillment in the planned five-year plan of work on intersector programs according to the approved list of programs of the state plan for the development of science and technology. The first section of the ~lan for financing must indicate the total allocations of the sector for the entire seti of fulfilled programs both target and for the resolution of the most important scientific and technical problems regardless of whether the sector is the main or the co-executor. The total must isolate expenditures for scientific research and capital investments needed for t}~e "sector's fulfillment of the corresponding assignments for intersector scientific and technical programs. ' In the second section, "Trends of Target Financing," it is necessary for each pro~ram to isolate the ministries and departments which are responsible for thc fulfillment of the main assignments and financing this wor'c, as well as the sources of financin~. For each program, the first indicates the main ministry (volume of allocations allocated to it for fulfillment of the assign- ments of this program. sources of f inancing the work, state budget, unified fund for scientific and technical work, etc.). Say that for the program of 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 rv~ vrrl~le~. uoP. U1vLT creating automated control systems for production processes, units and prcductions in industry, the first indicated is the Ministry of Instrument M~~kin~ and the resources allocated to it for the five-year plan, then the Ministry of tl~e Llectronics Industry, Ministry of the Radio Industry and other executors. It is important for the plan to stipulate allocations for the development and final stages of work associated �:~irh mastery and series production of a new product. This order will make it po~sible to avoid those difficulties that are now encountered by the developers at the stages of production and intro- duction of innovations where for 1-2 years they have to include the develop- ments in the production plan through sector departments of the USSR Gosplan. The state plan for financing scientific and technical pxograms which will become an integrated financial document should determine in advance, accor- ding to the active techr~ique, the dimensions of the deductior.s to the fund for economic stimulation of the enterprises and organizations from the prof it obtained from realizing the product, created according to the program, and deductions to the funds for economic stimulation which are includen in the estimated cost of work. It is expedient for the main ministry to be charged with the obligation uf controlling the compilation (co-executors) of local estimates for individual stages of work or assignment, summary estimate of outlays for the program, control of the observation of ecor~omic discipline by all participants of the financing. In necessary cases (with regard for the actual fulfillment of the work), the main ministry can make its suggestions for the change in schedules and volumes of financing, as well as material incentive for the collective-exectors for examination of the ministries (departments)-coexecu- tors. If discrepancies develop for the suggestions made, then the main ministry can appeal to the higher agencies the GKNT and USSR Gosplan. Each ministry(department) which participates in the fulf illment of the work for intersector scientific. and technical programs wiZl compile its draft of the five-year plan for financing intersector scientific-technical programs which should be formulated in the directed periods. At the first stage of creating the financial mechanism for scientific and technical programs it is important to precisely def ine the sources of firiancing in the functional section depending on the nature of the wcrk done rind to make them stable for the entire period required for full completion oF tfie a~~propriate stage or type of work. This measure is especially neces- s:~ry in those cases where the periods for fulfillment of the work, especi- .~lly, the concluding, exceed a year. � Tl~c~ pro~;rams of the llth Five-Year Plan stipulate as concluding the work f.or series production of new equipment and the introduction of progressive teci~iioto~y. This me~ins that the set of program measures must include the technical preparation of production, expansion, reconstruction of shops and sections, sometimes new construction, etc. Expansion of the spectrum for ~ro~;ram work also increases the number of sources for their financing, defined by tl~e active statutes ~n financing work for new equipment in the sectors. In p~~rticular, the am~~rtization deductions, funds for development of pro- duction and their reserves, and credit should be used for financing the pro~;rams more actively and more purposefully. 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY For or~anizations which have been switched to a system of payment for complete- ly finished and accepted work, an important source of financing scientific research in addition to the unif ied fund for scientific and r.echnical woric is the bank credits. The decree ~f the CPSU Central Coimnittee and the USSR Council of Ministers for improving the economic mechanism has set up favorable conditions for expanding the use of the credit-calculation mechanism. The current outlays of organizations up to the full period of completing the work are covered by means of bank credit tn limits of the resources freed up by the In addition, the L'SSR Gosbank presents to the ministries and departments loans for scientific research on programs in the case of non- ~ correspondence during the year of income into the unified fund for scientific and technical work (YeFRNT) and the sizes of outlays from it. 'fhe associations and enterprises of the USSR Gosbank can issue loans for payment of work financed through the resources of the YeFRNT) if it is done in shorter periods than outlined by the plan, as well as tne implementation of highly ef.fective measures for new equipment not stipulated by the plan ~on the condition that credit and precentages have been liquidated in the space of 2 years from the day uf issu~e through YeFRNT resources). F.xpansion of the sphere of credit for work on the new equipment will make it possible, in our opinion, first of all to realize the principles for target financing of planning and organize economically harmonious activity of the main organization an3 the organization-co-executors working on a unified order and credit-financial plan; secondly, guarantee in practice equal economic conditions and responsibility of the developers and customers for the new equipment. Formation of an interrelated system of integrated plans for financing inter- sector scientif ic and technical programs with indication of the resources ~llocated to each sector for specific target programs and for definite types of work for them will considerably improve the order of planning the financial resources at all levels of control Qf the national economy. In this case, the program section will be isolated in the state budget and in the credit _ plan in the areas of science and scientific services, capital constri~ction and production. This will considerably improve the system of control and calculation of the target outlays and the effect from the scientific and t~c.hnical programs. The pro~osed centralization of planning financial resources on the state and sector levels, of course, does not solve all the questions of overcomin~ lhe departmental barriers in realizing programs and reducin~ the number of Cinancin~ sources. It must be suppl~mented with another series of ineasures. 'Tl~e system of financing inter.sector programs can become more efficient if,, the allocated resources are concentrated in the hands of the agency which is responsible Eor scienttf ic and technical policy in the country, and secondly, the level.s of responsibility of the managers of the financial resources are clearly defined and the rights of the main organization are ~xpanded. (:~~ntralized reso~irces for financing intersector scientific-technical programs tih~~uld be set up on two leve].s: on the upper level of control, an intersector unified fund can be set up to provide for scientific and technical programs (MY~P'ONTP), and on the lower, financial resources allocated from the MYeFONTP to the main organization. It is expedient to form this fund in each planned 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 ruK ur t~ ~t:~ ni. uS~: ~)NI,Y = tive-year plan from the resources of the state budget, capital investments and credits of the State Bank and the Construction Bank, YeFRNT, funds for ~ development of production and their reserves, amortization deductions and , their reserves, deductions from the net cost of products and other sources of the participants in fulfillment of the programs for the corresponding enlarged standards. Tl~e rnanager of the MYeFONTP, in our opinion, could be the GKNT which implements centralized planning, control and calculation of the spending of resources allocated by the state for scientific and technical programs. It is expedient for each program to open up a special account with the number of the pro~ram in the institutions of the USSR Gosbank and the USSR Construction Bank, and to transFer to it the resources from the MYeFONTP according to the proposed approach to financing the intersector programs. T}~e main organization should be given the right to dispose of the resources transferred to the special account of the program, and its responsibility - shoulcl be increased for observance of the financial discipline, compilation and spending of the estimates, calculations with the co-executors�of the ful- filled work, and payment of credit, that is, make this organization the main manager of resources from the special program ~eeount. It should also be given the right to redistribute the financial resources in limits of the approved estimate between the executors with regard for the actual course of work regardless of their interdepartmental subordination, as well as ~the volumes 111C~ periods for income of resources deducted by the ministries and departments for the MYeFONTP for the corresponding types of work. It is important for all the ministries and departments involved in fulfilling the integrated programs to establish a unified order for deducting the resources to the MYeFONTP from the active sources of financing work for new equipment with regard for their target purpose according to the corresponding plan. It is expedient to set up in the MYeFONTP a centralized strategic reserve of resources and to use it for financing the previously unforeseen work, as well as for maneuvering the resources in order to guarantee the assigned rates of work done by different sectors and departments. This reserve can be used even for target stimulation of the results which considerably exceed the E~lanned, etc. The creation of reserves of financial resources can become an imporrant condition for improving the efficienty of control of scientific- technical programs, the timely bringing of innovations to practical application. 'fl~ese reserves are especially necessary in developing programs for new trc:ncls in the development of science and technology which are at the junction c~f ~liC~erent sciences ~~nd are based on discoveries, inventions which can be wi Because the socioeconomic result is the aggregate of va'rious material and nonmaterial benefits to human beings, they are objectively incompatible, like different use values, and can- not be reduced to one benefit. "A comparison of such use values as an apart- ment, a car, or a trip," Academician T. S. Khachaturov writes, "seems completely impossible at first glance. But in practice they are regularly compared. At the same time, because of inadequate study of tfie methods of such comparisons and the lack of necessary data, these questions are often answered superficially and mistakenly. We must work out the ob~ective bases for making dectsions on the priority of different needs in the interests of socialist society.i9 A rise in the socioeconomic efficiency of new technology compared to the technology existing today is tTie socioeconomic effect of the new technology Therefore, just like the result of using the new technclogy, its socioeconomic effect is a factor, but it contains one additional element: savings of expenditures for the given result. The evaluation of the effectiveness of scientific-teclinical programs is also conditioned on the time factor. Becauae of its large scale, realization of a program takes a long time. For example, the scientific-technical programs ratified for the llth Five-Year Plan are figured for 5--8 years. It we consider here that most of them conclude with production of a pilot model or test run, it is obvious tfiat large-scale introduction of new machinery and technology developed under these programs will go beyond the current five'year plan. For this reason, the savings of expenditures for realizatioii of programs must be determined on a dynamic scale, that is, by a calculation of the cumulative effect for the en- tire period of operation of the program. The complex protilem of adding effects together arises when determining the socioeconomic effectiveness of programs. In the first place, it is necessary to add together the effect of realization of the program in the sectors that produce and use the new technology. For example, the production and use of inetal powders gives a savings of expendttures, elimi- nates accumulations of inetal shavings that are Tiarmful to human healtfi in machine building, and eliminates the noise of inetalworking machines, but leads to tfie 19 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 60R OFFICIAI. USE UNLY production of inetallic dust in metallurgy. How can the different results. which have social significance be compared? In the second place, it become~ more important to add togetfier the effects of using technology created undPr a program in different spheres of s~ocial ac~ tivity and different sectors of material producti:on (for example, the areas of application of laser technology are very broad). ' In the third place, it becomes necessary to ada together the effects from realization of subgoals or subprograms by the sutiject principle of breaking down the goal (for example, the effect of different types of machinery under a pro- gram for development and production of technical means to mechanize and automate labor-intensive jobs). The difficulties of adding effects together increase with the conversion of the economic eff ect of new technology to a socioeconomic effect because the latter is expressed by a vector (an ordered set of numbers), :ot by a scaiar quantity (number). For example. the vector of the socioeconomic effect oi new models of tractors designed to replace base models will include the following elements: growth in productivity in hectares of standard plowing; reduction in specific fuel e~cpenditurP in grams per horse power; increase in service life in years; savings of expenditures in rubles; and, reductions in frequency of vibration in hertz, noise level in decibels, and concentration of dust in the cabin depending on the content of silicon oxide in milligrams per cubic meter of air, and so on. The fundamental principles of adding up the socioeconomic effects of different types of technology or the same technology used in different spheres amount to the following. Only the savings of expenditures is qualitatively similar so that the corresponding vector elements can be directly added together. Some vector elements which are formally similar, for example increase in produc- tivity and service life of various machines, cannot be added together because they relate to different use values (these elements can be added togethA~ only for one machine used in different spheres). Other vector components with similar names, those which are not directly merged with the use values being produced and whose usefulness (harmfulness) consists in an influence on human beings, can be added together when it is necessary to consider the effects of their interaction with one another.l0 C:iven the specific character of the output of a program, fundamentally new technology whose development involves heightened risk and uncertainty, the methods oC considering risk and uncertainty in calculating preliminary and pro.jected effectiveness become especially important. Expenditures and re- sul.ts For most programs that envision the development of fundamentally new technology cannot be unambiguously forecast as a definite figure; it is only possible to determine an interval of values within which there is a given probability that they will fall. This was reflected in the fact that the target norms of most of the ratified programs were set in the form of (for example raising the petroleum yield of layers to 55-60 percent, raising suRar content of sugar beets to 17.5-18.5 percent, development and incorpor- ation of open-cut coal mining processes with labor productivtty surpassing tl~e present level by 3-4 tons, and so on). In addition, altliougfi programs are developed after the completion of pure research, uncertainty tn relation 20 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OF~ICIAL USE ONLY to the feas3bility of accomplishfng the suhgoals as such is not eliminated in some of them. A typtcal e~cample ts the target s.cientific-~technical program for tfie develop- ment and wide use of the set of techniques and technical means for raising the petroleum yield of layers to 55-60 percent. The first subgoal of this program is to develop, refine, and incorporate new metfiods of phqsicocTiemical and thermal influence on petroleum layers. It envisions parallel development of several technological methods of achieving this goal: incorporating tech- nology for use of surface active agents; developing technology for pumping polymer solutions into petroleum layers; developing a technological process for forcing petroleum out with micellar--polymer solutions; and working out the theoretical foundations and conducting a searcfi for microbiological methods of extracting residual petroleum after a layer is flooded, and so on. Although these techniques can be used for different petroleum regions and sectors, for some of them they are alternatives. Realization of each of these techniques, of course, demands different expendi- tures whose quantities vary depending on the location and nature of the petroleum- bearing sections. Thus, the problem of selecting the optimal combination of techniques arises. Unlike "subject" and "technological" programs, in these "alternative" prugrams it arises and is decided not only during formulation of the program but also in the process of its realization. For tfiis type of pro- gram, therefore, calculations of effectiveness must be refined constantly during the realization process. The contribution of the particular techntque to at- taining the goal or subgoal, that is the result of realization of the program, and the expenditures required for this must also be refined. During the process of carrying out an alternative program the probability of attaining the goal (subgoal) for each of the alt~rnative techniques must be evaluated and the program adjusted on the basis of such evaluations. The probability of success- ful development of a particular technology in the assigned time can be evalu- ated by experts or by using well-known formalized met6ods of technological fore- casting.ll The effect of programability, a concept which has been l:~ttle developed in the economic literature, deserves special treatment. Determining the programability effect is not a purely academic problem. The fact is that developing scien- tific-technical programs and building them into plans of economic and social development complicates the "technology" of planning, poses the problem of insuring realization of programs and thus increases social costs for management. For this reason, identifying the programability effect would make it possible, by comparing it with additional expenditures, to establish the effectiveness of applying the target program method of planning to the particular scientific- technical problem. Because tfie target program method involves the use of the systems approach in planning while the scientific-technical program itself is a "system" the organized interaction of elements of this system produces the spe- cific system effect of program organization. The occurrence of an additional effect as the result of the tnteraction of program elements has already been noted in the economic literature.12 This kind of effect of "system organization" (pos,itive or negative) arises ob3ectively in 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY any system as the result of interaction of its elements. Hecoming aware of it and singling it out as a definite variation and part of tfie overall effect in- volves development of tfie systems. approach. Tfiis type of effect is called the synergetfc effect or the effect of system organization. K. Marx gave tfie methodological foundations of analyzing tfie effect of system organization in "Das Kapital." Thus, analyzing cooperation as a form of labor organization in which many people work together in a planned manner and inter- act with another, Marx wrote the following: "Just as the force of an 3ttack by a cavalry squadron or the force of resistance by an infancry regiment differ sig- nificantly from the sum of the forces of attack and resistance which individual cavalry men and infantry men are capable of developing, so also the mecTianical sum of the forces of individual workers differs from that social force which de- velops when many hands participate simultaneously in performance of a single undivided operation, when for example it is necessary to lift a weight, turn a winch, or remove an obstacle from the road. In all these cases the result of the combined labor either could not be achieved atall through individual ef- forts, could be achieved only over a much longer time, or only on a minute scale."13 The fundamental objective of comprehensive target programs as a crucial form of planning is to improve cooperation among different types of activity, phases of the reproduction cycle, regions, and participants in social production. The effect of system organization is a part of the overall socioeconomic effect, measured by the difference between the effect of its functioning as an inte- grated system aiid the sum of the effect of the isolated functioning of its elements on the assumption that there is no interaction. In tfie particular case, if such an assumption has no meaning because the isolated activity of system elements does not produce any useful results, the entire socioeconomic effect of tFie system is synergetic. Therefore, the programability effect as a mani- festation of synergy in planning is part of the socioeconomic effect of at- taining the program goal. It is measured by the difference in effects when tae goal is realized under the pr.ogram and when it is done by traditional planni~~g. I3ut what are the sources of the programability effect? To answer this question we may use the scheme proposed by corresponding member of tlie USSR Academy~l4 Sciences L. M. Gatovskiy for formulating the "effect of comprehensiveness. According to this scheme, comprehensiveness presupposes, in the first place, a coordinated combination of all the types of technology necessary to realize the final result and, in the second place, ~ coordinated combination (in the� plan) of all participants in the cycle "science - technology - production - consumption" for eacfi type of technology. [ndeed, camprehensiveness is the fundamental trait of scientific-technical pro~;rams. But in addition to it the occurrence of the programability effect re- sults Erom the target orientation. In large part this determines the necessity of bringing together different performers in a program of action. If each of them were to seek its own partners by the trial and error method and set up interactian witl~ them on the basis of cost accounting relations, expenditures of time and capital to attain the goal would increase suhstantially. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICU?L USE ONLY Tfie savings tFiat occurs is also one o# tfie. sonrces of tfie prograa~tTitlitp~ eff~ct~ to sap nott"iing of tfie fp:.t tfiat tfie programs zoake it possifile to real~ze: goals whicfi isolated peacformers could not even be a~are.of aud ~hicfi. could not fie. at-- tained witfiout adorting a centralized decision. Furtiiermore, ~oiaing isolated performers togetTier in a program produces an addi.ti~aal effect because tfie general aad particular optimums do not coincide. An increase in tfie dimension- altty of tfie system produces aa additi~aal optimizatioa effect: tfie value of the system fmnctional is always leaa (if expeaditures are minimized) or more (if results are maximized~ than the corresponding sums of the functionals for isolated optimtzation of its suTaspstems. An equally important characteristic of the program ~ia concentration of tfie re~ sources necessarp to realize it, ~b.icfi. is also done on a centraltzed basis. Therefore, the source of the program effect is not onlp comprehensiveness but also tTie target orientation. Both the one and the otfier are secured by c~ntral- izing planning decistons. Tiierefore, in terma ~of~ its organizational-economic essence, the program effect ia a ceatralization effect.l5 The problem of considering the program effect ariaes not only for interaction among the measures of a particular program (we will call it intraprogram), but also wfien different programe interact (interprogram). The program effect as tfie ob~ ective result of interaction durin.g impl.ementation of programs or pro- gram measures should not be confused witi~ repeated counting of tfie effect or undercounting of it as the result of sub3ective mistakes in tfie calculation metfiodologq wbicfi often occur in adding the effecta of particular measures or programs. Metfiods for singling out the properlp synergetic part of the overall socio- economic effect of solving scientific-technical problems deserves further study. rlethods have not been developed yet for solviag this problem in tfie in- verse formulation: adding together tfie effects of particular program measures and fin3ing tne overall socioecoaomic effect of a ecientific-tecFinical pro- gram ~rtth tfie aid of the size of the synergetic component. It is possiBle to find the necessary basea to calculate the synergetic effects of many economic sqstems. For euample, if a production association is formed on the ~iasis of several enterpriaea, the results of its activity can still be compared with tfie results of the aeparate functioaing of these enterprises. As for management methods, here there is usually no kind of general basis for calculating tbe effect. Therefore, it ia only poasible to measure tfie pro- gramability effect if a solution to the particular scientific--technical problem is~developed outside the program as a b~aais ~ithin tFie economic suBstantiation of the program. This map increase the estimated cost of compiling tfie program itself, but at tfie same time it mai~,es it poasil~le to estafllish tbe liat of pro- gram goals in a more profound aad substaatiated manner, o~hich.~311 pap off ultimately vtien tfiey are realized. Metfiods of modeltng programs that mak,e it po~ifile to reduce sucii additional expenditures to a minimum are no~rfleing developed: B[e are referring to alteraa- tive crttical patfi. models in whicfi efie magnitude of tfie programabilitp effect is determined directly during tFue selection of tFie opttmal program alternative.l6 � 23 FOR OF'FICUL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544484432-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Alternatives tFiat are not included tn ths opt~mal pxogram var~ation iaay fie the basis~ for determining tfie programability e:~fect~ Ih additi~n to results of op- timizing tha sy~tem Cprogram) as a oiTiole on patfi scFiedule, tfiere will tie variation~ formed for separate.optimi.zat~on of suFsgstetns CsuTBoals, ass~gn-- ments~, and su~iass~gnments~ . TCi:is i:s ess~ential information for a quantitative evaluation of, for example, tTie additinnal effect from increastng the dimen- sionality of a spgtem, tfiat is, from coordinatiag tfiese aseig~ents into a s~ingle integrated program. The met~iodolagical problems of determiniag program effectiveness have in many respects not been solved yet. Economic science sfi~uld concentrate its efi~rts on working out these new and complex pro~ilems ~fitcfi.are extremelp timely in practical affairs. Tfie approacnes presented iiere to methods of determintng tTie effectiveness of sctentific-technical programs do not exliaust all issues, but tfiey can be a definite step forward in study of tfiia pro~ilem. FOOTNOTES 1. Total expenditures for carrytng out programs in the llth Five Year Plan will be 38 billion rubles, including 11.5 billion for scienriftc research and experimental design ~rork aad 5.3 billion for building ekperimental indus- trial installations (see Ya. Rpabov, "Questions of Deve].opment of Compre- hens~ve Target Programs," PLANOVOYE KflOZYAYSTVO, No 10, 1981, p 5). 2. The nature of target programa leads to certain features of calculating their economic effectiveness which have been little studied. This prevent?~ us from achieving essent3alresults (see V. Krasovskiy, "The Effectiveness of Target Economic Programs," VOPROSY EKONOMIKI No 12, 1976, p 40). 3. Experience with 208 nationwide ecientifi,c-technical programs and 11 re- gional programs tn the Latvian SSR during t~e years 1976-1980 showed that the main reason for failure to fulfill tfiem was that they were not fully converted into assignments in the plan for economic and social develop- ment. 4. See B. A. Rayzberg, Ye. P. Golubkov, and L. S. Pekarskiy, "Sistemnyy Podkhod v Perspektivnom Planirovanii" [Th.e 5ystems Approach in Future Plan- ning], Izdatel'stvo "Ekonomika", 1975, p 34. 5. The analysis was made by junior scientific associates of the Institute of Economtcs of the USSR Academy of Sciences. V. S. Farbirovich and L. A. Demidova. 6. See "Metodicheskiye Ukazaniya k Razrafiotke Goeudarstvennykh Planov Ekonomiclieakogo i Sotaial~nogo Razvitipa SSSR~~ jMethodological Instructiona for Development of Plans of Economic and Socisl Development of the USSR], Izdatel~stvo "Ekonomika", 1980, p 13; "Raz`~pasnentya po Zapolneniyu Kartochek Naucfino Tekfini.chesktkh Profilem (NaucFino Tekfinic~ieskikh Programm~ Gosudarstvennogo Pyattletnego Plana Ekonomicheskogo i SotsialTnogo Razvitiya SSR" [Explanatory Notes to Filling out Cards oa Scientific--Tecfia. ~al Problems (Scientifi.c-Technical Programa~ of the US~R State Five Year Plan of Economic and Soctal Development], Moecoar, 1980. 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7. Substantiation of tFie indicator o~ aet profit as tfie cost eccountiag e#fect of ne~v- tecfiaology i~ contained ih tfie a~nograpfi_ "Naucfino~Tekfinicfl,~ski~r Progress i Ekonc~miIca Sots~,alizmaM .jScienti.fic-,Tecfinical Frogress and tTie Economy of ~ocialism], Izdatel''stvo "Ekcnomika'~~ 1979~ pp 27-3U, 185-196. 8. See "Osnovaype Metodicbeskiye Polozfieniya Opredeleaipa Sotsial ~no- Ekonomictiea&op Effektivaostit Novop Tekfinilr.i" [Fuadanental Met~iodological Principles of Deteraaining tfie Effectiveness of Nev Tecfinologp], Moscow, 1980. 9. S~ee T. S. Rhachaturov, "Intensifi&atsipa i Effektivaoet~ v Usloviyakh Razvitogo Sotsializma" [Inteneification and Effectiveness in Conditions of Developed SocialismJ, Izdatel'stvo "Nau~Ca", 1978, p 29. 10. The problem of adding together the vectors of tfie socioeconomic effect is set fortfi in greater detatl in tTie book "Nauchno-Tekfiaicfieskip Progress: Programmnyy PodkTiod" [Scientific-Technical Progress: The Program Approach], Izdatel'stvo "Mysl"', 1981, pp 114--137. 11. See V. A. Lisi.chkin, "Otraslevoye Nauchao--Tekhnicfi,eskoye Prognozirovaniye" [Sectorial Scientific-Technical Forecasting], Iadatel'stvo "Nauk.a", 1971; DzTi. Martino, "TekhnologicTieslwpe Prognoairovaniye" [Technological Fore- casttng], Izdatel'stvo "Progreas", 1977. 12. See "Nauchno-Tekhnicheskiy Progress i Ekonomika Sotsializma" [Scientific- Teciinical Progress and the Economy of Sociali~mJ, Izdatel'stno "Ekonomika", 1979; M. Vilenskiq, "Technical Progrese in the lOth Five Year Plan," VOPROSY EKONOMIK~ No 11, 1976; V. Krasovskiy, "TEie Effecttveness of Target Economic Programs," VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 12, 1976. 13. K. Marx and F. Engels, "Soch." [Works], Vol 23, p 337. 14. See "Nauchno-Tekhnicheakiy Progrese..." op. cit. FN 12, pp 39-41, 15. In his analysis of cooperation K. Marx noted that its advantages are not realized automatically. A necessary condition for it to be effective is con- trol which "performa the general functions that arise from the movement of the entire production organism as distinct from tfie movement of its inde- pendent organs" (K. Marx �~:d F. Engels, "Soch.", vol 23, p 342). 16. See, far example, "SovErshenetvovaniye Me.todov Opredeleaiya Effektivnosti Naucfino-Tekhnicheskogo Progress" [Refiniag the Methods of Determining tfie Effectiveness of Progresa]~ TsEMI AN SSSR, 1980. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda", "Voprosy ekonomiki~', 1982. 11,176 - CSO: 1814/78 25 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY ~ UDC 001.89 OVERCOMING OBSTACLES IN RESEARCH-PRODUCTION CYCLE Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Rusaian No 3, Mar 82 pp 42-47 [Article by Academician of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences Yu. S. Lipatov and L~. V. Denisenko: "Science-Production: Efficacy of Mutual Ties"] [Text] As analysis has shown, we atill have lengthy periods for the realiza- tion of the achievements of science. According to a special study made by the authors in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (OKhKhT) of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences, 62X of the finished research and develop- ment does not have practical application for a long time, despite the high potential eff iciency of the completed work. Therefore the institutes of the OKhKhT, like the entire UkSSR Academy of Sciences, have advanced to the fore- front the questions of accelerating theuse of the results of scientific research in different sectors of the national economy, search for new and improv~ment in the existing forma of tiea between science and production. The detailed examination made by the authors of the eff icient activitiy of the institutes of the OKhKhT to realize scientif ic developments has shown that often the obtained results are introduced at one-two enterprises and are not widespread in the sector (works of the Inatitute of Organic Chemistry, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water). It is obvious that this introduction does not lead to a noticeable improvement in tHe.efficacy of a certain industry as a whole and does not permit concentration of resources on solving strategic questions of developinR enterprises, associations, sectors, although a lot of attention aad forces,are required from the'scientific collectives and production engineers. At the same time, purposeful developments as applied to specific seGtors of the national economy and in close contact with the interested organizations (for example, the work of the Institute of Chemistry of High-Molecular Compounds for the Oil, as well as the Fishing Industry, the Institute of Orga;nic Chemistry for medical, the Institute of Phyeical Chemistry and the Institute of Colloid Chemiatry and the Chemistry of Water for the oil extracting, Institute of Gas for the metallurgical industry) made it possible to significantly accelerate the "science-~3roduction" cycle and expand the scales of introduction. For example, the introduction of "Sprut" and "Styk" type glues developed in t~ie Institute of Chemistry of High Molecular Compounds for repair of ship decks, decking and b~alkheads made it posssible to red~ice the time that the ships are in repair, dimin#sh the outlays for materials by 65, l~bor intensity by b0, and total_cqst.o.f xepaix.:Qpexati.ons by~61 pereent. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE OMLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500480032-3 FOR OFb'ICIAL USE ONLY Consequently, the output to a specific sectox must become decisive for the academic science in sett3ng up its ties to production and must encrnapass an ever greater number of sectors of the national economy. However, the specific nature of research done by academic institutions is such that c+ne cannot always state in advance which sector the results will be used in. Because of its multiple-plan nature, the same work can be realized at enterprises of different ministries. This beg~ns the most difficuit stage of introduction: it is necessary to "penetrate" into the ministry, w'hich often takes more time than the development itaelf. The tie bett~een the institute and the. ministry plays a special role in this case. Its efficiency can be improved by target financing, as well as by setting up certain intenaediate links (permanent or temporary) which connect the academic science with applied. The intersector laboratories which are set up in the ~cademic institutes for completion of target developments and technical assistance to the enterprises in mastering innovations may be one of these links. In addition, the appropriate applied work should be simultaneously in the plans of both the scientific institution and the enterprise of the intexested tainistry. The probability nature of scientific research does not allow us to raise the question of introducing its resulta on all topics without exception. However there are frequent cases where the institutes re�use to recognize the iriexpediency , of using certain developments and from year to year continue to suggest them for realization in the national econo~ay. Tt�ere are also frequent cases where during the basic research the.scientist obtains unPore- seen va~uable results of an applied nature which may not be considered in the fn~egrated programs and coordination pians which have already been approved, often for a lengthy period. The in~erdepartmental commissions whic4 include representa'tives of institutes and interested ministries could ob~ectively an3 with economia substanti,ation solve�the fate of~'the work proposed for introduction,.and annually review and correct the coordination plans and programs, excluding not very promising work from them. Many tasks of introduction can be solved espec~ally successfully if there is initiative on the part of the enterprises themselves who have placed their tasks before the scientists or who have suggested using the results obtained in ti}~ scientific institutions. This cooperation wi11 be fruitful of course if the tasks set by industry have sufiicient scal~ and are well substan- tiated with regard for the outlook for developtnent of this sector. One can cite corresponding examples from the pra.,tice of creative ties of a number of institutes of the OKhRhT and the industrial enterprises. The composites developed in the Institute of Chemistry of High-Molecular Compounds based on large-capacity polymers have been used at the Syzran' plastics plant to make sheet items of thertnoplasts fox automotive taanufacturing (without considerable outlays and change in the existing production processes). The economic effect from introducing theta has been obtained by increasing the strength indicators by 10-20X, conserving the main n?aterial by 82X and - in 1978-1979 was R 800,000, The seientists from the Institute of Gas af the UkSSR Academy of Sciences have been involved in cooperation by the leadership of the Kaut~ass plant "Pi~nunas" wi~ere in 1978 the f irst shop in the USSR fox drying and roasting of eaamel 27 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500480032-3 FOR OFR[GAL U3E ONLY coatings was opened. All the heating equipment of the shop was made from developments of the institute. However the appeals of production to science often have a particular nature and are determined by tasks of the present moment and the striving to eliminate tight places in its production instead of setting long-term pro6lems for its development. Experience has ahown that fulfillment of the majority of these assignments is within the capability of the workers of the actual indus~rial enterprises who often have firat-ciass scientific equipment and their own highly skilled specialists wfth scientific degrees. An important factor in the fruitful tie between production and science ia a~so the creation by the enterprises of favorable conditions for solving the tasks set for them. This is primarily the presentation of an induatrial base for ma~or experiments, equipa~ent and specialists. Although this system of interrelations has not yet been widely used, however, even now there are excellent examples of realizing this type of ties between acience and pro- duction. ~his is, for example, the integrated program "UkSSR Academy of Sciences-association 'AvtoZIL'." A whole aeries of the most important pro- duction tasks has been effectively solved in a short period as a result of fulfilling it. It should be noted that the in~egrated programs are one of the new forms of creative cooperation between the institutes of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences and industry which encompass the production process of the sector as a whole. the enterprise or its main subdivisions. Experience has ahown that for more efficiency of these programs, the rights of their leaders should be broadened, target financing of the promising work and material encouragement should be provided 5or their timely completion and high-quality execution The difficulties of the academic institutea fn realizing their developments are often explained by the fact that the fulf illment of the plans for the development of new equipoment is controlled much less at the enterprises than the fulf illment of plans for the n?ain production. In addition, in a number of cases, the use of an innovation is economically unprofitable for the enterprise. The interest of the enterprise in using new progressive develop- ments whose economic advantages are evident on the scales of the national economy can be increased by improving the syatem of economic indicators of the enterprises associated with introducing the ne~w equipment. The analysis made by the authors has indicated that in the period of 1971-1979, the chemical scient~sts of the UkSSR Academy of Sciencea suggested 1718 in- ventions of which only 31 percent were introduced at the country's enter~ prises. It turned out in this case, in particular, that over SO percent of the indicated inventions remained unuaed in the national economy 4-5 years after completion of the work on them. The mastery of highly eff icient inventions is very often delayed for many yeara. However ob~ective analysis of all the aspects of utilizing the inventions in the national economy is diff icmlt aince in the majority of cases when an invention is introduced the enterprises do not at all report on the set form, and the work does not figure in the accounts as an introduced invention. For example. the Institute of Chemistry of High-Mo3~ecular .Compounds asked the Central Scientific Research Institute 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000500480032-3 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY of Patent Information and Technical-Economic Research for information on the use by the enterprises of the inventions of the inetitute scientists. It was found that in 1978 nine enterprises had reported on the set form about the introduction of f ive inventions with economic effect of R 275,800. However it followed from the documents that were given to the institute by the enter- prises themselves that during this year 38 inventions were introduced at 48 enterprises with economic effect of R 9.4 million. The enterprises do not bear responsibility for distorting the account data. They also do not atlo- cate the necessary resources for rewarding the authors of the inventions. Responsibility of the enEerprises that"have introduced the inventions should be increased to supply timely and correct accounts on the set form. It is also necessary for the enterprises to be obliged to report to the authors abbut the use of their work in production. The conditions for economic contracts for the fulfillment of scientific research concluded between the sc:~entif ic organization and the enterprise also do not stipulate either specific dutfes of the parties or responsibility for incomplete introduction. On the average, of the 40 contracts concluded per year by each institute of the ORhKhT, 75 percent stipulate completion of work with the introduction into production of the acientific results, but only 30 percent of them end with introduction. Thus, the time has come to change the con~ract relationships between the research organizations and it~dustry. The object of the contract must be not only the topic of the study, but also efficiency from introducing its results guaranteed-by ~he enterpfise if they correspond to the technfcal assignment. It is expedient to consider the end of the research work not the compilation and delivery of a report, but the achievement of the economic effect stipulated by the contract. The size of thie effect must be confirmed by. the act of introduction. It is also neceesary'fot ~he de~artmen!'^ to control the use by the enterprises of the reaults of economic contract work, as.well as sanctions for violation of the introduction schedules. We note in addition that the sizes of bonuses now depend to a small degree on the real contribution of the worke~s in the sphere of science to technical progress. The degree of rewarding the colleagues from the research insti- tutes for successful completion of a contract topic is not def ined anywhere. The development and introduction of a syatem for additional rewarding of the participants of the work done on the basis of economic contracts for their succeseful and timely introduction will also improve the efficiency o~ introducing the developments of scientific organizations into the national economy. ~ It is also expedient to disseminate the.available experience of contract relations of the institutes from the Siberian Departtaent of the USSR Academy ~ of Sciences with the ministries and directly~with the enterprises. The ~ system introduced into the Siberian Department createa a guarantee for broad introduction of a new scientific idea into the sector and must be used among the other academic institutea. Such a form of cooperation as the fulSi~lment of contracts for the transfer of scientif ic and technical documents makes it possible to consider the features of a spec~fic enterprise and to bring the process of introduction 29 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY at it to completion. However, the reaponsibility of the entexprises stipulated by the legislation for the Pailure bf individual points in the conditions of this contract is currently inaignificant. For example. the enterprises in order to reduce the size of the reward to the developers of the documents underestimate the volumes of product output in the first 2 years of use of the development, and refuse to introduce it altogether, while the institutes are deprived of any levers for influencing the enterprises. In addition, sometimes the customers avoid paying the banuses atipulated by the condiitons of the concluded contract. The introduction of developments of the institutes implemented in acoordance with the contracts for creative cooperation is not included in the current plans of either the scientif ic institutions or the entexprises. Lacking 3uridical force, these contracts do not completely eliminate such negative phenomena as prolonged periods for agreeing upon develaped problems, cases of interruption in the program, etc. Questions of the industrial mastery of results of scientific research are closely tied to evaluating the efficiency of work ~f the acientific insti- tutions, especially academic. ~ The institutes of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences introduced a n~w form 4f accounting starting in 1977, the so-called percentage economic effect. How- ever definiCion of this indicator ur.til now has retnained one of the moat complicated and least worked out problems of evaluating the economic eff icacy of scientific research.2 Detenaination of the percentages of economic sffect between the institutes and plants by agreetaent is now be- coming more widespread. These percentages are most of ten selected equal. Certain institutes of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences, for example. the ~ Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry afad Institute of Organic Chemistry define their percentage for certain developments as 90 or 100 per- cent. This distribution of the percentage participation has a purely formal nature and does not reflect the real ~ontribution of the participants to the introduced development. . In the opinion of the authors, in order to evaluate the economic efficiency of the wo'rk of the academic institutes for which funds of economic stimu- lation have not been provided, it is necessary to take into consideration only 1See: "Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskiy effektivnosti nauchno-isaledova- tel'skikh rabot v uchrezhdeniyakh Akademii nauk Ukrainskoy SSR" [Technique of Determining the Economic Eff of Scientific Research in Instittutions of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences]. Kiev, Naukova dumka, 1978, p. 22 2See: Kurenkov, Yu. "Experience of Evaluating and Stimulating Scientific Research in the Textile and Ligh~t Industry~""Upravleniye. planirovaniye i organi- zatsiya nauchnykh i tekhnicheskikh issledovaniy" [Control, Planning and Organization of Scientific and Technical Research~ (Proceedings of International Symposium of CEMA Member Countries and the Socialiat Federated Republic of Yugoslavia). Vol 4, Moscow, VINITI, 1970; pp 238-241; Golo~sovskiy, S. I."Eko- nomicheskaya effektivnost' is~ledovaniy i razrabotok"[Economic Efficiency of Research and DevelopmentJ, Moscow, Moskovakiy rabochiy, 1973; Dobrov, G. M.; Zadorozhnyy, E. I.; Shchedrina, T. I. "Upravleniye eff ektivnost'yu nauchnoy deyatel'nosti"[Control of Eff iciency of Scientific ActivityJ, Gen. ed. Dobrov, G. M., Kiev, Naukova dumka, 1978, p. 240. - 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500084432-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY the total national economic effect from introducing the research results, while it is inexpedient to compute~the percentage economic ePfect. In fact, if the production engineers are very interested in some development, then they can develop it ~even without the help of the institute. Consequently, the per- centage effect of the institute will formally be equal to zero or will be an insignificant part, while this will actually indicate the increased value of the development. Further, the plants generally on their own initiative do not report to the institute what economic e�fect was obtained as a result of the introduction of its development, and moreover~ What percentage goes to the institute. They are not interested in this because the enterprises are rewarded for the new equipment completely and not bq the percentage economic effect. There has not been a single case in the ORhKhT of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences where the plant appealed to the institute With a request to ~ agree upon their percentage in the economic effect. Finally, if three and more partners participate in work associated with introduction, it becomes especially complicated to agree upon the sizes of the percentage economic effect. Difficulties arise in confirming the percentage economic effect by the ministry whi~h;can hardly determine the degree of pnrticipation in introduc- tion of its subdivisions on the one hand. and the developing inati*.utes on the other hand. As a result, determination of the percentage participation in intrvducing ~ innovations has a conditional nature. The fortns for statistical accounting of the enterprise indicate the actual economic effect. The authors there- fore believe that it is more expedient to consider the total national economic effect obtained from introducing the developments of the institute in the repoarts of the academic institutes without consideration for the percentage participation of the executors, but with mandatory indication of the total number of organizations involved in the ~ork on the topic and in its introduction. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR", 1982 9035 CSO: 1814/73 31 FOB OFFICIAL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 I~'OR OI~'FIC[AL USE ONLY UDC 378.23 LEGAL REGULATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS Il~IPROVES RESEARCH QUALITY Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian No 1, Jan 82 pp 41-46 [Article by Head of the ~uridical department of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Candidate of ~uridical sciences L. F. Petrenko: "Competition and Certifi- cation of Scientif ic Cadres"] [Text] Since the first years of Soviet power, in addition to general norma for labor legisiation which have covered the scientific workera, a broad circle of special norms has been active which set a special order for the development, change and halting of legal relations of scientific workers, their wages, pension payments, etc. In analyzing the legislation on the labor of scientific workers it ia impoasible not to note that many of its features are governed by ob~ective prerequisites, and primarily, the impor- tance of scfence and the transformation of it into a direct productive force. The specific nature of the legal position of the scientific workers is also tied to the creative, research nature of their work. Features of the legislation regarding the labor of the scientific workers are very clearly manifest in the development of labar.~legal relationa between them and the scientific institutions. There is currently an active unified order for selecting scientific cadres in all the acientific research inatitu- tions regardless of their departmental subordination. According to the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers of 12 May 1962 No 441 "On Measures for Further Improvement in the Selection and Training of Scientific Cadres" and with the inatruction approved by agreement with the AUCCTU by the decree of the Preaidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences of 14 December 1962' vacant positions of the acientific workera of the scientific research institutions of the USSR Academy of Sciencea. academies of sciences of the union republice, sector academies. ministries and depart- ments are filled only by competition. The competition serves as an additional condition which precedes the emergence of labor legal relations. In this case the decision of the acientific council (eliciting definite juridical consequences) is the chdef and manda- tory act for the administration in the competitive syatem of selecting cadres. The labor legal re~ations with the participant of the competition must only be set based on the decision of the scientif ic council and in accordance with them by the adminstration of the scientific institution. 32 ~O~ OP'FtCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540080032-3 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The mandatory nature of the decision of the scientific council for the competi- tion for the legality of establishing legal relations with the scientif ic workers is confirmed by the requirement of observing this ~uridical act in relation to reaolving the question of awarding the scientific titles according to the statute on the order for awarding scientific titles. Consequently, only the observance of the competition guarantees complete rights of the dcientif ic workers. The scientific workers who have been included for the position in violation of the active legislation without competition do not have the right to participate in the competition. Before the selection by the scientif ic council, the scientific workera are considered temporary represantatives in their offices, and the peridd for temporary execution of their duties cannot alter their legal position. However, these individuals may be discharged only because they were hired without the compe~ition. According to the explanation of the State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on Questions of Labor and Wages and the AUCCTU Secretariat ofr 29 December 1965 No 30/39, an acting official (appointed to~a vacancy) can only be r~leased for grounds stipulated by the legislation. References in the order for temporary execution of the duties do not provide the grounds either ~ for announcement of a competition or for discharge. The competition for filling positions of scientific workers is aimed at guaranteeing the selection of the most qualified pereonnel for the work in scientific research institutea and laboratories. Observance o~ tite competi- tion procedure must create guarantees for an ob~ective approach to evaluating the~baainess qualities of the scientifia worker and hia cor~espondence to the occupied position,and exclude sub~ectivism in this matter. Many years of practice have confirmed the effectiveness of this system: competition ~as the main form of selecting scientific cadres promoted the attraction of skilled scientific workers to the scientific inatitutions of the USSR Academy of Sciences. But, unfortunately, the competition system is not sufficiently utilized in some scientific research inatitutions. This often results in hiring of random personnel for the positions of scientif ic workers. Hiring without competition alsca entails a violation of the labor rights of the scientifid workers. I recall that according to the existing legislation, the hiring of temporary workers for a period of up to 2 months, including retirees, done not for a vacant position but for a temporarily absent scien~if ic worker (because of leave of absence, business trip, illnese, etc.). Without announcement of a competition, individuats 8re also accepted to replace workers who have been sent for a lengthy business trip abroad. Acceptance for woric in these instances is done on the condition of an emergence labor contract according to point 2 of article 10 of the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the union republic republics on labor. In holding competitions, proper attention is not always given to the procedure for evaluating the cadrea. At the same time, the observance of thie procedure is necessary for the implementation of the Leniniat principles of selecting and placing cadres. The lack of clearly formulated and juridically decreed requirements for each category of scientific colleague cotaplicates the solution of problems associated with the hiring of scientific colleagues. It 33 F'OR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY is therefore necessary to supplement the instructions on the order for replacing the positions of the scientific workers with a list of basic require- ments made for the competition participants. This needs to be done because in a number of scientific institutions attempts are made to stipulate these requirements by orders ~nd instructive lettera. The system for evaluating the activity of scientific colleagues which exis~s in our country generally has a common nature, is limited to listing the number amount of work done and statement of its brief contents. The official qualification characteristics approved by a decree of the State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers for labor and social questions of 8 February 1978 No 38 only plays an auxiliary role in the competition process. It would be more correct to link the development of off icial qualification charac- teristics with the updating of legal norms regarding the order for replacing the offices of scientific workers. Taking into consideration the positive experience of the competitive system of selecting cadres, it is time to pinpoint and expand the list of positions which must be filled by competition. A number of scientific research insti- tutes have introduced positions of leaders of groups of scientific research s~bdivisions. The time of working in this position is counted in the length of servi~e of acientif ic research work. The leader of the group very often heads the collective of senior and junior scientific colleagues. The queation of the order for appointing to the position of the leader of the group, his election or recertification has not been answered in any one of the etandard acts. It seems that this leader should be elected by competition. For these reasons, the instruction on the order of replacing the offi~ns of scientific workers in scientific research institutions must be supplemented with the following statute: the list of positions sub~ect to election by competition must include positiqns of leaders of the groups of scientific research subdivisions. The list of positions of scientific workers that are filled by competition should also be pinpointed because in recent years (after the publication of instructions on competitions) in order to strengthen the material interest of the scientif ic workers in improving the eff iciency of scientific research in individual scientific research institutions of different departments, new systems of paying the scientists were introduced as an experiment. (We are speaking of the Scientific Research P1~ysical-Chemical Institute imeni L. Ya. Karpov, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Organization, Control and Economics of the Oil and Gas Industry and other institutiona). Consequently, a number of scientific research institutions have introduced additional titles for positions of scientific workers: head of the section, head of the sector, chief epecialist, leading researcher, senior researcher, scientific colleague, ~unior s~:ientifio colleague, etc. In this case, the positions "chief specialist," "leading researcher," "senior researcher," "scientific colleague" are not stipulated in any of the standard acts which define the order for hiring and firing scientific workers. By a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers of 22 March 1967 No 237, the leaders of the scientific research institutions are given the right to . 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFiC[AL USE ONLY formulate and confirm the structure and staff of the scientific-research institution as applied to the model structures and staffs. In the decision (order) on reorganization, the ds for eliminating and organizing subdi- visions or individual positions are indicated (with complete listing of their titles). The fact of selecting scientific workers according to the old (eliminated) structure loses i~s ~uridical value from the date of reorganiza- tion (elimination.of the given subdivision or position) and does not provide the grounds for noncompetitive filling of vacant pos~tions of the scientif ic workers according to the new structure. The scientific colleagues of the eliminated subdivisions (positions) which during reorganization will not be accepted in the competition for vacant position in~~ the new structure are released to cut down on the staff (point 1 of article 33 of the RSFSR Code of Laws on Labor) with payment of two-week severance pay. The release of scientific workers to cut down on the size of the staff is done with observance of the norms of labor legislation. Dis- solution of the labor contract for point 1 of article 33 of the RSFSR Code of Law on Labor is not permitted without preliminary agreement of the local trade union committee, and the offer to participate in the competition equals ~ an offer for specialized employment. The 26th Party Congress has set high assignments for 1981-1985 for the develop- ment of science and technology. The USSR Gosplan, State Conanittee for Science and Technology, and USSR Academy of Sciences have formulated 160 scientific and technical programs, including 30 target intregrated programs which stipulate large-scale realization in the national economy of the most signif icant achievements of science. It consequently becomes necessary to rapidly change the structure and staffs of the scientific research institu- tions. Increase in work efficiency of the scientific organizations without increase in the number of scientific cadres is of especial importance. It has been proven long ago that the�successful development of scientific research depends not on the simple increase in numbers of scientif ic workers, but primarily on their correct selection, optimal placement and the most expedient use. This also determines the task of re-examining the formed principles of competitive selection of scientific cadres and their certifi- cation in order to convert this system into an efficient tool for improving the efficient of work of the scientifid research institutions. This means the establishment of a clear order for changing the organizational structures of the scientific institution to bring them into correspondence with the changing sub~ect matter, for elimination and reorganization of small and ineff icient subdivisions, for concentration of scientific forces on the main, ' key trends in scientific and technical progress. It is expedient to change the periods for selecting the scientific workers and to take them on for a period that coincides with the planned period for fulfilling the scientific work. The active instructions for the order of filling positions of the scientific workers of scientific research institutions have established that every S years these workers (~unior scientific colleagues every 3 years) should be appointed for a new period by the scientif ic council. The decision of the 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY council in this case has the same 3uridical force as the decision on the results of the competitions. Thus, the individuals who have been hired without competition and who have passed selection at the scientific council acquire the right of the scientif ic workers hired by competition. (The agreem.ent of the scientific worker for selection is not required; if he does not want to observe the order of selection (certification) established by the legislature, he can file for release or switching to another position where certification is not held). The procedure of selecting for a position significantly differs from the holding of the competition. The competition is only held to fill a vacant (not occupied by anyone) position, and several applicants for one position generally participate in the competition. The selection of scientific workers for a new period is done by a schedule approved by the administration with the agreement of the local trade union committee and the higher organization. The schedule is approved in the beginning of each year and the scientific workers are informed. In addition, the leader of the scientific institution is obliged to notify in advance, but no later than . 10 days before the meeting of the scientific council (section) the individuals selected for the new period, the date and place of the council (section) meeting. It is not recornmended that more than five-aeven scientific workers be selected at one meeting of the scientific council. Before the scientific workers are selected to a position, they must report on the results of their scientif ic activity in the past period (five-year or three-year for the junior scientif ic colleagues). The heads of the scien- tific departments, laborator~es, sectors re~ort at the meeting of the council, the senior and junior scientific colleagues report in the scientific department, laboratory or sector. The scientific worker provides a report in written formfor the period indicated by the administration. In addition, the meeting of the council or scientific subdivision hears his `r~rnr~: --~T~te "riature of the oral report is determined by the scientif ic council which may be limited to answers of the scientif ic worker to individual questions. The council of the~scientific institution makes a decision about selecting the scientific worker for the position for a new period by secret vote. The decision is considered effective if no less than two-thirds of the council members participated in the voting. The scientific worker is considexed selected if over half of the council members ~o participated in the selection voted for him. The scientif ic workers who are selected for the new term _ have the right to be present at the meeting of the scientific council to discuss their questions. If the scientific worker is absent from the meeting without valid reasons, the question of selection can be examined in his absence. In this case, the council hears a report of the leader of the subdivision where the scientific worker works , and makes a decision by voting. The scientific worker can ask for a secondary examination by the council of Che question of his selection to a position if he was not present at the meeting of the council for a valid reason (for example, sickness, leave of absence, business trip) or if he was not notif ied of the time and place of the council's examination of the question of his appointment to the position. 36 FOR OFF[CIAL U3E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The scientific workers that are not selected by the council for the new term are released from work in the scientific institution or are transferred to lower offices (noncompetitive). The following is entered in the work book of the released workers: "geleased because of lapse of work term set by the legislature on competitions." It would have been useful to ~ake the statufie standard which states that ~ during the selectinn for a new term, as the suitability of the scientific colleague for the nex~ h~gher positio~ is clarified, the scientific council could make a suggestion about transferring him to this higher position. This requires the introduction of several ranks both for ~unior and for senior scientific colleagues with a difference in the position salaries. The active instructions for the order of filling positions of scientif ic workers also stipulate a special, exceptional case for release: the leader of the scientific institution has the rfght to fire or~demote a_ ~ scientific worker before the end of the five-year or three-year period if he has not shown a positive side in its scientific work. The basis for this firing or demotion is the decision of the council about the noncorrespondence of the worker to the occupied position made by secret vote. The resolution of the question must generally be preceded by verification of his work by a special commission appointed by the director of the scientific institution from the members of the council, as well as representatives of the social organizations. The commission pro�~ides the council with its motivated con- clusion, and the workers must be acquainted with its contents and the materials of the check before the meeting of the council. The order for firing a scientific worker because he does not fit the position also needs pinpointing. It is extremely important to define the sample list of grounds for firing a scientific worker, including cases where he did not show a positive side in scientific work, and also when his non- correspondence is determined by amoral behavior, especially in educational functions (supervision of post-graduate students or scientific subdivisions). According to the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers of 24 September 1968 No. 760, a number of ineasures were adopted to improve the results of scientific activity. The USSR Academy of Sciences, sector academies, academies of sciences of the union republics, ministries and departments have been entrusted with evaluating no less than once every 3 years the activity ~~f the scfentific research institutions under their jurisdiction. 't'he rp.sults of this evaluation muat be used to make a decision on their futther development, additional material incentive for the collectives. The evaluation of the activity results of the scientific insti- tution should be considered in the certification, and material stimulation should be more widely used to increase the efficiency of the scientific work. It is necessary to considerably strengthen the efficiency of the economic levers and stimuli, having placed material incentive in direct dependence on the efficienty and quality of work and the fulfillment of the planned assign- ments. Legal regulation of the labor of the scientific workers is one of the most important methods of state supervision of science. From here we have the need to improve the order for filling positions of the scientific workers and other statutes on their labor. The legal grounds for training and certifying 37 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOit OFFICIAL USE ONLY need to improve the order for fulfilling the positions of scientific workers and other statutes on their labor. The legal principles for training and certification of scientific cadres must be secured in legislation and at the same time promote an improvement in the efficacy of scientific research. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR", 1982 9035 CSO: 1814/76 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 207.2 SOVIETS ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN INTERNATIONAL 'MAN AND BIOSPHERE' PROGRAM Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SS$R in Russian No 4, Apr 82 pp 77-84 [Article by Academfcian V. Ye. Sokolov snd Candidate of biological sciences G. V. Nizhnik: "In the Soviet Committee on the Program,'Man and the Bio- sphere ] � [Text] In 1970 the 16th Session of the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the international program "Man and the Biosphere" (MAB from the English Man and the Biosphere). This program which was instituted by UNESCO because of the ever increasing effect of man on the environment was called upon to guarantee on the basis of comprehensive basic researdh the production of scientific data needed for the efficfent use of natural resources and con- trol of processes occurrin g in nature. The program stipulates the use of the experience of certain other interna- tional programs, in particular the International Biological Program. But in contrast to it, the new program, in a~dition to study'ing the changes in the natural processes occurring in the biosphere under the influence of human activity, also focuses attention on investigating the effect of these changes on man himself. Specialista of the most diverse fields of knowledge have been involved in the work, including representatives of the humanities (sociologists, economists, etc.), that is the program has a clearly pronouncPd interdisciplinary nature. It stipulates the organization and conducting in different regions of the world of comprshensive studies on the investigated problems. Supervision of the work and observation of its fulf illment has been entrusted to the International Coordination Council which includes representatives of 30 states, including the USSR. At the last Seventh Session of the council which took place in Paris from 30 September to 2 October 1981, the following were elected to its staff: chairman Balla Keyta (Ivory Coast) and four vice-chatrmen V. Ye. Sokolov (USSR), D. King (United States), R. Neto (Brazil) and Yan Hanshi (Chinese People's Republic). The first session of the council in November 1971 suggested 13 projects for international cooperation, and in 1974 upon the inltiat{ve of the Soviet scientists the was supplemented with a'14th project: "Study of Environmental Pollution and Its Effect on the Biosphere." In addition, according to the recommendations of the firat conference on coordinating the activity of the national committees on the program "Man and the Biosphere" (Moscow, March, 1977), four working groups were additionally set up: for 39 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ON~.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY environm~ntal protection education and training of cadres; for socioeconomic problems of tt~e interaction of man and the biosphere; for systems analysis and mathematical modeling; for scientific and technical information. The UNESCO program "Man and the Biosphere" currently includes the following pro~ects. Pro~ect 1--"Ecological Effect of Increasing Human Activity on the Tropical and Subtropical Forest Ecosystems." Project 2--"Ecological Effect of Different Types of Land Use and Management Practice on Forests in the Temperate Zone and Mediterranean" (subproject 2a--"Ecological Effect of Man on Taiga Ecosystems"; subpro~ect 2b--"Effect of Humar. Activity on Vegetation, Environmental Protection Properties and.Productivity of Forest Ecosystems of the European Sector of the USSR.") Pro~ect 3--"Effect of Human Activity and Methods of Land Use on Pasture Land: Savanna and Grassy Landscapes (from Moderate to Dry Regions".) Pro~ect 4--"Effect of Human Activity on Dynamics , of Ecosystems of Arid and Semiarid Zones, Including Use of Pasture Lands and Consequences of Irrigation." Project 5--"Ecological Effect of Human Activity on Resources of Lakes, Swamps, Rivers, Deltas, Estuaries and Coastal Regions." Project 6--"Effect of Human Activity on Mountain and Tundra Ecosystems" (subpro~ect 6a--"Effect of Human Activity on Mountain Ecosystems"; sub- project 6b--"Effect of Human Activity on Tundra Ecosystems.") Project 7-- "Ecology and Efficient Use of Island Ecosystems." Pro~ect 8-~Preservation of Natural Regions and Genetic Material Contained in Them "(subpro~ect 8a-- "Biospheric Preserves"; subpro~ect 8b--"Species and Its Productivity in the Geographic Ranges.") Project 9--"Ecological Evaluation of the Control of Agricultural Pests and Use of Fertilizers in Surface and Water Ecosystems" (subpro~ect 9a--"Ecological Evaluation of the Consequences of Using Ferti- lizers in Surface and Fresh Water Ecosystems"; subproject 9b--"Ecological Consequences of Systematic Use of Pesticides and Other Means of Controlling Harmful Organisms in Surface and Fresh Water Ecosystems.") Pro3ect 10-- "Effect of Main Types of Engineering Operations on Man and His Environment." Project 11--"Ecological Aspects of the Municipal Systems ~aith Special Emphasis on the Use of Energy ("Ecological Aspects of Settlement")." Pro- ject 12--"Interaction between Transformations of the Enviroment and Adaptive, Demographic and Genetic Structure of the Population." Project 13--"Under- standing of the Condition of the Environment." Project 14--"Study of Environ- mental Pollution and Its Effect on the Biosphere." Over 100 countries participating in the work on the program have set up national committees which select the most urgent trends in ~esearch for their countries and guarantee international cooperation for their implementation. Work was done 2 years ago on 396 scientific topics, but now the number of developed topics has risen to 906 and a considerable number of them cover the effect of human activity on the main types of natural communities: tundra, forests of the temperate zone, subtropics, tropics, savanna, steppe and desert, islands and mountains, basins and coastal regions. Ways are also being sout~ht for oreser~~atjon of the different natural regions and geno- fund of animals and plants. The effect is being est$blished of pesticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers on the environment~ reasons are being specified for the decreased efficiency of chemical control of agricultural pests, etc. As a result of the studies, scientifically substantiated fore- casts should be made for changes in the biosphere and recommendations should 40 FOR GFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500084432-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY be made aimed at guaranteeing wiae economic activity of man and permitting the combination of material and apiritual welfare of people with normal func- � tioning of the biosphere. The Soviet committee on the UNESCO program "Man and the Biosphere" was set up at the end of September 1975. But it actually began to operate in 1976, therefore 1981 became sort of an anniversary for it since the committee summarized its activity for 5 years. This article should present an idea about these results, but a~ournal article is not a report, therefore it will only name indivfdual results as examples characterizing the committee!s activity. The basic tasks of the Soviet committee on the UNESCO program "Man and the Biosphere" are to coordinate and direct the scientific research on this program in our country. and also provide a link to UNESCO and other inter- national and national organizations involved in problems of studying and protecting the biosphere and the efficient use of i~s resources. The committee consists of an office, secretariat, scientific coordination council, working groups and republic committees which directly organize work for the program. The chief institutions for almost all pro~ects on which work is done in the Soviet Union are the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the academies of aciences of the union republics, and only for two projects (1 and 14), as well as for one working group (for education and training of cadres) the institutions of other departments (USSR State Commi~tee on Forestry, USSR State Commit~ee on Hydrometeorology and the Moscow State University respectively). The organizational support for work of the commit~ee has been entrusted to the Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals imeni A. N. Severtsov of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A tot~l of 22 working groups have been formed and are actively working. They plan and monitor the fulfillment of ~esearch in the Soviet Union in the framework of their pro~ect or problem, and some guarantee cooperation and coordination of research on a regional level for all the countries of socialist cooperation: they develop model research programs, pinpoint the technique, hold meetings of experts on the most urgent problems. The republic committees Set up in all the union republics and work~ng on in- house programs of scientific research programs under the supervision of the Soviet commnittee play an important role. In the past period~ many regions of the USSR have evolved comprehensive studies which investigate the changes occurring in the biosphere and its components under the influence of human activity. It should be said that only 2 countries are working on all 14 international pro~ects, the USSR and Australia. UNESCO took an inventory in July 1979 of the scientif ic research topics whose development had begun in 1976. Our country registered 246 of these topics that referred to all 14~pro~ects. This is the greatest number of topics for one separate countzy. Australia, for example, regis- tered 64 topics and the other countries considerably fewer. ~ 41 FOR OFF'IC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The pro~ects which are included in the program cover the most diverse ' problems. For example, the main task of the pro~ect "Ecological Effects of Different Types of Land Use and Practice of Management on the Forests in the Temperate Zone and the Medite~ranean" (we have 45 topics) is to formu- late fundamentals for the efficient use of the taiga and mixed forests and to establish ways to increase their productivity, and special attention is focused on creating methods for forecasting the nature of the response of the forest ecosystems to anthropogenic intexference. According to this pro~ect, the USSR has completed the first stage in studying the cedar forests of the Urals and the West Siberian plain. The basic laws have been revealed which cover the restoration and age dynamics. The ages of maturity of the cedar forests of varying biological and economic importance have been defined. Basically new statutes have been preliminarily formulated for managing the cedar forests with regard for their restorative-age dynamics. There are a number of suggestions and devPlonme*+ts for efficient use and restoration of the taiga ecosystems. In particular, methods have been suggested for studying the post-fire dynamics of forests with the use of aerial and space photographs, as well as a technique for mapping this process. The results of studying the water protection role of forests of the Lake Baykal basin have been the basis for forestry manage- ment in this region. ~ A no less amount of work has been done in relatian to the mixed and broad- leaved ecosystems. Information is primarily accumulated and generalized regarding the productivity of the forest ecosyatems in the European secter of the USSR depending on their composition, age, type of forest, etc. Ranges of fluctuation in the most important environmental factors have been revealed, and correlations have been defined between them and the horti- cultural composition, structure and produEtivity of the communities. Pro- cesses of differentiation and falling of adult trees in the climax taxons . hav~ebeen stt~died in special detail as a reaction to the high population - density, and as a result of competition for solar energy, water and food resources of the ecosystem. The nature has been revealed of adaptive re- arrangements in the structure of the assimilation apparatus and suction roots of spruce'stock in crttical weather situations. The mate~tials of these and other studies were the basis for a flowsheet and practical measures for protecting the apruce forests of the large state sanctuary Verkhenvol'zhye (Central Forest State Preser~e of the USSR Ministry of Agriculture) where a system was set up for sample reference areas to organize studies on the program of biosgheric preserves. An important part of the work is to evaluate the effect of ineliorative syatems on the productivity of forest types. It was found that decrease in the level of subsoil water during meliorative operations to 0.5 m in the ma~ority of cases does not reduce the productivity of forests. but can cause temporary reduction in their growth. With a decrease in the level of subsoil waters in limits of 0.5-1 m, the change in productivity can,depending on other conditions, be positive, neutral and negative. Wi~h a decrease in the level of subsoil waters by more than 1 m, the productivity of tree stocks diminishes. As a result of the conducted studies, an approximate scale has been compiled for the effect of reclamation on the productivity of 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY phytocenoses and recommendat#.cns have been worked out for the establishment of biological productivity bfi forest communities depending on their water supply. Recom~endations have been drawn up for isolation and preservation in the natural state of valuab~e landscapes and ob~ects of vegetation (land- scape sanctuaries, botanical sanctuaries and monuments of nature)during meliorative construction. Work has also been active for the pro~ect "Effect of Human Activity and Methods of Land Use on Pasture Land" (seven topics~. Scientific fundamentals have been formulated for the efficient use of pasture land in different climate, social and economic conditions. In particular, the economic processes have been investigated in the Ukrainian steppes, the role of human economic activity in the evolution o:F modern biogeocenoses has been evaluated, and specific suggestions have be:en made for itnproving the natural stegpe vege- tation and its protection. Procedures for radical and surface improvement of the natural feed crops of Lhe Donbass have been developed and introduced using local species and forms of perennial feed plants and those from other regions. Recommendations have been introduced into~ practice for the eff!.cient use and improvement in pasture lands which stipulate the regn#.ation of cattle grazing by seasons, standardization of the load, introduction of fallow pastures, planting of valuable feed grasses, application of fertilizers, irri�ation ~f the steppe plots, etc. A technique has been formulated for evaluating the degre~ of anthropogenic degradation of the ecosystems. This is of great.practical importance. Maximum permissible loads have been set for ~ndividual categories of eco- systems. Studies have been made of the structure, dynamics and anthzopo- tolerance of populations of a number of endemic plants in the Urals and tlral region. Scisntific fundamentals have been formulated for protecting rare plants in these regions (the mater~.a3~s have been included in the regional "Red Book"). A of forecasting charts have been prepared for the forest-steppe Ural region on changes in the nature of the vegetation in the next 20-50 years under anthropogenic.loads o�~ varying strength. In the development of the procedures for improving productivity of the mountain pasture lands and hay fields of Ta~.fkistan it was establi~shed that the surface use of mineral fertilizers improves the productivity of low-grass and large-grain semisavannas, mountain steppes, meadows and prickly grasses 2-4-fold. It has been shown that each plant species has a unique reaction to the application of ferti~izers and as a consequence the atructure of the herbage changes. The work on the pro~ect "Effect of Hua?an Activity on the Dyaamics of the Ecosystems of Ar#d and Semiarid Zones, Including the Use of Pasture Lands and the Oonsequences of Irrigation" (22 topics) is very important for our country. Basic research on the project is aimed at clarifying the laws governing the structural-functional organizat~~nn of the desert biogeo- cenoses, dynamics and evolu.tion of their mein components, as well as the development of fundamentals for the efficient use of the desert resources and improvement in its productivity. In particular, the morphological differentiation and multiple-year dynamics of the landscapes in the east Karakumy have been investigated. 43 FOIt OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OF6'ICIAL USE ONLY Within the framework of the pro~ect, experimenta are successfully being carried out to use space equipment to investigate the natural conditions of the desert. It is understandable what importance the space methods have for studying territories of the desert of difficult access, eapecially if one considers that an increase in the rates of development of new lands and intensification of the anthropogenic effect on the~nature of the desert requires an effective system of rapid monitoring of the changes in these territories and control of their natural procesaes. Studies of the spectral reflectivity of the vegetation, soils and other natural components in different regions of Turkmenistan made it possible to determine the optimal seasonal periads and informative spectral intervals for aeror space photographs to solve a number of scientific and praCtical tasks. A lot of attention is focused on the development of basic methad conclu~ions for mapping the natural processes from large-scale aerial photographs. These maps make it possible to qualitatively evaluate the condition of the environment and obtain quantitativp data on the intensity of certain pro- cesses occurring in it. New thematic maps have been compiled: landacape map of Turkmenistan (scale 1:2,500,000), soil (1:1,000,000) and map of vegetation in the zone of influence of the first phase of the Karakum canal and the adjoining territories. Theae maps are viewed as the first stage in implementing the ecological monitcring of desert ecosysteina. Scientific fundamentals have been formulated for enriching the existing natural and creating artif icial desert biogeocenoses. Work is underway to improve the methods of securing moving sands and comprehensive development of low-productive sandy soils. A total of 426 species and types of feed crops have been introduced from the�cauntries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. T~n:~ of them proved to be the most stable under the harsh conditions of Karakumy and yield high harvests of grain for si~os. Social and economic studies of the consequences of the effect on arid eco- systems of anthropogenic factors, including those associated with irrigation and interbasin redistribution o� run-off are becoming more widespread. Cal- culations have been made for this purpose to determine the economic efficiency of transferring part of the run-off of the Siberian rivers into the central region. According to preliminary data, implementation of the first phase of run-off transfer developed by the planning organizations will riot result in considerable changes in natural conditions on large-regional scales, although it will significantly affect local features of the environment, and the nature of local changes may vary in fairly broad limits depending on the specific technical solutions, local natural and economic conditions. It should be said that the problem of transferring part of the run-off of the northern rivers of the country occupies a large place in the studies on the project "Effect of Main Types of Engineering-Technical Work on Man and - His Environment" (14 topics). At the current stage of development of productive forces, this complicated ecological-economic problem is an important part of the general problem of efffcient use of nature, while i~s resolution is aimed, in particular, at scientific substantiation for the measures to control water resources of the dry land as the most important component of the biosphere and element of productive forces of society. 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OF'F'ICiAL USE ONLY A comprehensive analysis has been made in the pro~ect of the negatiue conse- quences of territorial redistribution of water resources and specif ic recom- mendations have been drawn up for their maximum possible prevention. Engin- eering-economic solutions have been analyzed for the project of territorial redistribution of run-off from the viewpoint of guaranteeing protection of nature, impnovement in the use of natural resources and imprn~rement in the living conditions, state of health and activity of the ~population. The appropriate recommendations have been formulated. One of the projects especially covers the problems of water resources, "Eco- logical Effect of Human Activity on the Resources of Lakes, Swamps, Rivers, Deltas, Estuaries and Coastal Regions"(16 topics). Primary attention here was aimed at investigating the biolog~? of aquatic organisms and the effect of pollution on the composition and production processes ~f aquatic bio- cenoses. Recording has been done and a cadaster has been compiled for 414 of the largest lakes in Belorussia and this was the basis for recmmmendations for their eff icient use and improvement in their water regime. The results of these studies were considered in the development of a unif ied neEwork of protected territories of Belorussia and organization ~of lake sanctuaries. It has been shownthat the effect of economic activity has been felt by the absolute ma3ority of lakes of Belorussia, and this entails the development of processes of eutrophication because of the influx of biogenic substances, primarily phosphurus and nitrogen. Practical recommendations have been prepared for decreasing the rates of eutrophication ofthe republic'~s basins. Method principles have been formulated within the pro~ect for forecasting the changes in the resources of surface waters of Belorussia, the Ukraine and Moldavia, and a quantitative evaluation has been made of these changes for the calculated levels of 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000. New criteria have been formulated for removal and use of water resources with regard for the hydrological features.of the water ob~ects. In addition to this, a survey has been made of the Soviet and foreign experience for comprehensive evaluation (bonitation) of the nattsral resources of the river ecosystems for their most effic~ent economic use. The bonitation was carried out for the balance of phosphorus and nitrogen, and based nn an estimate of the main natural elements of the river ecosystems: lowland meadows, fish resources and comnercial hunting fauna. The results of this work have been transferred from practical uae. The Soviet scientists have done a lot on the project "Preservation of the Natural Regions and the Genetic Material Contained in Them" (25 topics). The main goal of the pro~ect which is quite new and has not figured in the previous programs of work is to create a world network of biospheric sanc- tuaries and to guarantee protection of the genofund of the main types of ground and fresh water ecosystems. Biospheric sanctuaries are a component part.of the syatem of global ecological monitoring. Their tasks include the preservation of the genofund of living organisms and reference ecosystems, observation of the condition of the ecosystems and their individual crnnponents both on territories whose natural 45 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY resources are not exposed to direct economic use, and on territories which are under anthropogenic influence, development of inethods for predicting the changes in the condition of the environment, forms and strategies for contr.olling natural processes, as well as methods of ecological education, that is, training in a correct attitude towards nature. In the past period, the USSR has created the first phase of biospheric sanctuaries (Caucasus, Repeteksiy, Central Chernozem, Sikhote-Alin'skiy, Prioksko-Terrasnyy, Berezinskiy and Sary-Chelekskiy), which have been included in the world network by a UNESCO decision. The first samples of Che future unified monitoring system have been successfully set up on the basis. of some of these preserves. In order to fulfill the monitoring program in each bioapheric preserve, not only are studies made which are common for all sanctuaries which clarify the effect of pollution on the environment, but regional tasks are solved which are associated with clarifying the effect on certain ecosystems of different types of economic activity. This trend in thE work will considerably foster the conducting of zonal-regional measures for environmental protection, and at the same time provide the most Important material for development of the most effective ways of realizing complicated and multiple-plan tasks associated with the observance of the condition of the environment, its protection and efficient use. Improtant studies are being made in the framework cf this pro3ect on the problem "Species and Its Productivity." It is ,prc~posed,it~ particular, that the solution to the tasks of environmental protecti.on and the efficient use of biological resources be based on data obtained fr^m studying individual animal species. Thus the studies of the earthworm of the species Eisenia nordenskioldi indicated that it may prove promising for settlement in isolated f oci of farming in the European northern USSR where there are practically no dead organic residuea in the arable lands because of the lack of earth- worms. The species of pincher tick Nothrus palustris will probably prove suitable for bioindication of industrial and radioactive pollution. The species Chironomus plumosus L. (midges) are a convenient subject for studying the effects of an anthropogenic factor on the environment: it was found that the adaptation of thd:s species to changes in the environment is accompanied by the appearance in its karyotype of additional chromosomes. Investigation of the distribution and ecology of the roe deer Capreolus capreolus will significantly improve its hunting. The introduction of a unif ied system for collecting, processing, accumulating and issuing data on species of animals and organization of "banks" of biological information will have great significance for solving questions of preservation and efficient use of resources of the animal world. A'proto- type has currently been set up in the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences, the main institute for work in this area. Finally, it is impossible not to stress that the initiators for including into the pro~ect such a project which is exceptionally urgent in our time as "Study of the Pollution of the Environment and Its Effect on the Bio- sphere" (19 topics), the Soviet scientists, made a weighty contribution to its realization as well. For example, mathematical model~ were formuiated 46 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500084432-3 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY for the dispersal of poilutants, several levels of pollution of basins, soil, vegetation and atmospheric air of populated areas were established, far the f irst time in the practice of hygienic studiea a systematic characterizatior~-. wae made of the main types of industrial sources of environmental pollution with carcinogenic hydrocarbons, measures have been formulated to decrease the degree of pollution of the atmosphere, soil and water in regions of a number of ma~or industrial facilities, etc. It is already obvious from the listed diverse examples that the author of this article had to be limited to that the reaearch conducted on the program generally not only has great scientific, but also practical importance. This is characteristic for the work of the Soviet scientists on all the projects, and many results of the work have already been introduced or are being intro- duced into practice. The Soviet scientists continue, expand and deepen studies on the in~ernational program "Man and the Biosphere." It should be noted that they take an active part in the work on all aspects of the program, including economic, socio- logical, legal, c~itural, etc. The main feature of this program is that specific problems are resolved in its framework which meet the requirements of the participating countries. The Soviet committee for the program "Man and the Biosphere," in formulating plans for activity of our scientists, started from and start from the decisions of the 25th and 26th CPSU Congresses who have set the ecological prob3.em, the problem of environmental protection and the efficient use of natural resources among the most important state tasks. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR", 1982 9035 CSO: 1814/74 47 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OF'F'ICIAL USE ONLY UDC 001.89 ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE AND REPUBLIC WZ'S TO STRENGT~N TIES Moscow VESTNIR AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Ruasian No 12, Dec 81 pp 32-35 [Report by Academician A. A. Logunov, vice-preaident of the USSR Academy of Sciences, presented by Academician N. G. Baeov: "Concarning the Further Develop- ment and Strengthening of Relationthipe Between the Union-Republic Academies of Sciences and Higher Educstional Inatitutions"] [Text] The 26th CPSU Congress laid out a vitally important program for the economic and social development of our country for the llth Five-Year Plan and for the period up to 1990. In his report at the congreas, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev especially stressed that, for the aucc~asful implementation of this program and the fuller development of our economy in the 1980's, it i~ neesssary to accelerate ecientific- technical progress in every way poeaible and, coneequently, increase the output of Soviet science even more. The "Basic Directione for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1981-1985 and for the Period to 1990," adopted by the congress, also planned for increasing the effectiveness of utilizing the acientific potential of the country's WZ's, along with the development of science within the system of the USSR and union-republic academieo of aciences. Our country's higher schools at present have a large acientific potential. In them there are over 30,000 departmento, 60 acientifie-reaearch institutes, about 1500 laboratories oriented toward problema or economic aectore, and about 450 scientific- research aectors, computer centers, botanieal gardene, observatories, museums, and experimental design buresus. The staffs include over 500 academiciana and corre- sponding members of the USSR and union-republic academiea of aciences who actively participate in the training of specialiats and in the organization and conduct of scientific research. About 60,000 studente of formal poatgraduate programs and a significant number of undergraduates are actively engaged in acientific reaearch in higher schools. The USSR Acadenry of Sciences attachea a great deal of significance to interaction with WZ's and to the development of creative relationahips with tnem. With close contact wlth che USSR and RSFSR Miniatriea of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education, the presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciencea for many yeara has given practical aseistance to WZ'8 in training apecialiat� and has given methodological assiatance in developing scientific research in the moet urgent areas of preeent- day science. 48 FOR OF'FICIAE. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY According to a plan approved bq the presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences, over 400 scientiate go out to WZ'a around the countfy enery year to give lectures and provide sid in scientific-m~thodological work. Juat during the yeara of the lOth Five-Year Plan, about 2000 seientiets, including over 200 acade~icians and corre- sponding members of the USSR Academq of Sciences, went out to the country's WZ's. Fruitrul relationehipa in the training of apecialiats and in the cultivation in them of scientific-research work habits have been established between the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Phyaical-Technical Inatitute. The dietingui~hing feature of these relationehips ia provision bq the academy to the Physical-Technical Insti- tute of inetitute facilities wh~re atudents of senior couraes obtain deep epeciali- zation and the possibility of mastering new areas of science. A special department, organized jointly with the Phyaica In~titute imeni P. N. Lebedev of the USSR Academy of Sciences, has operated at the Moscow Engineering- Physics Institute for over ten years. This department prepares undargraduates and graduates, using current achievdmenta.of academy phyaics inatitutea in individual programs with consideration for the intereats of the institute that sent the atudent ~here. Experience in creative relationahipa betwQen the USSR A~cademy of Sciencea and the Moscow Phyaical-Technical and the Moacow Engineering-Phqaics Institutes could be usefully transferred to the union republica. In a number of aaademies of aciencea it is already in use to a certain degree. An important role in the further development of sciance in republic higher edu�a- tional institutions was played by the decree of the CPSU C~ntral Co~ittee and USSR Council of Ministers No. 271 of 6 April 1978 "On Inexeasing the Effectivenesa of Scientific-Research Work in Higher Educational Inati~utions." A large amount of attention is being given to thia problem also bq fl i~ective o� union repub- lics' reflecting this in sp~cial deciaion~. In many republias, couneils or commis- sions for relations with higher achoola have been created under the academies (AzSSR, ArSSR, GSSR, LaS6R, MSSR, UzSSR, and ESSB). The measures that have been introduaed have made it p0asible for creative relation- ships between republic WZ's snd republic aeadamies of eciences to grow and strengthen significan~ly. At the present time, forms of creative cooperation have evolved and proved themselve~, auch as W~ participation in joint reaearch with academy inatitutions in ~he nstural~and social sciencea, agreements for creative cooperation, work accorSing to unified eoordination plane and inter-VIJZ special- purpose scientific-teehnical programa, joint publication of acientific worke and - teaching aids, and conduct of joint acientific conferencea. Many ecientists from the republic aeademiea take part in the training of specialiats at WZ's, give special couzses of lectures, and provide ecientific-methodological asaiatance. About 300 scientiate from republic hi~her echool~ are active mamber~ or correspon- ding members of republic acaiemies of eciences and, in a number of republica, their number reaches 20 to 30 percent of the total number of aeademy memberahip. Many WZ scientista work actively in problen councils. The practice of joint projecte between WZ's and academy institutiona on imporCant scientific and ecientific- technical problems has begun to ezpa~ad; the numb~r of W2 projecta in coordination plans of academies has increaaed; and certain WZ's have begun to participate in 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY the development of long-term complex programa. Thus, the coordination plan of the Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciencea at the preesnt time haa up to 300 research projects of republic WZ's; the Latvian SSR Academy of Scienc~e plan has over 120 projecta; and the Lithuanian SSR Academy of sciQncea plan has 240 projecta (which conatitutes about 50X of all projects in the coordination plan of thi~ academy). Scientists of Moldavian W2's are co-performers in 15 republic multi-sector scientific-technical problems and 20 problems in the natural and social scienees. The Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciencea is having good sesults in joint reeearch with WZ ecientists in projects in the fi~lds of chemistry, m~etallurgy, biology, and mining. The Turlasez~ SSR Academy of Sciences is succesefully conducting complex research in cooperation with soil-science pereonnel from the Leningrad and Ta~hkQnt Agricultural Inatitutes in developing measuree directed toward the e~fec~ive use of land resourees, espe cially deserts. The Uzbek SSR Academy of S�ienees has developed practical measures for joint utilization with WZ's of unique s�ientific equipment. During the last three years, it has tranBferred acientifie equipment and inetruments worth a total of about 500,000 rublea to WZ's wi~hout compensation. Scientists of the Latvian SSR Academy of Scienaea are cooperating ~ucceaefully with republic WZ departmenta in urgent projects in organic ayntheaie, physica of solids, problems in machine building, and in other fields of research. The program for scientific cooperation for 1980-~981 bstween the Moldavian Academy of Sciences and the republic Ministry of Higher and Secondarq Specialized Education provides for joint work on 70 ecientific developments, 53 special lecture courses'by academy scientista, and more than 20 joint conferenaes and meetings; proposals are being developed for joint creation and operation of scienti�ic-experi.mental facilities and nonstandard equipment. A large amount of attention is being given to the d~vel.opment of creative relation- ships between academy institutee and WZ's by the preaidiuma of the acadQmies of sciences of the Ukraine, Belorussia, and Tajikiatan. In the Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences, this question has become a aubject for diecu~sion at a special aession cf the republic Council for Coordination. The tr~nsition to special-purpose-program planaing of scientific developments has had a positive influence on the development of cooperation between republic a~ad- emies of sciences and republic WZ's. As a result of this, creative relationships between academies and WZ's in individual republica have acquired a long-term basis, concentration of forcea and resources on the most important areas of ecientific- technical progress has been intensified, and th~ degree of complexity and level of research has been raised. As an example, one can cite the Belorussian SSR Academy ot Sciences where, under the lOth Fine-Year Plan, over 20 W~'s took parc in the development of 20 most-important republic complex programs. In Rirghizia, republic WZ's accomplished, together with the AcadQmy of Sciences, the dev~lopment of four complex programa as well as 116 topice in the general coordination plan. Close scientific cooperation between institutions of the union-republic academies of aciences and WZ's was planned alao for the llth Five-Year Plan and undoubtedly will facilitate the further development of fundamental and applied resaarch, increase ita effectiveness and, at the eame time, fulfill the directives of the 26th CPSU Congrese. 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In evaluating the atatus of creative relation~hips between higt?er schoole and union-republic academies of sciences~ it muat be recognized that, in this important matter, far from all exicting reaerv~a are being exhatisted.qet. VIJZ's in the republics do not eufficiently utiliZe the capabilities of republic academies for training, especialiy special-purpoae poatgraduate trai~ing programs. The capabilities of the U~Sx Academy of Sciences alao are not fully used for this purpose. On the other hand, acientiet~ of republic academies ~till do not partici- pate sufficiently in educational-taaching work in WZ's and give special lecture courses too infrequently. Considering the rapid development of seience and ita practical application, it seema important that the content of educational programs and lecturea in WZ's reflect the maximum in latest scientific achievement. This, in turn, presuppoaee serious work in systematic examination and renewal of curricula, programa, lecture courses, and laboratorq work. In correspondence with this, the subject matter of studento' courae and diploma projects aleo should be changed. Hence, it followa that conetant direct~ partieipation by leading scien- tists from republic academies in the scisntific-educstional proceas and in the preparation of textbooks and te~ching aid~ is extremely neaessary. Speaking of educational work and, especiallq, of inculcating atudants with the interest in and habits of research, it would be advisable to recommend to W2's and union-republic academies of sciences that they utilize more widely the experience of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Physical-Technical Inetitute, the Moacow Engineering-Physics Inetitute and Novosibirsk University, and also the UkSSR and BSSR Academies of Sciences, for combining the teaching proceas with scientific- research work at institutea of the academiea of aciencea. At the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences, at several academy in.titutea, depar~ments of the Moscow Physical-Technical Institute have been created that allow the training of specialists for new, growing areas of acience and technology. Up to 500 students annually undergo production practice in institutea mf the t?kSSR Academy of Sciences. As for creative scientific relationships between union-republic academies of sciences and WZ's, it ehould be noted that, although aueh relationahips have achieved a rather high lenel (UkSSR, BSSR, LaSSR, LiSSR, MSSR, and othera), they cannot be called satisfactory as $ whole. WZ's of union republica are still not sufficiently enlisted in active participation in the ~cientif ic research process of republic academies, and the capabilitiea of WZ's, their intellectual and scienti- fic-technical potential is insufficisntlq utiliaed. Insuffiaient also is the interaction between scientific problem councila of the ac~demies of sciencea and the corresponding WZ departmanta. Scientiata of tihe academiea of sciences do not participate activ~ly enough in the acientific rasear~h of WZ's, espe~ially on those problema for which WZ's are the head organizatione. The right forma have not been set up for the cooperation of librariea, patent servicee, and scientific-technical information between union-republic academies and WZ's. Academy-~VtTZ joint research related to fulfillment of special-purpo0e complex programs ia atill rare in the republica; insufficient also is cooperation on apecific developmenta between departments of higher schoola and corresponding ecientific institutiona of their republic academiee, and also coordination in planning and conducting joint topical conferences and symposia. The improvement of creative and practical relationohips between academy inatitutes and republic WZ'e and raising the level of reeearch conducted by them also 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY require th~ unification of their efforta to d~~~lop eollective utilization of expensive and vnique equipment, and, in tl~is connection, systems for acquiring , this equipment without unnecesaary dnplicstion. Thus, in summary, it must again be atated that the expansion, deepening, and improvement in the creative relation~hips between republic academies and higher schools are extremely urgent at ~he present time, since they represent a powerful hidden reserve that we should utilize to increase the effectiv~ness of science under the llth Five-Year Plan and to accomplieh the ta~ka placed before ecience by the 26th CPSU Congresa. ~ COPYRIGHT: Iadatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik.Akademii ~auk S.;SR", 1981 9645 CSO: 1814/48 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540080032-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY NEW EDITION OF 'MULTILATERAL COOPERATION OF THE ACADEMISS OF SCIENCES OF THE SOCIALIST COUNTRIES' ISSUED Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Rueaian No 4, Apr 82 pp 112-115 [Review b,y S. G. Kara-Murza, candidate of ch~m~cal aci~ences, of book "Mnogo- storoneye sotrudn3chestvo~akademiy~.aauk ~,otsialistYcheskikh stran"[N:ulti-- lateral Cooperation of the Academies of Sciences of the Soc~alist Countries], collection of articles and documents edited by Academician G. K. Skryabin, Moscow, Izdatel'svto "Nauka," 1981, 2000 copies, 368 pages] [Text] The st~ategic principle of a coordinated scientific policy. of the socialist countries to guarantee a solid front of research in all directioas of scientific and technical progress hae become urgent as never before in the recently developed international situation. A task of this scale can only be solved by the joint efforts of the states, and therefore requires all possible activation of scientif ic cooperation among the countries of socialist cooperation. This also determined the interest of the researchers, workers of nhe adminstration and broad circles of scientific public in works treating methodological and organizational problems of scientific cooperation which generalize the accumulated experience. The Administration of Scientific Eooperation with the Socialist Countries of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Institute of the Histvey of Natural Science and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences recently pre- pared a second, considerably revised and supplemented edition'of a collection - of articles and decuments "Multilateral Cooperation of "the Academies of Sciences of the Socialist Countries" (first edition in 1978). The need for the revision was explained by the fact that in the last 3~.~ears; the ties be- tween the academies have signif icantly deepened. New agreements were con- cluded, the circle of their participanta was�expanded and the Program for Multilateral Cooperation of the Academies of Scien�es for 1981-1985 and the draft of the Long-Term Program for Multilateral Cooperation in the A~ea of Natural Sciences to 1990 were approved. By tradition, the main fund for basic reaearch in the countries goes to the academies of aciences, and the ~is~:between them essentially determine the condition of cooperation in the sphere of basic sciences. These ties are an organic part of the entire system of international scientific and techninal cooperation in the framework of socialist cooperation, and at the same time, they reflect the specific nature of the academies of sciences as a special form of organization of science. 53 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY The circle of questions touched upon in the collection is very broad: the principles for development of science and the scientific cooperation under socialism, the history of cooperation of the academies, extensive ~~lformation about the exchange and mutual help in specific scientific areas. We find rich factua~ material in the documents which show the real practice of organizing multilateral scientific cooperation based on the use of a developed complex of original methods and resources. This mater~al which is diverse in its nature was successfully united into a comparatively small book ar~ it mas successfullq presented in a compact form because of the well-thaught ast structure of the collection. The first section presents the test of the speech of L. I. Brezhnev at a meeting with the leaders of the academies of aciences of the socialiat coun- tries on 17 February 1977, where the modern concepts regard~ng the role of science in the socialist and communist construction, and the tasks and prin- ciples of scientific cooperation cf the socialiet countries which are the basis for Sov#et scientific policy were formulated. The basic atatutes of the Communique on the Conference of Presidents of the Acadmies of Sciences of the Socialist Countries (15-18 Eebruary 1977) presented here are ~n common with these concepts. The next section is articles which cover the specific areas of multilateral cooperation of the academies and development of ite organizational forms. The authors of a number of materials are ma~or Soviet scientists who have participated in the establishment and the deepening of cooperation. It is apparent from their stories haw the formation of the scientific ties occurred, - how the selection of the organizational forms was influenced by the cognitive = situation in a certain trend of research or in a discipline, the presence of a scientific sCockpile, condition of the infrastructure of research of the partners, how the initiative and potentialities were considered not only of individual scientific schools, but even the individual prominent researche~s. In fact, even with a unit of that organizational-legal basis on which inter- national scd.entif ic and technical cooperation is built among socialist countries, each specific international community of scientists which developed in a specific area of science is an unrepeatable social organism. The descrip- tion of the history of formation and development of these communities is successfully supplemented by documents collected in the third section regarding the muttilateral cooperation of the academies. The publication of these documents is of scientific-cognitive importance, and in the context of the book, the indifferent articles of the agreements and the charters acqutre a new sound: they convincingly show the fraternal and equal-rights nature of the relationships between the partners in the area of scientific cooperation based on socialist principles of international solidariry. This is the great merit of the collection. Comparison of the facts of apecific history of cooperation of the academies of sciences of the socialist countries with organizational-legal documents generates inCeresting methodological questions. The long-established concepts acquire new content, especially the concept of mutually advantageous coopera- tion. It is known that from the very beginning of multilateral cooperation in 54 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USI~ ONLY the sphere of basic r.�esearch, the USSR Academy of Sciences has made such investments of material-technical and cadre reeources to the common buainesa that they have become a systems-forming factor which creates the basis for further ~oint activity. Of great importance, for e$amg~e, was the transfer of a first-class experimental base to the United Institute of Nuclear Reaearch. This made it possible in short periods to guarantee a high level of research in nuclear physics and elementary particles, and for the scientists of all the socialist countries offered the possibility of participating in the develop- ment ofone of the most important trends in scientific and technical progress. The technical resources presented by the Soviet Union permitted cooperation in an~ther sphere of science, space research. The countries who are participating in the program "Intercosmos" do not make mutual payments and calculations. The USSR is offering gratuitous resources of space rocket equipment and services of the command and measuring complex to its partners in cooperation. The USSR Academy of Sciences takes upon it- self comprehensive testing of the satellites with the apparatus of t~ie interested organizations and conducts prAliminary processing of the:tele- metering info~mation from on board the satellites. It is then sent for analysis to the countries participating in the experimant. Intensified work to study . space has joined the large international collective of scientists, engineers, cosmonauts and workers. The effett of each joint experiment is not limited to the "scientific advan~age" of each of the participants, but creates a common, indivisible value. When the satellite "Intercosmos-Copernicus-500" was put into o~bit in honor of the SOOth anniversary of N. Copernicus with scientific apparatus developed by the Polish scientists, the entire socialist comiaunity expressed ite respect for the great scientist: There is also an immeasurable ef~ect from the manned flights of citizens of the socialist countries in international crews on Soviet spacecraft and atations which was suggested by the USSR. The organization of international cooperation in nuclear and space research, which, as is known is distinguished by great specificity associated with the unique technical base, is sufficiently completely covered in the collection. In addition, the history and current state of cooperation of the academies of sciences of the socialist countries are shown in a broad spectrum of disciplines and scientific trends that are not strictly tied to the unique and expensive equipment. The book reports on the different "centers of crystallization" which developed as a result of the unif ication.of scientists of different fields of science, the mutually supplementing co~?bination of efforts of different scientif ic schools, and the coordinated study of the object with the help of different approaches. An eloquent example of this, molecular biology, is an area where because of the successful harmony of the joint efforCs of a very large number of scientific institutions of many countries, signifdcant resul~s have been achieved in a short time. They are determined a great deal by the extensive scientific-organizational experience accumulated from the moment that the international problem commission "Chemistry and Biochemistry of Nucle3c Acids" was set up in 1962. the authority dt has won in the scientific community, and the convincing demonstration of eff~.ciency of multilateral cooperation. ~ 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OI~'FICIAL USE ONLY The problem commission for the comprehensive problem "Molecular Biology" was set up in 1975. Now there are 30 institutes of the USSR and about 70 scien- tific institutions of the socialist countries participating in multilateral cooperation coordinated by this comanission. T hey are ~ointly working out over 20 topics. The project "Revertase" (leades of the wor�k Academician V. A. Engel'gardt and DocCor of biological sciences L. L. Kiselev) indicates the enormous potentia- lities which have been afforded during the joint studfes. The main purpose of the project is to master ~ynthesis of the genetic material by the so-called reverse transcription (synthes~s of DNA on the RNA matrix by the revertase enzyme). Studies on the project expand the concept regarding the basic features of living systems, and at the same time afford new paths for work in the field of genetic engineering wh~ch have great applied importance for medicine and agriculture. A large number of organizations of the Third World countries participated in implementing the project. The administerial experience indicates that in order to coordinate such a complicated system, strong admin~strative and economic levers are needed, however the pro~ect "Revertase" was implemented without the creation of any supranatdonal agency which possessed such levers. Common interest, mutual confidence of the participants and high scientific authority of the leaders proved to be suff icient factors to guarantee close cooperation, and in compressed schedules implemented a ma~or scientific and technical pro- gram. The group of scientists led by Academician V. A. Engel'gardt was awarded the USSR State Prize for this in 1970. Among the laureates were Academician of the Czechos~ovakian Academy of Sciences I. Rzhiman and Acade- mician of the GDR Academy of Sciences Z. Ro~en~hal. The cooperation of the academies of sciences of the socialist countries for basic scientific problems implemented within the framework of the problem commissions is supplemented by work done under the aegis of the coordinatf.dn centers. These centers coordinate the effor~s on an interdepartmental basis and unite different stages of the scientific and technical cycle, from forecasting to expertmental-design developments. In recent years the func- tions of the coordination center have been place more on the academic institu- tions. In particular, the Institute of Biophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences coordinates the researc~ in the area of biological physics of 137 organization-executors fram the socialist countries. The collection damon- strates well the combination of the most importatit forms of organizing the cooperation in academic science and the methods of including this cooperation into the general system which unifies the institutions and organi- zations of all types. A lot of space in the collection is given over to the area ~f social sciences. The features of these studies, the continuity of basic knowledge and its direct use i:~ controlling social processes, political-educatiox~al work and the ~ ldaological struggle, and the need for a fast response to the urgent questions which the complicated and rapidly cnanging political situation in the world raise--all of this has governed bhe special forms of coordinating the coopera- tion of social scientists. The collectioa aovers the role and the activity of the permanent management agencX, the Conference of Vice-Presidents of the Academies of Sciences of the 3ocialist Count~ries for Social Sciences from the moment of its signing in 1971.of the Agreement on Multilateral Scientific 56 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Cooperation. Re~rospective analysis of this cooperation shows a trend towards increase in it of the specific weight of the major "monograph" studies. This has been organizationally reflected in the transition to the five-year planning and the adoption of long-term programs which unite a number of target programe. They have been developed by international research groups set up on a temporary basis. Ma,jor joint measures are also being taken in the sphere of setting up scientific- information servicing of the scientists. A specfa~ article in the collection covers an analysis of the joint efforts of the socialist countries to set up the International Information System for Social Sciences (MISON). The Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences of the USSR Academy of S�iences has become the leading agency in the MISON. On the whole, familiarity with the collection makes it possible to conclude that i~.s authors and editors did extensive and useful work. It only remains to be hoped that this book has opened up a whole seriea of works on the problem of the cooperation of socialist countries ~n the area of fundamental science at the current stage which is urgent in a practical and theoretical sense. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Vestnik Akademii nauk SSSR", 1982 9035 CSO: 1814/75 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY S&T POLICY BEING F~'HASIZED IN CEMA COUNTRIES Moscow VOPROSY EKONOMIKI in Russian No 12~ Aec 81 pp 83-92 [Article by G. Vlaskin, Yu. Naido and 0. Yurygin: "Trends of Scientific-T.echnical Policy in CEMA Countries (Survey)"~ [Text] In the transition to intensive type of economic developtaent, scienti- f ic-technical policy begins to play a larger ro~e in the economic policy of the socialist countries. The measures taken in the framework of scientific- technical policy for state power and_control are aimed at: selection of ways for optimal develapment of national scieatific-technical potentials ~financing of scientific research and experimental deaign develop- ments, ~SREA~i, their structure, foruiation o~ the cadre potential of science and its staff, strengthening of the material--technical base of science); accelerated introduction of results of scientific research and development into the national economy and their ntaximum dissemiriation (improvement in planning, control and economic atimulation a~ scientif ic and technical progress, STP, questions of organizational and econotnic unification of science and production, etc.); improvement in the efficiency of the country's participation in the interna- tional separation of labor in the area ~f science and technology (scientific- technical cooperation, STC, of the socialist countries among themselves, with the developed capitaliat and with the developing countriea). Financing of SREDW is viewed in the CF~IA countries as the most important con- dition for expanding the scale and inteneifying scientific research and development, increasing capital investments to the tnaterial and technical base of science, acquisition of foreign licenaes, etc. In the 1960's-1970's, the growth rates for expenditures for ecience and technology considerably out- stripped the growth rates for the national income. As a result, in the countries of socialist cooperation there was a continuous rise in the percentage of expenditures for SREDW in the n~tional income. In the second half of the 1970's, the indicated percentage for the European countries of the CEMA (minus Romania) was in limits from 2.2 to 4.6X, and in the Socialist Republic of Romania, 1.35~. This means that for this indicator, the socialist states currently occupy the leading place in the world. This refers in the first place to the USSR, CSSR and GDR. The expenses for SREDW in all the CEMA countries reached an impressive amount, about R 40 billion. 1 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . ' In the last 20 years, the CEMA countries have focused a lot of attention on the formation of cadre poteatial for science. Now the total number of those involved in the sphere of science and scientif ic servicing has already exceeded 5 million people, of them 1.6 million are scientific workers. Roughly 80X of the total potential of scientif ic cadres in the CEMA countries is in the USSR (4.35 million people). The CEMA countries now occupy one of the leading positions in the world for this indicator as well. The process of forming the cadre potential for science in the.countries of socialist cooperation was accompanied by the creation of a developed network of scientif ic reaearch institutians of both academic and sector profile (cur- rently over 10,000). The scientific workers of the higher educational insti- tutions of the fraternal countries have also made a considerable contribution to the development of the scientific problems. An important result of the development of scientifie and technical potentials of the socialist countries was the growth of inventor act�ivity (see table 1). In 1978, the CEMA countries recorded over 84,000 inventions, including 54,600 in the USSR. There was also a cone~derable growth in the effec~ from intro- ducing inventions into the national economy. Thus, in 1970-1978,. it increased in Bulgaria 8-fold, in the CSSR fj.6. and in the USSR 5.6~-fold. The average amount of economic effect for one invention rose in the same period in Bulgaria 2.5-fold, in Czechoslovakia 2.8 and in the USSR by more than 3-fold (see table 2). On the whole, the CII~1A countries considerably surpassed the countries of the EEC and the United States in the nwaber of inventions. Table 1. Dynamics of Patenting of Inventions in the European Countries of the CEMA 1970 People's Republic of Bulgaria 534 1,750 Hungarian People's Republic 481 1,529 GDR ~ 5,308 5,017 Polish People's Republic 2,180 5,845 Socialist Republic of Romania 1.440 7,838 USSR 30,636 54,593 CSSR 3,224 7.550 Total 43,803 84 122 The scientific-technical policy conducted by the countries of socialist coopera- tion has as its goal the further development of national scientific-technical potentials. Their primary focus is high-quality iiaprovement, increase in the output of those involved in the scieatific-technical sphere. Problems associated with an improvement in the structure of the cadre scientif ic potential, structure of financing of the SREDW, etc. acquire especial urgency. One of the most important questions is improving the fund- and technical� equipping of thase involved in the aphere of acience and scientif ic servicing. In the USSR, for example, in 1950-1977,the epecific weight of the wages fund for the payment of labor rose roughly l0~fold with a rise in alloc~tions for technical equipping of the scientific research inatitutes 50-fold. There is a similar situation in the other CEMA countries. Nevertheless, the problem of 59 FOIt OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY improving the fund supply and the technical equipping in the sphere of SREDW continues to remain urgent and requires further change in the structure of their finsncing in support of an increase in the percentage of capital investments. Table Z. Economic Effect of Introducing Inventions in Certain CEMA Countries ~ 1970 1978 1978 Effect on one in millions o t e ersus invention . national currency) 1970 1970 1978 1978 (times) n t ousan s versus of national 1970 currency) (times People s Repu lic o Bulgaria 9.8 80 8 18.3 45.7 2.5 USSR 261.8 1467 5.6 8.5 26.8 3.15 CSSR 184.1 1224 6.6 57 162 2.84 Modern STP places before industry higher requirements from the viewpoint of 1 the technical level and quality of the manufactured product. It is obvioua that satisfaction of these requirementa will become impossible without inte- gration of science and production. However, as noted at the CPSU congresses and congresses of other fraternal communist and workers' parties, in the chain connecting science and production, the weakest link is the introduction of scientif ic and technical achievements into industry. Consequently the general trend of the scientific-technical policy conducted by the socialist states is becoming more effective introduction at the current stage of scientific and technical achievements, and namely, this is primarily associated with the resolution of tasks of intensifying the economy of the fraternal countries. The CEMA countries for a number of years already have been implementing a set of various economic experiments aimed at realizing this complicated, multifaceted problem. In the 1960's-1970's they accumulated rich collective experience in this area which resulted in positive shifts. The efforts of the socialist states have been primarily focused on the con- vergence of science and ind~istry. Thus, in the framework of the scientif ic- technical potential, a mass transition has been observed in all the countries of SREDW to cost accounting.3 In the last fwo-three ~ive-year plans in all European countries of the CII~tA there has been a significant reduction in the percentage of budget financing of SREDW with a rise in the percentage of capital from the special funds of the sectors and enterprises. The transfer of the scientific research institutes to the subordination of the sectors has become widespread. Considerable att~ntion is concentaated on the creation of an experimental base for science. In a more specific examination of the scientific-technical policy of the socialist countries it is necessary to primarily 3solate the main trends to improve the planning, control and economic stimulation of STP. During the solution of these problems in individual CEMA countries a national specific nature appears which ~nriches tHe joint experience. At the same time, this specific nature primarily concerns the specific methods of realizing indi- vidual measures, while the main trends have mainly a common nature. 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � Planning and Control of STP The basis for integrated control of STP in a planned economy is the agreement of a plan for development of science and technology with t8e other sections of the national economic plan. The transition to program~target method in ~ which attention of the research organizations was oriented on the solution of specif ic scientific-technical tasks promoted the improvement in the metho- dology of planning STP in the socialist countries. This strengthens even more the "start-to-finish" planning in the cycle "research-production" and guarantees synchronization and mutual correlatioa oP the proczsses for the development of science, technology and production at different levels. The main link in planning science and technology becomes the target integrated programs for the most important scientific-technical problems. , The plan for development of science and technology in the GDR began to include questions of introducing the results of SREDW into production in 1972, and in 1973, the section "Science and Technology" was introduced into the national economic plan for the first time. For the integrated preparation and realization of the assignments in the state plan for 1976-1980, coordi- nation plans were compiled for this section which encompass the entire pro- cess, from research to practical use of scientific--technical results. The basic form of planning science ax~d technology in the GDR has become the f ive- year plan. The annual planning is limited to assignments for the intro- duction of scientific-technical results into production. In the CSSR, starting in 1973, the plan for realization of the concluded SREDW was included as a mandatory part of the national economic plan and production plans of industrial enterprises. Ro~uania compiles detailed annual plans (schedules) for introducing SREDW results into material production. The STP is controlled in Bulgaria through a unified plaa of socioeconomic deveLop- ment of the country. The section of this plan "Science and Technical Progress" covers the entire sycle "research-production." The Soviet Union in the 1960's-1970's developed xoughly the same general trends in planning and control of STP as in the other CEMA countries. These questions acquired especial importance because of the decree.of the CPSU Central Comaaittee and the USSR Council of Ministers on improving the economic mechanism. The basis for the formulation and the component part of the USSR national economic plan for 10 years is the integrated STP program developed by the GKNT, Gosstroy and USSR Academy of Sciences which is designed for 20 years and which is sub~ect to revision every 5 years. As in other CEMA coun- tries, in the Soviet Union the importance of integrated target scientific- technical programs is rising. They ~ust conclude with the introduction of SREDW results in the optimal scales. The organizational forms of controlling STP are also being improved. They foster a strengthening of the tie between science and production and accelera- tion of the introduction process. The most effective form is the large associations and combines set up in the CEMA countries. They have a powerful scientific-production, cadre and material-financial base. The process of integration in one economic complex of scie~tific research institutes, planning 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL i1SE ONLY offices, technological and experimental enterprises included in these complexes is continuing to evolve. In the USSR, merging of science and production in the form of scientif ic- production associations has become the most popular. These associations began to be set up in 1969. There are currently about 200 of them, and in the next 2-3 years, according to estimates, there is the possibility of setting up another 200-250 associations of this type. The Institute of Electric Arc Welding imeni Ye. 0. Paton of the UkSSR Academy of Sciences has verified and conf irmed the high efficiency of the new form of organizing research, academic scientific-technical associations which include institutes, large design offices, experimental production and experimental planr.s. The USSR is also testing other forms of combining science and production, for example, complexes of design offices and scientific-technical institutions of double subordination (ministries and departments solve organizational- financial questions, while the academic institutes provide the scientif ic supervision), educational-scientific-production associations, territorial scientific-production associations, etc. _ The most popular form of combining science and industry inthe GDR is the cambines. There are currently 129 of them. The GDR also has interesting experience of creating within the framework of the Academy of Sciences a "potential of introduction" which includes facilities for the production of scientific apparatus and experimental plants. There are organizations of this type in one-third of the institutes of a natural-science profile, and in the next 5-10 years, it is plann~d to set them up in another one-third of the scientific research institutes. Other CEMA countries have accumulated fai~tly diverse and useful experience on solving problems of combining science and production. Despite the specific nature of these countries, it is common that in all countries, the scientific research, planning design and technological organizations which are included in the associations are directly indolved in the sphere of material production. Economic Stimulation of STP - In the socialist countries, the questions of planning and control of STP are viewed together with economic stimulation. This problem has not yet been properly resolved. However, a broad and intensive economic search is underway _ which has already been crowned with many positive results. This problem - is being resolved in the CEMA countries from the viewpoint of economic stimu- lation bath of science and production. As for science, the transition of scientific research organizations to the - contract form of fulfilling work played an important role here. This form is being developed especially intensively between the scientific-research _ institutions and the enterprises that are organizationally separate. In terms of economic stimulation of production, in addition to the funds for _ devel~pment which have primarily an investment nature, the associations and - enterprises of the socialist countries have set up special funds for technical - 62 _ FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY development (new equipment). Although the methods Of ~orming these funds is not the same in diffexent socialist countxies, their general economic function consists of compensating for the increased outlays during the development, mastery and introduction of new equipment and technology into~~production. In addition, these funds f inance SREDW associated with new equipment. The most important means of stimulating STP in a11 countries of socialist cooperation is improvement in price formation. Usiag prices, the develop- ment of technically more improved products, removal from production of outdated items, compensation for outlays for improving quality and the technical level of the manufactured products are encouraged. The main task of price formation is to guarantee the interest of the producers in the output of leading equip- ment and the consumers in using it. The trends noted here and the new aspects of planning, control and economic stimulation of STP in the CEMA countries far fxom completely reflect the diver- sity of the practical measures in this area. At the same time, they indicate that the scientif ic-techniea'1 policy of the socialist countries is constantly being developed and improved and promotes the subordination of the internal resources of the countries totthe resolution o� tasks gor reconstruction of the structure of production in accordanc~e with the requirements of STP. At the same time, one of the most important tzends in the modern scieritific and technical policy of the socialist states, as previous].y noted, is the improvement in eff iciency and degree of participation of the country in the international division of labor in the area of science and technology. The modern structure of production in the CEMA countries is characterized by a very broad range. For example, Czechoslovak~a which produces 70-80% of the world nomenclature of machines and equipment has only 1% of the world scientific-technical potential. This significantly complicates the task of maintaining a high technical level for the entixe range of nomenclature of the manufactured products. The most important condition for the growth in rates of STP for the socialist countries is the conducting of a selective production policy with simultaneous increase in the degree of participation in international division of labor. Comple~e utilization of its advantages in the sphere of science and technology will improve the efficiency of the total scientific-technical potential of the CII~IA countries as a whole by roughly 30%, and in certain socialist states several times. The inter- national factors of intensifying the economy of the socialist states in their potentialities are no longer merely comparable to the national, but in a number of cases even surpass them. Consequently, under modern conditions, the role of the "foreign" aspect of scientific-technical pol.icy is immeasurably rising. In the last 10 years, the volume of joint SREAW in the CEMA countries has risen 5-6-fold. Over 3,000 scientific research and planning design ~rganiza- tions, VUZ's, including about 200 scientific institutions of the academies of sciences of the countries of cooperation participate in them on a multi- lateral and bilateral basis. 63 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY The development of STC of the CEMA countries is accompanied by qualitative changes. Whereas in the 1950's-1960's the leading form of STC was free exchange of technical documents and experience, subsequentl~ inEensification of STC occurred through the transition to multilateral and bilateral coordina- tion of research, contract cooperation, joint research and exchange of the results of scientific research with the use of elements of cost accounting. The holding of mutual consultations by the CEMA countries on the main questions of scientific-technical policy in order to determine problems for the current f ive-year period, development and agreement of plans of multilateral and bilateral cooperation has f irmly entered the practice of cooperation. New forms in the development of STC were: the formulation of a coordinated plan of multilateral integrated measures, including in the area of science and technology for 1976-1980, where 600 million transfer rubles were invested; compilation of plans for the long-range future (several f ive-year plans) in the framework of DTsPS [expansion unknown]; transition from the sector principle to comprehensive resolut3on of the ma~or tasks of STP (STC program for envi- ronmental protection and efficient use of natural resources, program to solve fuel and energy problems, etc.); development of direct ties between the ministries and departments of the CEMA countries, among whom about 400 agreements and contracts for STC have been concluded. About 3000 scientific research institutes and planning design organizations and VUZ's participate in measures for fhe fulf illment of the c~mprehensive program for integration, and about 200 academic scientific institutions and 16C0 ~ organizations cooperate on 800 topics on a multilateral basis.8 About 4,000 problems and topics are being worked out on a bilateral basis. An important trend in the development of scientific-technical ties is the international cooperation in the area of standardization. Fifteen sector permanent commissions of the CEMA and 11 international organizations of the cooperating countries participate in the standardization work. A total of 2724 standards of the CEMA heve currently been approved.9 The cooperation of the socialist countries in the area of science and tech- nology made it possible to solve a number of ma~or national economic problems. The CEMA countries have attained ~onsiderable success in tt?e area of power engineering. Thus, the unit power of electric generators in these countries rose in the last 20 years 5-8-fold, and today they have block's with power of 500 MW. The USSR has made the world's largest turbo-unit with power of 1200 MW and is designing one with power of 1500 MW. For specif ic consumption of fuel for the generation of electricity, the last 10-15 years have been characterized by a trend for its rapid decrease. The USSR and other CEMA countries are on the level of a number of leading capitalist countries for this indicator, and even outstrip them. The CEMA countries occupy one of the first places in the world for the trans- mission of large quantities of energy superlong distances. The USSR was the pioneer inti~e area of ultrahigh-voltage power transmission lines, and now power transmission lines are being built here for 1500 kV for distances of 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540080032-3 FOR OI~'FICIAL USE ONLY 2400 and 5300 km which are unprecedeated in world practice and power transmission lines are being designed fro 2000 kV. Based on the unified energy system and the central dispatcher control of the CEMA countries, a ring power system has been set up unique in the world. It unites 21 power transmission lines (PTL) with voltage from 220 to 400 kV. The intro- duction of the PTL Vinnitsa-A1'bertish with voltage of 750 kV which is the largest in Europe will liberate the CEMA countries from building additional power plants with total power of almost 2000 MW. In the area of superhigh-voltage equipment, progresgive developments have appeared in recent years: for the first time in the world, higi~-voltage thyristor valves were used for the PTL transformer stations of superhigh- voltage, and an original laser system of control and regulation was made. The CEMA countries occupy leading positions for a whole series of trends in the realization of alternative and nontraditional energy sources. Here they are making joint studies to create and develop power units with water-cooled reactors with power of 1000 MW, breeder reactors on fast neutrons (the USSR operates the world's largest reactor of this type). The Soviet Union is also building the world's largest reactor for 1500 MW and plans for 2400 MW. Among the prrnninent achievements in this area, one should include the creation of the world's first unit of the type "Tokamak" with superconducting magnetic system and the world's largest NI~ID-generator for open type power plants (this is the world's only industrial M~ID-unit). A great step f orward has been taken on a collective basis in the area of electrical technology. For the firs~ time in the world, the specialists of the USSR and GDR have made�a plasma furnace with capacity of 30 T for smelting high-alloy steel, in which a temperature of 15,000 �C is reached. This made it possible to bring the degree of assimilation of the alloyed elements alnost to 100X. As one of the last successful ~oint developments, one should name the unified semiautomatic unit "Intermigmag" for arc welding - by melting electrode in a medium of protective gases that was made by the specialists of the Socialist Republic of Bulgaria, GDR and USSR. One should also make mention of the units of electron-beam welding "Paton-tsis/77" that were developed ~ointly by the CEMA countries. The CEMA countries are responsible for roughly one-third of the total world flow of scientific- technical information on questions of welding science, equi~ament and pro- duction. One can name a whole series of examples where, by uniting their efforts on an integration basis, the CEMA countries were able to solve the most compli- cated national ecpnomic tasks. Thus, the method they created for obtaining high pressure polyethylene "Polimir" exceeds the best technological processes abroad,and the largest chemical concern in the FRG "Zaltsgitter", having bought a license for it, even now proposes organizing thgOmarketing of the appropriate technology in the Third World countries. Considerable advances have been made by the CEMA countries in the area of metallurgy. It is enough to name if only those universally recognized, basically new technologies as casting with counter pressure and technology of 65 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY shiny copper plating (People's Repuhlic of Bulg2ria), the technology for producing forged crankshafts (Polish PeopZe's Republic), evaporation cooling of blast furnaces, production of multilayer pipes for gas pipelines, production of tungsten-free solid alloys (USSR). The unification of scientif ic and technical potentials of the countries in the area of computers was very important. According to expert estimates, in 5-6 years years, advances were made here which are equivalent to the previous activity in countries in 25 years. An intergovernmental agreement united the potential of 300 enterprises and 350,000 employees. As a result, the percentage of jointly developed computer equipment in the total computer stock of the CEMA countries rapidly rose: in the CSSR, for example, in 1971-1975, 44~ computers entered the national economy (of them 160, that is ~5%, from the "Ryad" system), and in 1976-1980, 880 computers 880 computers (of them 750 of the system "Ryad" that is. ^lready 85%). Prominent results were obtained in certain areas of basic research, among which research on the orogram "fntercos:nos" occupied an important place. The CEMA countries occupy leading positions in the world in the area of synthesis of drugs and antibiotics, and the formulation of theoretical fundamentals for gene engineering. At the same time, in recognizing the undoubted advances in the development of STC of the CEMA countries and strengthening of their scientific-technical potentials, it :;hould be stated that the reserves of international division of labor in science and technology are still not being completely utilized. The main content of cooperation of our countries is still the resolution of a certain problem according to the development of a new design, and the intro~ duction and assimilation of results of joint research and development are done at the discretion of each cooperating party. At the same time, cooperation at the concluding stages of the cycle "science-technology-production-marketing" exactly makes it possible to realize the necessary effect of joint scientific and technical developments. According to the available estimates, already in the 1980's, the ratio of outlays for SREDW and introduction will change from 1:10 at present to 1:12, and even 1:15, that is, the percentage of costs for SREDW in the total volume of expenditures for scientific research, develop- ment and introduction will not be 10% as occurs now, but 6-8% with an increase in costs for introduction from 90% to 92-94%. Consequently, today, and the more so in the future, cooperation of the CEMA countries not on indivi- dual stages of the cycle "science-technology-production-marketing" will be- come promising from the vi~wpoint of the national economic effect, but for the entire cycle with emphasis on the last stage, on the condition of a comprel~ensive approach to this problem. It is precisely for this reason that in CEMA countries ther�e is clearer trend towards concluding comprehen- sive agreements in which questions of STC are closely linked to questions of international specialization and cooperation of praduction. As indicated by a whole series of positive examples, international division of labor which begins from the stage of joint SREDW with the creation of new types of machines and equipment, and concludes with the ,joint development of production and post-sale servicing of this equipment, permits each country to reduce by 50-70% the expenses that it would carry alone, and results in the reduction in .*.he periods for development from 6-7 to 3 years. In this case if the line fnr 6b FOR OFFICIAL USE O1~LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY effective international separation o~ labor, started at the stage of creating the equipment finds the appropriate continuation in production in the form of a well-thought out system of specialization and cooperatian, then labor produc- tivity can be imprY~ed 3-5-fold, series production 6-8-fo1d, and the net cost reduced by 30-SO%. Within the CEMA framework, there are currently 120 multilateral agreements in effect for international specialization and cooperatioa of production, in- cluding 90 in the area of machine construction, radio engineering and electro- nics industry, as well as over 1,000 bi].ateral. These agreements on the whole encompass about 10,000 types of items. In the formation of a coordinated structure and scientific-technical policy, whose special importance for intensifying theFrocess of reproduction in the CEMA countries was stressed at the 35th meeting of the CEMA session (July 1981), the countries of cooperation concentrate their scientific-technical poten�~ial on priority trends in scientific ~nd production cooperation for the resolution of the most important national economic problems: automation of production processes based on the use of promising resources of computer equipment and primarily, micro- and minicomputers, development of systems of program control, creation of a unified element base; introduction of robot-manipulators and other means of inechanizing labor-intensive processes; creation of complexes of powerful equipment for the working of fuel and raw material fields and their transporting; development of machines and equipment which guaiantee economical use of fuel and energy; updating of the taachine construction stock by highly productive precision equipment; creation of comprehensive unified series of hydraulics and pneumatics. These general priorities in the structural and scientific-technical policy of cooperation as a whole are organically combined with the priorities of the national scientific-technical policy of each CEMA country, which, by guaranteeing its needs as a result of certain research and development through the use of the profiled potentials of other countries can thus concentrate its scientific~tec~t~ical potential on a limited number of strategically important trends of STP. Within the framework of the scientific-technical policy conducted by the socialist countries, the development of STC with no:isocialist states occupies an important place. The USSR and other socialist countries are invariably in support of expanding scientific-technical ties with the developed capitalist countries. At the endcf the 1970's, over 1000 agreements were concluded between the organizations _ of the CEMA countries and Western f irms for scientif ic-technical and production cooperation. Currently about 4U% of all the contracts for cooperation are for license agreements and 20% are agreements on cooperation for the purpose of transferring technology.13 At the same time, in recent years the scientific and techical exchange has become more of an independent type of cooperation. Production cooperation is~beginning to have a def inite effect on the improve- ment in the structure of East-West trade. Thus, in machine construction, about 14Z of~all the trade is done on the basis of scientific-technical and pro- duction cooperation.l4 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Many modern problems generated by STP are counnoa �or all countries and require collective international efforts. In this respect, the CEMA countries have always supported the expansion and deepening of international cooperation with all countries of the world. For example, the initiative of the USSR to conveneT~ll-European conferences for transportation and power engineering is urgent. ~n the future, the economy of Europe could be developed to a greater degree on the basis of mutual supplementing of the structures of individual national economies and their scientific-technical potentials, and not only on the sector, but also on the intrasector level. Among the prerequieites for organizing cooperation among the CEMA countries and the developing countries, the primary is the mutual supplementing of the economic resources and industries available in both groups of countries. The production and scientific-technical potentials of the CEMA countries are capable of providing organization of production in the majority of sectors at the modern level. At the same time, many developing countries, possessing not only large reserves of fuel and raw materials needed by the CEMA countries, tiut also resources of unemployed work force and not completely utilized production facilities, still remain insuff iciently developed both in an economic and scientific-technical sense (although 70% of the world's population lives in them, they have only 3-5~ of ~~1 the world's expenses for SREDW and 10-15% of all the scientific workers). The objective interest of the developing states in STC with the CEMA countries is explained not only by the potentialities of the latter from the viewpoint of transferring technology. It is our opinion that those advantages which are characteristic for cooperation with CEMA countries in general are no less important. In particular, the cooperation with socialist countries promotes the the creation in the ~e~veloping states of a material-technical base of inde- pendent development. According to the estimates based on U.N. publications and individual states, over 300 cooperation agreements have been concluded between the CEMA countries and developing states which stipulate the transfer of technology as a component part (they include, according to the data of UNCTAD, over 140 agreements on trilateral cooperation). In the beginning of 1980, the CEMA countries had agreements with the developing countries for construction of 4400 facilities, of which over 3,000 have been put into operation. According to the data of . UNIDO, the developing count~~es have over 100 mised enterprises with parti- cipation of CEMA countries. A significant contribution to the development of the economy of the developing countries is the training of national scientific-technical cadres, their education and placement in the educational institutions of the CEMA countries. Currently over 40,000 s:~.~dents from 100 developing countries are being trained in the VUZ's of the CEN'iA countries. Over 30 higher and second- ary educational institutions have heen built and are u~~er construction in these states with the help of the socialist countxies. One of the types of multilateral ties between the countries of different socioeconomic syster~s is trilateral scientific-technical and production coopera- tion which involve fiYms and enterprises from the socialist, capitalist and developing countries. According to the data of the UNCTAD Secretariat, in 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the middle 1970's already 53 countries had becotne participants in 453 tri- lateral pro3ects with total cost of $29 billion (in current prices). The Soviet organi~~tions participated in the realization of 21 projects in a certain form. Thus, the CEMA countries are actively participating in international scientific- technical cooperation. At the same time, in this area there still remain a lot of unused reserves, and they are especiall~ great in.cooperation with the developed capitalist and developing countries. However, their more complete utilization de~ends not only the the scientific-technical policy conducted by the socialist states, but also the good will of the other countries in the world. FOOTNOTES 1. Recomputed according to the official rate. 2. See, V. I. Duzhenkov. "Problemy organizatsii nauTci" [Problems of Organizing ScinnceJ, Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1978, p. 165; PRAVDA, 4 January 1979. 3. In the Hungarian People's Republic in 1964, in the Socialist Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Bulgaria in 1967, the sector scientific and planning organizations were removed from the budget financing and switched to complete cost accounting. 4. In the national economy of the USSR, there are over 5,000 experimental industries in operation (Ministry of Chemical and Oil Machine Construction annually allocates about 8y of the capital investments for construction of experimental bases and experimental industries). 5. The USSR has already accumulated definite experience in the area of develop- ment and realization of scientif ic-technical programs. In the state plan for 1976-1�80, the basic assignments were approved for programs to solve 200 of the most important scientific-technical problems, general of an inter- sector nature. It was planned to create abnut 2,000 new types of equip- ment of production purpose and ~onsume'r goods total for these programs, of which 60~ was planned for the lOth Five-Year Plan. For the remaining ob~ects, a stockpile was created for concluding in.the next five-year plan and further (thus, in the programs for the lOth Five-Year Plan, a large volume of scientific research was provided for problems of using the principle of superconductance, creation of MHD-generators, new types of gas transportation, development of pneumatic container transportation, and protection of inetal from corrosion). The development of about 1,000 new production processes, over 900 names of economical materials and about 700 automated control systems was also stipulated. 6. See, R. S. EKONOMIKA PROMYSHLENNOSTI, No 2, 1981, abstract No 2E4; PRAVDA, ~ 23 March 1981. 7. See, VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 4, 1976, p 92. 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 8. During the realization of the comprehansive program, over 16,000 theore- tical and applied works were completed,.over 1600 new designs of machines, mechanisms and instruments were made, over 1200 production processes, and over 1300 types of new materials, products and preparations. 9. In the USSR, about 15% of all the GOST's [state standard] are developed with regard for the CEMA recommendations. This permitted a 10-12y reduC- tion in outlays and 30-40X in the periods of their development. The total economic effect from introducing the CEMA recommendations into the national economy of the USSR exceeded R 750 million (see VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 8, 1979, pp 100, 102; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV CEV, No 3, 1981, p 102). 10. See, PRAVDA, 28 June 1980. 11. See, "Agrarno-promyshlennaya integratsiya stran SEV" [Agrarian-Industrial Integration of CEMA Countries], Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1976, pp 99-100; PRAVDA, 31 October 1978 and 19 March 1979. 12. For example, the CSSR in accordance with this coordinated policy for specialiaation of scientific-technical potentials could send to research on nuclear energy in the second half of the 1970's over 20y of all the capital for SREDW, while in the 1960's, it only allocated slightly more than 1% for research for all power engineering (see, EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHE~ STVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, r~o 2, 1976, p 21; "Veroffentlichungen des Osteuropa- Institutes," Munich, Reihe: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Heft 14. "For- schung und Entwicklung in sozialistischen Staaten Osteur~pa" von Osers, Duncker und Humblot, Berlin, 1974), 13. According to the evaluation of the experts from the U.N. ECE, 83% of all the contracts on cooperation have been concluded in scientific sectors, in- cluding 23.8y in the chemical industry (o� the total number of contracts between the East and West), 22y in machine construction (including machine tool manufacture--25.5%), in the electronics and electrical engineering industry--13.5%, in transpor~aeion equipment--12~6y, in metallurgy--7.9%. Agriculture, food industry, construction, tourism and other spheres of economic activity account for 17% of the concluded agreements (ECE/Trade/R Document, 355/Add, 2, table 1; see also VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 6, 1977, pp 83,88). 14. See, MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 3, 1979, p 102. 15. For purposes of a more efficient use of energy resources of the countries of East and West Europe and setting up of cooperation in exchange of electricity, it was acknowledged that it was necessary to set up in the framework of the World Energy Conference a working group to study the problems of unification of the power systems of these countries, that is, those problems in whose realization the CEMA countries have accumulated unique experience. The same goes for the successful resolution of ecological problems on an integrated basis. 16. See, A. N. Bykov, D. A. Lebin, "Sotsialisticheskaya integratsiya i nauchno-tekhnichekaya revolyutsiya" [Socialist Integration and the Scien- tific-Technical Revolution], Izdatel'stvo Nauka, 1981, pp 330, 296. 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY 17. The main volume of help of the CEMA countries is associated with sectors of material production, and three-�ourths is for industry and power engineering (see PRAVDA, 17 December 1979). 18. See, VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 11, 1979, pp 81-83; PRAVAA, 17 December 1979. 19. A. N. Bykov, D. A. Lebin, "Sotsialisticheskaya integratsiya i nauchno- tekhnicheskaya revolqutsiya, p 302. 20. U.N. Document, TAD/SEM, 1/2, pp 11-13. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Pravda", "Voprosy ekonrnaiki", 1982. 9035 CSO: 1814/72 71 FOR ,OF'F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NEW ACADEMY OF SCIENCES MII~IBERS PROFILES Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian No 4, Apr 82 pp 122-143 [Article: "New Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences"] [Text] On 25 September 1981, the USSR Academy of Sciences announced the selection of active membera (academicians) and corresponding-members of the USSR Academy of Sciences. For the announced and additionally isolated vacancies by the councils of scientific institutions and h igher educational institutions, state and public organizations, active members and corresponding - members of the academies of sciences. the USSR Academy of Sciences advanced and recorded 183 candidates for active members (academicians) and 909 candi- dates for corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences. At the general meeting of the USSR Academy of Sciences on 28 December 1981, according to its Charter, 44 active members and 91 corresponding-members of the USSR Academy of Sciences were elected. Active Members (Academicians) of the USSR Academy of Sciences Department of Mathematics Mikhail Mikhaylovich Lavrent'yev (mathematics) He was born in 1932, and is a specialist in the area of mathematical physics, - deputy director of the Computer Center of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The results that M. M. Lavrent'yev obtained in studying incorrectly stated tasks of mathematical physics are widely known. He suggested effective numerical algorithms for solving such problems as evaluating stability for linear and nonlinear operator equations. M. M. Lavrent'yev has obtained a number of prominent results in theh theory of multidimensional inverse problems for differential equations, including for the inverse problem of the theory of the potential. These studies afforded the possibility of creating new methods in geophysics to study the structure of the earth which have great national economic importance. M. M. Lavrent'yev is a Lenin Prize laureate. 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000500080032-3 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ ` ~ ~ ~ , ? M. M. Lavrent'yev V. A. Mel`nikov N. A. Borisevich I ~ ~ , ~ f ~.k ~ i ~ . \ S. P. Novikov Yu. Ye. Nesterikhin Vladimir Andreyevich Mel'nikov (mathematics, including applied mathematics). He was born in 1928 and is a specialist in the field of computers. V. A. Mel'nikov developed a device for control and a system of commands for computers in the series BESM practically all the computer centers in our country are equipped with. The most famous is his development of the BESM-6 computer whose structure and architecture included promising solutions widely used in the creation of modern computers. The module principle of constructing information~computer complexes realized under the supervision of V. A. Mel'nikov, his basic theoretical developments 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY in the f ield of ideology of architecture and technology of computers, and the construction of operational systetas and progras~aing systems determined a great deal the current direction of the development of powerful domestic computers. V. A. Mel'nikov is a two-time laureate of the USSR State Prize. Sergey Petrovich Novikov (mathematics, including applied mathematics). He was born in 1938 and is a specialist in the field ot modern geometry and topology of manifolds, including the related sections of algebra, theory og dynamic systems, variational calculus and mathematical physics; he is head of the sector of the Institute of Theoretical Physics imeni L. L. Landau of the USSR Academy of Sciences. S. P. Novikov created the method of classifying single--bond smooth manifolds and established the topological invariance of basic topological characteristics on single-bond manifolds. Together with his students, he developed alge- braic methods for computing homotopic grqups, as well as methods of so-called stable algebra. He created the qualitative theory of layers of codimen- sionality alone and proved the theorem on the existence of closed solutions of the tore type. Involved in studies in different fielda of modern mathematical physics, S. P. Novikov developed a qualitative theory of spstial-hotnogeneous solutions to Einstein's equations (cosmological models) around singularity (at the early stage of evolution), constructed techniques for finding period solutions to the Korteveg-de Frieze, developed the spectral theory of Shroedinger's opera- tor in periodic fields, obtained an analog for variational calculus on the whole for multivalent functionals needed for qualitative study of the peri- odic orbits of a number of systems of classic and taodern mathematical physics. S. P. Novikov is a Lenin Prize laureate. Department of General Physics and Astronotqy Nikolay Aleksandrovich Borisevich (general and applied physics). He was born in 1923, is a specialist in the field of molecular spectroscopy and luminescence, quantum electronics and infraxed technology, and is presi- dent of the Belorussian SSR Academy of Sciences. N. A. Borisevich developed a new scientific trend, spectroscopy of free com- pl~x molecules. He constructed a statistical theory for photophysical processes in these molecules, introduced new spectral characteristics of molecules, and suggested methods for their experimental determination. He found and investigated thermally activated and laser radiation-initiated, slowed-down ~luorescence of complex molecules in a gas phase, and solved the problem of antiStokes' luminescence. In the area of intermolecular interactions in gas phase systems, he discovered the phenomenon of stabilization-labilization of electron-excited mutliple- atom molecules by outside gases which is used in apectroscopy, photochemistry 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY and quantum electxonics. N. A. Borisevich was the firat to obtain generation of radiation of complex molecules in the gas phase and to develop a new type of laser with smoothly ad3ustable radiation fr.equency. Based on the study of the scattering of radiation by dispersed sqstems, he created cut-off, wide-band and narrow-band dispersion and dispersion-interference infrared filters which are widely used in different areas of science and teehnology. N. A. Borisevich has been elected an outside member of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is a~~. Hero of Socialist Labor, laureate of the Lenin Prize and the USSR State Prize, member of the Belorussian Connnunist Party Central Connaittee and deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet. Yuriy Yefremovich Nesterikhin (physics). He was born in 1930 and is a specialist in the area of experimental physics, physics of plasma and automation of scientific research. .He is the director of the Institute of Automatics and Electrometry of the Si~erian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. His research was the basis for a number of effective methods for diagnoging plasma. Jointly with R. Z. Sagdeyev, he found and studied "noncolliding" shock waves which defined a new direction in plasiaa physics. With the help of the physical methods he developed, a basic change was made in the technique for studying rapidly occurring processes in space physics, ggs dynamics and ~ plasma. Yu. Ye. Nesterikhin developed optic-electronic and laser systems which are used in physical experiments. He has ma~or achieveraents in the development nf structural methods of integsating resources of computer equipment in the construction of automated experimental complexes. Under hts supervision, and based on KAMAK, standard problem-oriented eystems were created both for scientific research and for the needs of the national econoary. Among the works of Yu. Ye. Nesterikhin are study of tti~problem of the develop- _ ment of hydrodynamic turbulence, discovery of the photogalvanic effect in crystals, light-induced drift of at~ms and molecules, and selective photo- modification of biological molecules Yuriy Andreyevich Osip'yan (general and applied physics, including astrpnomy, radio astronomy and astrophysics). He was born in 1931, and is a specialist in the area of solid atate physics, in particular the physics of dislocations, and is the director of solid state physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Yu. A. Osi'yan theoretically studied the effect of quantum effects on the kinetics of nondiffusion phase conversions at low temperatures. The experi- � ments he conducted to study the mechanical properties of filiform monocrystals indicated that their real strength approaches the theoretically computed values. Heading the development of a new basic scientific direction in solid state physics, the study of the interaction of dislocations and electrona in crystals, 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 ~ FOR OFFlCIAL USE ONLY _ ' R t . k k ,tir , r ~~~r ,3~;. r~. _ Yu. A. Osip'yan A. M. Baldin G. T. Zatsepin ~ ~;~r i t`' ~~5.~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ - i % V. V. Sobolev 0. K. Antonov ; ~ ~ ,r . R. A. Belyakov 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY he discovered and studied the effect pf the significant effect of light on plastic deformation of semiconductors which he called the photoplastic effect. Iie further found the reversible effect of an electric f ield on plastic deformation of semiconductors, as well as the development of an electric current during their plastic deformation. In experiments to study the effect of disolocations on electric of semiconductors, Yu. A. Osip'yan discovered the specific electrical conductivity along dislocations, as well as inversion of the type of conductance with the introduction of dislocations of varying polarity which is very important for technology. He experimentally found and comprehensively studied electronic resonance on dislocations in semiconductors, as well as the effect of dislocations on optical properties of semiconductors. Viktor Viktorovich Sobolev (general and applied physics, including astronomy, radio astronomy, astrophysics). He was born in 1915, is a specialist in the area o~ theoretical astrophysics and is the head of the depart~nent of Leningrad University. In studying the physics of gas nebulas and stars with shells, V. V. Sobolev proposed a method for determining the temperature of the nebulas and clarified the role o� light pressure in their dynamics. He created the theory of luminescence of a moving medium, providing the basis for interpreting spectra with emission lines. He formulated the theory of nonstationary field of radiation and applied it to an explanation of the phenomena occurring in flares of novas and supernovas. He created new methods in the theory of radiatior. transfer which mad it possible to solve many important astrophysical problems. He explained the formation of spectral lines in the redistribution of radiation by frequency (development of this work by Soviet and foreign astrophysics resulted in the construction of the modern theory of stellar spectra). He solved the problem of multiple scattering of polarized radiation. He developed a general theory for aniso- tropic scattering of light and applied it to the optics of planetary atmospheres and optics of water basins. The methods he proposed are widely used not only in astrophysics, but also geophysics and other areas of physics. Department of Nuclear Physics Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Baldin (nuclear physics, including applied). He was born in 1926, is a specialist in the ~rea of nuclear physics, high energy physics, elementary particles, and accelerators, and is the director of the high energy laboratory of the Unified Institute of Nuclear Research. A. M. Baldin created the method of envelopes. the theory of almost periodic . movement of charges in random magnetic fields. He participated in the physical substantiatioa for the technical pro~ect of the Dubno synchrophaso- tron. Under his supervision, the synchrophasotron was transformed into the first and world's largest accelerator of relativistic nuclei. He developed a program and technology for creating superconducting synchrotrons. 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A. M. Baldin constructed the theory and predicted all the main laws governing near-threshold photoproduction of pions, studied coherent photoproduction of mesons. The work of A. M. Baldin jointly with colleagues of the Physics Institute imeni P. N. Lebedev was the basis for the development in our country of the physics of electromagnetic ~nteractions of adrons. He and his colleagues have two discoveries: electric and magnetic polarizability of elementary particles and direct transition of the photon-vector meson. Among the scientific achievements of A. M. Baldin are the development of the theory of tensor electric polarizability of nuclei, prediction of the optical anisotropy of atomic nuclei, discovery of a new`direction in high energy physics, relativistic nuclear physics. He predicted, and together with his colleagues discovered the cumulative.effect of the.formation of particles, revealed and studied a number of universal lawe governing the extreme behavior of nuclear matter, manifestations of multiquark atates and quark plasma. A. M. Baldin is a USSR State Prize laureate. Georgiy Timofeyevich Zatsepin (high energy physics, physics of elementary particles). He was born in 1917, is a specialist in the area of the phsyics of space rays (in the aspect of interactions at high energies) aad neutrino astrophysics, and is the head of the department of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences. G. T. Zatsepin developed and constructed a unit which is based on a new principle for correlation detectors, and conducted a study of broad atmospheric showers (BAS). The results he obtained compiled the generally acknowledged cbncept of the phsyics of space rays and elementary particles. G. T. Zatsepin participated in planning major Soviet units to study BAS in Moscow State University and at the Pamir station, and later headed the conducting of experiments on the physics of mu-mesons in cosmic rays. In the area of theory, he has the prediction of the phenomena of high-energy cut-off of the spectrum of inetagalactic protons which is the basis for the modern theory of the origin ot space rays of superhigh energies, new ideas in the area of neutrino astcophysics of high energies, etc. Under his super- vision, experimental methods were developed for recording cosmic neutrinos of low energies, and a set of work was done associated with the construction of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, a unique complex of underground labora- tories and giant neutrino detectors. G. T. Zatsepin is a USSR State Prize laureate. Department of Mechanics and Control Processes Oleg Konstaninovich Antonov (theoretical and applied mechanics, machine construction and mechanical engineering). He was born in 1906 and is a specialist in the field of aircraft construction. 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544484432-3 FOR OFF'ICIAI. USE ONLY The directions of research activity of 0. K~ Antonov axe the development of scientif ic fundataentals for planning medium and heavy transport airplanes, scientific principles for aer~dynamic and design layout of multiwheeled chassis of high passability, methods of improving reliability and the servic~ life of airplanes, methods of air landing of monoloads, designs of wings made of unique monolithic elements. Re is the direct eaecutor and scientific leader of a number of pro~ects which concluded with the introduction irito series production of the airplanes in the series "An." 0. K. Antonov is a Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin Prize, US~R State Prize, Ukrainian SSR State Prize laureate, member of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee and deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet. _ Rostislav Apollosovich Belyakov (theoretical and applied me~hanics, machine construCtion and mechanical engineering). He was born in 1919 and is a specialist in t~le area of airplane construction. The scientific and technical activity of R. A. Belyakov is dedicated to the creation of new aviation complexes and airplanes of varying purpose. The studies he made are associated with the investi9~tion of aerogas dynamics, control systems, strength, aerial strength and differe~t systems of on-board equipment of flying vehicles, design materials and technological processes of aircraft construction. � Under the leadership of R. A. Belyakov, tasks have been solved in the area of control systems for supersonic aircraft, the creation of designs operating under high temperature conditions at great flight speeds, the use of wings with sweep changeable in flight, considerable inrease in~~the power=to-weight ratio and maneuverability of airplanes, and ~iighly economical power units and effective complexes of on-board equipment have been worked out. R. A. Belyakov is a two-time Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin and USSR State Prize laureate and deputy of the USSR Supreme Sov#:et. Georgiy Sergeyevich Byushgens (theory of control, computers). He was born in 1916, i~ a specialist in the field of stability, controllability and applied aerodynamics of flight craft, first deputy head of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute imeni N. Ye. Zhukovskiy, head of the departm~ht of flight mech~nics of the Moscow Physical a~td Technical Institute. The basic directions for scientific research of G. S. Byushgens is the dynamics of jet sirplanes and otl?er flight craft, automation of control of the airplane and applied aerod~?namics. He has created methods for calculating and has studied the basic struc'tures of autotaated control for near-sonic and supersonic aircraft, invesrfosted aerodynamic characteristics of stability _ and controllability ot t}~e jet airplane and conducted studies on the fbrmation of its appearance. He has done work on tt~e outlook for the development bf aviation. G. S. Byushgens is a Hero of Socialist l..~bor and Lenin Prize laureate. 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY ' ' F _ ~ ~ a;., ' \ ' ~ , Z. b j ~ a': i A t'- ~ . . . ~ . l - " i. ~:.l~~' i ~Yi. / l G. S. Byushgens A. D. Nadiradze Kh. S. Bagdasar'yan . , . � i- ~ t t / " ~(i .t ~ : ~ ' ~ 1~. S. N. Kovalev V. S. Pugachev V. I. Gol'danskiy ~ , . , ~ ; ~ f' G. G. Chernyy 80 FO~t OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 F'nR O~'FI('IA1, t~SF. (1NI.V Sergey Nikitich Kovalev (theoretical and applied mechanics, machine con- struction and mechanical engineering). He was born in 1919 and is a speeialist in the area of ship-building. Under the supervision of S. N. Kovalev and with.his direct participation, scientific research was conducted and design developments were made which concluded with the creation of ships which meet modern requiremants. The creation of these ships became possible because of the solution to a number of complicated scientific-technical problems in the area of construction mechanics, general planning, propulsive performance, controllability, vulnera- bility, habitability, and power engi~eering of ships, as well as in the area of navigation and automation of basic operations. Aleksandr Davidovich Nadiradze (theoretical and applied mechanics, machine construction and mecha~lfcal engineering). He was born in 1914 and is a specialist in the field of applied mechanics and machine construction. The main trend in the scientif ic research of A. D. Nadiradze is the mechanics of flight craft. He has developed theoretical and technica~ principles for constructing complicated systems of flight craft , has proposed the apprQ- priate planning and design solutions, and has organized the~r. collective development and introduction into the national economy. The scientific research and experimental design work of A. D. Nadiradze and the collective he heads in cooperation with other c,rganizations represents ma~or scientific and technical achievements. A. D. Nadiradze is a two-time Hero of Socialist Labor and Lenin prize laureate. Vladimir Semenovich Pugachev (theory of control, computers). He was born in 1911, is a specialist on the theory of control, head of the laboratory:of the Institute of the Problems of Control (automatics and tele- mechanics), and head of the department of the theory of probabilities and mathematical statistics of the Moscow Aviation Institute imeni S. Ordzhoni= kidze. The sphere of scientific in~erests of V. S. Bugachev is the statistical theory of the processes of control, mechanics and applied mathematics. He has created the fundamentals for the statistical theory of systems which are described by differential equations, the satistical theory of linear systems and systems which lead to linear, the general theory of optimization of linear and nonlinear systems,the theory of conventional-optimal evaluation in sto- chastic systems. V. S. Pugachev has developed methods o� studying the dynamics of controllable flight and the theory of accuracy of control of flight apparatus. The methods he has created are widely used in many fields of science and t~chnology, in particular in the designing of svstems for control- ling the production processes and flight craft. V. S. Pugachev is a two-tirne laureate of the USSR State Prfze. FOR OFFICIA~, IJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY Gorimir Gorimirovich Chernyy (theoretical and app].ied mechanics, machine construction and mechanical engineering). He was born in 1923, is a specialist in aerodynamics and gas dynamics, and is director of the Institute of Mechanics of the Moscow University. In the area of aermdynamics of~h~;gh velocities, G. G. Chernyy has proposed a methcd for inte~rating equations of.:gas dynamics which was the foundation for establishing the main qualitative laws in"aerodynamics of hypersonic velocities. The genc.ralization he made of the classic theory of the boundary layer in the case of currents when there is a surface of rupture within the layer served as the theoretical basis for solving many technical prob~ems of gas dynamics. In the theory of detonation and combustion, G. G. Chernyy studied the asymp- totic laws of dispersal of detonation waves, theoretically studied the question of stabilization of detonation waves and stationary supersonic fluxes, and experimentally confirmed the possibility of this stabilization. G. G. Chernyy is an active memeber of the International Academy of Astronautics. He is a two-time USSR State Prize laureate. Department of General and Technical Chemistry Khristofor Stepanovich Bagdasar'yan (physical chemistry). He was born in 1908, is a specialist in the field of photochemistry, radiation chemistry and kinetics of radical reactions, and is the head of the laboratory of the Scientific Research Physical-Chemical Institute imeni L. Ya. Karpov. Kh. S. Bagdasar'yan developed experimental and theoretical methods for studying elementary stages of radical reactions. He suggested a general theory for the dependence of the rate of these reactions on the structure of the molecules and radicals. He made a very ~ignificant contribution to the theory of radical polymerization. In the area of radiation chemistry, he was the first to prove the existence of ion processes and an this basis, explained the protective action of aromatic additives against radiation destruction. The most important achievement of the scientist in the field of photochemistry was the creation of the fundamentals for a basically new section of this discipline, two-quantum photochemistry. His laboratory proved the existence of two-quantum photochemical reactions which occur as a result of absorption of a light quantum by a molecnle which has already absorbed one quantum and which is in an excited state. This results in the formation of ghighly excited molecules which enter into the reactions whi~h are impossible in standard, one-quantum photochemistry. Vitaliy Iosifovich Gol'danskiy (physical chemistry). He was born in 1923, is a specialist fr. the field of nuclear chemistry and high energy chemistry, and is the head of the sector in the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. His works provided the beginning for nuclear chemistry as a new field of physical chemistry. He developed new nuclear and radiation methods for 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2447/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R444544484432-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY studying the chemical structuxe at~d propertiea of matter, kinetics and mechanism for chemical reactions. He taade an important contribution to the development of a method for chemical gamma-resonance (Mossbauer) spectroscopy which is successfully employed in various areas of ~cience and pra~tice. For the first time in radiochemistry, he made a comprehensive quantitative study of the chemistry of positronium and created a method of early.diagnosis of radiation damages of solid states that is a record in sensitivity. The studies of V. I. Gol'danskiy had decisive importance for the creation of quantum kinetics of low-temperature chemical reactions. The most popular ~aas his discovery of the quantum low-temperature limit for reaction rate, as well as the subsequent cycle of work to describe the solid phase chemical reactions as nonradiating electron~- transitions and analysis of the role of these reactions in the chemistry of interstellar space. He also found the phenomenon of inechanochemical explosion of irrgdiated mixtu~es of solid reagents initiated by their brittle destruction. V. I. Gol'danskiy is chairman of the Commission on Synchrotron Radtation in the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences, chaix~nan of the Scientif ic Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences on High Energy Chemistry, and the chief editor of the journal KHIMIYA VYSORIKH ENER~IY. He is a Lenin Prize laureate. Yuriy Nikolayevich Molin (chemistry). He was born in 1934, is a spe�~:alist in the field of chemical physics, and director of the Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combust~an of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. ~ In the field of chemical magnetic radiospectroscop~, Yu. N. Molin developed the application of the method of electron parenuagnetic resonance (EPR) to study the radical stages in the radiation-chemical reactions. The result of the large cycle of his studies was the detection of general laws governing the tra~sfer of spin interactions in molecules, free radicals, in complexes of transitional metals, as well as the development of inethods for the use of the phenomena of spin exchange for studying the elementary act of interaction of particles in solutions. He was one of the initiators of the development of work in the area of infrared laser photochemistry. Yu. N. Molinaiaade a fundamental contribution to the investigation of a new phenomenon, the effect of magnetic fields on ~hemical reactions. Together his colleagues, he discovered the effect of an external magentic field on the reaction of free radicals in solutions and explained this phenomenon. He observed the magnetic isotope effect, and on the basis of these studles developed highly sensitive methods for recording spectra of magnetic resonance of short-lived particles in so?.utions. Yu. N. Molin. is the chief editor of the ,jourtlal ZHURNAL STRUKTURNOY~KHIMII. Vladimi~ Stepanovich Shpak (technical chemistry). He was born in 1909, is a specfalist in the field of teahnical chemistry, and the head of the Leningrad Scientific-Technical Center for coordination of scientific research on chemistry of the USSR Ministry of the Chemical Industry, 83 FOR OFFICIAL US$ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 rvrc Vrrll,lAL U~h. UNLY , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ti a�~ t,. ~ � . ~ 'p ~ , ,~i~,~ ~ c_~..~= v.; y+~ y3 ~ ,i ~ ~ Yu. N. Molin V. S. Shpak A. M. Kunayev _ , ~.j i * ;i , ;h ..e ; x,N � y ~ , ~ f:1 N. A. Vatolin V. A. Legasov The basic and applied studies made under the supervision and with the participation of V. S. Shpak made it possible to set up the manufacture of a number of substances, as well as to guarantee the issuing of data needed to create new equfpment. The extensive study of new representatives of different classes of chemical compounds, oxidizers, elastomers, surfiactants, made it possible to isolate the most effective of them, develop-the technological processes for their production and organfze industrial production of these compounds. V. S. Shpak is corducting research in the f ield of direct trans~ormation of chemical energy into other types. His ma~or success is the results of studies in the field of chemical synthesia of different amfno acids. The technical solution of the task of separating optic isomers of these products afforded the possibility for industrial implementation of this process., 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY De~~artment of Physical Chemigtry and Techno].agy 0~ Is~or$anic Materials Nikolay Anato].'yevich Vatolin (physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials). He was born in 1926, is a spec~alist in the field of physical chemistry of metallurgical processes, deputy chairsaan of the Presidium of the Ural Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Scieaces, aad director of the Institute of Metallurgy o� the Ural Scientific Center of the USSR Anademy of Sciences. The scientific activity of N. A. Vatolin is linked to the investigation of physical and chemical properties and the detection of the structural featccres of liquid metals and alloys at high temperatures in order to improve the corresponding technological processes. He has made a significant contribution to the main sections of the theory of liquid metallurgical state: model lattice theories, statistical method of correlative functions, method of pseudo- potential, and has used the method of machine modelingcf this state. N. A. Vatolin and }ais school made a vast cycle of experimental studies on the structure and physical-chemical properties of liquid-metals and alloys based on iron, mangar_ese, palladium, silver and silicon. H~s fundamental works comprised the scientifie basis for creating a number of materials with assigned properties and made it possible to~explain more deeply the nature of _ high-temperature meits. Under the supervision of N. A. Vatolin, a series af work was done which con- cluded with the creation of physical-chemical fundameatals for new metal- lurgical processes, which include, in particular, the processes of compre- . hensive use of raw material in ferrous and nonferrmus metallurgy, complex alld~~s; metallized and wustite-magnetite pellets, as well as hot leading of steel sheet were obtained. Askar Minliakhmedovich Kunayev (physical chetaistry and technology of inorganic materials) He was born in 1929, is a specialist in the �ield o~ metallurgy of ferrous and non~errous metals and the comprehensive use of mineral raw materials, president of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, and director of the Institute of Metallurgy and Enrichment of the Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences. A. M. Kunayev made basic research in the field of physical-chemical funda- mentals of inetallurgy of nonferrous and raxe metal~s. He showed the possibility of using electrochemical methods to investigate the compounds~~6f rare refractory metals. Based on theoretical studies under the supervision of A. M. Kunayev, a number of highly efficient processes were created for reprocessing mineral raw material of Kazakhstan, the ma~ority of which have been introduced into production. They include a basically new kivtsetnyy process of smelting polymetallic raw material, process of electrothermal reprocessing of inter- mediaEe'products of lead production, as well as comprehensive production processes making it possible to involve the largest �ields of balance ~res uf a number of nonferrous metals in the sphere of industrial use. 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400540080032-3 F'OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A. M. Kunayev is the chief editor of the ~ournal of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Kazakh SSR Acadetny of Sciences KOMPLEKSONOYE ISPOL'ZOVANIYE MINERAL'NOGO SYR'YA. He is a candidate for membership to the CPSU Central Comm~ttee, member of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan Central Committee, deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet and USSR State Prize laureate. Valeriy Alekseyevich Legasov (physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials). He was born in 1936, is a specd:alist in the~~.ield of physical, inorganic chemistry, deputy director of the Institute of Atomic Energy imeni I. V. Kurchatov. The scientif ic activity of V. A. Legasov is tied to solution of important chemical and chemical-technological processes of nuclear power engineering. He made a fundamental contribution to the creation of the latest section of inorganic chemistry, the chemistry of rare gases. He developed industrial methods for the production of some of the compounds of these gases which have found practical application. V. A. Legasov developed a new direction in the technology of inorganic materials which made it possible to use highly intensive atomic fluxes to produce a broad class of effective inorganic oxidizers, synthesize a number of new compounds with high molecular ta~~ght, as well as compounds of chemical elements in anomalously high degrees of oxidation. Under his supervision, extensive studies were made in order to determine the areas oi most expedient use of the sources of nuclear energy in energy-inten- sive sectors of industry. He studied a number of thermochemical and combined electrothermal cycles for the break,down of water and carbon dioxide in order to study hydrogen and carbon monoxide. V. A. Legasov is the chief editor of the ~ournal ATOMNAYA I VODORODNAYA ENER- GETIKA and the annual ATOMNO-ENERGETICHESKIYE PROTSESSY I TEKHNOLOGIYA. He is the USSR State Prize laureate. Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Chemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds Dmitriy Georgevich Knorre (chemistry of natural compounds). He was born in ].926, is a specialist in the f ield of chemical kinetics, bio- organic chemistry and molecular biology, and head of the department of the Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The extensive use of spectroscopy of NMR of 31~ allowed D. G. Knorre and his colleagues to reveal a number of important intermediate compounds in the reactions of phospharylation used in chemical syntihesis of oligonucleotides and in the production of their derivatives, study the reactivity of these intermediate compounds, record certain side products and evaluate their efi2ct ~ 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000540080032-3 F~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY j~. -~;.;~`x~ , � , . 9. , ? t.. 1~ " 1 v f y ' ~ w ~ D. G. Knorre N. P. Bekhtereva M. I. Agoshkov ~ ~ ` - ~ ~M za ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~..,Z+ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ I. A. Terskov A. V. Ivanov V. V. Rzhevskiy ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 L. P. Tatarinov L. Q. Tauson 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 ca,nc vrr~a.iAL U~~, UIVLY on the accumulation of target products, and to outline a number of wags to overcome the side canversions. He obtained a broad set of reaation-capable derivatives of transport ribonucleic acids, olfgonucleotides. He suggested a simple universal method for synthesizing derivatives of nucleoside tri~ phosphates, developed the theoretical fundamentals for the kinetics of affine modification with the help of reagents forming active intermediate particles, and modified the nucleic acids within t'treFCell. The results of wo~k on affine modification of the most important components in the system of biosynthesis proteins-ribosomes and aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases mades it possible, in parricular, to localize a number of sections of thei~ribosomes which are responsible for bonding of transport and messenger ribonucleic acids. Under the supervision of D. G. Kr~orre, fundamentals were developed for the technology of producing monomers for chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides. Ivan Aleksandrovich Terskov (biophysics). He was born in 1918, is a specialist in the field of controllable biosynthesis and biophysics of populations, and is director of the Institute of Bxophysics of the Siberian Department of the USSR Acadenitiy of Scfences. The studies of I. A. Terskov made it possible to theoretically substantiate and experimentally implement stably functioning systems fo continuous control- lable biosynthasis for populations of a varying level of complexity: single- celled algae, hydrogen bacteria, photobacteria, Protozoa, cellular cultures of tissues and organs of animals, and higher plants. Based on the theory of control of biosynthesis developed by I. A. Terskov, experimental ecosystems of a high degree of closure were set up. A new direction is successfully developing under his supervision;~ biophysics of ecosystems based on the detect{~n of exchange bonds and physical-chemical analysis of mass- and energy exchange in natural and artif icial ecological systems. Methods and apparatus have been formulated for remote determination of the productivity of aquatic and ground ecosyatems �ron mobile carriers " (ship, airplane) on large territories and water areas. A number of processes have been proposed for industrial biotechnology. including chemosynthesis of feed protein which is c~ose in composition to animal. I. A. Terskov is the editor-in-chief of the ~ournal IZVESTIYA SO AN SSSR. SF.RIYA BIOLOGICHESKIKH NAUK. Department of Physiology' Natal'ya Petrova Bekhtereva (human and animal phyaiology). She is a specia~:ist in the field of phyaiology of the hutnan brain, and director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. N. P.. Bekhtereva is the author of the comprehensive method for study~Ag-~he human brain. Based on experimental-clinical work, she advanced the concept ~8 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540080032-3 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY of the development during chr�onic cerebral diseases of a stable pathological state which is maintained by definite changes in the long-term memory, and as a result of interpreting the premfse~�a~dscomponents of this state,she proposed new methods for treating cerebral diseases aimed at activation of its latent reserves, formation of new links in the cerebral systems and strengthening of its protective mechanisms. The concept of N. P. Bekhtereva regarding the physiological foundation for the human thinking process as a dependent syatem o� rigid and flexible neuron links made it possible to reveal the mechanisms fo reliability and optimization o~ work of the human brain. This is of great intportance for medicine and pedagogy. N. P. Bekhtereva is the chief editor of the 3ournal FIZIQLOGIYA CHELOVEKA, chairman of the Scientific Council of the USSR Acadetay of Sciences on Problems of Applied Human Physiology and the Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on Physiology and Pathology of the Nervous System, as wll well as the Connnission for Psychophysiology of the International Union of Physio3ogical Sciences. She is a foreign member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and has been awarded medals of Berger (ODR), McCullough (United States) and Mario Negri (Italy). Department of General Biology Artemiy Vasil'yevich Ivanov (zoology) He was born in 1906, is a specialist in the field of comparative anatomy, embryology, phylogenetics and systematics of invertebrate animals, and head of the laborabbry of the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A. V. Ivanov has a number of major scientific diecoveries and generalizations. He substantiated and made a detailed investigation of a new type of inverte- brate for science, pogonephor, and developed the science of A. N. Severtsov on modes of procedure of evolution of organs. He revealed the laws governing the transition to parasitism (in the example of parasitic mollusks). I~is theoretical works regarding the origin of multicelled animals developed and reinforced the hypothesis of I. I. Mechnikov on the phagocytel~e~: The concept he advanced on the origin arid phylogeny of flat worms provides new grounds for a resolution of the problem of the evolution of lowest invertebratea. A. V. Ivanov analyzed the organization and origin of the primitive repre- sentative of Metazoa, trichoplax. Based on the studies he made, he suggested his system of the animal world. A. V. Ivanov is an active member of the Gextaan Acadetny of Naturalists "Leo- pol'dina." Leonid Petrovich Tatarinov (zoology). He was born in 1926, is a specialist in the f ield of zoology, paleontology and evolutionary biology, and director of the Pa],eontological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. ~ 89 FOR OFFICUIL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The basic direction for the scientif ic activity of L. P. Tatarinov is research dedicated to the origin and early evolution of the largest groups of vertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and especially mammals. Analysis of the vast paleontological and zoological material permitted him to reconetruct many previously unknown features of biological organization of the precursors of these animals, reveal the role of parallelisms in their evolution, governed not only by the similarity of adaptations, but also'the common nature of the morphogenetic mechanisms of closely related forms. He examines such general questions of evolutionary theory as morphophysiological progress, monophily and polyphily, diff erent aspects of the corr.elation of clasatfication and evolution. The paleontological work of L. P. Tatarinov is important for formulation of a stratigraphy of continental deposits of the Permian and Triassic in the Russian Platform. L. P. Tatarinov is chairman of the Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the problem "Ways and Laws Governing the Historical Development of Animals and Plant Organisms," and chief editor of the PALEONTOLOGICHESKOGO ZHURNAL. He is a USSR State Prize laureate. Department of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry Mikhail Ivanovich Agoshkov (mining sciences, development of minera~s). He was born in 1905, is a specialist in the f ield of working mineral f ields, and head of the department of the Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Development of the Depths of the USSR Academ~ of Sciences. M. I. Agoshkov is the creator of the scientific school in the field of optimizing the development of ore ffelds. His scientific works have had a great influence on the improvement in equipment and enhancement of the economic efficiency of working ore f ields, promoted a considerable improvement in the indicators for complete extraction.of minerals from the depths, the creation of the scientific ~undamentals for planning mining enterprises, generation of a numerical evaluation for technical and economic conseqnences of losses and measures to reduce them, creation of inethods for national economic evaluation of the efficien~y of geological exploration and the cost of estimating mineral fields. M. I. Agoshkov proposed a scientific c3dssifi- cation of systems for working ore fields which has Feceived general recogni- tion. M. I. Agoshkov is the chairman of the 9cientific Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences on Broblems of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. He is a USSR State Prize laureate. Vladimir Vasil'yevich Rzhevskiy (mining sciences, development of minerals). He was born in 1919, is a specialist in the field of open pits of coal, ore and nonore fields, and is head of the Moscow Mining Institute. 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 F'OR OF'M'ICIAL US~ ONLY The basic trends in the research of V. V. Rzhevskiy are the theory of the regime of mining operations, theory of stripping working levels of quarries and freight flow of rock, theory of the systems of comprehensive mechaniaation of ope~i pit,m~n~ngtdpesations, studq of phyaical and technological processes of the mining industry and extraction of solid minerals from the bottom of aeas and oceans. He has proposed Cti~e~principles of the fonaation of mining operatione, systems of working, stt~pping deep levels, completion of tnodern thick quarries With mining and transport equipment, as well as the uae of physical phenomena (acou$tic, physical-chemical, etc.) for intensification of the processes of mining. Lev Vladimirovich Tauson (geophysics, geochemistry.). He was born in 1917, is a specdalist in geochetnistry of endogenous processes I and scientific fundamentals for geochemical methods o~ sesrching for and evaluating ore fields, geochemistry of rare elementa, and ~irector of the Institute of Geochemistry imeni A. P. Vinogradov of the Siberian Department , of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The studies of L. V. Tauson treat the investigation of laws governing the geochemical history of rare elements in the processes of crystallization and differentiation of the granitoid magmas. He made an important contribntion to the concepts regarding the forms of finding elements in rocks and the theory of isomorphism. He was the first to establiah that the structure of a�:mineral is one of the main factors of the:.~somorphous distribution of rare elements in tifie proceases ot crystallization of magmatic ~elts.' ~fle created the first geochemical classification for granitoids and basaltoids and the theory of their potential ore-content, and also.revealed the primary petrogenetic and metallogenetic role of potassium basaltoids (latites) which significantly expands the outlook for many regions in tertqa of their ore content. Nikolay Vasil'yevich Cherskiy (mi,ning). He was born in 1905, is a specialist in the f ield of geology, exploration and working of gas and oil fields, technology of drilling and testing of we~~s, mechanics of the earth's crus~, chairman of the Presidium of the Yakutsk branch of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Scfences, and director of the Institute of Mining of the North of the Yakutsk branch. Together with other scientists, N. V. Cherskiy discovered the capacity of natural gas to be present in the earth's crust in the solid phase in the form of gas hydrates and formulated the acientific fundamentals for working gas hydrate formations which should become an intportant source for hydrocarbon fuel. He is one:of the authors of the technique for industrial exploration and evaluation of the reserves of gas fielde based on the drastic difference in physical properties of oil and gas. Jointlg with other researchers, he developed basically new models for the transformation of the extracted organic matter under ttre~inf luence:of natural seismotectonic processes. As a result of this work, a previously unknown natural factor was.:revealed which determines and controls the processes of oil and gae formation. This 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000504080032-3 F~OR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY �i . i ~ ~ ~ ~ r , ~ 4s ~ ~ . Y~ ~ ; I ~ N. V. Cherskiy V. I. I1'ichev A. F. Treshnikov ~ � ~ . . , . ~ + ~i , Yq ' ~ 't~ V. Ye. Zuyev P. I. Mel'nikov A. M. fiamsonov , ~ : 4 . S. L. Tikhvinskiy 92 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R040500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY supplements the theory of organic ortgin of oil, corrects and expands the concepts on oil and gas content of the little-studied regions. N. V. Cherskiy is a Hero of Socialist Labor. Department of Oceanology, Physics of the Atmosphere and Geography Vladimir Yevseyevich Zuyev (physics of the amotphsere). He was born in 1925, is a specialist in the f ield oP atmospheric physics and atmopsheric op~ics, and director of the Institane of Atmospheric Phy~~cs of the - Siberian Department of the USSR Academg of Sciences. The basic directions in the scientific research of V. Ye. Zuyev is the dissemination of laser radiation in the atmosphere, laser spectroscopy of the atmosphere of high and superhigh resolution, laeer sounding of the atmosphere. He has resolved the problem of a quantitative determination of the energy losses of laser=radiation disseminated in random directions in a real atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. A characteristics feature o~�the work of V. Ye. Zuyev is a comprehensive approach to sblving the problem of interaction of laser radiation and the atmosphere which in combination with the development of the appropriate theories and unique complexes of apparatus promoted the ob~si~ot~r.of important results both in basic and in applied research. V. Ye. Zuyev is a deputy of the USSR Supreme Soviet. Viktor Ivanovich I1'ichev (oceanology). He was born in 1932, is a specialist in the field of oceanology, hydro- acoustics, hydrology of the sea, and director of the Pacif ic Ocean Oceano- logical Institute of the Far East Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences. V. I. I1'ichev received basic results which are of primary�importance for hydroacoustics, physics of acoustical and hydrodynamic cavitation, hydro- dynamics of fields of perturbations, as well as for a comprehensive study of the hydrophysical fields of the ocean. Among theae results are the dis- covery of laws governing the distribution of cavitational strength of a re~l liquid, development of statistical theory of hydrodynamic c~vitation, study of the mechanism and creation of the theory of variability in spatial- temporal and informative characteristics of acoustic �ields of the ocean w~th the use of inethods of pattern recognition, creation of .models for recognition automatic machines, and modeling the phenomenac~on a computer. Pavel Ivanovich Mel'nikov (geocryology). He was born in 1908, is a specialis~ in the field of geocryology, and director of the Instttute of Geocryology of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 93 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Thc sc:ientific interests of P. I. Mel'nikov are concentreted on questions of general and regional geocryology, groundwater in the frozen zone, geothermy, and the interaction of frozen rocks with foundations of structures. Based on these studies, he made major theoretical ger.eralizations and isolated the laws governing the development of pennafrost rocks which made it possible to introduce into the natioaal economy of the north new advanced methods for stable construction on permafrost ground, as well as methods of searching for and operating groundwater of the One of the results of theore- tical generalizations of P.'I. Mel'nikov is the first geocryological map of the territory of the Yakutsk ASSR. As a result of analyzing geothermal con- ditions of the Siberian platform and the Verkhoyanskiy mountain-folded region, he di$covered one of the largest positive froaen-geothermal anomalies confined to sedimentary rocks of the Predvekhoyanskiy marginal trou~h and the Vilyuyskiy syneclise. P. I. Mel'nikov is the chairman of the Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences for Cryology of the Farth. Aleksey Fedorovich Treshnikov (oceanology). He was born in 1914, is a speetalist in the field of oceanology and geography of the World Ocean, and head of the department of T,enirgrad University. Under the supervision of A. F. Treshnikov, many large expeditions were made which brought ma~or scientific results and ~iscoveiies. In all the expeditions, he conducted f ield studies, analysis of the obtained materials, and on this basis developed practical recommendations for the needs of the national econom}r and science. He has discovered and made a detailed study of the penetration of Pacific Ocean.~zater into the region of the North Pole, shown the dissemination of deep Atlantic water, given their hydrobiological characteris*_ics,as well as an evaluation of the circulation of water and its effect on the ice regime and navigational conditions of the route of the north sea paasage. Under the supervision of A. F. Treshnikov, a comprehensive program was developed "Polar Experiment aimed at studying the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere, and representing a compnaent part of the interna~_ional program for studying the sot~thern ocean which is currently being implemented. A. F. Treshnikov is the president of the Geographical Society of the USSR. He is a Hero of Socialist Labor, and USSR State Prize laureate. Department of History Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Samsonov (history of the USSR). He was born in 1908, is a specialist in the area of the history of Soviet society and mili~ary history, and the senior scientific colleague of the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 94 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Z'he works of A. ?I. Samsonov study the problems of the history of World War II, esepcially the decisive critical stages of the Great Patriotic War, provide a critique of the antiscientif ic conventions of the bourgeois authors, comprehensively show the deeisive contribution of the Soviet Union and its Armed Forces to the defeat of Hitlerite Germany and imperialist Japan, cover the activity of the Sovit: rear, and reveal the laws which governed the ~ historical victory of the Soviet Army and p~ople in the Sta~ingrad battle. A. M. Samsonov is the chief editor of the journal ISTORICHESKIYE ZAPISKI. Sergey Leonfdovich Tikhvinskiy (general history). He was born in 1918, is a specialist in histcariography, source study, history of international relations in the Far East, new and laLest history of China, Japan and other countries of the East, and is head of the Dipl,omatic Academy of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs. S. L. Tikhvinskiy is the initiator of the development of problems associated with the history of formation of the Chinese nation and ideology of nationalism, movement for reform in the Tsin empire in the earl~ 19th century, bourgeois- democratic revolutionary movement under the leadership of Sun ~at-sen, the ideology of the natinnal-liberation movement. S. L. Tikhvinskiy has consider- able merit for his crftique of the Maoist concepts of historical development of China which have been called upon to "substantiate" the great power hegemo- nistic course of the modern leaders of the People's Republic ofi China. He made a major contribution to the study of the history of Japan, Russo- Japanese and Soviet-Japanese relations, questions of the policy of the USSR, national-liberation movement in the developing countries. S. L. Tikhvinskiy is the chief editor of the journal NOVAYA I NOVEYSHAYA ISTORI- YA, and chairman of the National Committee of Historians of the USSR. Department ~f Philosopy and Law Viktor Grigor'yevich Afanas'yev (philosophy). He was born in 1922, is a specialist in the field of the theory of ~;cientific communism, theory of ~on~rol and methodology of systems study, and is the chief editor of the newspaper PRAVDA. i~fany works of V. G. Afanas'yev have covered the problem o~ ~ystams and control of a socialist society. They give special importance to the development of ways to solve the historical task set by the CPSU, unification of the achieve- ments of ~he scientific-technical revolc~r.ion and the advantages of socialism. The works of V. G. Afanas'yev contain an analys~s of the coneepts of the system, its composition, structures, functions ard dynamics. They study the systems nature of the forms of knowledge, a~ well as the means of knowing systems. They analyze ways to improve control and in this case special attention is focused on program-target planning and control. V. G. Afanas'yev made a significant contribution to the develonment of problems of dialetical materialism and philoso~hical problems of biology. . ~ 95 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY , . ~ ~ ~.:~r ~~r,~~ ~ � h t~.~ r. ~ , y . ~ i t~r~. i; = � ~ ` ~w . ~ti, ti ' . 'a, ~ 1 ~ . A. 1 1 ~ { V. G. Afanas';~ev 0. T. Bogomolov C'. J. Stepanov ~ ~?;ti; 1 ~ T. I. Oyzerman T. i. Zaslavskaya a;:~y ~:,x i; . , ~ ; . r~ . ~ ~ ~ . }4 r'X7~,~``~ A. G. Pi:ileykovskiy 96 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY V. G. Afanas'yeW is a member o� the CPSU Ce~tral~ Couwtfttee and deputy oi~ the USSR Supxeme Soviet. Teodor I1'ich Oyzerman (philosophy). He was born in 1914 and is a specialist in the ~ieTd of the history of philosopy, dialectical material~am, general theory o� th~ hiatorical-philo- sophical process, and head of the sector of the Institute of Philosopy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. T. I. Oyzerman has deeply analyzed the structure of historical forms of dialectics and materialism, and made a comprPhensive and systematic analysis of the philosoph~cal concept of alienation. He has taade a detailed study of the basic stages in the historical establiehtaent of the philosophy of Marxism. His works in the field of the theory of historicai philosophical process are a new tren~i in the research process. His numerous studi~s covering the teachf~tgs tif ~sltt, Fichte and .Hegel. T. I. Oyzerman is a foreign member of the ~DR Academy of Sciences. Department of Economics Oleg Timofeyevich Bogomolov (economics). He was born in 1927, is a specialist in tha field o~ pxoblems of the develop- ment of the economics of socialism and the world system, and is director of the Institute of Economics of the World Socia,list System of the USSR Academy of Sciences. _ 0. T. Bogomolov made an important contribution to the development of theore- tical and methodological fundamentals for the study of the development of the world socialist economy and socialist economic integration. Under ihis supervision, a number of urgent scientific directions were developed, in par- ticular, comprehensive study of the economic, political and ideological processes in socialist countries, study af the genera], economic and sector problems of socialist integration, generalization of experience of~:the countries of socialism inthe development of socioeconomic strategy, and study of the role of socialist countries in the reconstruction of the world economic relations. 0. T. Bogomolov is the chief editor of the journal IZVESTIYA AN SSSR. SERIYA EKONOMICHESKAYA. Tat'yana Ivano�vna Zaslavskaya (economics). She is a specialist in the f ield of economics and socio].ogy of labor, and the head of the department of the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 97 FOR 01~'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The works of T.I. Zaslavskaya treat the theoretica~ prablems and methods of systems study and forecasting of socioeconomic procesb~s, as well as the practical investigation of inechanisms f or the distribution by labor, laws governing the migration of a population, mobility of the labor resources, development of the city and village. These works made it possible to con- struct a systems variant forecast for the socioeconomic developmen~ of the agrarian sector of the USSR up to the year 2000, reveal passible contradic- tions in the future and disproportions in a c:ertain variant of development, and make a comparative evalua*_ion of the efPiciency of various variants. T. I. Zaslav~kaya also developed methods of a typo].ogical analysis of developing social objects. Using the procedures of pattern recognition, she constructed a generalized muZtidimensional typology for regions of the USSR which can be used to formulate long-term forecasts for the development of the agrarian sector which are differentiated by zones of the c~untry. Abram Gerasimovich Mileykovskiy (economics). He was born in 1911, and is a specialist in the field of worl economics and international relations. The basic trends in L'i~e scientific research of A. G. Mileykovskiy is the world capitalist economy and international re~ations, the basic aspects of the political economy of state-monopolistic capitalism, problems of deepening inti~e general crisis of capitalism, critique of bourgeois economic theories, the leading trends in the development of the econotay of tha main capitalist ~ powers, militarization of the economy of the c~pitalist countries, structural shifts, and problems of reproduction and cycles in the economics of capitalism. A. G. Mileykovskiy is a USSR State Prize 1.aureate~ Department of Literature and Language Georgiy Vladimirovich Stepanov (linguistics). He was born in 1919, is a specialist in the f ield a~ general and Roman linguistics, literary criticism, and is directox of the Institute of Linguis- tics of~the USSR Academy of Sc~ences. The works of G: V. Stepanov treat urgent problems of ~.inguistics and 1lterary criticism, linguistic theory, history of language, sociolinguistics and stylistics, history of literature and poetics. He has developed the theory of language variance, including historical-cultural, social, structural and functional-stylistic parameters needed to characterize the forms of existence and functioning of languages, for the discovery of the laws governing their historical development. He substantiated the new solution to the problem of the systematic natnre in language by introducing the concept of an external system which interacts with the in2ernal language structure, and has proposed a new technique for deacribing it. 98 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY G. V. Stepanov has significantly enriched the principles for describing languages which function outside the territories of their initial dispersal, and has constructed standard models for the formation of a number of national literary languages. - G. V. Stepanov is the chief. editor of the ~.ournal IZVESTIYA AN SSSR. SERIYA LITERATURY I YAZIKA. He ia a foreign member of *he Spanish Roysl Azademy and the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel~stvo "Nsuka"~ "Veatnik Akadetaii riauk SSSR"~ 1982 9035 CSO: 1814/77 END 99 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500080032-3